WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative efficiency benefits

  1. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, Brian; Roach, Richard; Perkins, James

    2011-01-01

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO 2 emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: → Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. → Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. → Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. → Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. → Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  2. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, Brian, E-mail: bpilkington@plymouth.ac.uk [Energy and Sustainability in the Built Environment, Reynolds Building, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Roach, Richard, E-mail: richard.roach@interserve.com [Interserve Project Services Ltd. (United Kingdom); Perkins, James, E-mail: artsresearch@plymouth.ac.uk [C/O Environmental Building Group, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: > Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. > Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. > Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. > Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. > Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  3. Benefits of Efficient Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  4. State Energy Efficiency Benefits and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the benefits of energy efficiency and how to assess its potential for your state. Also, find details on energy efficiency policies, programs, and resources available for furthering energy efficiency goals.

  5. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  6. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  7. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  8. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  9. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  10. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  11. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  12. Job-Related Maternity Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    The Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women in October 1970 adopted a statement of principles that views childbirth and complications of pregnancy, for all job-related purposes, as temporary disabilities that should be treated as such under any health insurance, temporary disability insurance, or sick leave plan of an employer, union, or…

  13. Benefits for whom? Energy efficiency within the efficient market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chello, Dario

    2015-01-01

    How should the lack of an efficient energy market affect the design of energy efficiency policies and their implementation? What the consequences of an inefficient energy market on end users’ behaviour? This article tries to give an answer to such questions, by considering the decision making of domestic users following a few fundamental concepts of behavioural economics. The mechanism of price formation in the market, with particular reference to the internal energy market in Europe, will be examined and we will show that price remains the inflexible attribute in making an energy choice. Then, some conclusions will be addressed to policy makers on how to overcome the barriers illustrated.

  14. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  15. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  16. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  17. Environmental benefits of electrification and end-use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMenamin, J.S.; Monforte, F.A.; Sioshansi, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants can be achieved through continued substitution of clean, efficient electrotechnologies for fossil fuel-based technologies. Continued improvements in the efficiency of electrical appliances already in use will further increase the environmental benefits of electricity. Over the last several decades, electricity use in the US has grown strongly. Over a 35 year period 1960-95, electric utility sales increased more than fourfold, from under 700 billion kWh (BkWh) to almost 3,000 BkWh. This increase was due, in part, to a growing economy, but it also reflects the increasingly broad application of electricity to provide comfort, convenience, entertainment, safety and productivity. Reflecting this expanding role, energy used for electricity generation by utilities has nearly doubled, increasing from 19 percent of US primary energy use in 1960 to about 36 percent in 1995. Environmental factors have also provided support to policies that promote improved end-use efficiency. More efficient end-use equipment allows consumers to obtain the same level of end-use services with less electricity. Reduced electricity consumption levels imply reduced generation requirements and therefore, lower levels of emissions associated with generation. Beginning in the mid-1970's, and stimulated by abrupt increases in fossil fuel prices, both government and utility policies began to emphasize end-use efficiency

  18. Variable fuzzy assessment of water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation districts, a variable fuzzy assessment model was established. The model can reasonably determine the relative membership degree and relative membership function of the sample indices in each index's standard interval, and obtain the evaluation level of the sample through the change of model parameters. According to the actual situation of the Beitun Irrigation District, which is located in Fuhai County, in Altay City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, five indices were selected as evaluation factors, including the canal water utilization coefficient, field water utilization coefficient, crop water productivity, effective irrigation rate in farmland, and water-saving irrigation area ratio. The water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District in different years were evaluated with the model. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation indices from 2006 to 2008 were all at the third level (medium efficiency, while the index in 2009 increased slightly, falling between the second level (relatively high efficiency and third level, indicating an improvement in the water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District, which in turn showed that the model was reliable and easy to use. This model can be used to assess the water use efficiency and benefits in similar irrigation districts.

  19. Consequences of co-benefits for the efficient design of carbon sequestration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Kling, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The social efficiency of private carbon markets that also included trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration with significant associated co-benefits were considered. Three topics related to the presence of co-benefits that sequester carbon were examined: (1) the consequences of co-benefits from carbon sinks and carbon abatement technology on the efficiency of carbon markets; (2) the efficient supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits when there is spatial heterogeneity; and (3) the consequences of the presence of a carbon market when there is also a government supported conservation program. Co-benefits from carbon sinks and abatement were considered in relation to the socially efficient level of sequestration. The supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits were then considered when fields differed in their potential to provide carbon and other environmental benefits. An empirical example of the economic characteristics of carbon sequestration and co-benefits in the Upper Mississippi River Basin was presented, in which the sequestration practice of land retirement with planting of perennial grasses was examined. Two sets of figures were used to illustrate the relationship between the cost of carbon sequestration and its marginal co-benefits: the marginal cost and the marginal co-benefits of carbon sequestration in a carbon market; and the marginal cost of carbon sequestration under a policy designed to maximize a bundle of environmental benefits. It was demonstrated that the relationship between carbon and its associated co-benefits will affect the efficiency of policy instruments designed for carbon sequestration. It was recommended that policy-makers consider that there are already a multitude of existing conservation programmes that result in significant carbon sequestration in many countries, and that nascent carbon markets are emerging in countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The efficient level and location of carbon

  20. Direct and indirect co-benefits from energy-efficient residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Jakob, M.

    2006-01-01

    Co-benefits of energy efficiency investments such as increased comfort of living, reduced noise exposure, and improved indoor air quality are of considerable evidence. However in investment decisions these co-benefits are rarely taken into account. Using various economic estimation methods (discrete choice, hedonic regression, contingent valuation), this study identifies and quantifies in monetary terms the most important co-benefits of energy efficiency measures. The results show that regarding energy efficiency measures, comfort of living plays a major role and that inhabitants express a non-negligible willingness to pay for it. The willingness to pay is larger than the costs of the energy efficiency measures in most cases and for a large part of the population. To utilise this willingness to pay in the market place it is necessary to establish transparency regarding comfort-of-living aspects and to raise awareness about these aspects among all involved actors (inhabitants, investors, architects, planners, promoters, vendors) by adequate information and communication measures. In view of the high relevance and the noticed economic valuation of the qualitative co-benefits, energy efficiency measures have to be promoted with their related enhancements in terms of comfort of living. (author)

  1. Direct and indirect co-benefits from energy-efficient residential buildings - Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Jakob, M.

    2006-01-01

    Co-benefits of energy efficiency investments such as increased comfort of living, reduced noise exposure, and improved indoor air quality are of considerable evidence. However in investment decisions these co-benefits are rarely taken into account. Using various economic estimation methods (discrete choice, hedonic regression, contingent valuation), this study identifies and quantifies in monetary terms the most important co-benefits of energy efficiency measures. The results show that regarding energy efficiency measures, comfort of living plays a major role and that inhabitants express a non-negligible willingness to pay for it. The willingness to pay is larger than the costs of the energy efficiency measures in most cases and for a large part of the population. To utilise this willingness to pay in the market place it is necessary to establish transparency regarding comfort of living aspects and to raise awareness about these aspect among all involved actors (inhabitants, investors, architects, planners, promoters, vendors) by adequate information and communication measures. In view of the high relevance and the noticed economic valuation of the qualitative co-benefits energy efficiency measures have to be promoted with their related enhancements in terms of comfort of living. (author)

  2. TAX BENEFITS FOR REGIONAL BUSINESS: NEED, SUFFICIENCY, EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Irina P. Dovbiy; Diba M. Dokhkilgova; Natalya S. Dovbiy

    2018-01-01

    The article analyzes the tax benefits for the enterprises of Russia. Their analysis is carried out in the context of territorial affiliation of tax benefit. Tax benefits were granted as anti-crisis measures: promotion of entrepreneurship, reduction of informal employment, implementation of investment projects. Their granting was often characterized by haphazard nature. There were cases of abuse in the application of tax benefits. The entrepreneur must be ready to prove their right to benefits...

  3. Safety in relation to risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1985-01-01

    The proper definition and quantification of human safety is discussed and from this basis the historical development of our present very high standard of safety is traced. It is shown that increased safety is closely associated with increased wealth, and the quantitative relationship between then is derived from different sources of evidence. When this factor is applied to the production of wealth by industry, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the asserted risks by orders of magnitude. It is concluded that present policies and attitudes in respect to the safety of industry may be diametrically wrong. (orig.) [de

  4. TAX BENEFITS FOR REGIONAL BUSINESS: NEED, SUFFICIENCY, EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Dovbiy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the tax benefits for the enterprises of Russia. Their analysis is carried out in the context of territorial affiliation of tax benefit. Tax benefits were granted as anti-crisis measures: promotion of entrepreneurship, reduction of informal employment, implementation of investment projects. Their granting was often characterized by haphazard nature. There were cases of abuse in the application of tax benefits. The entrepreneur must be ready to prove their right to benefits. Tax benefits have a triple effect: economic, fiscal-budgetary, social. The state tax policy allowed reducing the level of debt burden for 2016. Simultaneously, the increase in tax and non-tax revenues of the consolidated budgets was ensured. The authors analyze the regional and sectoral tax benefits. They are very diverse, especially for small businesses. This is due to socio-economic differentiation of regions. The magnitude of the regional tax burden is determined by the complex of factors: external and internal. The application of tax benefits is associated with big problems. First of all, this is a concealment of income. Secondly, there is a problem of “double” taxation. Difficulties are also associated with applying individual tax regimes: special economic zones, territories of advanced development. The problem of drawing “out of the shadow” of selfemployed citizens is very acute. There must be a special fee regime for them: there is no guarantee of employment for such citizens. The problems of regional taxation of entrepreneurial activity include, on the one hand, the availability and development of various benefits, and on the other hand, their nonsystem character, the impossibility of identifying and using various mechanisms in the aggregate, for example, the mechanisms for the development of entire industries and social directions in entrepreneurship. The authors emphasize that the conditions in which the modern economy of Russia is

  5. Optimal earnings-related umemployment benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Taslimi, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Existing unemployment insurance systems in many OECD countries involve a ceiling on insurable earnings. The result is lower replacement rate for employees with relatively high earnings. This paper examines whether replacement rates should decrease as the level of earnings rises. The framework is a search equilibrium model where wages are determined by Nash bargaining between firms and workers, job search intensity is endogenous and workers are heterogeneous. The analysis suggests higher repla...

  6. Efficiency and economic benefits of skipjack pole and line (huhate) in central Moluccas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, Stevanus M.; Hiariey, Johanis; Baskoro, Mulyono S.; Waeleruny, Wellem

    2017-10-01

    Excess fishing capacity is a crucial problem in marine capture fisheries. This phenomenon needed to be investigated regarding sustainability and development of the fishery. This research was aimed at analyzing technical efficiency (TE) and computing financial aspects of the skipjack pole and line. Primary data were collected from the owners of the fishing units at the different size of gross boat tonnage (GT), while secondary data were gathered from official publications relating to this research. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to estimate technical efficiency whereas a selected financial analysis was utilized to calculate economic benefits of the skipjack pole and line business. The fishing units with a size of 26-30 GT provided a higher TE value, and also achieved larger economic benefit values than that of the other fishing units. The empirical results indicate that skipjack pole and line in the size of 26-30 GT is a good fishing gear for the business development in central Moluccas.

  7. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  8. Work/Family Benefits: Variables Related to Employees' Fairness Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren; Allen, Tammy D.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 283 workers showed that younger people, minorities, those who used flexible work arrangements, and those whose jobs required greater interdependence had more favorable perceptions of family-related benefits. Gender and children's ages influenced perceptions of the fairness of benefits. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  9. Environmental and thermal efficiency benefits by use of RDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosvold, Helge

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing systems, and the different types of RDF. The quality of RDF, combustion of RDF in fluidized beds, and moving grate reactors, operating conditions, emissions (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride) and thermal efficiency are discussed. (UK)

  10. Changing the way employee benefit communications are produced: outsourcing, a more efficient, less costly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, K

    1995-12-01

    Outsourcing may offer employers an efficient, cost-effective way to produce employee benefit communications. It offers a way to utilize the latest technology to produce personalized benefit statements or to target an announcement of benefit changes to a specific group of employees.

  11. Benefits of creating a cross-country data framework for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex [SEAD Energy Efficiency Data Access Project, Enervee (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Pantano, Stephen [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product’s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  12. The Benefits of Creating a Cross-Country Data Framework for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-09-11

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product?s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  13. High efficiency combined heat and power facilities - benefits and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.

    2001-01-01

    There are important linkages between the economy, energy production, the environment and our health. Where thermal energy is needed, distributed Combined Heat and Power facilities, using gas turbines, reciprocating engines and future fuel cells can provide significant improvements to our long term mix of energy production. Local generation can also have benefits in security of energy supply and economic savings. This paper is intended to discuss the relevant air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from modem CHP plants, the emission prevention and reduction methods available, and their operating experience and cost-effectiveness. Mention is made of recently constructed industrial and commercial plants, and institutional barriers to further development. Solutions described for these barriers include the need for more awareness of opportunities, improved access to the electricity grid, the proper design balance between thermal and electric for CHP systems rather than large combined cycles, improved corporate taxation incentives, and the assessment of all environmental and economic benefits when considering such cleaner sources in a restructured energy market. (author)

  14. Relational Benefits & Costs in Social Media Brand Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimonis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Sergios

    2014-01-01

    Attracted by the rapid penetration of social media into society, firms are increasingly using them to offer interactive services to their customers, and to create or enhance their relationships with them. As the number of consumers who join brand pages on social media platforms raises, it brings to the front a new question: What relational benefits and costs arise from customer interactions with brands in social media? Thus, this study is an attempt to identify what benefits and costs users p...

  15. Determination of turbine relative efficiency in SHPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the fulfillment of contract conditions for the equipment delivery, determining the properties and capabilities of a generating unit or some part of it, the measurements carried out under real operating conditions were necessary. In this paper, the results of the test that was carried out in a small hydropower plant (SHPP, aimed at determining the relative efficiency of the hydraulic turbine and its comparison with the guaranteed values, are presented. The dependence of the turbine efficiency on the turbine discharge was determined based on the test results, using the index method. The test was performed at one net head.

  16. The rationale for energy efficiency policy: Assessing the recognition of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency retrofit policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Niall; Gouldson, Andy; Barrett, John

    2017-01-01

    The rationale for energy efficiency policy can be framed in terms of a variety of different benefits. This paper considers how different benefits have been used within the overall rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy in different contexts. We posit that different rationales may be used for the same policy response, and that the form of rationale used may affect the design, delivery or the level of policy support, with different rationales making it easier to account for different results. Considering retrofit policy in the contexts of the UK, Germany, New Zealand and Ireland, we characterise policy rationale in each case, assessing what the key perceived benefits have been, and whether they have changed over time. The analysis identifies some marked differences between cases with the recognition of benefits and the ensuing policy rationale resulting from a complex mix of political, social and economic influences. We find that recognition of multiple benefits may not equate with multiplied policy support, and instead it is more likely that different rationales will have relevance at different times, for different audiences. The findings highlight that, alongside evidence for policy, it is important to also consider how the overall rationale for policy is eventually framed. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency as a policy issue with perceived multiple benefits. • Assessment of the influence of different benefits on rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy. • How does the rationale for retrofit policy differ in different national policy contexts. • To what extent are the perceived multiple benefits of policy recognised. • What influence does eventual rationale for policy have on the policy implemented.

  17. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  18. Direct and indirect co-benefits from energy-efficient residential buildings; Direkte und indirekte Zusatznutzen bei energieeffizienten Wohnbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Co-benefits of energy efficiency investments such as increased comfort of living, reduced noise exposure, and improved indoor air quality are of considerable evidence. However in investment decisions these co-benefits are rarely taken into account. Using various economic estimation methods (discrete choice, hedonic regression, contingent valuation), this study identifies and quantifies in monetary terms the most important co-benefits of energy efficiency measures. The results show that regarding energy efficiency measures, comfort of living plays a major role and that inhabitants express a non-negligible willingness to pay for it. The willingness to pay is larger than the costs of the energy efficiency measures in most cases and for a large part of the population. To utilise this willingness to pay in the market place it is necessary to establish transparency regarding comfort-of-living aspects and to raise awareness about these aspects among all involved actors (inhabitants, investors, architects, planners, promoters, vendors) by adequate information and communication measures. In view of the high relevance and the noticed economic valuation of the qualitative co-benefits, energy efficiency measures have to be promoted with their related enhancements in terms of comfort of living. (author)

  19. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2005 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2004-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2005 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development prompted by EERE programs. EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits-economic, environmental, and security. These metrics are not a complete representation of the benefits or market roles of efficiency and renewable technologies, but provide an indication of the range of benefits provided. EERE has taken steps to more fully represent the NRC framework, including two key improvements to the FY 2005 analysis-adding an electricity security metric and extending the analysis through the year 2050.

  20. Benefits of a relational database for computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a computerized relational database which is the basis for a hazardous materials information management system which is comprehensive, effective, flexible and efficient. The system includes product information for Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), labels, shipping, and the environment and is used in Dowell Schlumberger (DS) operations worldwide for a number of programs including planning, training, emergency response and regulatory compliance

  1. An Efficient Inductive Genetic Learning Algorithm for Fuzzy Relational Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy modelling research has traditionally focused on certain types of fuzzy rules. However, the use of alternative rule models could improve the ability of fuzzy systems to represent a specific problem. In this proposal, an extended fuzzy rule model, that can include relations between variables in the antecedent of rules is presented. Furthermore, a learning algorithm based on the iterative genetic approach which is able to represent the knowledge using this model is proposed as well. On the other hand, potential relations among initial variables imply an exponential growth in the feasible rule search space. Consequently, two filters for detecting relevant potential relations are added to the learning algorithm. These filters allows to decrease the search space complexity and increase the algorithm efficiency. Finally, we also present an experimental study to demonstrate the benefits of using fuzzy relational rules.

  2. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs. FY 2005 - FY 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report describes a benefits analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2005 budget request will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable. It summarizes the results of the analysis, which focused on economic, environmental, and security benefits related to energy. The report identifies specific measures or indicators of estimated benefits for FY 2005.

  3. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  4. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  5. Cost-benefit assessment of energy efficiency investments: Accounting for future resources, savings and risks in the Australian residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, J.; Meyrick, B.; Sivaraman, D.; Horne, R.E.; Berry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of the discount rate on cost-benefit assessment of investment options for residential building efficiency. An integrated thermal modeling, life cycle costing approach is applied to an extensive sample of dominant house designs for Australian conditions. The relative significance of predicted thermal performance and the applied discount rate on the Present Value of energy savings from alternative investment scenarios is investigated. Costs and benefits are also evaluated at the economy-wide scale, including carbon pricing considerations, and for a test-case household faced with alternative investment options at the point of construction. The influence of the applied discount rate on produced cost-benefit calculations is investigated, as is the interaction between critical cost-benefit input parameters. Findings support that the discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in estimates about costs and benefits of higher standards of efficiency in the residential sector. Results demonstrate that agreement on a low discount rate based on sustainability principals would prioritise those projects with significant environmental benefits. - Highlights: ► High thermal efficiency is a key strategy to limit energy use in buildings. ► Integrated thermal modeling—life-cycle costing methods are applied to dominant house designs. ► The discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in observed costs. ► The selection of optimal performance investment options depends on the discount rate. ► Application of a discount rate of 3.5% or lower favours energy saving projects

  6. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2006 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norland, D.; Jenkin, T.

    2005-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. EERE designs its RDD&D activities to improve the Nation's readiness for addressing current and future energy needs. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2006 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development supported by EERE programs. Specifically, EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits--economic, environmental, and security.

  7. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (pexercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post pexercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning. © 2013.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  9. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  10. Obesity-related cardiorenal disease: the benefits of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Wiebke; Athanasiou, Thanos; Harling, Leanne; Drechsler, Christiane; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan

    2013-09-01

    The inexorable increase in the prevalence of obesity is a global health concern, which will result in a concomitant escalation in health-care costs. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome affects approximately 25% of adults and is associated with cardiovascular and renal disease. The heart and kidneys are physiologically interdependent, and the pathological effects of obesity can lead to cardiorenal syndrome and, ultimately, kidney and heart failure. Weight loss can prevent or ameliorate obesity-related cardiorenal syndrome, but long-term maintenance of a healthy weight has been difficult to achieve through lifestyle changes or pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery offers both sustained weight loss and favourable metabolic changes, including dramatic improvements in glycaemic control and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass offer immediate multisystemic benefits, including bile flow alteration, reduced gastric size, anatomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, vagal manipulation and enteric hormone modulation. In patients with cardiorenal syndrome, bariatric surgery also offers renoprotection and cardioprotection, and attenuates both kidney and heart failure by improving organ perfusion and reversing metabolic dysfunction. However, further research is required to understand how bariatric surgery acts on the cardiorenal axis, and its pioneering role in novel treatments and interventions for cardiorenal disease.

  11. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; van der Vlist, A.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  12. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  13. Environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in coal-fired power sector: A case study of Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Lei; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pollutant surcharge is considered in Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Intake Fraction method is incorporated into Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Health benefits contribute 97% of co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement. - Abstract: The coal-fired power sector is one of the major contributors to environmental problems and has great potential of air pollution abatement. This study employs Energy Conservation Supply Curves (ECSCs) combined with pollutant surcharge and health benefits to evaluate the environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in the coal-fired power sector. Health benefits and the pollution surcharge are considered as the environmental co-benefits that reduce costs of conserved energy (CCEs) in ECSCs. The health benefits of energy efficiency improvement are quantified using Intake Fraction method, while the pollutant surcharge is calculated based on the regulation. Three scenarios including a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, an Energy Efficiency Improvement (EEI) scenario, and an Upgrading Standards and Incentive (USI) scenario is considered in a case study for Henan Province of China. Our results show that costs of conserved energy (CCEs) are reduced by 0.56 and 0.29 USD/GJ under the EEI and USI scenarios due to health benefits and pollutant surcharge reductions related to energy efficient technologies, respectively. In particular, health benefits account for 97% of the reductions in CCEs, while the pollutant surcharge only contributes 3%. Under the EEI and USI scenarios, in 2020, energy efficiency improvement reduces energy consumption in Henan’s coal-fired power sector by 3.3% and 3.5% compared with the BAU scenario, respectively. The EEI and USI scenarios indicates that health benefits of 1.5 × 10"9 and 2.4 × 10"9 USD are gained and the reductions of pollutant surcharges of 197 and 226 million USD are realized in 2020, respectively.

  14. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  15. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  16. Energy efficiency benefits of introducing optical switching in Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Zeimpeki, Alexandra; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2017-01-01

    layers of the network topology. The analysis is based on network-level simulations using a transport network planning tool applied to small-scale setups of the considered DCNs. The obtained results show that introducing all-optical switching within the DCN leads to reduced power consumption in all......In this paper we analyze the impact of WDM-enhanced optical circuit switching on the power consumption of multiple Data Center Network (DCN) architectures. Traditional three-tier Tree, Fat-Tree and a ring-based structure are evaluated and optical switching is selectively introduced on different...... an optically switched core benefits most the ring-based network. For the latter, the core ring nodes need fewer long-reach transponders at the trunk interfaces and benefit from more efficient traffic grooming in the access part....

  17. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  18. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  19. Evidence on the relation between public capital and Government efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relation between public capital stock and government efficiency. We present some objective indicators fo government efficiency and explore the mentioned relation. we find a positive and significant relation between both variables that survives the introduction of controls and robustness checking.

  20. 42 CFR 422.101 - Requirements relating to basic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... effective management structure: (i) Target one of the three SNP populations defined in § 422.2 of this part..., psychosocial, and functional needs as well as annual health risk reassessment, using a comprehensive risk... benefits to be provided. (iii) Use an interdisciplinary team in the management of care. (2) MA...

  1. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  2. Obtaining the Greatest Scientific Benefit from Observational Platforms by Consideration of the Relative Benefit of Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelberg, David; Drews, Frank; Fleeman, David; Welch, Lonnie; Marquart, Jane; Pfarr, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    One of the current trends in spacecraft software design is to increase the autonomy of onboard flight and science software. This is especially true when real-time observations may affect the observation schedule of a mission. For many science missions, such as those conducted by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope, the ability of the spacecraft to autonomously respond in real-time to unpredicted science events is crucial for mission success. We apply utility theory within resource management middleware to optimize the real-time performance of application software and achieve maximum system level benefit. We then explore how this methodology can be extended to manage both software and observational resources onboard a spacecraft to achieve the best possible observations.

  3. Relative fault and efficient negligence: Comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that the rule of comparative negligence with relative fault - a sharing of the loss proportional to the parties’ relative departures from due care - induces the parties to an accident to be efficiently negligent. Comparative negligence is more efficient than simple or contributory

  4. Benefits of increasing transpiration efficiency in wheat under elevated CO2 for rainfed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Brendan; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Tausz, Michael; Richards, Richard; Rebetzke, Greg; Condon, Anthony; McLean, Terry; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Bourgault, Maryse; O'Leary, Garry

    2018-05-01

    Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and TE simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high-TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low-TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg/ha (mean 187 kg/ha) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221-1,351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate. The smallest absolute yield response occurred in the more extreme drier and wetter areas of the wheat belt. However, under elevated CO 2 conditions, the response of Drysdale was much greater overall, ranging from 51 to 886 kg/ha (mean 284 kg/ha) with the greatest response in the higher rainfall areas. Changes in simulated TE under elevated CO 2 conditions are seen across Australia with notable increased areas of higher TE under a drier climate in Western Australia, Queensland and parts of New South Wales and Victoria. This improved efficiency is subtly deceptive, with highest yields not necessarily directly correlated with highest TE. Nevertheless, the advantage of Drysdale over Hartog is clear with the benefit of the trait advantage attributed to TE ranging from 102% to 118% (mean 109%). The potential annual cost-benefits of this increased genetic TE trait across the wheat growing areas of Australia (5 year average of area planted to wheat) totaled AUD 631 MIL (5-year average wheat price of AUD/260 t) with an average of 187 kg/ha under the present climate. The benefit to an individual farmer will depend on location but elevated CO 2 raises this nation-wide benefit to AUD 796 MIL in a 2°C warmer climate, slightly lower (AUD 715 MIL) if rainfall is also reduced by 20%. © 2018 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%-5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%-6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking stoves

  6. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  7. Enhancing shareholder value: Making a more compelling energy efficiency case to industry by quantifying non-energy benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pye, M.; McKane, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a more compelling case for industry to promote the non-energy benefits of energy efficiency investments. They do this in two ways to actively appeal to chief executive officers' (CEOs') and chief financial officers' (CFOs') primary responsibility: to enhance shareholder value. First, they describe the use of a project-by-project corporate financial analysis approach to quantify a broader range of productivity benefits that stem from investments in energy-efficient technologies, including waste reduction and pollution prevention. Second, and perhaps just as important, they present such information in corporate financial terms. These standard, widely accepted analysis procedures are more credible to industry than the economic modeling done in the past because they are structured in the same way corporate financial analysts perform discounted cashflow investment analyses on individual projects. Case studies including such financial analyses, which quantify both energy and non-energy benefits from investments in energy-efficient technologies, are presented. Experience shows that energy efficiency projects' non-energy benefits often exceed the value of energy savings, so energy savings should be viewed more correctly as part of the total benefits, rather than the focus of the results. Quantifying the total benefits of energy efficiency projects helps companies understand the financial opportunities of investments in energy-efficient technologies. Making a case for investing in energy-efficient technologies based on energy savings alone has not always proven successful. Evidence suggests, however, that industrial decision makers will understand energy efficiency investments as part of a broader set of parameters that affect company productivity and profitability

  8. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  9. Peer Tutoring: An Evaluation of the Relative Cognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Nancy A.

    The relative effectiveness of tutoring for both partners was examined by comparing tutoring with other learning activities that differed either in the amount of exposure to the learning materials or the presence of a helping relationship or both. The subjects were 160 undergraduates who were evaluated on their acquisition of Esperanto. Subjects…

  10. Benefit of Anticoagulation Therapy in Hyperthyroidism-Related Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pak-Hei; Hai, Jojo; Yeung, Chun-Yip; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Tse, Hung-Fat; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2015-08-01

    Existing data on the risk of ischemic stroke in hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation (AF) and the impact of long-term anticoagulation in these patients, particularly those with self-limiting AF, remain inconclusive. Risk of stroke in hyperthyroidism-related AF is the same as nonhyperthyroid counterparts. This was a single-center observational study of 9727 Chinese patients with nonvalvular AF from July 1997 to December 2011. Patients with AF diagnosed concomitantly with hyperthyroidism were identified. Primary and secondary endpoints were defined as hospitalization with ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the first 2 years. Patient characteristics, duration of AF, and choice of antithrombotic therapy were recorded. Self-limiting AF was defined as hyperthyroidism and AF at diagnosis. For stroke prevention, 136 and 243 patients (21.1% and 37.9%) were prescribed warfarin and aspirin, respectively, whereas the remaining patients (41.0%) received no therapy. Ischemic stroke occurred in 50 patients (7.8%), and no patient developed hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc of 0 did not develop stroke. Warfarin effectively reduced the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin or no therapy in patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥1 and non-self-limiting AF, but not in those with self-limiting AF or CHA2 DS2 -VASc of 0. Presence of hyperthyroidism did not confer additional risk of ischemic stroke compared with nonhyperthyroid AF. Patients with hyperthyroidism-related AF are at high risk of stroke (3.9% per year). Warfarin confers stroke prevention in patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥1 and non-self-limiting AF. Overall stroke risk was lower in hyperthyroid non-self-limiting AF patients compared with nonhyperthyroid counterparts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Exploring the impact of customer relational benefit on relationship commitment in health service sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Huang, Jin-An; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Chang

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of health service sectors have begun to implement relationship marketing to try to establish long-term relationship with customers. Customer relational benefit has been an important subject for relationship marketing researchers. This study was conducted to investigate how customer relational benefit might influence relationship commitment in health service sectors. The research used a questionnaire survey that retrieved a total number of 403 valid questionnaires. The data were collected by way of personal visits and investigations of outpatients in three regional hospitals in Taiwan. After the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire sample were examined, the data were verified by using hierarchical regression analysis. Results showed that confidence benefit constituted the most pronounced factor for hospital customers. Confidence benefit, social benefit, and special treatment benefit were perceived by customers as the key factors that have a positive influence on relationship commitment. In particular, customers placing greater emphasis on confidence benefit tended to be less willing to establish relationship commitment. When health service managers develop marketing strategies using customer relational benefit, they will still need to enhance customer confidence benefit as one of the main ways of achieving future improvements. In the event where health service managers seek to install resources for establishing and maintaining a good relationship commitment with customers, the crucial factors of social and special treatment benefits should not be ignored when seeking to enhance the customers' perception of confidence benefit.

  12. Potential energy efficiency and conservation, economic, and environmental benefits from the implementation of superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is a recent technology that has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. The technology has already been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES test demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may equal or outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can shift emissions both in volumes and in physical. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options, thus SMES can be seen as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  13. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described

  14. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  15. Relational Benefit on Satisfaction and Durability in Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available These days, companies are moving from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activities for short-term profit generation to the ones for achieving economic and social long-term goals. This phenomenon results from the idea that CSR is not a mere cost but can be used as a source of opportunity, innovation and competitive advantage. Deemed as a great business strategy, strategic CSR activities are being emphasized by various stakeholders in the global market. The purpose of this study is to present specific implications and to empirically research the relations among relational benefits, commitment, and authenticity. It identifies the main factors of relationship management in expanding the stakeholder pool and forming relationships for strategic CSR activities. To this end, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 113 CSR practitioners in Korea and analyzed how social, psychological, and economic benefits affect the satisfaction and durability of strategic CSR activities through relational commitment and authenticity. Consequently, social, psychological, and economic benefits have an impact on relationships and, by extension, have a positive effect on relational satisfaction and durability. However, economic benefits affect relational authenticity, but social and psychological benefits do not. As a result, relational benefits cannot affect satisfaction through relationships. Therefore, relational benefits and commitment are more important variables for the satisfaction and durability of strategic CSR activities.

  16. Co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement and air pollution abatement in the Chinese iron and steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, China was responsible for 45% of global steel production, while consuming 15.8EJ of final energy and emitting 1344Mt CO2eq, 8.4Mt of PM (particulate matter) emissions, and 5.3Mt of SO2 emissions. In this paper we analyse the co-benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures that

  17. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of

  18. Comparing EU hospital efficiency using diagnosis-related groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, G.; Wiley, M.; Tomas, R.; Casas, M.; Leidl, R.

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the feasibility of comparing the differences in efficiency and price in the provision of hospital products defined on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Two measures of resource use are compared, the length of stay and the administrative price, both independently

  19. The Relative Efficiency of Charter Schools: A Cost Frontier Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Timothy J.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Charters represent an expansion of public school choice, offering free, publicly funded educational alternatives to traditional public schools. One relatively unexplored research question concerning charter schools asks whether charter schools are more efficient suppliers of educational services than are traditional public schools. The potential…

  20. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Diddi, Saurabh [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Bureau of Energy Efficiency; Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  1. Evaluating the Environmental Dimension of Material Efficiency Strategies Relating to the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life-cycle. Although materials such as steel, on account of high recycling rates at end-of-life, are amongst the most ‘circular’ of manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and reuse of materials from the supply chain and at end-of-life is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. The results are compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise are that (i LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and (ii when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA-based studies.

  2. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...

  3. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  4. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneou...

  5. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diddi, Saurabh [Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Government of India (India); Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  6. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation rates of 37 EEMs are quantified for China’s cement industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curves were implemented in the GAINS model. • The economic energy saving potential is 3.0 EJ and costs is $4.1 billion in 2030. • Energy efficiency would lead to large reductions in air pollution. • The co-benefits decrease average marginal costs of EEMs by 20%. - Abstract: China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHGs and air pollutants emission. In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO 2 and air pollutants emission for implementing co-control options of energy efficiency measures and end-of-pipe options in the China’s cement industry for the period 2011–2030. Results show that there are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions of CO 2 and air pollutants for the China’s cement industry during the study period. The cost-effective energy saving potential (EEP1 scenario) and its costs is estimated to be 3.0 EJ and 4.1 billion $ in 2030. The technical energy savings potential (EEP2 scenario) and its costs amount to 4.2 EJ and 8.4 billion $ at the same time. Compared to the baseline scenario, energy efficiency measures can help decrease 5% of CO 2 , 3% of PM, 15% of SO 2 , and 12% of NOx emissions by 2030 in EEP1 scenario. If we do not consider costs (EEP2 scenario), energy efficiency measures can further reduce 3% of CO 2 , 2% of PM, 10% of SO 2 , and 8% of NOx by 2030. Overall, the average marginal costs of energy efficiency measures will decrease by 20%, from 1.48 $/GJ to 1.19 $/GJ, when

  7. Relative efficiency calculation of a HPGe detector using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a 60 Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate a HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a 60 Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  8. Co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement and air pollution abatement in the Chinese iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, China was responsible for 45% of global steel production, while consuming 15.8 EJ of final energy and emitting 1344 Mt CO 2eq , 8.4 Mt of PM (particulate matter) emissions, and 5.3 Mt of SO 2 emissions. In this paper we analyse the co-benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures that jointly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, in comparison to applying only air pollution control (end-of-pipe technology). For this purpose we construct ECSC (energy conservation supply curves) that contain potentials and costs of energy efficiency measures and implement these in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. Findings show that the technical energy saving potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2030 is around 5.7 EJ. This is equivalent to 28% of reference energy use in 2030. The emissions mitigation of GHGs (greenhouse gases) and air pollutants in BAEEM S 3 scenario would be reduce 27% CO 2 eq, 3% of PM, and 22% of SO 2 , compared to the BL scenario in 2030. Investments and cost savings were calculated for different scenarios, showing that energy efficiency investments will result in significant reductions in air pollution control costs. Hence, Energy efficiency measures should be integrated in air quality policy in China. - Highlights: • Implementation rates of 56 EEMs (energy efficiency measures) are quantified in China's Iron and steel industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curve was implemented in the GAINS (greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies) model. • The contribution of energy efficiency measure on the process level was estimated. • There are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions. • EEMs (energy efficiency measures) would lead to huge reductions in air pollution

  9. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  11. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Nitschke, Monika; Zhang, Ying; Shah, Pushan; Crabb, Shona; Hansen, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases and cause non-negligible air pollution, primarily in urban areas. Changing people's travel behaviour towards alternative transport is an efficient approach to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large number of vehicles. Such a strategy also provides an opportunity to gain health co-benefits of improved air quality and enhanced physical activities. This study aimed at quantifying co-benefit effects of alternative transport use in Adelaide, South Australia. We made projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2030 with alternative transport scenarios. Separate models including air pollution models and comparative risk assessment health models were developed to link alternative transport scenarios with possible environmental and health benefits. In the study region with an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2030, by shifting 40% of vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) by passenger vehicles to alternative transport, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by approximately 0.4μg/m(3) compared to business-as-usual, resulting in net health benefits of an estimated 13deaths/year prevented and 118 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented per year due to improved air quality. Further health benefits would be obtained from improved physical fitness through active transport (508deaths/year prevented, 6569DALYs/year prevented), and changes in traffic injuries (21 deaths and, 960 DALYs prevented). Although uncertainties remain, our findings suggest that significant environmental and health benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces even a relatively small portion of car trips. The results may provide assistance to various government organisations and relevant service providers and promote collaboration in policy-making, city planning and infrastructure establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Jan Anne; Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression models

  14. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Frenken, Koen; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression

  15. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  16. Potential benefits from improved energy efficiency of key electrical products: The case of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the world's second most populous country continues to grow rapidly, bringing prosperity to a growing middle class while further straining an energy infrastructure already stretched beyond capacity. At the same time, efficiency policy initiatives have gained a foothold in India, and promise to grow in number over the coming years. This paper considers the maximum cost-effective potential of efficiency improvement for key energy-consuming products in the Indian context. The products considered are: household refrigerators, window air conditioners, motors and distribution transformers. Together, these products account for about 27% of delivered electricity consumption in India. The analysis estimates the minimum Life-Cycle Cost option for each product class, according to use patterns and prevailing customer marginal rates in each sector. This option represents an efficiency improvement ranging between 12% and 60%, depending on product class. If this level of efficiency was achieved starting in 2010, we estimate that total electricity consumption in India could be reduced by 4.7% by 2020, saving over 74 million tons of oil equivalent and over 246 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Net present financial savings of this efficiency improvement totals 8.1 billion dollars

  17. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Rémi; Roze, Stéphane; Bresse, Xavier; Largeron, Nathalie; Smith-Palmer, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are

  18. Coping efficiently with now-relative medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantic, Bela; Terenziani, Paolo; Sattar, Abdul

    2008-11-06

    In Medical Informatics, there is an increasing awareness that temporal information plays a crucial role, so that suitable database approaches are needed to store and support it. Specifically, most clinical data are intrinsically temporal, and a relevant part of them are now-relative (i.e., they are valid at the current time). Even if previous studies indicate that the treatment of now-relative data has a crucial impact on efficiency, current approaches have several limitations. In this paper we propose a novel approach, which is based on a new representation of now, and on query transformations. We also experimentally demonstrate that our approach outperforms its best competitors in the literature to the extent of a factor of more than ten, both in number of disk accesses and of CPU usage.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  20. Legal rights, efficiency and citizen involvement in the administration of social security cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Hielmcrone, Nina

    2010-01-01

    for the accretion of new special rules. They merely have to be coded into the system. The government’s modernisation programme has been carried out at the expense of transparency and the legal rights of the citizens. This article deals with Danish legislation; the mechanisms in question are common not only......The Danish social security legislation has been distinguished in recent years by an intense growth in rules and regulations. Numerous laws and ordinances have been promulgated, which make it extremely difficult for both citizens and authorities to come to grips with the laws, much less to gain...... to a vast growth in very detailed and complex rules and thereby lack of transparency for citizens and social workers. The fact that benefits are administered with the aid of computers means that neither administrators nor politicians find the abundance of rules to be a problem, and no limits are thereby set...

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganandran, G. S. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Rismanchi, B.; Chong, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment. PMID:25133258

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  3. Can deficit irrigation techniques be used to enhance phosphorus and water use efficiency and benefit crop yields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hannah R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Blackwell, Martin S. A.; Surridge, Ben W. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting (DRW) affects the forms and availability of phosphorus (P). Water soluble P has been reported to increase 1.8- to 19-fold after air-drying with the majority of the increase (56-100%) attributable to organic P. Similarly, in two contrasting soil types DRW increased concentrations of total P and reactive P in leachate, likely due to enhanced P mineralisation and physiochemical processes causing detachment of soil colloids, with faster rewetting rates related to higher concentrations of P. The intensity of drying as well as the rate of rewetting influences organic and inorganic P cycling. How these dynamics are driven by soil water status, and impact crop P acquisition and growth, remains unclear. Improving P and water use efficiencies and crop yields is globally important as both P and water resources become increasingly scarce, whilst demand for food increases. Irrigation supply below the water requirement for full crop evapotranspiration is employed by agricultural practitioners where water supply is limited. Regulated deficit irrigation describes the scheduling of water supply to correspond to the times of highest crop demand. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is applied in lowland irrigated rice production to avoid flooding at certain times of crop development, and has benefited P nutrition and yields. This research aims to optimise the benefits of P availability and uptake achieved by DRW by guiding deficit irrigation management strategies. Further determination of underlying processes driving P cycling at fluctuating soil moisture status is required. Presented here is a summary of the literature on DRW effects on soil P availability and plant P uptake and partitioning, in a range of soil types and cropping systems, with emphasis on alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD) compared to continuous flooding in lowland irrigated rice production. Soil water contents and matric potentials, and effects on P dynamics, are highly variable

  4. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  5. Relationship on the Relational Benefit Effect of Oil Products on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Muxue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out the relationship of relational benefit effect of oil products on customer satisfaction, the local fractional algorithm is proposed in this paper for data analysis. It is investigated the adjustment effect of alternative brand competitiveness and customer characteristics to this mechanism. The results show that the proposed algorithm can thus improve overall system performance substantially.

  6. The tenability of the Dutch Preservative Tax Assessment in relation to pension benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Goossens, K.

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that the rulings of the Dutch Supreme Court, in which its substantive opinion on the tenability of the preservative tax assessment in relation to pension benefits is expressed, do not leave any scope for the remedial legislation implemented as a response thereto. The authors

  7. Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands : Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Linda; Dijst, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management measures taken by firms could potentially result in more sustainable transport choices and hence reduce traffic congestion and emissions. Fringe benefits offered to employees are a means to implement those measures. This paper explores the most common commuting-related fringe

  8. Accelerating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioners in India: Potential, Costs-Benefits, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, N; Shah, N; Park, WY; Phadke, AA

    2017-01-01

    Rising incomes, increasing urbanization, and large cooling demand prompted by India’s hot, humid climate are driving increasing uptake of room air conditioners (ACs). Air conditioning already accounts for 40-60% of summer peak load in large Indian cities such as Delhi and is on track to contribute 140 gigawatts (GW) ( 30%) to peak demand in 2030. India’s standards and labeling policies improved the market average efficiency of room ACs by about 35% between 2006 and 2016 (3% per year) even as ...

  9. Value-added benefits of technology: e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Correa, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide insights into the current supply chain for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the radiology diagnostic imaging equipment business. As is common in many manufacturing and service firms, the rationale of bridging suppliers of OEMs is the ability to leverage technology, software, and accessories pertaining to the various pieces of equipment. Several models of e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry are presented. Although the radiology capital equipment market presents numerous idiosyncrasies that must be addressed to successfully implement an e-business strategy effectively, incredible opportunities exist all along the supply chain for e-business strategies to both eliminate costs and acquire strategic initiatives. Those firms that most successfully listen to their customers and address the barriers to efficiency (B2E) will help move the industry toward more effective utilization of the benefits e-business can create and also obtain first mover advantages. Although the efficiencies that e-business provides are extremely important in the radiology capital equipment market, the main value of e-business in this industry of high-priced and relatively infrequently purchased equipment may well be the value-added benefits the technology brings to its customers, as illustrated in the modeling process. The OEMs that eventually market their finished product directly to hospital and imaging centers via a direct sales force can best take advantage of the connectivity and accessibility of e-commerce.

  10. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  11. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  12. Commissioning of energy-efficiency measures: Costs and benefits for 16 buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; Greenberg, S.

    1995-04-01

    Building systems and energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) often don`t perform as well in practice as expected at the design stage. This fact has become clear to many organizations concerned with ensuring building performance. What to do about these problems is less clear. Several electric utilities around the U.S. have begun to take action to address the start-up, control, and operational problems that are found in nearly every building. One of the most beneficial periods to intervene in the building life cycle is during the start-up phase of a now building. Building commissioning during start up is such an intervention. Commissioning can be defined as: a set of procedures, responsibilities, and methods to advance a system from static installation to full working order in accordance with design intent. In broad terms, commissioning can extend from design reviews through operations and maintenance planning and training. With such a broad scope aimed at the entire building life cycle, commissioning is often likened to {open_quotes}Total Quality Management{close_quotes} Yet the heart of commissioning are the procedures developed and executed to ensure that all building systems function as intended. The incorporation of energy-efficiency criteria into building commissioning is a new development.

  13. The Inverse Relation Between Risks and Benefits: The Role of Affect and Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, Joanna; Sleboda, Patrycja

    2015-07-01

    Although risk and benefits of risky activities are positively correlated in the real world, empirical results indicate that people perceive them as negatively correlated. The common explanation is that confounding benefits and losses stems from affect. In this article, we address the issue that has not been clearly established in studies on the affect heuristic: to what extent boundary conditions, such as judgments' generality and expertise, influence the presence of the inverse relation in judgments of hazards. These conditions were examined in four studies in which respondents evaluated general or specific benefits and risks of "affect-rich" and "affect-poor" hazards (ranging from investments to applications of stem cell research). In line with previous research, affect is defined as good or bad feelings integral to a stimulus. In contrast to previous research, affect is considered as related both to personal feelings and to social controversies associated with a hazard. Expertise is related to personal knowledge (laypersons vs. experts) as well as to objective knowledge (targets well vs. poorly known to science). The direct comparison of the input from personal and objective ignorance into the inverse relation has not been investigated previously. It was found that affect invoked by a hazard guides general but not specific judgments of its benefits and risks. Technical expertise helps to avoid simplified evaluations of consequences as long as they are well known to science. For new, poorly understood hazards (e.g., stem cell research), expertise does not protect from the perception of the inverse relation between benefits and risks. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. 29 CFR 2509.94-3 - Interpretive bulletin relating to in-kind contributions to employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee benefit plans. 2509.94-3 Section 2509.94-3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO...-kind contributions to employee benefit plans. (a) General. This bulletin sets forth the views of the...

  15. 29 CFR 2509.75-3 - Interpretive bulletin relating to investments by employee benefit plans in securities of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Interpretive bulletin relating to investments by employee benefit plans in securities of registered investment.... That section provides that an investment by an employee benefit plan in securities issued by an...

  16. 29 CFR 2509.78-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to payments by certain employee welfare benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee welfare benefit plans. 2509.78-1 Section 2509.78-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO... payments by certain employee welfare benefit plans. The Department of Labor today announced its...

  17. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  18. Barriers, Benefits, and Behaviors Related to Breakfast Consumption Among Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Shanafelt, Amy; Wang, Qi; Leduc, Robert; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine if perceived barriers, benefits, and modifiable behaviors support or interfere with breakfast consumption in a racially and economically diverse rural high school population. The participants were 832 Minnesota adolescents from 16 rural high schools. We used baseline data from a group randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation through policy and environmental-level school changes. Students completed an online survey asking about demographics, breakfast eating behaviors, and the barriers and benefits of eating as it relates to school performance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, accounting for clustering by school, was performed using SAS. Each scale was modeled independently. Participants were 9th and 10th grade students, 36% free/reduced-price lunch (FRL), 30% non-White, and 55% female. Breakfast skippers compared to nonbreakfast skippers reported fewer school related benefits and beliefs and more barriers to eating breakfast (p breakfast. Future intervention research should focus on alleviating barriers and enhancing education around the school related benefits of eating breakfast. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  19. The Efficiency of a Group-Specific Mandated Benefit Revisited: The Effect of Infertility Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are…

  20. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  1. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    examines the extent to which the Army has (1) assessed the costs and benefits of Pacific Pathways; and (2) synchronized plans and incorporated ... costs . Such an analysis could both: • incorporate financial and non-financial costs and benefits of the initiative, to include readiness benefits for... logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as

  2. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Lobscheid, A.B.

    2006-06-01

    This study assesses for California how increasing end-use electrical energy efficiency from installing residential insulation impacts exposures and disease burden from power-plant pollutant emissions. Installation of fiberglass attic insulation in the nearly 3 million electricity-heated homes throughout California is used as a case study. The pollutants nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, and naphthalene are selected for the assessment. Exposure is characterized separately for rural and urban environments using the CalTOX model, which is a key input to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). The output of CalTOX provides for urban and rural populations emissions-to-intake factors, which are expressed as an individual intake fraction (iFi). The typical iFi from power plant emissions are on the order of 10{sup -13} (g intake per g emitted) in urban and rural regions. The cumulative (rural and urban) product of emissions, population, and iFi is combined with toxic effects factors to determine human damage factors (HDFs). HDF are expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per kilogram pollutant emitted. The HDF approach is applied to the insulation case study. Upgrading existing residential insulation to US Department of Energy (DOE) recommended levels eliminates over the assmned 50-year lifetime of the insulation an estimated 1000 DALYs from power-plant emissions per million tonne (Mt) of insulation installed, mostly from the elimination of PM2.5 emissions. In comparison, the estimated burden from the manufacture of this insulation in DALYs per Mt is roughly four orders of magnitude lower than that avoided.

  3. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and

  4. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: Health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  6. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient-Related Benefits for Adults with Cochlear Implantation: A Multicultural Longitudinal Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, Thomas; Muller, Lida; Czerniejewska-Wolska, Hanna; Vallés Varela, Hector; Orús Dotú, César; Durko, Marcin; Huarte Irujo, Alicia; Piszczatowski, Bartosz; Zadrożniak, Marek; Irwin, Colin; Graham, Petra L.; Wyss, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess subjectively perceived, real-world benefits longitudinally for unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients in a multinational population treated routinely. To identify possible predictors of self-reported benefits. Design This was a prospective, multicenter, repeated-measures study. Self-assessment of performance at preimplantation and postimplantation at 1, 2, and 3 years using standardized, validated, local language versions of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ), and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) was performed. Outcomes were analyzed using a longitudinal mixed-effects model incorporating country effect. Patient demographics were explored for associations with change over time. Subjects Two hundred ninety-one routinely treated, unilateral CI recipients, aged 137–81 years, from 9 clinics across 4 countries. Results Highly significant improvements were observed for all outcome measures (p < 0.0001). Postimplantation, mean outcome scores remained stable beyond 1 year, with notable individual variability. A significant association for one or more outcomes with preimplantation contralateral hearing aid use, telephone use, age at implantation, implantation side, preimplantation comorbidities, dizziness, and tinnitus was observed (p < 0.004). Conclusions Longitudinal benefits of CI treatment can be measured using clinically standardized self-assessment tools to provide a holistic view of patient-related benefits in routine clinical practice for aggregated data from multinational populations. Self-reported outcomes can provide medical-based evidence regarding CI treatment to support decision-making by health service providers. PMID:28719901

  8. [Benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of infertility patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Chao-Feng; Guo, Mei

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of the outpatients with infertility. We randomly divided 600 females preliminarily diagnosed with infertility into a control and an experimental group, 288 in the former and 285 in the latter group excluding those whose husbands had azoospermia. For the women patients of the experimental group, we conducted nursing care intervention concerning related knowledge, skills, diet, excise, medication, and psychology, by one-to-one consultation, individualized or group communication, establishing files, telephone follow-up, and wechat guidance. After 3 months of intervention, we compared the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of cycle management, sense of self-efficiency, satisfaction, and anxiety score between the two groups of patients. In comparison with the controls, the patients of the experimental group showed significantly better knowledge about assisted reproduction and higher effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction (P <0.05), but a markedly lower degree of anxiety (P <0.05). Nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic can improve the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction and reduce the anxiety of the patients.

  9. Energy efficient technology - from this all will benefit; Energieeffiziente Technik - davon profitieren alle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    Within the International Trade Fair of Craft between 11th and 17th March, 2009 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) presented the following lectures: (1) The handicraft in context to demography - The demography in the east German federal states (Thomas Satzmann); (2) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (3) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (4) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (5) Journalist Special: Use of electronic media such as podcast and internet-TV for public relations in the handicraft (Michael Bachmann); (6) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (7) Crafts and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (8) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (9) Activation of facades in existing buildings in combination with air heat and solar thermal power - Theory and reports from the practice (Jens Wolfensteller, Volker Drexel); (10) Fiscal reform in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (11) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (12) Mould fungus, dangerous subtenant - General aspects to mould fungi, recognition, health aspects and removal (Sabine Hoer); (13) The energy competency centre of the Chamber of Commerce Potsdam (Herbert Pape); (14) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (15) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (16) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (17) Amendment of the law for chimneysweepers (Joachim Garrecht); (18) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (19) Handicraft and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (20) Politics in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (21) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht); (22) Challenges of the demography in the handicraft (Evelin Friedrich); (23) The handicraft in the financial crisis

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of nZEB energy efficiency strategies with on-site photovoltaic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikas, Ergo; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin; Koskela, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Many studies on the deployment of and investment in renewable energy (RE) technologies have focused on job creation associated with energy production at the macroeconomic level and across renewable energy technologies. We propose another perspective, the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology to attain a nearly zero-energy building (nZEB) class. The aim of this research is to investigate the costs and benefits for private and public entities when constructing nZEB or adopting nZEB policies. A quantitative research approach is taken when modelling required PV capacities, net present cash flows, subsidies, and job generation. Findings show that at current electricity tariffs and solar PV system capacities and production levels, single family houses, apartment buildings, and other building types require 0.044 €/kWh, 0.037 €/kWh, and 0.024 €/kWh, respectively, in government subsidies on energy sold back to the grid. Office buildings were profitable without the subsidy. In this study, we argue that investments in RE, specifically, PV technology, will bring in approximately 2.1 M€ of additional revenue to the Estonian government over a 20 years period as tax return overruns subsidies. However, nZEB investments are expected to become cost-optimal without subsidies, due to the increasing efficiency and decreasing costs of PV systems. - Highlights: • The paper provides a combination of approaches for PV cost-benefit analysis. • Investments in PV technology to obtain nZEB require government subsidies. • Work describes potential strategies for subsidizing or investing in PV technology. • Investments in PV technology benefit both private investors and public institutions.

  11. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  12. Benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires of nurses related to distance learning in rural island communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Richardson, Karol; Mobley, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed distance learning needs among nurses on the Neighbor Islands in Hawaii. An exploratory study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative design. Of the 37 nurses who completed the study, 7 were nurse administrators and 30 were staff nurses. There were 18 focus groups of nurses recruited from six public hospitals on the Neighbor Islands. Three major themes related to distance learning emerged in this study: benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires. Each major theme had several linkages to categories and subcategories. Overall findings were as follows: (1) cost was mentioned more often in three major thematic areas (benefit, barriers, and intentions/desires); (2) the need to revisit and address current curriculum approaches and practices in distance learning programs was identified; and (3) strong recommendations were made for programs and organizational support for distance learning in hospital settings. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Cost-benefit evaluation of containment related engineered safety features of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, S.S.; Bhawal, R.N.; Rustagi, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The typical containment system for a commercial nuclear reactor uses several engineered safety features to achieve its objective of limiting the release of radioactive fission products to the environment in the event of postulated accident conditions. The design of containment systems and associated features for Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) has undergone progressive improvement in successive projects. In particular, the current design adopted for the Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP) has seen several notable improvements. The paper reports on a cost-benefit study in respect of three containment related engineered safety features and subsystems of NAPP, viz. (i) secondary containment envelope, (ii) primary containment filtration and pump-back system, and (iii) secondary containment filtration, recirculation and purge system. The effect of each of these systems in reducing the environmental releases of radioactivity following a design basis accident is presented. The corresponding reduction in population exposure and the associated monetary value of this reduction in exposure are also given. The costs of the features and subsystem under consideration are then compared with the monetary value of the exposures saved, as well as other non-quantified benefits, to arrive at conclusions regarding the usefulness of each subsystem. This study clearly establishes for the secondary containment envelope the benefit in terms of reduction in public exposure giving a quantitative justification for the costs involved. In the case of the other two subsystems, which involve relatively low costs, while all benefits have not been quantified, their desirability is justified on qualitative considerations. It is concluded that the engineered safety features adopted in the current containment system design of Indian PHWRs contribute to reducing radiation exposures during accident conditions in accordance with the ALARA ('as low as reasonably achievable') principle

  14. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits Under...

  15. Research ethics committee decision-making in relation to an efficient neonatal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C; Hyde, M J; Modi, N

    2017-07-01

    Randomised controlled trials, a gold-standard approach to reduce uncertainties in clinical practice, are growing in cost and are often slow to recruit. We determined whether methodological approaches to facilitate large, efficient clinical trials were acceptable to UK research ethics committees (RECs). We developed a protocol in collaboration with parents, for a comparative-effectiveness, randomised controlled trial comparing two widely used blood transfusion practices in preterm infants. We incorporated four approaches to improve recruitment and efficiency: (i) point-of-care design using electronic patient records for patient identification, randomisation and data acquisition, (ii) short two-page information sheet; (iii) explicit mention of possible inclusion benefit; (iv) opt-out consent with enrolment as the default. With the support of the UK Health Research Authority, we submitted an identical protocol to 12 UK REC. RECs in the UK. Number of REC granting favourable opinions. The use of electronic patient records was acceptable to all RECs; one REC raised concerns about the short parent information sheet, 10 about inclusion benefit and 9 about opt-out consent. Following responses to queries, nine RECs granted a favourable final opinion and three rejected the application because they considered the opt-out consent process invalid. A majority of RECs in this study consider the use of electronic patient record data, short information sheets, opt-out consent and mention of possible inclusion benefit to be acceptable in neonatal comparative-effectiveness research. We identified a need for guidance for RECs in relation to opt-out consent processes. These methods provide opportunity to facilitate large randomised controlled trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  17. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  18. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  19. RELATIONAL NEEDS OF THE THERAPIST: COUNTERTRANSFERENCE, CLINICAL WORK AND SUPERVISION. BENEFITS AND DISRUPTIONS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Relational needs are the emotional needs which underlie our social connectedness and help sustain and nurture our attachments to others. In doing psychotherapy, therapists must be attuned not only to the needs of the client, but also to their own relational needs. Through self awareness and knowledge of healthy and appropriate boundaries, therapists can ensure the best interest of the client is kept foremost. In this article, the influence of the therapist’s own relational needs in the psychotherapy process is examined in terms of the possible benefits and disruptions to the client’s emotional growth. This is discussed in the context of the Integrative Psychotherapy model based on the core concepts of inquiry, involvement and attunement. Clinical supervision is seen as an important part of working through counter-transference.

  20. Mapping and modeling multiple benefits of energy efficiency and emission mitigation in China’s cement industry at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provincial disparities in energy use and emissions are quantified for China’s cement industry. • We describe emission mitigation impacts on EEMs with integrated assessment model. • We quantify the multiple benefits potential in China’s cement industry on provincial level. • Energy efficiency would lead to huge reductions in air pollution in all provinces. • We discuss uncertainty in relation to distribution of energy saving and emission reduction. - Abstract: China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO 2 and air pollutants. It accounts for 7% of total energy consumption in China and 15% of CO 2 , 21% of PM, 4% SO 2 and 10% of NOx of total emissions, respectively. Provincial disparities in energy consumption and emissions of CO 2 and air pollutants in China’s cement industry are rarely quantified. In this study, an integrated assessment model including provincial energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) (which can shows the cost-effective and technical energy saving potential per province), the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model (which can be used to calculate air pollutant emissions), and ArcGIS (a geographical information system (GIS) with elaborated spatial functions) is developed and used to assess the potential of energy savings in terms of emission mitigation of CO 2 and air pollutants and multiple benefits of energy efficiency measures at the provincial level during the period 2011–2030. The results show significant heterogeneity across provinces in terms of potential of energy saving as well as emission mitigation of CO 2 and air pollutants (i.e. PM, SO 2 , and NOx) in the next two decades. Seven provinces (i.e. Shandong, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Henan, Hebei), six of which are located in the central- and east-China, account for 47% of the total energy saving potential, equivalent to 26% of baseline energy use in 2030. The energy

  1. 45 CFR 2526.60 - May an individual receive an education award and related interest benefits from the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an individual receive an education award and related interest benefits from the National Service... education award and related interest benefits from the National Service Trust for a term of service and have... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May an individual receive an education award and...

  2. THE EFFICIENCY OF PROMOTIONAL INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MARCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as a planning tool, PLC (product life cycle strongly contributes to the identification of the main marketing challenges that may arise throughout the life of a product/service. Thus, the marketing management has the opportunity to develop and implement those solutions designed to optimize each of the 4P of marketing mix: product (quality, price, distribution (placement and promotion. The communication program has an essential role, because the company presents through it its "product" to actual or potential customers in order to convince them of the benefits of purchasing/using it. The efficiency of the promotional instruments involves an appropriate allocation of funds needed to promote the product/service in relation to the stage of its life cycle.

  3. The health benefits of selective taxation as an economic instrument in relation to IHD and nutrition-related cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid L; Laursen, Mai-Britt; Koch, Birgit Maria

    2013-01-01

    of selective taxation were modelled for the adult Danish population. RESULTS: Halving the rate of value-added tax on fruit and vegetables and increasing the tax on fats would result in moderate reductions in the burden of disease from IHD, ischaemic stroke, and colorectal, lung and breast cancer (0......OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to estimate the health benefits of selective taxation of healthy and unhealthy food commodities in relation to CVD and nutrition-related cancers. DESIGN: The potential health effects of a selective taxation scenario were estimated as changes in the burden...... for the associations between various foods and relevant diseases were found through a literature search and used in the calculation of potential impact fractions. SETTING: The study was based in Denmark, estimating the health effects of a Danish selective taxation scenario. SUBJECTS: The potential health effects...

  4. Benefits of marriage on relative and conditional relative cancer survival differ between males and females in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Johnson, Erin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the influence of marital status on conditional relative survival of cancer according to sex. Analyses involved 779,978 males and 1,032,868 females diagnosed with 1 of 13 cancer types between 2000 and 2008, and followed through 2013. Data are from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. Five-year relative survival conditional on years already survived is higher among married patients with less lethal cancers (oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum, breast, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, melanoma of the skin, thyroid, lymphoma). For more lethal cancers, married patients have similar (liver, lung and bronchus, pancreas, leukemia) or poorer (brain and other nervous system) cancer survival. Separated/divorced or widowed patients have the lowest conditional relative survival rates. For most cancers, 5-year cancer relative survival rates conditional on time already survived through 5 years approach 70 to 90% of that for the general population. The beneficial effect of marriage on survival decreases with years already survived. Superior conditional relative survival rates in females decrease with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Five-year relative survival rates improve with time already survived. The benefits of marriage on conditional relative survival are greater for less lethal cancers. Greater 5-year conditional relative survival rates in females narrow with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Conditional relative survival rates of cancer can lead to more informed decisions and understanding regarding treatment and prognosis.

  5. Relative Efficiency of Split-plot Design (SPD) to Randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.7 No. 1 June .... effects. They concluded that the proposed efficiency measures provide feasible solutions for .... Fm = d.f for the whole-plot treatment; Fb= d.f for the ...

  6. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  7. The relative efficiency of three methods of estimating herbage mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods involved were randomly placed circular quadrats; randomly placed narrow strips; and disc meter sampling. Disc meter and quadrat sampling appear to be more efficient than strip sampling. In a subsequent small plot grazing trial the estimates of herbage mass, using the disc meter, had a consistent precision ...

  8. Patients' Preferences Related to Benefits, Risks, and Formulations of Schizophrenia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Bennett; Markowitz, Michael; Mohamed, Ateesha F; Johnson, F Reed; Alphs, Larry; Citrome, Leslie; Bridges, John F P

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify patients' preferences related to benefits and risks of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia and to assess the relative importance of treatment attributes and adherence. Treatment-related preferences among U.S. residents with a self-reported physician diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed via a discrete-choice experiment. Patients chose between competing hypothetical scenarios characterized by improvements in positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and social functioning; incidence of weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinemia, and hyperglycemia; and medication formulation. Preferences were estimated by using a random-parameters logit model, and the impact of adherence was estimated with conditional logit models. The final sample consisted of 271 patients. Complete improvement in positive symptoms was the most preferred outcome (relative importance score of 10.0), followed by elimination of hyperglycemia (3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.6-4.6), improvement in negative symptoms (3.0, CI=1.6-4.3), reduced weight gain (2.6, CI=1.2-4.0), avoidance of hyperprolactinemia (1.7, CI=.9-2.6), improved social functioning (1.5, CI=.4-2.5), and avoidance of EPS (1.0, CI=.3-1.8). Patients judged a daily pill superior to monthly injections (p<.01) and monthly injections superior to injections every three months (p<.01) for adherent patients and monthly injections superior to a daily pill for nonadherent patients (p=.01). Persons who self-identified as having schizophrenia judged improvement in positive symptoms as the most important treatment benefit. Hyperglycemia was identified as the most important adverse event. Patients judged oral formulations to be better than monthly injections for adherent patients and monthly injections to be a better choice for nonadherent patients.

  9. Ozone and PM related health co-benefits of climate change policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Barker, Terry; Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of extending a previous analysis of reductions in ozone exposures resulting from greenhouse gas reduction policies in Mexico, to the case of estimating reductions in premature death and risks of non-fatal diseases following reductions in both ozone and particulate matter exposures. The results show that a policy of greenhouse gas reduction in the Mexican economy by 77% relative to a baseline growth scenario results in reduced mortality loss of almost 3000 lives per year. The benefit in terms of non-fatal disease is 417,000 cases reduced per year, at a savings of $0.6B per year in cost of illness. These reductions in human health risk, stemming from co-benefits of climate change policies, are significant in light of targets of risk reduction typically used in environmental regulatory decisions, and would be considered important drivers of policy choice if climate policy were harmonised with other areas of risk-based environmental policy.

  10. Efficiency and abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: A slacks-based efficiency measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yongrok; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We employ a slacks-based DEA model to estimate the energy efficiency and shadow prices of CO 2 emissions in China. ► The empirical study shows that China was not performing CO 2 -efficiently. ► The average of estimated shadow prices of CO 2 emissions is about $7.2. -- Abstract: This paper uses nonparametric efficiency analysis technique to estimate the energy efficiency, potential emission reductions and marginal abatement costs of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China. We employ a non-radial slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for estimating the potential reductions and efficiency of CO 2 emissions for China. The dual model of the slacks-based DEA model is then used to estimate the marginal abatement costs of CO 2 emissions. An empirical study based on China’s panel data (2001–2010) is carried out and some policy implications are also discussed.

  11. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  12. Benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the treaty-related science and technologies: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the non-proliferation treaty related science and technologies concerning science and technology development. Benefits to State Parties are concerned with non-treaty uses of seismic, hydro acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides data, their evaluation and measuring techniques

  13. The health benefits of selective taxation as an economic instrument in relation to IHD and nutrition-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Astrid L; Laursen, Mai-Britt; Koch, Maria; Jensen, Jørgen D; Diderichsen, Finn

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the health benefits of selective taxation of healthy and unhealthy food commodities in relation to CVD and nutrition-related cancers. The potential health effects of a selective taxation scenario were estimated as changes in the burden of disease, measured by disability-adjusted life years, from health outcomes affected by the changes in food intake. The change in burden of a disease was calculated as the change in incidence of the disease due to a modified exposure level, using the potential impact fraction. Estimates of relative risk for the associations between various foods and relevant diseases were found through a literature search and used in the calculation of potential impact fractions. The study was based in Denmark, estimating the health effects of a Danish selective taxation scenario. The potential health effects of selective taxation were modelled for the adult Danish population. Halving the rate of value-added tax on fruit and vegetables and increasing the tax on fats would result in moderate reductions in the burden of disease from IHD, ischaemic stroke, and colorectal, lung and breast cancer (0·4–2·4 % change). The largest effect could be obtained through increased intake of fruit and vegetables (0·9–2·4 %). Applying selective taxation to healthy and unhealthy foods can moderately reduce the burden of disease in the Danish population.

  14. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  15. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  16. Solving for Efficiency or Decision Criteria: When the Non-unique Nature of Solutions Becomes a Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Ciarleglio, M.; Dulay, M.; Lowry, T. S.; Sharp, J. M.; Barnes, J. W.; Eaton, D. J.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    Work in the literature for groundwater allocation emphasizes finding a truly optimal solution, often with the drawback of limiting the reported results to either maximizing net benefit in regional scale models or minimizing pumping costs for localized cases. From a policy perspective, limited insight can be gained from these studies because the results are restricted to a single, efficient solution and they neglect non-market values that may influence a management decision. Conversely, economically derived objective functions tend to exhibit a plateau upon nearing the optimal value. This plateau effect, or non-uniqueness, is actually a positive feature in the behavior of groundwater systems because it demonstrates that multiple management strategies, serving numerous community preferences, may be considered while still achieving similar quantitative results. An optimization problem takes the same set of initial conditions and looks for the most efficient solution while a decision problem looks at a situation and asks for a solution that meets certain user-defined criteria. In other words, the election of an alternative course of action using a decision support system will not always result in selection of the most `optimized' alternative. To broaden the analytical toolset available for science and policy interaction, we have developed a groundwater decision support system (GWDSS) that generates a suite of management alternatives by pairing a combinatorial search algorithm with a numerical groundwater model for consideration by decision makers and stakeholders. Subject to constraints as defined by community concerns, the tabu optimization engine systematically creates hypothetical management scenarios running hundreds, and even thousands, of simulations, and then saving the best performing realizations. Results of the search are then evaluated against stakeholder preference sets using ranking methods to aid in identifying a subset of alternatives for final

  17. Bragg peak and relative biological efficiency of different ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček st., Miloš; Judas, Libor; Kundrát, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2002), S309-S309 ISSN 0167-8140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4055109 Keywords : Bragg peak * relative biological efficisncy * radiological mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2002

  18. Microorganisms for efficient production of melatonin and related compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant microbial cells and methods for producing 5HTP, melatonin and related compounds using such cells are described. More specifically, the recombinant microbial cell may comprise exogenous genes encoding one or more of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5- hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylyase...

  19. Measuring the relative efficiency of Ilam hospitals using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fazeli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency is one of the most important issues among hospitals in today's economy. These days, we hear that cost reduction is a necessity for survival of business owners and one primary to reduce the expenditures is to increase relative efficiency. The proposed study of this paper first uses output oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of nine hospitals. The proposed model uses four types of employee namely specialists, physicians, technicians and other staffs as input parameters. The model also uses the number of surgeries, hospitalized and radiography as the outputs of the proposed model. Since the implementation of DEA leads us to have more than one single efficient unit, we implement supper efficiency technique to measure the relative efficiency of efficient units.

  20. Energy, economic and environmental benefits of using high-efficiency motors to replace standard motors for the Malaysian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Electric motors use major share (i.e. about 30-80% of total industrial energy consumption) of total industrial energy use around the world. Experiences from other countries show that government intervention in the form of regulations such as mandatory and voluntary approaches can save sizeable amount of energy along with the reduction in emissions associated with energy savings. This paper presents potential energy savings by introducing high-efficiency motors as a case study in Malaysian industrial sector. Emission reductions associated with the energy savings has been estimated and presented as well. It was also estimated that a cumulative amount of 1940 and 892 GWh of energy can be saved for 20 and 120 kW motors, respectively, in Malaysia relative to BAU over the next 10 years. Similarly, a cumulative amount of USD 100 million and USD 60 million can be saved as utility bills for the same motor categories. It has been found that the payback period of different capacities of motors are less than a year. Based on results, it was found that 1789 million kg of CO 2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors.

  1. Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure

    2017-01-01

    This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.

  2. Dissemination material template, Deliverable 2.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tros, M. & Houtenbos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  3. Definition of user needs and “hot topics”, Deliverable 2.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, L. Thomson, R. Skogsmo, I. Houtenbos, M. Durso, C. Thomas, P. Elvik, R. & Wismans, J.

    2016-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policymakers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  4. Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Bricaud, Annick; Morel, André

    1992-11-01

    By using a set-up that combines an integrating sphere with a spectroradiometer LI-1800 UW, the backscattering properties of nine different phytoplankters grown in culture have been determined experimentally for the wavelengths domain ν = 400 up to 850 nm. Simultaneously, the absorption and attenuation properties, as well as the size distribution function, have been measured. This set of measurements allowed the spectral values of refractive index, and subsequently the volume scattering functions (VSF) of the cells, to be derived, by operating a scattering model previously developed for spherical and homogeneous cells. The backscattering properties, measured within a restricted angular domain (approximately between 132 and 174°), have been compared to theoretical predictions. Although there appear some discrepancies between experimental and predicted values (probably due to experimental errors as well as deviations of actual cells from computational hypotheses), the overall agreement is good; in particular the observed interspecific variations of backscattering values, as well as the backscattering spectral variation typical of each species, are well accounted for by theory. Using the computed VSF, the measured backscattering properties can be converted (assuming spherical and homogeneous cells) into efficiency factors for backscattering ( overlineQbb) . Thhe spectral behavior of overlineQbb appears to be radically different from that for total scattering overlineQb. For small cells, overlineQ (λ) is practically constant over the spectrum, whereas overlineQb(λ) varies approximately according to a power law (λ -2). As the cell size increases, overlineQbb conversely, becomes increasingly featured, whilst overlineQb becomes spectrally flat. The chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficients ( b b∗ appear highly variable and span nearly two orders of magnitude. The chlorophyll-specific absorption and scattering coefficients, a ∗ and b ∗, are mainly ruled by

  5. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  6. Efficient hemodynamic event detection utilizing relational databases and wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a temporal query framework for time-oriented medical databases has hitherto been a challenging problem. We describe a novel method for the detection of hemodynamic events in multiparameter trends utilizing wavelet coefficients in a MySQL relational database. Storage of the wavelet coefficients allowed for a compact representation of the trends, and provided robust descriptors for the dynamics of the parameter time series. A data model was developed to allow for simplified queries along several dimensions and time scales. Of particular importance, the data model and wavelet framework allowed for queries to be processed with minimal table-join operations. A web-based search engine was developed to allow for user-defined queries. Typical queries required between 0.01 and 0.02 seconds, with at least two orders of magnitude improvement in speed over conventional queries. This powerful and innovative structure will facilitate research on large-scale time-oriented medical databases.

  7. RELATIONAL BENEFIT, KEPUASAN, DAN LOYALITAS PELANGGAN PADA BENGKEL PT HONDA DEWATA MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Surya Prayoga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing customer satisfaction consistently could make customers become loyal to the company.  Loyal customers were the source of income and they would help the company to survive in the business com­petition. Relationship marketing was a strategy that can be used to achieve these goals, through re­la­tional benefits strategy. The company could give the benefit from relationship between companies and cus­­tomers. This study analyzed relationship marketing in the workshop of PT Honda Dewata Motor through 153 respon­dents. The results show that confidence benefits and social benefits have positive e­ffect on cus­tomer sa­tis­faction. Special treatment benefits had no significant effect on customer sa­tis­fac­tion and loyalty to workshop. Customer satisfaction had positive impact to customer loyalty significantly.

  8. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  9. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, O P; Prasad, R; Subbiah, B V [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.

    1977-09-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soybean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with /sup 32/P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soybean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding).

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Overweight Employees about Lifestyle-Related Health Benefit Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Tate, Deborah; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated overweight state employees’ perceptions about health insurance benefit changes designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who were obese or smoked. Methods Prior to implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] state employees enrolled in a weight loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs of the new benefit plan changes. Results Thirty-one percent of employees with a BMI≥40 kg/ m2 were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher risk benefit plan. More than half reported that the new benefit change would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but less than half felt confident in making changes. Respondents with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 were more likely to oppose the new changes focused on BMI categories compared to respondents in lower BMI categories (Pnon-smokers (Pconfidence to lose weight was lowest among those in the highest weight categories, health plan benefit modifications may be required to achieve desired health behavior changes. PMID:21901911

  11. The benefits of body weight loss on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Pan

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Obesity can cause impaired HRQOL, which can be improved through BMI intervention. In addition to the benefits of biomedical aspect, this could be an incentive goal for keeping body weight control.

  12. Evolving Cuban-CARICOM relations : a comparative cost/benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Erisman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of the basic developmental dynamics involved in the evolving Cuban-CARICOM relationship. On the basis of a cost-risk/benefit analysis, the author provides some projections regarding the future of this relationship. He concludes that there appear sufficient potential benefits for both sides to deepen the relationship. Cuban-CARICOM integration, however, has no top priority for either partner.

  13. Improving benefit-cost analysis to overcome financing difficulties in promoting energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaotong; Lu, Meijun; Mao, Wei; Ouyang, Jinlong; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Yunkai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financing difficulties hinder energy retrofit of aging residential buildings in China. • New indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome barriers. • New indices can be applied to rank energy measures and propose optimum plans. • Improved benefit-cost analysis will attract the government and residents to co-invest. • A “win–win” model means the governments and residents can co-invest and co-benefit. - Abstract: Energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings is an important energy policy in China, but financing difficulties seriously hinder the promotion of the policy. In this article, novel indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome the barriers. Firstly, benefit-cost analysis is expanded to include the ratio of energy-saving benefit to investment cost (EnIR), the ratio of environmental benefit to investment cost (EvIR), and the ratio of economic benefit to investment cost (EcIR). The above ratios are applied to determine the optimum plans with the highest cost-effectiveness for the buildings to be renovated. Secondly, according to the actual situation regarding both the government and residents, EnIR is modified to the ratio of energy-saving benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EnIgR), EvIR to the ratio of environmental benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EvIgR), and EcIR to the ratio of economic benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by residents (EcIrR). The modified ratios can increase awareness of residents in respect of their individual benefits from the adoption of the optimum plans, and can attract them to co-invest. Through these two steps, financing difficulties could be eased or even no longer considered as obstacles to some extent. The ratios are applied to a case study building in Hangzhou. Based on the results

  14. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  15. Enhancing shareholder value: Making a more compelling energy efficiency case to industry by quantifying non-energy benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pye, Miriam; McKane, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Making a case for investing in energy-efficient technologies based on energy savings alone has not always proven successful. Evidence suggests, however, that industrial decision makers will understand energy efficiency investments as part of a broader set of parameters that affect company productivity and profitability

  16. Knowledge and perceptions among overweight and obese employees about lifestyle-related health benefit changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A; Tate, Deborah F; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated perceptions among overweight and obese state employees about changes to health insurance that were designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who are obese or who smoke. Before implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 state employees who were overweight (ie, those with a body mass index [BMI] of 25-29.9) or obese (ie, those with a BMI of > or = 30) enrolled in a weight-loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs concerning the new benefit plan changes. Thirty-one percent of employees with a measured BMI of 40 or greater self-reported a BMI of less than 40, suggesting they were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher-risk benefit plan. More than half of all respondents reported that the new benefit changes would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but fewer than half felt confident in their ability to make changes. Respondents with a BMI of 40 or greater were more likely than respondents in lower BMI categories to oppose the new changes focused on obesity (P benefit changes focused on tobacco use (P employees enrolled in a weight-loss study, limiting generalizability to the larger population of state employees. Benefit plan changes that require employees who are obese and smoke to pay more for health care may motivate some, but not all, individuals to change their behaviors. Since confidence to lose weight was lowest among individuals in the highest BMI categories, more-intense intervention options may be needed to achieve desired health behavior changes.

  17. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  18. Availability, need for, and use of work accommodations and benefits: are they related to employment outcomes in people with arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; McAlpine, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    To examine the availability, need, and use of workplace policies for workers with osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory arthritis (IA) and their association with employment outcomes. Participants (n = 219) were employed, ages ≥25 years, and diagnosed with OA or IA. They were recruited through community advertising and rheumatology clinics in 2 Canadian provinces. Respondents completed a 35-45-minute telephone interview assessing demographics (age, sex), health (diagnosis, pain, activity limitations), work context (job control), employment outcomes (workplace activity limitations, absenteeism, productivity losses, reduced hours), benefits (extended health, short-term leaves), and accommodations (flexible hours, modified schedules, special equipment/adaptations, work-at-home arrangements). Regression analyses examined differences in benefit/accommodation need and use. Many participants reported that arthritis impacted their work. But with the exception of extended health benefits, ∼50-65% of participants reported not needing each individual benefit/accommodation, although only 7.3% of respondents reported needing no benefits or accommodations at all. Greater job control and education were associated with greater perceived need and use of benefits/accommodations. Need was also associated with greater activity limitations, and disclosure of arthritis was related to use of benefits/accommodations. Participants needing but not using workplace policies often had significantly poorer employment outcomes compared to those using benefits/accommodations. Findings are relevant to workers with arthritis and to employers. Results suggest that individuals with arthritis are unlikely to be a drain on workplace resources. Many individuals do not use benefits/accommodations until needed, and among those using them, there were generally positive relationships with diverse employment outcomes. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case Study of the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lobscheid, Agnes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dai, Yue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    China’s cement industry accounted for more than half of the world’s total cement production in 2010. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of total national PM emissions. Although specific regulations and policies are needed to reduce the pollutant emissions from the cement industry, air pollution can also be reduced as a co-benefit of energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation policies and programs. Quantifying and accounting for these co-benefits when evaluating energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation programs reveals benefits beyond the programs’ energy and global warming impacts and adds to their cost effectiveness. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions that result from energy-saving measures in China’s cement industry.

  20. A robust AHP-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency: An application of airport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been an important topic of research among many researchers. Data envelopment analysis has been one of the most important techniques for measuring the efficiency of different units. However, there are some limitations on using such technique and some people prefer to use other methods such as analytical hierarchy process to measure the relative efficiencies. Besides, uncertainty in the input data is another issue, which makes some misleading results. In this paper, we present an integrated robust DEA-AHP to measure the relative efficiency of similar units. The proposed model of this is believed to capable of presenting better results in terms of efficiency compared with exclusive usage of DEA or AHP. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated for a real-world case study of Airport industry and the results are analyzed.

  1. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  2. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  3. Indirect fitness benefits are not related to male dominance in a killifish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2009), s. 1427-1435 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/06/P152 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Additive genetic benefits * Female preference * Good genes * Sequential mate choice * Sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.749, year: 2009

  4. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  5. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.

  6. Views on equine-related research in Australia from the Australian equestrian community: perceived outputs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Clarkson, L

    2016-04-01

    The extension of research into public practice is enhanced by communication and behaviour change strategies that are consistent with consumer needs and perspectives. To gain support for equine research (or to appreciate the perspectives contributing to disagreement), it is necessary to determine how aware consumers are of research, what research means to them, how they perceive its benefits (if at all) and how they engage with (or resist) it. Because of a surprising dearth of research evaluating consumer perceptions of research in any sector, our aim was to identify the perceived outputs and benefits of research from the perspective of the Australian horse owner. We analysed the data for 930 participants in an online survey. Participants' understanding of research was associated with a broad terminology. Slightly more than half were aware of equine research that had taken place in Australia, with almost half reporting gaining some benefit, notably in relation to equine health. Although comments demonstrated an awareness of the collective benefit of research, research was made meaningful in relation to local conditions and participants' own equestrian disciplines. There is a significant opportunity for increasing awareness of Australia-based equine research and its value to owners of horses. The critical engagement with research by some owners suggests the need for communicators to present research in terms suitable for an intelligent lay audience, with clear identification of the personal and collective benefits for owners, horses and the equestrian community. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Morality and Nuclear Energy : Perceptions of Risks and Benefits, Personal Norms, and Willingness to Take Action Related to Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN),

  8. Study on calibration of neutron efficiency and relative photo-yield of plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Taiping; Zhang Chuanfei; Li Rurong; Zhang Jianhua; Luo Xiaobing; Xia Yijun; Yang Zhihua

    2002-01-01

    A method used for the calibration of neutron efficiency and the relative photo yield of plastic scintillator is studied. T(p, n) and D(d, n) reactions are used as neutron resources. The neutron efficiencies and the relative photo yields of plastic scintillators 1421 (40 mm in diameter and 5 mm in thickness) and determined in the neutron energy range of 0.655-5 MeV

  9. Enhancing identified circular economic benefits related to the deployment off Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    MacArthur Foundation, the paper analysis three areas being; 1) Biogas production, 2) Nitrogen, Phosphor & GHG, 3) Re-cycle/cascade materials, and consequently elaborate on the environmental benefits obtained, as far as CO2 emission reductions from biogas production substituting fossil fuels, improved......This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving Circular Economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of Circular Economy provided by Ellen...... Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: Waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community; Measuring the value of digestate as fertilizer; Short distance to farmers delivering manure; and Plant design according to local...

  10. Market Efficiency within the German Stock Market: A Comparative Study of the Relative Efficiencies of the DAX, MDAX, SDAX and ASE Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Starcevic, Admin; Rodgers, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    It can be implied from the efficient market hypothesis that the more transparent a market is, then the more likely that the market will be efficient. This paper is a study of whether the different transparency standards applied to the different indices quoted on the German stock market have any impact on their relative efficiencies. It is found that the differences in transparency standards do have an impact on market efficiency. The case for a higher level of market efficiency in res...

  11. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  12. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  13. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Mo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Choi, Jun Young [Korea Testing Lab., Jinju (South Korea)

    2012-06-08

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today.

  15. Public health guidance on cardiovascular benefits and risks related to fish consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Alan H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, concerns with fish consumption have addressed risks from contaminants (e.g., methylmercury (MeHg, and PCBs. More recently public health concerns have widened in appreciation of the specific benefits of fish consumption such as those arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil. Fish contains varying levels of PUFAs and MeHg. Since both address the same health outcomes (in opposite directions and occur together in fish, great care must be exercised in providing public health guidance. Mozaffarian and Rimm in a recent article (JAMA. 2006, 296:1885–99 have made a strong case for the beneficial effects of PUFAs in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, but at the same time, have also broadly discounted the increased risks of coronary heart disease posed by MeHg in fish, stating that "... among adults... the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks." This conclusion appears to be based on an inaccurate and insufficiently critical analysis of the literature. This literature is re-examined in light of their conclusions, and the available and appropriate public health options are considered.

  16. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  17. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  18. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  19. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  20. An application of data envelopment analysis for measuring the relative efficiency in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltanifar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of banking industry has been a popular subject among both practitioners and academicians. Data envelopment analysis (DEA has been widely applied for different purposes. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of various banks located in province of Semnan, Iran. The proposed study uses DEA method to rank all units and using Anderson and Peterson method (1993 [Andersen, P., & Petersen, N. C. (1993. A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Management Science, 39, 1261-1264], we provide some super efficiency for inefficient units. The study also provides reference numbers for inefficient units and gives some target values for all inefficient units.

  1. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

  2. Cost-benefit and cost-efficiency analysis of the water footprint in Spain; Analisis coste-beneficio y coste-eficiencia de la Huella Hidrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Navalpotro, J. A.; Sotelo Perez, M.; Garcia Quiroca, F.

    2011-07-01

    We are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to land the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Spain there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators. Throughout the present study shows the importance of analysis of cost-benefit and cost efficiency in the assessment of the water footprint of Spain. (Author)

  3. The relation between energy efficiency and other general objectives from a socioeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankarhem, Mattias; Braennlund, Runar

    2006-09-01

    An important question in the analysis of energy efficiency programs and their consequences is: How are objectives and instruments defined? E.g. if the objective is reduced carbon dioxide emissions and energy efficiency is the means to reach the objective, then it is not certain that increased energy efficiency will give the result as expected (1). Furthermore, energy efficiency measures will probably be an inefficient way of reaching the goal (2). (1) due to the rebound effects, and (2) since the measures are applied indiscriminately, energy use with only weak couplings to the objective are also affected. Energy efficiency is a partial and relative measure, and does not give much information studied in isolation. It should rather be studied from the perspective of total resource efficiency. Economic policy ought to have the goal of securing a socioeconomic exploitation of all resources (of which energy is one). An instrument working in this direction is internalizing of external effects e.g. through environmental taxes, so that the prices reflect the socioeconomic costs for using the resources. Early foreign studies indicates that a rebound effect exists, usually, however, the technological efficiency potentials can be realized. In a recent study of Swedish conditions, the rebound effect seems to be important. It totally negates the initial effect, at in the end the emissions have increased compared to the starting point. The results show the energy efficiency measures can be in direct conflict with climate and other environmental objectives.

  4. Grooming Up the Hierarchy: The Exchange of Grooming and Rank-Related Benefits in a New World Primate

    OpenAIRE

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth’s model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies o...

  5. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  6. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  7. New high-performance, water-based fluid benefits Santos basin operations with excellent inhibition and drilling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Tom; West, Gary [Halliburton Baroid, Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    For decades drilling fluids companies have been striving to create a water-based fluid (WBF) that yields performance similar to that of an invert emulsion in the areas of hole stability, rate of penetration (ROP) and lubricity. The HYDRO-GUARD system is a new highly inhibitive WBF that can yield drilling performance approaching that of an invert emulsion system. The new system uses a new combination of polymeric additives designed to inhibit reactive clays, minimize colloidal solids buildup, and produce a lubricious, gauge wellbore. This paper compares the field performance of the HYDRO-GUARD system on two recent Santos Basin wells drilled to over 5,000 m with the performance of synthetic-based fluids (SBF) used historically in the same area. Bottom hole temperatures (BHT) on these wells exceeded 315 deg F (157 deg C). Performance measures such as hole cleaning, penetration rates, hole stability, and torque and drag will be reviewed as well as general system benefits. (author)

  8. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of 1984; certain limits on amounts deductible... and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits... amendment of section 404(b) by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 affect the deduction of employee benefits under...

  10. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  11. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress: in search of state obligations in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2011-11-01

    After having received little attention over the past decades, one of the least known human rights--the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications--has had its dust blown off. Although included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)--be it at the very end of both instruments -this right hardly received any attention from States, UN bodies and programmes and academics. The role of science in societies and its benefits and potential danger were discussed in various international fora, but hardly ever in a human rights context. Nowadays, within a world that is increasingly turning to science and technology for solutions to persistent socio-economic and development problems, the human dimension of science also receives increased attention, including the human right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications. This contribution analyses the possible legal obligations of States in relation to the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, in particular as regards health.

  12. Morality and nuclear energy: perceptions of risks and benefits, personal norms, and willingness to take action related to nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2010-09-01

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN), that is, feelings of moral obligation toward taking action in favor of or against nuclear energy. In turn, PN predicted willingness to take action. Furthermore, PN mediated the relationships between perceptions of risk and benefits and willingness to take action. In line with our hypothesis, beliefs about the risks and benefits of nuclear energy were less powerful in explaining PN for supporters compared to PN of opponents. Also, beliefs on risks and benefits and PN explained significantly more variance in willingness to take action of opponents than of supporters. Our results suggest that a moral framework is useful to explain willingness to take action in favor of and against nuclear energy, and that people are more likely to protest in favor of or against nuclear energy when PN are strong. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. [Practical and theoretical aspects of cost-benefit relations in viscerosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K H; Heimbucher, J; Geiger, D; Thiede, A

    1997-01-01

    The necessity of limiting health care costs requires adequate service recording and quality control even in visceral surgery. In this field, the safety of the anastomoses is of greatest importance. Anastomoses at risk are esophageal connections to jejunum or colon and deep rectal anastomoses. At these locations expensive suture devices, such as stapling instruments, can be used in a cost saving aspect, if they help to increase anastomotic safety, time saving and expansion of surgical indication. Manual sutures thus represent the cheapest anastomotic technique as continuous sutures would cost between DM 10.- to 20.- and single stitch sutures between DM 60.- and 100.-. A surgical school should prevalently aim at training manual anastomoses, while special anastomotic techniques should only complete the skill for selected indications. The overall staff expenditure for extended operations amounts around DM 600.- per hour respectively DM 10.- per minute. Time for surgery might be shortened by auxiliary tools as much as to perform an additional operation. However, a circular stapler anastomosis that costs between DM 650.- to 850.- is twice as expensive as manual sutures notwithstanding the double time needed. In the past years, the necessity for a rational use of different anastomotic techniques has shown to be mandatory since, increasingly, financial aspects of health economy require cost benefit calculations in visceral surgery.

  14. Highly accurate determination of relative gamma-ray detection efficiency for Ge detector and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, H.; Mori, C.; Fleming, R.F.; Dewaraja, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    When quantitative measurements of γ-rays using High-Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors are made for a variety of applications, accurate knowledge of oy-ray detection efficiency is required. The emission rates of γ-rays from sources can be determined quickly in the case that the absolute peak efficiency is calibrated. On the other hand, the relative peak efficiencies can be used for determination of intensity ratios for plural samples and for comparison to the standard source. Thus, both absolute and relative detection efficiencies are important in use of γ-ray detector. The objective of this work is to determine the relative gamma-ray peak detection efficiency for an HPGe detector with the uncertainty approaching 0.1% . We used some nuclides which emit at least two gamma-rays with energies from 700 to 2400 keV for which the relative emission probabilities are known with uncertainties much smaller than 0.1%. The relative peak detection efficiencies were calculated from the measurements of the nuclides, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 60 Co and 94 Nb, emitting two γ- rays with the emission probabilities of almost unity. It is important that various corrections for the emission probabilities, the cascade summing effect, and the self-absorption are small. A third order polynomial function on both logarithmic scales of energy and efficiency was fitted to the data, and the peak efficiency predicted at certain energy from covariance matrix showed the uncertainty less than 0.5% except for near 700 keV. As an application, the emission probabilities of the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV γ-rays for 48 Sc were determined using the function of the highly precise relative peak efficiency. Those were 0.9777+0,.00079 and 0.02345+0.00017 for the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV γ-rays, respectively. The sum of these probabilities is close to unity within the uncertainty which means that the certainties of the results are high and the accuracy has been improved considerably

  15. Energy Efficiency for Clean Air : Capturing the multiple benefits for climate, air quality, and public health in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    As global energy consumption increased to 389 EJ by 2013, while the global energy-related CO2 emissions increased by over 50%, to 32.2 Gt in 2014. This growth is driven mostly by increased industrial production in developing countries. By now already two thirds of CO2 emissions budget for limiting

  16. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  17. Unraveling the metabolic health benefits of fasting related to religious beliefs: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persynaki, Angeliki; Karras, Spyridon; Pichard, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable. Advantages of religious fasting are claimed by many but have been explored mainly by a limited number of studies conducted in Buddhist, Christian, or Muslim populations. These trials indicate that religious fasting has beneficial effects on body weight and glycemia, cardiometabolic risk markers, and oxidative stress parameters. Animals exposed to a diet mimicking fasting have demonstrated weight loss as well as lowered plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols, and insulin growth factor-1, although lean body mass remained stable. Diabetic mice on repeated intermittent fasting had less insulin resistance that mice fed ad libitum. The long-term significance of such changes on global health remains to be explored. This review summarizes the data available with regard to benefits of fasting followed for religious reasons on human health, body anthropometry, and cardio-metabolic risk markers; aims to bridge the current knowledge gap on available evidence and suggests considerations for the future research agenda. Future studies should explore every type of religious fasting, as well as their consequences in subpopulations such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly, or patients with chronic metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Network efficiency in autism spectrum disorder and its relation to brain overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Lewis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of evidence links differences in brain size to differences in brain organization. We have hypothesized that the developmental aspect of this relation plays a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder which involves abnormalities in brain growth. Children with ASD have abnormally large brains by the second year of life, and for several years thereafter their brain size can be multiple standard deviations above the norm. The greater conduction delays and cellular costs presumably associated with the longer long-distance connections in these larger brains is thought to influence developmental processes, giving rise to an altered brain organization with less communication between spatially distant regions. This has been supported by computational models and by findings linking greater intra-cranial volume, an index of maximum brain-size during development, to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity in individuals with ASD. In this paper, we further assess this hypothesis via a whole-brain analysis of network efficiency. We utilize diffusion tractography to estimate the strength and length of the connections between all pairs of cortical regions. We compute the efficiency of communication between each network node and all others, and within local neighborhoods; we then assess the relation of these measures to intra-cranial volume, and the differences in these measures between adults with autism and typical controls. Intra-cranial volume is shown to be inversely related to efficiency for wide-spread regions of cortex. Moreover, the spatial patterns of reductions in efficiency in autism bear a striking resemblance to the regional relationships between efficiency and intra-cranial volume, particularly for local efficiency. The results thus provide further support for the hypothesized link between brain overgrowth in children with autism and the efficiency of the organization of the brain in adults with autism.

  19. Opportunity to Improve Public Perceptions of Arthropods and Arthropod-Related Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bethany A.; Braman, S. Kristine

    2016-01-01

    The general public may not recognize the value of conserving insects and spiders in home landscapes. We surveyed individuals to assess public perceptions of 10 arthropods--nine common insects and one common spider species--and to determine whether arthropod-related attitudes could be altered. Additionally, we collected data on survey respondent…

  20. Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

  1. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  2. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30‐day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species’ distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold‐water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid‐century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation

  3. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-06-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30-day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species' distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold-water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid-century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation actions. Our

  4. Peer training of safety-related skills to institutional staff: benefits for trainers and trainees.

    OpenAIRE

    van Den Pol, R A; Reid, D H; Fuqua, R W

    1983-01-01

    A peer training program, in which experienced staff trained new staff, was evaluated as a method for teaching and maintaining safety-related caregiver skills in an institutional setting for the developmentally disabled. Three sets of safety-type skills were assessed in simulated emergency situations: responding to facility fires, managing aggressive attacks by residents, and assisting residents during convulsive seizures. Using a multiple-baseline research design, results indicated that the p...

  5. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness ag...

  6. Examining the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency in the international textile and clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm suggests that intangible assets have a positive impact on firm performance. This study examined the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency of textile and clothing firms. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure

  7. Consumer attitudes and factors related to prescription switching decisions in multitier copayment drug benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganther-Urmie, Julie M; Nair, Kavita V; Valuck, Robert; McCollum, Marianne; Lewis, Sonya J; Turpin, Robin S

    2004-03-01

    To examine patient attitudes related to formulary medications and medication-related decision making in multitier copayment prescription drug plans. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis. Data were collected via mail survey from a random sample of 25,008 members of a managed care organization. The selected members were enrolled in a variety of 2- and 3-tier copayment plans and were taking prescription medication to treat 1 or more of 5 chronic disease states. Most respondents did not believe that formulary drugs were safer or more effective than nonformulary drugs, but 39.7% thought that formulary drugs were relatively less expensive. Most respondents appeared willing to consider switching from a nonformulary drug to a formulary drug with a lower copayment. The percent of respondents who reported they would be very unlikely or unlikely to switch was only 15.3% for a new prescription and 24.2% for a refill prescription. Medication efficacy and physician opinion were important factors in plan members' switching decisions. Cost was an important factor for some members, but older plan members were less likely to report that cost was important. Multitier plan members generally believed that drugs are placed on the formulary for reasons of cost rather than safety or efficacy. Most plan members were receptive to switching from a nonformulary to a formulary medication, but financial incentives alone may not convince some plan members to make the switch.

  8. Benefits of a systematic approach to maintenance for safety and safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Ayazzudin, S.; Nickerson, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    For safety and safety-related systems, nuclear plants have to balance the requirements of demonstrating the reliability of each system, while maintaining the system and plant availability. With the goal of demonstrating statistical reliability, these systems have extensive testing programs, which often results in system unavailability and this can impact the plant capacity. The inputs to the process are often safety and regulatory related, resulting in programs that provide a high level of scrutiny. In such cases, the value of the application of a Systematic Assessment of Maintenance (SAM) process, such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), is questioned. The special case of Standby-Safety systems was discussed in a previous paper, where it was demonstrated how SAM techniques provide useful insight into current system performance, the impact of testing on component and system reliability, and how PSA considerations can be integrated into a comprehensive Maintenance, Surveillance, and Inspection (MSI) strategy. Although the system reliability requirements are an important part of the strategy evaluation, SAM techniques provide a systematic assessment within a broader context. Testing is only one part of an overall strategy focused on ensuring that component function is maintained through a combination of monitoring technologies (including testing), predictive techniques, and intrusive maintenance strategies. Each strategy is targeted to known component degradation mechanisms. This thinking can be extended to safety and safety related systems in general. Over the past 6 years, AECL has been working with CANDU utilities in the development and implementation of a comprehensive and integrated Plant Life Management (PLiM) program. As part of developing a comprehensive plant asset management approach, SAM techniques are used to develop a technical basis that not only works towards ensuring reliable operation of plant systems, but also facilitates the optimization and

  9. The efficiency of life insurance and family Takaful in Malaysia: Relative efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Roziana; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the Stochastic cost Frontier Analysis (SFA) approach, in an attempt to measure the relationship between efficiency and organizational structure for Takaful and insurance operators in Malaysia's dual financial system. This study applied a flexible cost functional form i.e., Fourier Flexible Functional Form, for a sample consisting of 19 firms, chosen between 2002 and 2010, by employing the Battese and Coelli invariant efficiency model. The findings show that on average, there is a significant difference in cost efficiency between the Takaful industry and the insurance industry. It was found that Takaful has lower cost efficiency than conventional insurance, which shows that the organization form has an influence on efficiency. Overall, it was observed that the level of efficiency scores for both life insurance and family Takaful do not vary across time.

  10. The Efficiency of Infants' Exploratory Play Is Related to Longer-Term Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muentener, Paul; Herrig, Elise; Schulz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of exploratory play in infancy and its relation to cognitive development in early childhood. We assessed infants' (N = 130, mean age at enrollment = 12.02 months, SD = 3.5 months; range: 5–19 months) exploratory play four times over 9 months. Exploratory play was indexed by infants' attention to novelty, inductive generalizations, efficiency of exploration, face preferences, and imitative learning. We assessed cognitive development at the fourth visit for the full sample, and again at age three for a subset of the sample (n = 38). The only measure that was stable over infancy was the efficiency of exploration. Additionally, infants' efficiency score predicted vocabulary size and distinguished at-risk infants recruited from early intervention sites from those not at risk. Follow-up analyses at age three provided additional evidence for the importance of the efficiency measure: more efficient exploration was correlated with higher IQ scores. These results suggest that the efficiency of infants' exploratory play can be informative about longer-term cognitive development. PMID:29904360

  11. Memory for semantically related and unrelated declarative information: the benefit of sleep, the cost of wake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D Payne

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined sleep's influence on a range of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory tasks, from text learning to spatial navigation. In this study, we examined the impact of sleep, wake, and time-of-day influences on the processing of declarative information with strong semantic links (semantically related word pairs and information requiring the formation of novel associations (unrelated word pairs. Participants encoded a set of related or unrelated word pairs at either 9 am or 9 pm, and were then tested after an interval of 30 min, 12 hr, or 24 hr. The time of day at which subjects were trained had no effect on training performance or initial memory of either word pair type. At 12 hr retest, memory overall was superior following a night of sleep compared to a day of wakefulness. However, this performance difference was a result of a pronounced deterioration in memory for unrelated word pairs across wake; there was no sleep-wake difference for related word pairs. At 24 hr retest, with all subjects having received both a full night of sleep and a full day of wakefulness, we found that memory was superior when sleep occurred shortly after learning rather than following a full day of wakefulness. Lastly, we present evidence that the rate of deterioration across wakefulness was significantly diminished when a night of sleep preceded the wake period compared to when no sleep preceded wake, suggesting that sleep served to stabilize the memories against the deleterious effects of subsequent wakefulness. Overall, our results demonstrate that 1 the impact of 12 hr of waking interference on memory retention is strongly determined by word-pair type, 2 sleep is most beneficial to memory 24 hr later if it occurs shortly after learning, and 3 sleep does in fact stabilize declarative memories, diminishing the negative impact of subsequent wakefulness.

  12. STEM-related, Student-led Service Learning / Community Engagement Projects: Examples and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Wayland, K.

    2015-12-01

    Field-based, STEM-related service learning / community engagement projects present an opportunity for undergraduate students to demonstrate proficiencies related to the process of inquiry. These proficiencies include: appreciation of the larger project context, articulation of an informed question/hypothesis, project proposal development, interdisciplinary collaboration, project management (including planning, implementation reconfiguration and synthesis) and lastly the generation and handing off of acquired knowledge. Calls for these types of proficiencies have been expressed by governmental, non-governmental as well as the private sector. Accordingly, institutions of higher learning have viewed such activities as opportunities for enriching the learning experience for undergraduate students and for making such students more marketable, especially those from STEM-related fields. This institutional interest has provided an opportunity to support and expand field-based learning. Here we present examples of student-led/faculty-mentored international service learning and community engagement projects along the arc of preparation, implementation and post-field process. Representative examples that draw upon environmental science and engineering knowledge have been selected from more than 20 international undergraduate student projects over past decade and include: slow-sand water filtration, rainwater harvesting, methane biodigesters, water reticulation schemes and development and implementation of rocket stoves for communal cooking. We discuss these efforts in terms of the development of the aforementioned proficiencies, the utility of such proficiencies to the larger enterprise of STEM and the potential for transformative student learning outcomes. We share these experiences and lessons learned with the hope that others may intelligently borrow from our approach in a manner appropriate for their particular context.

  13. Relative Efficiencies of ASEAN Container Ports based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kutin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ports play a critical role in the economies of many countries in the ASEAN region. Efficient ports facilitate a country's imports and exports, and the “relative efficiency” of a port is evaluated based on its efficiency compared to others in its group. This study analyzes the relative efficiencies of 50 ASEAN container ports and terminals. These ports are categorized according to their container handling system and location (those located in a riverbank connected to the sea are called “inland seaports” and those by the seaside are called “seaports”. The traditional output-oriented data envelopment analysis method is applied, and measures of super-efficiency constant returns to scale are estimated in order to compare the units situated on the efficiency frontier. The findings may support port managers in the ASEAN region to make decisions on whether to increase container traffic. In addition, policymakers may consider the evaluation results in deciding whether to improve the trans-ASEAN transport network and ASEAN trade competitiveness.

  14. Relation of managerial efficiency and leadership styles – Empirical study in Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Skansi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of the managerial efficiency and leadership styles are analysed in this paper. We conducted an empirical study in a Croatian power supply company (HEP. The dominant leadership style in HEP is consultational, which the organization, according to postulates of this research, brings closer to the top global companies, considering that the tendencies in leadership styles point to the need for a new generation of leaders which will be essentially different from the traditional manager. We have determined that there is a significant interdependence between leadership styles of HEP’s managers (measured using Likert’s method and the degree of management work efficiency (measured using the adjusted Mott’s technique; the closer the leadership style is to System 4, that is participational, the higher the managerial efficiency is. Also, we have found that there is no significant difference between lower and middle management in HEP, concerning the relation between leadership styles and efficiency. This means that both levels get better grades for its efficiency if they belong to a consultational and participational leadership style.

  15. Health Benefits of Green Public Housing: Associations With Asthma Morbidity and Building-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Meryl D; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; MacNaughton, Piers; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2015-12-01

    We examined associations of several health outcomes with green and conventional low-income housing, where the prevalence of morbidities and environmental pollutants is elevated. We used questionnaires and a visual inspection to compare sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and asthma-related morbidity among residents in multifamily units in Boston, Massachusetts, between March 2012 and May 2013. Follow-up was approximately 1 year later. Adults living in green units reported 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 2.05) fewer SBS symptoms than those living in conventional (control) homes (P green homes experienced substantially lower risk of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12, 1.00), asthma attacks (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.88), hospital visits (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.88), and asthma-related school absences (OR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.74) than children living in conventional public housing. Participants living in green homes had improved health outcomes, which remained consistent over the study period. Green housing may provide a significant value in resource-poor settings where green construction or renovation could simultaneously reduce harmful indoor exposures, promote resident health, and reduce operational costs.

  16. The relative benefits of green versus lean office space: three field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marlon; Knight, Craig; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Principles of lean office management increasingly call for space to be stripped of extraneous decorations so that it can flexibly accommodate changing numbers of people and different office functions within the same area. Yet this practice is at odds with evidence that office workers' quality of life can be enriched by office landscaping that involves the use of plants that have no formal work-related function. To examine the impact of these competing approaches, 3 field experiments were conducted in large commercial offices in The Netherlands and the U.K. These examined the impact of lean and "green" offices on subjective perceptions of air quality, concentration, and workplace satisfaction as well as objective measures of productivity. Two studies were longitudinal, examining effects of interventions over subsequent weeks and months. In all 3 experiments enhanced outcomes were observed when offices were enriched by plants. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Relative efficiency within a tax administration: The effects of result improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villar Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Spanish tax administration, evaluating the relative efficiency of each of the regional offices that are its constituent parts via output-oriented two-stage data envelopment analysis. In the study, a total of 47 regional offices were analysed, considering three inputs: 1 current expenditure in goods and services; 2 number of tax returns processed in terms of the two main direct taxes; and, 3 personnel numbers. Revenue resulting from tax assessments was considered as output. The analysis shows that the efficient action of regional offices might have increased by 21.6% the results of the management of this administration.

  18. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  19. Ways of giving benefits in marriage: norm use, relationship satisfaction, and attachment-related variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret S; Lemay, Edward P; Graham, Steven M; Pataki, Sherri P; Finkel, Eli J

    2010-07-01

    Couples reported on bases for giving support and on relationship satisfaction just prior to and approximately 2 years into marriage. Overall, a need-based, noncontingent (communal) norm was seen as ideal and was followed, and greater use of this norm was linked to higher relationship satisfaction. An exchange norm was seen as not ideal and was followed significantly less frequently than was a communal norm; by 2 years into marriage, greater use of an exchange norm was linked with lower satisfaction. Insecure attachment predicted greater adherence to an exchange norm. Idealization of and adherence to a communal norm dropped slightly across time. As idealization of a communal norm and own use and partner use of a communal norm decreased, people high in avoidance increased their use of an exchange norm, whereas people low in avoidance decreased their use of an exchange norm. Anxious individuals evidenced tighter links between norm use and marital satisfaction relative to nonanxious individuals. Overall, a picture of people valuing a communal norm and striving toward adherence to a communal norm emerged, with secure individuals doing so with more success and equanimity across time than insecure individuals.

  20. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram RostamPour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.

  1. The energy-related inventions program: Continuing benefits to the inventor community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.; Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Rizy, C.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) - a technology commercialization program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1994. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1995 through mail and telephone surveys of 211 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 253 participants. As of September 1993, a total of 609 inventions had been recommended to DOE by NIST, which screens all submitted inventions for technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1994, at least 144 (or 24%) of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of $961 million (in 19944). It is estimated that in 1994 ERIP inventors earned royalties of $2.3 million, and over the lifetime of the program, royalties total $28.2 million. With $47.5 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1994 and $124 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. Further, it is estimated that at least 757 job-years of employment were supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and that this resulted in a return of approximately $3.4 million in individual income taxes to the U.S. Treasury. Finally, approximately $334 million of energy expenditures were saved in 1994 as a result of the commercial success of five ERIP projects. These energy savings resulted in reduced emissions of 2.1 million metric tons of carbon in 1994 alone.

  2. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  3. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  4. Determination of relative efficiency of a detector using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, M.P.C.; Rebello, W.F.; Lopes, J.M.; Silva, A.X.

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a 60 Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate an HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a 60 Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  5. The Onsager reciprocity relation and generalized efficiency of a thermal Brownian motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Fu, Gao; Jin-Can, Chen; Yue, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on a general model of Brownian motors, the Onsager coefficients and generalized efficiency of a thermal Brownian motor are calculated analytically. It is found that the Onsager reciprocity relation holds and the Onsager coefficients are not affected by the kinetic energy change due to the particle's motion. Only when the heat leak in the system is negligible can the determinant of the Onsager matrix vanish. Moreover, the influence of the main parameters characterizing the model on the generalized efficiency of the Brownian motor is discussed in detail. The characteristic curves of the generalized efficiency varying with these parameters are presented, and the maximum generalized efficiency and the corresponding optimum parameters are determined. The results obtained here are of general significance. They are used to analyze the performance characteristics of the Brownian motors operating in the three interesting cases with zero heat leak, zero average drift velocity or a linear response relation, so that some important conclusions in current references are directly included in some limit cases of the present paper. (general)

  6. Relative dose efficiencies of antiscatter grids and air gaps in pediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, D.L.; Cohen, G.; Wagner, L.K.; Robinson, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relative dose efficiencies (RDE) of various antiscatter grids and air gaps were determined for conditions simulating those found in pediatric radiography, using phantoms representing a newborn child, a 5-yr-old and a 10-yr-old child. Our data indicate than an air gap is best for the newborn, due to the low levels of scatter. The 8:1 fiber grid or 15.2-cm air gap without a grid can improve dose efficiency (DE) for the 5-yr-old child by 20%--25% relative to the 3.3-cm air gap and no-grid technique, while for the 10-yr-old child, DE can be improved by 40% with an 8:1 fiber grid

  7. The relative efficiency of Iranian's rural traffic police: a three-stage DEA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Habibollah; Soori, Hamid; Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Azar, Adel; Momeni, Eskandar; Javartani, Mehdi

    2017-10-13

    Road traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a health problem imposes governments to implement different interventions. Target achievement in this issue required effective and efficient measures. Efficiency evaluation of traffic police as one of the responsible administrators is necessary for resource management. Therefore, this study conducted to measure Iran's rural traffic police efficiency. This was an ecological study. To obtain pure efficiency score, three-stage DEA model was conducted with seven inputs and three output variables. At the first stage, crude efficiency score was measured with BCC-O model. Next, to extract the effects of socioeconomic, demographic, traffic count and road infrastructure as the environmental variables and statistical noise, the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model was applied and the output values were modified according to similar environment and statistical noise conditions. Then, the pure efficiency score was measured using modified outputs and BCC-O model. In total, the efficiency score of 198 police stations from 24 provinces of 31 provinces were measured. The annual means (standard deviation) of damage, injury and fatal accidents were 247.7 (258.4), 184.9 (176.9), and 28.7 (19.5), respectively. Input averages were 5.9 (3.0) patrol teams, 0.5% (0.2) manpower proportions, 7.5 (2.9) patrol cars, 0.5 (1.3) motorcycles, 77,279.1 (46,794.7) penalties, 90.9 (2.8) cultural and educational activity score, 0.7 (2.4) speed cameras. The SFA model showed non-significant differences between police station performances and the most differences attributed to the environmental and random error. One-way main road, by road, traffic count and the number of household owning motorcycle had significant positive relations with inefficiency score. The length of freeway/highway and literacy rate variables had negative relations, significantly. Pure efficiency score was with mean of 0.95 and SD of 0.09. Iran's traffic police has potential opportunity to reduce

  8. Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Hsihui Chang; Ram Natarajan

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995--1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that...

  9. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  10. The use of efficiency assessment tools : solutions to barriers : Workpackage 3 of the European research project ROSEBUD (Road Safety and Environmental Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Use in Decision-making).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Wesemann, P. (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    In road safety, as in most other fields, efficiency is an important criterion in political and professional decision making. Efficiency Assessment Tools (EATs) like Cost Benefit Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis are available to help choose the policy which gives the highest return on

  11. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize

  12. Predation-related costs and benefits of conspecific attraction in songbirds--an agent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect) or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution). Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds' aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction for

  13. Predation-Related Costs and Benefits of Conspecific Attraction in Songbirds—An Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect) or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution). Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds’ aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction for

  14. Predation-related costs and benefits of conspecific attraction in songbirds--an agent-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Szymkowiak

    Full Text Available Songbirds that follow a conspecific attraction strategy in the habitat selection process prefer to settle in habitat patches already occupied by other individuals. This largely affects the patterns of their spatio-temporal distribution and leads to clustered breeding. Although making informed settlement decisions is expected to be beneficial for individuals, such territory clusters may potentially provide additional fitness benefits (e.g., through the dilution effect or costs (e.g., possibly facilitating nest localization if predators respond functionally to prey distribution. Thus, we hypothesized that the fitness consequences of following a conspecific attraction strategy may largely depend on the composition of the predator community. We developed an agent-based model in which we simulated the settling behavior of birds that use a conspecific attraction strategy and breed in a multi-predator landscape with predators that exhibited different foraging strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions according to the perceived predation risk may improve the fitness of birds that rely on conspecific cues. Our results provide evidence that the fitness consequences of conspecific attraction are predation-related. We found that in landscapes dominated by predators able to respond functionally to prey distribution, clustered breeding led to fitness costs. However, this cost could be reduced if birds performed Bayesian updating of prior settlement decisions and perceived nesting with too many neighbors as a threat. Our results did not support the hypothesis that in landscapes dominated by incidental predators, clustered breeding as a byproduct of conspecific attraction provides fitness benefits through the dilution effect. We suggest that this may be due to the spatial scale of songbirds' aggregative behavior. In general, we provide evidence that when considering the fitness consequences of conspecific

  15. Exploring patient perception of success and benefit in self-management of breast cancer-related arm lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Shewbridge, Amanda; Cowan-Dickie, Siobhan; Crawshaw, Diana; Huit, Martine; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing patient perception of success and benefit with self-management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) and explore how patients decide whether their swollen limb has improved or deteriorated. This qualitative study used a Grounded Theory approach. Twenty-one women in the BCRL self-management phase participated in one in-depth interview exploring their experience and perspective on self-managing their BCRL. Seven enablers and blocks to self-management were identified: routine, recognising benefit of self-management and consequences of non-treatment, owning treatment, knowledge and understanding, problem-solving, time required for treatment and aesthetics of hosiery. Women determined treatment outcome by monitoring size, appearance, texture and internal sensations within the affected arm. Women who participated in this study showed varying degrees of acceptance and adjustment to life with lymphoedema. This appears to directly impact their ability to self-manage lymphoedema. Lymphoedema practitioners and oncology nurses have a valuable role providing knowledge and support to patients transitioning to independent self-care. A better understanding of factors facilitating patients to become experts in their condition may improve longer term outcomes and reduce cost pressures on lymphoedema services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is there Need for more Transparency and Efficiency in Cause-related Marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Langen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of ethical consumption increases. This has motivated firms to increasingly implement Cause-related Marketing (CrM campaigns in Germany. But research reveals that especially German consumers are sceptic with regard to the amount of money spent for the good ‘cause’ by the enterprises. This can be explained by the small share of information provided by CrM campaigns to consumers. In consequence, this can reduce consumers’ willingness to purchase CrM products. Therefore, this study analyses whether the efficiency and transparency of a CrM campaign are important for consumers. The share of money reaching the cause relative to the product price consumers’ pay is taken as a proxy for efficiency while transparency is understood as the open communication of donated amounts on the product by label. A consumer survey conducted in Germany in 2009 reveals that consumers have a great interest in the transparency of a CrM campaign. Furthermore, the study gives evidence that there is a gap between the levels of expected and requested efficiency of CrM donations. Consequently, firms should label the donation amount to meet consumers’ transparency needs. Furthermore, to create a successful CrM campaign companies also have to consider that the amount of money devoted to the good cause is of relevance for consumers.

  17. Nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate relative to leucine, assessed isotopically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.W.; Walser, M.

    1985-01-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate as a dietary substitute for leucine was assessed in rats by two techniques: first, the minimal dose of alpha-ketoisocaproate required, as a supplement to a leucine-free diet, to achieve a growth rate as great as animals receiving leucine was found to be between 2.2 and 4.4 times larger. Therefore the nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate lies between 0.23 and 0.46. Second, alpha-[1- 14 C]-ketoisocaproate and [ 3 H]leucine were administered orally and the ratio of 14 C/ 3 H incorporated into the leucine of whole-body protein and fibrin was measured. This ratio, divided by the ratio 14 C/ 3 H injected, was the same in fibrin as in whole-body protein and averaged 0.39. Thus both techniques yield the same value, within the error of measurement, for the relative nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate. The authors also found that alpha-ketoisocaproate feeding at varying dosage did not alter this ratio in whole-body protein, suggesting that neither wide variations in growth rate nor exposure for 10 days to alpha-ketoisocaproate alters the relative rates of utilization (or oxidation) of alpha-ketoisocaproate vs. leucine

  18. Nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate relative to leucine, assessed isotopically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C.W.; Walser, M.

    1985-10-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate as a dietary substitute for leucine was assessed in rats by two techniques: first, the minimal dose of alpha-ketoisocaproate required, as a supplement to a leucine-free diet, to achieve a growth rate as great as animals receiving leucine was found to be between 2.2 and 4.4 times larger. Therefore the nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate lies between 0.23 and 0.46. Second, alpha-(1- UC)-ketoisocaproate and (TH)leucine were administered orally and the ratio of UC/TH incorporated into the leucine of whole-body protein and fibrin was measured. This ratio, divided by the ratio UC/TH injected, was the same in fibrin as in whole-body protein and averaged 0.39. Thus both techniques yield the same value, within the error of measurement, for the relative nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate. The authors also found that alpha-ketoisocaproate feeding at varying dosage did not alter this ratio in whole-body protein, suggesting that neither wide variations in growth rate nor exposure for 10 days to alpha-ketoisocaproate alters the relative rates of utilization (or oxidation) of alpha-ketoisocaproate vs. leucine.

  19. Measuring the relative efficiencies of automated telling machines and point of sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farajzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, many people have been interested in purchasing goods and services via point of sales (POS. They have also wished to pay their bills, withdraw cash or transfer funds using automated telling machines (ATMs. These two facilities help banks’ customers carry less amount of cash and do their daily banking activities any time even when the banks are closed. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of nearly 600 POS and ATM units associated with Bank Melli Iran located in city of Tehran, Iran. Using data envelopment analysis, the study has disclosed that only small portions of POS and ATM are working efficiently.

  20. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  1. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency due to differences in photosynthetic capacity among sugarcane-related clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjia; Jackson, Phillip; Lu, Xin; Xu, Chaohua; Cai, Qing; Basnayake, Jayapathi; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Ghannoum, Oula; Fan, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity. A secondary goal was to define protocols for optimized larger-scale screening of germplasm collections. Genotypic variation in TEi was attributed to significant variation in both stomatal and photosynthetic components. A number of genotypes were found to possess high TEi as a result of high photosynthetic capacity. This trait combination is expected to be of significant breeding value. It was determined that a small number of observations (16) is sufficient for efficiently screening TEi in larger populations of sugarcane genotypes The research methodology and results reported are encouraging in supporting a larger-scale screening and introgression of high transpiration efficiency in sugarcane breeding. However, further research is required to quantify narrow sense heritability as well as the leaf-to-field translational potential of genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency-related traits observed in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  3. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  4. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  5. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 2. Benefits versus risk of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the ''sunk-cost'' bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities

  6. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 2. Benefits versus risk of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, Sjirk J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the ''sunk-cost'' bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities associated with the communication

  7. Phenotypic selection on leaf water use efficiency and related ecophysiological traits for natural populations of desert sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Lisa A; Dudley, Susan A; Rosenthal, David M; Ludwig, Fulco

    2007-05-01

    Plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is expected to affect plant fitness and thus be under natural selection in arid habitats. Although many natural population studies have assessed plant WUE, only a few related WUE to fitness. The further determination of whether selection on WUE is direct or indirect through functionally related traits has yielded no consistent results. For natural populations of two desert annual sunflowers, Helianthus anomalus and H. deserticola, we used phenotypic selection analysis with vegetative biomass as the proxy for fitness to test (1) whether there was direct and indirect selection on WUE (carbon isotope ratio) and related traits (leaf N, area, succulence) and (2) whether direct selection was consistent with hypothesized drought/dehydration escape and avoidance strategies. There was direct selection for lower WUE in mesic and dry H. anomalus populations, consistent with dehydration escape, even though it is the longer lived of the two species. For mesic H. anomalus, direct selection favored lower WUE and higher N, suggesting that plants may be "wasting water" to increase N delivery via the transpiration stream. For the shorter lived H. deserticola in the direr habitat, there was indirect selection for lower WUE, inconsistent with drought escape. There was also direct selection for higher leaf N, succulence and leaf size. There was no direct selection for higher WUE consistent with dehydration avoidance in either species. Thus, in these natural populations of two desert dune species higher fitness was associated with some combination direct and indirect selection for lower WUE, higher leaf N and larger leaf size. Our understanding of the adaptive value of plant ecophysiological traits will benefit from further consideration of related traits such as leaf nitrogen and more tests in natural populations.

  8. Thermoluminescent relative efficiencies of TLD-100 for nitrogen ions respect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha S, K.; Avila, O.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the thermoluminescent relative efficiency of those TLD-100 dosemeters irradiated with nitrogen ions with respect to the gamma radiation of 60 Co, in function of the linear energy transfer (LET). Two energy of such nitrogen ions were selected that has the same value from LET when impacting in the dosemeters but with E 1 energy (4.8 MeV) and E 2 (9.95 MeV) smaller and greater respectively that the energy of the Bragg peak. (Author)

  9. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping; Liu, Tingfang

    2014-04-06

    Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people's healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006-2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. In the 2006-2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in general. To improve overall efficiency and

  10. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people’s healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. Methods After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006–2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. Results In the 2006–2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. Conclusions The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in

  11. Benefits, Potential Harms, and Optimal Use of Nutritional Supplementation for Preventing Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Tyber, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To briefly review age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main findings from the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) report number 8 on the use of nutritional supplements for AMD, and to focus on data suggesting that supplement use should be guided using genetic testing of AMD risk genes. A literature search (January 2001 through October 26, 2016) was conducted using MEDLINE and the following MeSH terms: Antioxidants/therapeutic use, Genotype, Macular Degeneration/drug therapy, Macular degeneration/genetics, Dietary Supplements, Proteins/genetics, and Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use. Bibliographies of publications identified were also reviewed. English-language studies assessing AREDS supplement response in patients with AMD in relation to complement factor H gene ( CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene ( ARMS2) risk alleles were evaluated. Three of the 4 studies demonstrated a treatment interaction between ARMS2 and CFH genotypes and a differential response to supplements. The fourth study documented an interaction for the CFH genotype only. Reported response interactions included attenuated response, no response, and good response, whereas a subset showed increased progression of AMD. Conversely, one study reported no interactions between CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles and response to supplements. The weight of the evidence supports using genetic testing to guide selection of ocular vitamin use. This approach will avoid using supplements that could speed the progression of AMD in vulnerable patients, avoid using supplements that will have little to no effect in others, and result in appropriately using supplements in those that are likely to derive meaningful benefits.

  12. Costs and benefits of industrial reporting and voluntary targets for energy efficiency. A report to the Congress of the United States. Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This part sets forth the regulations for the Industrial Energy conservation Program established under Part E of Title III of the Act. It includes criteria and procedures for the identification of reporting corporations, reporting requirements, criteria and procedures for exemption from filing reports directly with DOE, voluntary industrial energy efficiency improvement targets and voluntary recovered materials utilization targets. The purpose of the program is to promote increased energy conservation by American industry and, as it relates to the use of recovered materials, to conserve valuable energy and scarce natural resources.

  13. The Features of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries Related to Hepatic Artery Occlusion and Benefits in the Transarterial Management of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Ren, Yong Jun; Miao, Nan Dong; Huang, Xiao Hua; Dong, Guo Li

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the extrahepatic collateral arteries related to hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) and to determine its benefits in the transarterial management of liver tumors. Methods and Findings. Eleven patients (7 hepatocellular carcinomas, 3 liver metastases, and 1 with hemangioma) with HAO confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were admitted to our hospital. Of the 11 patients, 7 were men and 4 were women, with an average age of 41.5 ± 15.5 years (range: 29 to 70 years). DSA was performed to evaluate the collateral routes to the liver. In the 11 patients with HAO, DSA showed complete occlusion of the common hepatic artery in 9 patients and the proper hepatic artery (PHA) in 2 patients. Extrahepatic collateral arteries supplying the liver were readily evident. The collateral arteries originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 8 patients, from the gastroduodenal artery in 2 patients, and from the left gastric artery (LGA) in 1 patient. Transcatheter treatment was successfully performed via the collateral artery in all patients except the one who had hemangioma. Conclusions. DSA is an effective method for detecting collateral circulation related to HAO and may provide information to guide transcatheter management decisions

  14. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon by large-scale afforestation in China and related cost/benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deying Xu

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the amount of carbon sequestered through large-scale afforestation and related costs and benefits are calculated, assuming that the forests are managed in perpetual rotations. Based on land availability for afforestation, 20 cases are identified in five suitable regions in China. The least expensive way of developing forests for the purpose of sequestering carbon emissions is the case of Pinus massoniana from the initial investment point of view, and then Spruce. The cases of open forest management are relatively less expensive options because of their low initial investment and long rotations, although their annual wood increments are low. Some less productive tree species have higher net costs for carbon sequestering. For most of the agroforestry systems the net costs are low, especially in the south, the southwest, and the north of China, though their initial investments are high. If the total land available is afforested, the net carbon sequestering will be about 9.7 billion tons under perpetual rotations, amounting to 16.3 times the total industrial carbon release in 1988 in China, and the total initial cost for such a programme is estimated at 19.3 billion US$. Some hindrances in developing forests in China are discussed. (Author)

  16. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.) [de

  17. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z.A.; Simos, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schroedinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schroedinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

  18. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  19. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost

  20. Benefits and limitations of a multidisciplinary approach to individualized management of Cornelia de Lange syndrome and related diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, Kathleen; Conway, Laura J; Deardorff, Matthew; Harrington, Ann; Krantz, Ian D; Loomes, Kathleen; Pipan, Mary; Noon, Sarah E

    2016-06-01

    Given the clinical complexities of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), the Center for CdLS and Related Diagnoses at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and The Multidisciplinary Clinic for Adolescents and Adults at Greater Baltimore Medical Center (GBMC) were established to develop a comprehensive approach to clinical management and research issues relevant to CdLS. Little work has been done to evaluate the general utility of a multispecialty approach to patient care. Previous research demonstrates several advantages and disadvantages of multispecialty care. This research aims to better understand the benefits and limitations of a multidisciplinary clinic setting for individuals with CdLS and related diagnoses. Parents of children with CdLS and related diagnoses who have visited a multidisciplinary clinic (N = 52) and who have not visited a multidisciplinary clinic (N = 69) were surveyed to investigate their attitudes. About 90.0% of multispecialty clinic attendees indicated a preference for multidisciplinary care. However, some respondents cited a need for additional clinic services including more opportunity to meet with other specialists (N = 20), such as behavioral health, and increased information about research studies (N = 15). Travel distance and expenses often prevented families' multidisciplinary clinic attendance (N = 41 and N = 35, respectively). Despite identified limitations, these findings contribute to the evidence demonstrating the utility of a multispecialty approach to patient care. This approach ultimately has the potential to not just improve healthcare for individuals with CdLS but for those with medically complex diagnoses in general. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Benefits of Medical Home Care Reaching Beyond Chronically Ill Teens: Exploring Parent Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Grannis, Connor; Dolce, Millie; Chisolm, Deena J

    2018-03-15

    Caring for teens with special health care needs places physical and mental health burdens on parents, which can be exacerbated by the stresses of transitions to independence. Medical homes can improve teen transitions to greater self-management and reduce health care-related time and financial burdens for families. We examined the association between parent-reported teen medical home status and caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study sample included parents or caregivers of teens with special health care needs aged 15 to 18 recruited from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization who participated in a survey (response rate, 40.5%). The primary outcome was parent HRQOL scores (0-100 points) measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module. Medical home status was based on parent report of teen's health care meeting medical home criteria. Linear regression models were used to estimate HRQOL scores, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health literacy, and teen functional limitation. Among 488 parents, 27% reported their teen received care consistent with a medical home. Adjusted parent HRQOL scores were significantly higher among those whose teens had a medical home (74.40; 95% confidence interval, 71.31-77.48), relative to those whose teens did not (65.78; 95% confidence interval, 63.92-67.65). Medical home subscale analyses showed HRQOL scores had significant positive associations with family-centered care and coordinated care, but not other subscales. Teen medical home status was positively associated with caregiver HRQOL, suggesting that the medical home may benefit overall caregiver well-being. In particular, receiving care that was family centered and coordinated appeared to be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Chuan

    Full Text Available In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (PFP-N, P (PFP-P and K (PFP-K were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (AEN, P (AEP and K (AEK were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right

  3. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  4. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  5. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  6. Toward efficient computation of the expected relative entropy for nonlinear experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Darrell; Prange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The expected relative entropy between prior and posterior model-parameter distributions is a Bayesian objective function in experimental design theory that quantifies the expected gain in information of an experiment relative to a previous state of knowledge. The expected relative entropy is a preferred measure of experimental quality because it can handle nonlinear data-model relationships, an important fact due to the ubiquity of nonlinearity in science and engineering and its effects on post-inversion parameter uncertainty. This objective function does not necessarily yield experiments that mediate well-determined systems, but, being a Bayesian quality measure, it rigorously accounts for prior information which constrains model parameters that may be only weakly constrained by the optimized dataset. Historically, use of the expected relative entropy has been limited by the computing and storage requirements associated with high-dimensional numerical integration. Herein, a bifocal algorithm is developed that makes these computations more efficient. The algorithm is demonstrated on a medium-sized problem of sampling relaxation phenomena and on a large problem of source–receiver selection for a 2D vertical seismic profile. The method is memory intensive but workarounds are discussed. (paper)

  7. Young Children's Self-Benefiting Lies and Their Relation to Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Sai, Liyang; Yuan, Fang; Lee, Kang

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that children lie in different social contexts for various purposes from the age of 2 years. Surprisingly, little is known about whether very young children will spontaneously lie for personal gain, how self-benefiting lies emerge, and what cognitive factors affect the emergence of self-benefiting lies. To bridge this gap in…

  8. Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Kohata

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is used to aid smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term benefits of smoking cessation on GERD and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL.Patients treated with varenicline were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire about their smoking habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, and HR-QOL before and 1 year after smoking cessation. The prevalence of GERD, frequency of symptoms, and HR-QOL scores were compared. We also investigated associations between clinical factors and newly-developed GERD.A total of 141 patients achieved smoking cessation (success group and 50 did not (failure group at 1 year after the treatment. The GERD improvement in the success group (43.9% was significantly higher than that in the failure group (18.2%. The frequency of reflux symptoms significantly decreased only in the success group. There were no significant associations between newly developed GERD and clinical factors including increased body mass index and successful smoking cessation. HR-QOL significantly improved only in the success group.Smoking cessation improved both GERD and HR-QOL. Smoking cessation should be recommended for GERD patients.

  9. How phonological awareness mediates the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop-van Campen, Carolien A N; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the relation between working memory, phonological awareness, and word reading efficiency in fourth-grade children with dyslexia. To test whether the relation between phonological awareness and word reading efficiency differed for children with dyslexia versus typically developing children, we assessed phonological awareness and word reading efficiency in 50 children with dyslexia (aged 9;10, 35 boys) and 613 typically developing children (aged 9;5, 279 boys). Phonological awareness was found to be associated with word reading efficiency, similar for children with dyslexia and typically developing children. To find out whether the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in the group with dyslexia could be explained by phonological awareness, the children with dyslexia were also tested on working memory. Results of a mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of working memory on word reading efficiency via phonological awareness. Working memory predicted reading efficiency, via its relation with phonological awareness in children with dyslexia. This indicates that working memory is necessary for word reading efficiency via its impact on phonological awareness and that phonological awareness continues to be important for word reading efficiency in older children with dyslexia. © 2018 The Authors Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intravitreal bevacizumab has initial clinical benefit lasting eight weeks in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P William Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available P William Conrad, David N Zacks, Mark W JohnsonDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAPurpose: To determine whether the effect of a single initial intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD persists for 8 weeks.Methods: We reviewed the records of 25 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Patients were included (n = 15 if follow up data were available from 4 and 8 week visits after a single initial injection. Additionally, optical coherence tomography (OCT images were graded qualitatively in a masked fashion by a single reader.Results: Baseline mean visual acuity was 20/200, improving to 20/125 at 4 weeks (p = 0.0153 and 20/100 at 8 weeks (p = 0.0027. Mean central retinal thickness was 316 ± 107 µm at baseline and decreased to 223 ± 70 µm and 206 ± 45 µm at 4 and 8 weeks post-injection, respectively (p = 0.0003 and 0.0005. By masked OCT grading, macular fluid was resolved in 10/15 (66.7% and 11/15 (73.3% eyes at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, and 3/15 (20% eyes had continued reduction in residual macular fluid between 4 and 8 weeks.Conclusions: A single initial bevacizumab injection has persistent clinical benefit lasting 8 weeks in most eyes with neovascular AMD. Results of prospective randomized studies are needed before changes in treatment regimens can be recommended.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, choroidal neovascular membrane, optical coherence tomography

  11. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  12. Photophysical and photochemical study of styrene dyes related to their laser efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Martine

    1989-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of two styrene dyes: 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p-dimethylamino-styryl-4H-pyran (DCM) and 7-dimethylamino-3-(-p-formyl-styryl)-1,4-benzoxazine-2-one (DFSBO) have been studied. These molecules have electron donor and electron acceptor groups which give to their fluorescent excited state a charge transfer state character. The red shifts of the absorption and fluorescence spectra in polar solvents and the large Stokes shift related to the increase of the dipole moment from the ground state to the singlet excited state have been fully characterised. The absorption spectra of the first excited singlet and triplet states and the quantum yields of the intersystem crossing to the triplet state have been determined. The existence of conformers of the two dyes has been evidenced. The synthesis of DCM leads to the trans isomer which, under light exposure undergoes photo-isomerization to the cis-compound. Their fluorescence lifetimes and the photo-isomerization efficiency are solvent dependent. The DFSBO emission spectra depend greatly on the excitation wavelength. This effect can be explained by the occurrence of two rotational conformers one being stabilised by an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The spectral properties of these two molecules enable us to explain why DCM is a very good laser dye whereas DFSBO has a poor laser efficiency. (author) [fr

  13. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  14. Cost of preventing workplace heat-related illness through worker breaks and the benefit of climate-change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Honda, Yasushi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    The exposure of workers to hot environments is expected to increase as a result of climate change. In order to prevent heat-related illness, it is recommended that workers take breaks during working hours. However, this would lead to reductions in worktime and labor productivity. In this study, we estimate the economic cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks associated with climate change under a wide range of climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We calculate the worktime reduction based on the recommendation of work/rest ratio and the estimated future wet bulb glove temperature, which is an index of heat stresses. Corresponding GDP losses (cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks) are estimated using a computable general equilibrium model throughout this century. Under the highest emission scenario, GDP losses in 2100 will range from 2.6 to 4.0% compared to the current climate conditions. On the other hand, GDP losses will be less than 0.5% if the 2.0 °C goal is achieved. The benefit of climate-change mitigation for avoiding worktime loss is comparable to the cost of mitigation (cost of the greenhouse gas emission reduction) under the 2.0 °C goal. The relationship between the cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks and global average temperature rise is approximately linear, and the difference in economic loss between the 1.5 °C goal and the 2.0 °C goal is expected to be approximately 0.3% of global GDP in 2100. Although climate mitigation and socioeconomic development can limit the vulnerable regions and sectors, particularly in developing countries, outdoor work is still expected to be affected. The effectiveness of some adaptation measures such as additional installation of air conditioning devices or shifting the time of day for working are also suggested. In order to reduce the economic impacts, adaptation measures should also be implemented as well as pursing ambitious climate change

  15. Efficient approximations of dispersion relations in optical waveguides with varying refractive-index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yutian; Zhu, Jianxin

    2015-05-04

    In this paper we consider the problem of computing the eigen-modes for the varying refractive-index profile in an open waveguide. We first approximate the refractive-index by a piecewise polynomial of degree two, and the corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem (eigenvalue problem) of the Helmholtz operator in each layer can be solved analytically by the Kummer functions. Then, analytical approximate dispersion equations are established for both TE and TM cases. Furthermore, the approximate dispersion equations converge fast to the exact ones for the continuous refractive-index function as the maximum value of the subinterval sizes tends to zero. Suitable numerical methods, such as Müller's method or the chord secant method, may be applied to the dispersion relations to compute the eigenmodes. Numerical simulations show that our method is very practical and efficient for computing eigenmodes.

  16. Fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Jeremija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Total consumption of all types of energies is rather high nowadays with constant tendency of increasing. Transport section is one of the highest consumers of energy obtained from fossil fuels. It is absolutely clear that the reduction of energy consumption and the protection of environment - exhaust emission reduction, i. e. cleaner air, will be one of the main tasks of automotive industry in the first decades of the 21st century. In spite of its superiority over the petrol engine in respect of the fuel consumption, a diesel engine "suffers" from the increased exhaust emission, particles and NOx first of all and also from the noise and vibrations. The paper gives a review of fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design. .

  17. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  18. Practical guidelines for the registration and monitoring of serious traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, K. Weijermars, W.A.M. Amoros, E. Bauer, R. Bos, N. Dupont, E. Filtness, A. Houwing, S. Johannsen, H. Leskovsek, B. Machata, K. Martin, JL. Nuyttens, N. Olabarria, M. Pascal, L. & Van den Berghe, W.

    2017-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project. The project’s main objective is the development of an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most

  19. Description of data-sources used in SafetyCube, Deliverable 3.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, L. Thomson, R. Hermitte, T. Weijermars, W. Bos, N. Talbot, R. Thomas, P. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Bauer, R. Hours, M. Høye, E. Jänsch, M. Murkovic, A. Niewöhner, W. Papadimitriou, E. Pérez, C. Phan, V. Usami, D. & Vázquez-de-Prada, J.

    2017-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  20. Sensory Gain Outperforms Efficient Readout Mechanisms in Predicting Attention-Related Improvements in Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ∼80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ∼230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817

  1. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  2. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details.

  3. Masticatory efficiency and oral health-related quality of life with implant-retained mandibular overdentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xu; Zhai, Jun-Jiang; Liao, Jian; Teng, Min-Hua; Tian, Ai; Liang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate masticatory efficiency (ME) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients rehabilitated with implant-retained mandibular overdentures. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 50 edentulous patients visiting the Implant Center and Department of Prosthodontics, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China between June 2010 and June 2012 were selected and received 2 implant-retained mandibular overdenture treatments. All patients were rehabilitated with maxillary complete dentures. The ME and OHRQoL were determined both one month before the mandibular complete denture was anchored to the osseointegrated implants, and 6 months after anchoring. Paired t-tests were used to compare means of ME, and oral health impact profile-49 (OHIP-49) domains scores between pre- and post-implant. Linear regression models were utilized to seek correlations between ME and OHIP domains scores. Results: The ME increased from pre- to post-implant retained mandibular overdentures significantly (p<0.001). The total OHIP score and 4 subscales scores were changed significantly from pre- to post-implant; namely, functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, and physical pain. The total OHIP score, functional limitation, physical disability, and physical pain subscale scores were related to ME. Conclusion: Implant-retained mandibular over dentures can significantly improve patients’ ME and OHRQoL. The improvement in OHRQoL is mainly because of the improved ME. An improved chewing experience, and pain relief also contributes to improvement of OHRQoL. PMID:25316463

  4. Least square methods and covariance matrix applied to the relative efficiency calibration of a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, L.P.; Smith, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology of covariance matrix and square methods have been applied in the relative efficiency calibration for a Ge(Li) detector apllied in the relative efficiency calibration for a Ge(Li) detector. Procedures employed to generate, manipulate and test covariance matrices which serve to properly represent uncertainties of experimental data are discussed. Calibration data fitting using least square methods has been performed for a particular experimental data set. (author) [pt

  5. Efficient Storage and Querying of Horizontal Tables Using a PIVOT Operation in Commercial Relational DBMSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Sae; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Sang-Wook

    In recent years, a horizontal table with a large number of attributes is widely used in OLAP or e-business applications to analyze multidimensional data efficiently. For efficient storing and querying of horizontal tables, recent works have tried to transform a horizontal table to a traditional vertical table. Existing works, however, have the drawback of not considering an optimized PIVOT operation provided (or to be provided) in recent commercial RDBMSs. In this paper we propose a formal approach that exploits the optimized PIVOT operation of commercial RDBMSs for storing and querying of horizontal tables. To achieve this goal, we first provide an overall framework that stores and queries a horizontal table using an equivalent vertical table. Under the proposed framework, we then formally define 1) a method that stores a horizontal table in an equivalent vertical table and 2) a PIVOT operation that converts a stored vertical table to an equivalent horizontal view. Next, we propose a novel method that transforms a user-specified query on horizontal tables to an equivalent PIVOT-included query on vertical tables. In particular, by providing transformation rules for all five elementary operations in relational algebra as theorems, we prove our method is theoretically applicable to commercial RDBMSs. Experimental results show that, compared with the earlier work, our method reduces storage space significantly and also improves average performance by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate that our method provides an excellent framework to maximize performance in handling horizontal tables by exploiting the optimized PIVOT operation in commercial RDBMSs.

  6. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L; Marshall, John D

    2007-01-01

    The response of whole-plant water-use efficiency, termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, delta(15)N), elemental concentrations (C, N, P), plant growth, instantaneous leaf gas exchange, and whole-plant water use were used to analyse the mechanisms controlling TE. Plants were grown individually in 19 l pots with non-limiting soil moisture. Soil fertility was altered by mixing soil with varying proportions of rice husks, and applying a slow release fertilizer. A large variation was observed in leaf photosynthetic rate, mean relative growth rate (RGR), and TE in response to experimental treatments; these traits were well correlated with variation in leaf N concentration. Variation in TE showed a strong dependence on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) mole fractions (c(i)/c(a)); both for instantaneous measurements of c(i)/c(a) (R(2)=0.69, P <0.0001, n=30), and integrated estimates based on C isotope discrimination (R(2)=0.88, P <0.0001, n=30). On the other hand, variations in the leaf-to-air humidity gradient, unproductive water loss, and respiratory C use probably played only minor roles in modulating TE in the face of variable soil fertility. The pronounced variation in TE resulted from a combination of the strong response of c(i)/c(a) to leaf N, and inherently high values of c(i)/c(a) for this tropical tree species; these two factors conspired to cause a 4-fold variation among treatments in (1-c(i)/c(a)), the term that actually modifies TE. Results suggest that variation in plant N status could have important implications for the coupling between C and water exchange in tropical forest trees.

  7. Water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, A.; Larson, S.; Hug, B.; De Freitas, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a tool for documenting and monitoring water use benefits in the Great Barrier Reef catchments that allows temporal and spatial comparison along the region. Water, water use benefits and water allocations are currently receiving much attention from Australian policy makers and conservation practitioners. Because of the inherent complexity and variability in water quality, it is essential that scientific information is presented in a meaningful way to policy makers, managers and ultimately, to the general public who have to live with the consequences of the decisions. We developed an inexpensively populated and easily understandable water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region. The index is developed based on a comparative list of selected water-related indices integrating attributes across physico-chemical, economic, social, and ecological domains currently used in the assessment of water quality, water quantity and water use benefits in Australia. Our findings indicate that the proposed index allows the identification of water performance indicators by temporal and spatial comparisons. Benefits for decision makers and conservation practitioners include a flexible way of prioritization towards the domain with highest concern. The broader community benefits from a comprehensive and user-friendly tool, communicating changes in water quality trends more effectively.

  8. A Benefit Analysis of Infusing Wireless into Aircraft and Fleet Operations - Report to Seedling Project Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations Using Software Intensive, Network Enabled, Wireless Architecture (ECON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Holmes, Bruce J.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an examination of potential benefits of infusing wireless technologies into various areas of aircraft and airspace operations. The analysis is done in support of a NASA seedling project Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations Using Software Intensive, Network Enabled Wireless Architecture (ECON). The study has two objectives. First, we investigate one of the main benefit hypotheses of the ECON proposal: that the replacement of wired technologies with wireless would lead to significant weight reductions on an aircraft, among other benefits. Second, we advance a list of wireless technology applications and discuss their system benefits. With regard to the primary hypothesis, we conclude that the promise of weight reduction is premature. Specificity of the system domain and aircraft, criticality of components, reliability of wireless technologies, the weight of replacement or augmentation equipment, and the cost of infusion must all be taken into account among other considerations, to produce a reliable estimate of weight savings or increase.

  9. Awareness of chronic disease related health benefits of physical activity among residents of a rural South Indian region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Maiya, Arun G; Nair, Suma; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Nair, Narayanapillai Sreekumaran; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2014-02-27

    Physical activity trends for a lower-middle income country like India suggest a gradual decline in work related physical activity and no concomitant increase in leisure time physical activity. Perceived health benefits of physical activity and intention to increase physical activity have been established as independent correlates of physical activity status. In India, not much is known about peoples' perceptions of health benefits of physical activity and their intention to increase physical activity levels. This study was performed to understand peoples' perceptions and awareness about health benefits of physical activity in a rural South Indian region. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling design. A content validated, field tested questionnaire was administered in person by a trained interviewer in the participants' native language. The questionnaire assessed the participants' perceptions about their lifestyle (active or sedentary), health benefits of physical activity and need for increasing their physical activity. In addition, the participant's physical activity was assessed using version 2 of global physical activity questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarise perceived health benefits of physical activity and other categorical variables. Age and body mass index were summarised using mean ± SD, whereas physical activity (MET.min.wk -1) was summarised using median and interquartile range. Four hundred fifty members from 125 randomly selected households were included in the study, of which 409 members participated. 89% (364) of participants felt they lead an active lifestyle and 83.1% (340) of participants did not feel a need to increase their physical activity level. 86.1%, (352) of the participants were physically active. Though 92.4% (378) of participants felt there were health benefits of physical activity, majority of them (75.1%) did not report any benefit related to chronic diseases. None

  10. External beam radiotherapy for subretinal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: is this treatment efficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staar, Susanne; Krott, Ralf; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Heimann, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Control of the natural course of sub retinal neovascularization (SRNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is difficult. Only a subset of patients is suitable for laser coagulation. This prospective study aimed to determine the efficacy and individual benefit of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: The prospective trial included 287 patients with subfoveal neovascularization due to AMD which was verified by fluorescein angiography. Patients have been treated between January 1996 and October 1997. All patients received a total dose of 16 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions with 5-6 MeV photons based on computerized treatment planning in individual head mask fixation. This first analysis is based on 73 patients (50 women, 23 men, median age 74.3 years), with a median follow-up of 13.3 months and a minimum follow-up of 11 months. Results: All patients completed therapy and tolerability was good. First clinical control with second angiography was performed 6 weeks after irradiation, then in 3-month intervals. Eighteen patients with SRNV refusing radiotherapy served as a control group and were matched with 18 irradiated patients. After 7 months median visual acuity (VA) was 20/160 for the irradiated and 20/400 for the untreated patients. One year after radiotherapy final median VA was 20/400 in both groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that 16 Gy of conventionally fractionated external beam irradiation slows down the visual loss in exudative AMD for only a few months. Patients' reading vision could not be saved for a long-term run

  11. Perceptions of Health Co-Benefits in Relation to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: A Survey among Urban Residents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Xu, Guozhang; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; He, Tianfeng; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Gu, Shaohua; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo; Li, Jing; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were employed to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals’ perceptions of the health co-benefits related to GHG mitigation. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the influencing factors of respondents’ awareness about the health co-benefits. A total of 1159 participants were included in the final analysis, of which 15.9% reported that they were familiar with the health co-benefits of GHG emission reductions. Those who were younger, more educated, with higher family income, and with registered urban residence, were more likely to be aware of health co-benefits. Age, attitudes toward air pollution and governmental efforts to improve air quality, suffering from respiratory diseases, and following low carbon lifestyles are significant predictors of respondents’ perceptions on the health co-benefits. These findings may not only provide information to policy-makers to develop and implement public welcome policies of GHG mitigation, but also help to bridge the gap between GHG mitigation measures and public engagement as well as willingness to change health-related behaviors. PMID:28335404

  12. Transfer Efficiency of Bacteria and Viruses from Porous and Nonporous Fomites to Fingers under Different Relative Humidity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P.; Tamimi, Akrum H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    Fomites can serve as routes of transmission for both enteric and respiratory pathogens. The present study examined the effect of low and high relative humidity on fomite-to-finger transfer efficiency of five model organisms from several common inanimate surfaces (fomites). Nine fomites representing porous and nonporous surfaces of different compositions were studied. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, MS2 coliphage, and poliovirus 1 were placed on fomites in 10-μl drops and allowed to dry for 30 min under low (15% to 32%) or high (40% to 65%) relative humidity. Fomite-to-finger transfers were performed using 1.0 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 s. Transfer efficiencies were greater under high relative humidity for both porous and nonporous surfaces. Most organisms on average had greater transfer efficiencies under high relative humidity than under low relative humidity. Nonporous surfaces had a greater transfer efficiency (up to 57%) than porous surfaces (humidity, as well as under high relative humidity (nonporous, up to 79.5%; porous, <13.4%). Transfer efficiency also varied with fomite material and organism type. The data generated can be used in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to assess the risk of infection from fomite-transmitted human pathogens and the relative levels of exposure to different types of fomites and microorganisms. PMID:23851098

  13. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  14. A bootstrap based analysis pipeline for efficient classification of phylogenetically related animal miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetically related miRNAs (miRNA families convey important information of the function and evolution of miRNAs. Due to the special sequence features of miRNAs, pair-wise sequence identity between miRNA precursors alone is often inadequate for unequivocally judging the phylogenetic relationships between miRNAs. Most of the current methods for miRNA classification rely heavily on manual inspection and lack measurements of the reliability of the results. Results In this study, we designed an analysis pipeline (the Phylogeny-Bootstrap-Cluster (PBC pipeline to identify miRNA families based on branch stability in the bootstrap trees derived from overlapping genome-wide miRNA sequence sets. We tested the PBC analysis pipeline with the miRNAs from six animal species, H. sapiens, M. musculus, G. gallus, D. rerio, D. melanogaster, and C. elegans. The resulting classification was compared with the miRNA families defined in miRBase. The two classifications were largely consistent. Conclusion The PBC analysis pipeline is an efficient method for classifying large numbers of heterogeneous miRNA sequences. It requires minimum human involvement and provides measurements of the reliability of the classification results.

  15. Effects of the TAT peptide orientation and relative location on the protein transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingguo; Zhao, Guojie; Hao, Fengjin; Guan, Yifu

    2012-05-01

    To understand the protein transduction domain (PTD)-mediated protein transduction behavior and to explore its potential in delivering biopharmaceutic drugs, we prepared four TAT-EGFP conjugates: TAT(+)-EGFP, TAT(-)-EGFP, EGFP-TAT(+) and EGFP-TAT(-), where TAT(+) and TAT(-) represent the original and the reversed TAT sequence, respectively. These four TAT-EGFP conjugates were incubated with HeLa and PC12 cells for in vitro study as well as injected intraperitoneally to mice for in vivo study. Flow cytometric results showed that four TAT-EGFP conjugates were able to traverse HeLa and PC12 cells with almost equal transduction efficiency. The in vivo study showed that the TAT-EGFP conjugates could be delivered into different organs of mice with different transduction capabilities. Bioinformatic analyses and CD spectroscopic data revealed that the TAT peptide has no defined secondary structure, and conjugating the TAT peptide to the EGFP cargo protein would not alter the native structure and the function of the EGFP protein. These results conclude that the sequence orientation, the spatial structure, and the relative location of the TAT peptide have much less effect on the TAT-mediated protein transduction. Thus, the TAT-fused conjugates could be constructed in more convenient and flexible formats for a wide range of biopharmaceutical applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, M M; Delp, W W; Singer, B C

    2015-02-01

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking-generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80%. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38% for low (51-68 l/s) and 54-72% for high (109-138 l/s) settings. CEs for 0.3-2.0 μm particles during front burner stir-frying were 3-11% on low and 16-70% on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80% both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress: in search of state obligations in relation to health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2011-01-01

    After having received little attention over the past decades, one of the least known human rights—the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications—has had its dust blown off. Although included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International

  19. Air quality and exercise-related health benefits from reduced car travel in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Maggie L; Spak, Scott N; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Patz, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health benefits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 benefits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Our findings suggest that significant health and economic benefits are possible if bicycling replaces short

  20. Use of a benefit function to assess the relative investment potential of alternative farm animal disease prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, A W; Gunn, G J

    2008-05-15

    Using the example of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Scottish suckler (cow-calf) beef herds, this paper demonstrated a method to establish the maximum average net benefit of disease control under specific epidemiological and farm business circumstances. Data were generated for the method using a stochastic epidemiological model set to estimate the mean and variance of control costs and output losses from BVD for 50-cow or 120-cow herds, either free of BVD at the outset or of unknown BVD status. Control of disease was by increased investment in a variety of ('biosecurity') measures aimed at reducing the probability of virus entering the closed herd in any 1 year of a 10-year period of simulated exposure to risk from BVD virus introduction either with or without vaccination. Herds free of BVD at the outset enjoyed much greater maximum average net benefits than herds of unknown BVD status. Best allocations of hypothetical incentives to encourage farmers to establish their freedom from BVD were therefore outlined. Vaccination and biosecurity were generally found to be complementary rather than substitutes for one another. The advantages of the maximum net benefit measure over the more usual average total cost of endemic disease were demonstrated and discussed. The maximum net benefit method focuses on the relationship between costs and benefits, which often exhibits diminishing marginal returns meaning that profit maximisation and disease minimisation are incompatible. The method can also allow for constraints on and competition for limited farm resources. It was argued that these attributes are important to persuade farmers to invest in animal health.

  1. Moderate efficiency of clinicians' predictions decreased for blurred clinical conditions and benefits from the use of BRASS index. A longitudinal study on geriatric patients' outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Giulia; Dagani, Jessica; Bulgari, Viola; Ferrari, Clarissa; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prognosis is an essential aspect of good clinical practice and efficient health services, particularly for chronic and disabling diseases, as in geriatric populations. This study aims to examine the accuracy of clinical prognostic predictions and to devise prediction models combining clinical variables and clinicians' prognosis for a geriatric patient sample. In a sample of 329 consecutive older patients admitted to 10 geriatric units, we evaluated the accuracy of clinicians' prognosis regarding three outcomes at discharge: global functioning, length of stay (LoS) in hospital, and destination at discharge (DD). A comprehensive set of sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment-related information were also collected. Moderate predictive performance was found for all three outcomes: area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 and 0.78 for functioning and LoS, respectively, and moderate concordance, Cohen's K = 0.45, between predicted and observed DD. Predictive models found the Blaylock Risk Assessment Screening Score together with clinicians' judgment relevant to improve predictions for all outcomes (absolute improvement in adjusted and pseudo-R(2) up to 19%). Although the clinicians' estimates were important factors in predicting global functioning, LoS, and DD, more research is needed regarding both methodological aspects and clinical measurements, to improve prognostic clinical indices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The availability and affordability of long-term care for disabled older people in China: The issues related to inequalities in social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Zhuochun

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing increasing pressure from issues relating to an ageing population. The rationality of different eligibility criteria of the benefits within the social security system has been widely challenged; however, to date, no previous study has explored its association with the availability and affordability of long-term care (LTC). This study evaluates the availability and affordability of Long-Term Care (LTC) services for disabled older people (aged 65 and above) in China, with special attention to the differences among groups in receipt of specific social security benefits. The data of availability and affordability of LTC services for disabled older people is from a nationally representative sample Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Three different social security benefits were identified and their effects on the long-term care services for disabled older people were explored. The overall proportions of disabled older people who have only limited or no available or affordable LTC services were remarkably high, especially for those who have moderate or no social security benefits. Compared to those who are entitled to generous social security benefits, older people who have no social security benefits are 18.45 times more likely to be unable to afford health care expenses. The findings imply that policy makers in China could focus on the LTC needs for the social security and socioeconomically disadvantaged (who have limited or no social security benefits and in low household income) disabled older people which could reduce the gap between them and those who are entitled to generous social security benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying the co-benefits of energy-efficiency policies: a case study of the cement industry in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lobscheid, Agnes; Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn; Dai, Yue

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, China's cement industry accounted for more than half of the world's total cement production. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries, and thus a key industrial contributor to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40% of industrial PM emissions and 27% of total national PM emissions. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission reductions that result from energy-saving measures in the cement industry in Shandong Province, China. We use a modified form of the cost of conserved energy (CCE) equation to incorporate the value of these co-benefits. The results show that more than 40% of the PM and SO2 emission reduction potential of the electricity-saving measures is cost effective even without taking into account the co-benefits for the electricity-saving measures. The results also show that including health benefits from PM10 and/or SO2 emission reductions reduces the CCE of the fuel-saving measures. Two measures that entail changing products (production of blended cement and limestone Portland cement) result in the largest reduction in CCE when co-benefits were included, since these measures can reduce both PM10 and SO2 emissions, whereas the other fuel-saving measures do not reduce PM10. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Enhancing identified Circular Economic benefits related to the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2017-01-01

    by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the paper analyzes three areas: 1) biogas production, 2) nitrogen, phosphorous & green house gas (GHG) emissions, and 3) re-cycle/cascade materials. It consequently elaborates on the environmental benefits obtained, in terms of CO2 emission from biogas production substituted......This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving circular economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of a circular economy provided...... from Solrød Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community, measuring the value of digestate as a fertilizer, short distance to farmers delivering manure, and plant design...

  5. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  6. In vivo evaluation of the effect of stimulus distribution on FIR statistical efficiency in event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J Martijn; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H; Drevets, Wayne C; Furey, Maura L

    2013-05-15

    Technical developments in MRI have improved signal to noise, allowing use of analysis methods such as Finite impulse response (FIR) of rapid event related functional MRI (er-fMRI). FIR is one of the most informative analysis methods as it determines onset and full shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) without any a priori assumptions. FIR is however vulnerable to multicollinearity, which is directly related to the distribution of stimuli over time. Efficiency can be optimized by simplifying a design, and restricting stimuli distribution to specific sequences, while more design flexibility necessarily reduces efficiency. However, the actual effect of efficiency on fMRI results has never been tested in vivo. Thus, it is currently difficult to make an informed choice between protocol flexibility and statistical efficiency. The main goal of this study was to assign concrete fMRI signal to noise values to the abstract scale of FIR statistical efficiency. Ten subjects repeated a perception task with five random and m-sequence based protocol, with varying but, according to literature, acceptable levels of multicollinearity. Results indicated substantial differences in signal standard deviation, while the level was a function of multicollinearity. Experiment protocols varied up to 55.4% in standard deviation. Results confirm that quality of fMRI in an FIR analysis can significantly and substantially vary with statistical efficiency. Our in vivo measurements can be used to aid in making an informed decision between freedom in protocol design and statistical efficiency. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cell nuclei attributed relational graphs for efficient representation and classification of gastric cancer in digital histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harshita; Zerbe, Norman; Heim, Daniel; Wienert, Stephan; Lohmann, Sebastian; Hellwich, Olaf; Hufnagl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel graph-based method for efficient representation and subsequent classification in histological whole slide images of gastric cancer. Her2/neu immunohistochemically stained and haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections of gastric carcinoma are digitized. Immunohistochemical staining is used in practice by pathologists to determine extent of malignancy, however, it is laborious to visually discriminate the corresponding malignancy levels in the more commonly used haematoxylin and eosin stain, and this study attempts to solve this problem using a computer-based method. Cell nuclei are first isolated at high magnification using an automatic cell nuclei segmentation strategy, followed by construction of cell nuclei attributed relational graphs of the tissue regions. These graphs represent tissue architecture comprehensively, as they contain information about cell nuclei morphology as vertex attributes, along with knowledge of neighborhood in the form of edge linking and edge attributes. Global graph characteristics are derived and ensemble learning is used to discriminate between three types of malignancy levels, namely, non-tumor, Her2/neu positive tumor and Her2/neu negative tumor. Performance is compared with state of the art methods including four texture feature groups (Haralick, Gabor, Local Binary Patterns and Varma Zisserman features), color and intensity features, and Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation. Texture, color and intensity information is also combined with graph-based knowledge, followed by correlation analysis. Quantitative assessment is performed using two cross validation strategies. On investigating the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed method provides a promising way for computer-based analysis of histopathological images of gastric cancer.

  8. Method of relative comparison of the thermohydraulic efficiency of heat exchange intensification in channels of heat-exchange surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskij, E.V.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    One introduces a technique to compare relatively thermohydraulic efficiency of heat transfer intensification in channels of heat exchange surfaces of any design types. It is shown that one should compare thermohydraulic efficiency of heat exchange intensification as to the thermal power of heat exchangers and pressure losses in channels with turbulators and in polished channels of heat exchange surfaces on the basis of dimensions of heat exchangers, their heat exchange surfaces and at similar (as to Re numbers) modes of coolant flow [ru

  9. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  10. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa De Buen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  11. Environmental benefits from energy efficiency - a study of environmental aspects of EPC-projects; Miljoenytta med energieffektivisering - en studie av miljoeaspektens roll i EPC-projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Ulrik; Gottberg, Annika; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik

    2010-05-15

    Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is an energy service which means that investments in energy saving measures are financed by means of guarantied energy savings. Since the measures are financed by estimated savings, an overall perspective on the energy performance, operating costs and indoor climate of a building or a whole building complex becomes possible. EPC thereby provides a possibility to more far-reaching energy saving measures which would otherwise not be tolerated within the operating budget. The environmental benefit such as reduced climate impact, can in some cases even be the overall objective and energy saving a way to achieve that objective. This study has investigated four EPC projects performed by public organisations in Sweden. The aim has been to analyse to what extent environmental benefit is a decision parameter in the EPC process and to develop a method and a calculating tool that make it possible for different EPC suppliers to use a common method to show the environmental benefit of the energy saving measure. Our main conclusion from this study is that the environmental issue is an important part of a EPC project but it can not be considered to be a well-functioning decision parameter. Today other parameters such as maintenance needs, modernisation, indoor climate and cost savings are the most important at the early stage for the employee of the public organisation. However, the environmental benefit could be highlighted already at this stage to show that those other advantages can be achieved with higher or lower environmental benefit, and to make sure that the political environmental benefit becomes a more important factor in the procurement process (after a political decision). An experience from the study is that for the environmental issue to play a mayor role in the realisation of an EPC project it must be involved already before the decision to perform an EPC project. This is true specially if the supplier are expected to optimise

  12. Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.
METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.
RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.
CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.


Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

  13. Preliminary guidelines for priority setting between measures, Deliverable 3.4 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martensen, H. Van den Berghe, W. Wijnen, W. Weijermars, W.A.M. Carnis, L. & Elvik, R.

    2017-01-01

    The present deliverable describes the economic assessment of counter measures. Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis are compared to cost-benefit analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis helps to estimate the costs per prevented fatality or injury. To evaluate the effectiveness in terms

  14. Safety-related Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology Elements R and D (SINTER) Network and Global HTGR R and D Network (GHTRN). Strategic benefits of international networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Lensa, W.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industries and the nuclear research and development (R and D) programmes world-wide have undergone considerable changes over recent years which have resulted in the formation of international industrial consortiums on the one hand and the need for synergistic collaboration in the R and D area due to the reductions of national R and D activities in the nuclear field on the other hand. International networking starting from precompetitive medium- or long-term oriented R and D could be an efficient mean to overcome the problems nuclear energy is facing today with respect to the lack of public acceptance and economic attractivity in a joint effort. Additional motivation is provided by the fact that there is not only a globalisation of markets but also a 'globalisation of problems' to be addressed internationally like reductions of environmental impacts and long-term availability of economic energy supply. The tools for telecommunication and telecollaboration are evolving in parallel and offer better conditions for closer collaboration of different R and D teams at distant locations than ever before. It is obvious that these trends and boundary conditions will drastically influence the structures of collaboration not only in the industries, but for R and D on an international level, too. The chances emerging from the creation of a European Union and from the globalisation trends have to be converted into strategic benefits by active response on these 'historic changes'. New initiatives have been undertaken in Europe to push for innovations of nuclear reactor technologies via international R and D Networks under the European R and D Framework Programmes (FWP). Innovative approaches are already addressed with limited funding under the actual 4th FWP and should be extended for complementing the commercial efforts on evolutionary LWR concepts by medium- and long-term oriented innovations and R and D. The MICHELANGELO initiative as well as the EU-funded Concerted

  15. Genetic variation in transpiration efficiency and relationships between whole plant and leaf gas exchange measurements in Saccharum spp. and related germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phillip; Basnayake, Jaya; Inman-Bamber, Geoff; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Natarajan, Sijesh; Stokes, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) or closely related germplasm were evaluated in a pot experiment to examine genetic variation in transpiration efficiency. Significant variation in whole plant transpiration efficiency was observed, with the difference between lowest and highest genotypes being about 40% of the mean. Leaf gas exchange measurements were made across a wide range of conditions. There was significant genetic variation in intrinsic transpiration efficiency at a leaf level as measured by leaf internal CO2 (Ci) levels. Significant genetic variation in Ci was also observed within subsets of data representing narrow ranges of stomatal conductance. Ci had a low broad sense heritability (Hb = 0.11) on the basis of single measurements made at particular dates, because of high error variation and genotype × date interaction, but broad sense heritability for mean Ci across all dates was high (Hb = 0.81) because of the large number of measurements taken at different dates. Ci levels among genotypes at mid-range levels of conductance had a strong genetic correlation (-0.92 ± 0.30) with whole plant transpiration efficiency but genetic correlations between Ci and whole plant transpiration efficiency were weaker or not significant at higher and lower levels of conductance. Reduced Ci levels at any given level of conductance may result in improved yields in water-limited environments without trade-offs in rates of water use and growth. Targeted selection and improvement of lowered Ci per unit conductance via breeding may provide longer-term benefits for water-limited environments but the challenge will be to identify a low-cost screening methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PACIFIER RELATED TO THE MOTHER'S PRACTICE WITH PRETERM INFANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalto, Elâine Cristina Vargas; Rosa, Edinete Maria

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and expectations of mothers of preterm newborn infants admitted in a neonatal intensive care unit about breastfeeding and pacifier use, and to analyze their experience in dealing with the sucking urge in the first months of life. Mothers were interviewed during hospitalization of the newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit and when the infant was six months old. All mothers with availability to participate in the study were included. Exclusion criteria comprised infants with syndromes and neurological disorders and mothers with cognitive impairment, depression, and drug users. Data were analyzed with the SPSS software, with descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Sixty-two mothers were interviewed in the beginning and 52 at a six-month follow-up. Mothers' expectations concerning breastfeeding were positive when they listed the benefits to the mother (90.3%) and infant (100%). However, they had difficulties maintaining exclusive breastfeeding and used the baby bottle (75.0%), which most mothers (69.4%) had already acquired before the infant was born. The fact of having a pacifier in the infant's layette (43.6%) did not influence its use (p=0.820). This also occurred among mothers who said they would not offer the pacifier due to disadvantages to the mother (80.7%) and infant (96.8%). The previous expectation that the pacifier could bring benefits for mother and infant did not affect its use (p=0.375 and p=0.158). Mothers demonstrated prior knowledge about breastfeeding benefits and disadvantages of the pacifiers. However, they changed their view when dealing with the infant and introduced bottles and pacifiers.

  17. Relative efficiency of anuran sampling methods in a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D. Rocha

    Full Text Available Studies on anurans in restinga habitats are few and, as a result, there is little information on which methods are more efficient for sampling them in this environment. Ten methods are usually used for sampling anuran communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this study we evaluate which methods are more appropriate for this purpose in the restinga environment of Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed six methods among those usually used for anuran samplings. For each method, we recorded the total amount of time spent (in min., the number of researchers involved, and the number of species captured. We calculated a capture efficiency index (time necessary for a researcher to capture an individual frog in order to make comparable the data obtained. Of the methods analyzed, the species inventory (9.7 min/searcher /ind.- MSI; richness = 6; abundance = 23 and the breeding site survey (9.5 MSI; richness = 4; abundance = 22 were the most efficient. The visual encounter inventory (45.0 MSI and patch sampling (65.0 MSI methods were of comparatively lower efficiency restinga, whereas the plot sampling and the pit-fall traps with drift-fence methods resulted in no frog capture. We conclude that there is a considerable difference in efficiency of methods used in the restinga environment and that the complete species inventory method is highly efficient for sampling frogs in the restinga studied and may be so in other restinga environments. Methods that are usually efficient in forested areas seem to be of little value in open restinga habitats.

  18. Relative efficiency of anuran sampling methods in a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Hatano, F H; Boquimpani-Freitas, L; Marra, R V; Marques, R V

    2004-11-01

    Studies on anurans in restinga habitats are few and, as a result, there is little information on which methods are more efficient for sampling them in this environment. Ten methods are usually used for sampling anuran communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this study we evaluate which methods are more appropriate for this purpose in the restinga environment of Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed six methods among those usually used for anuran samplings. For each method, we recorded the total amount of time spent (in min.), the number of researchers involved, and the number of species captured. We calculated a capture efficiency index (time necessary for a researcher to capture an individual frog) in order to make comparable the data obtained. Of the methods analyzed, the species inventory (9.7 min/searcher /ind.- MSI; richness = 6; abundance = 23) and the breeding site survey (9.5 MSI; richness = 4; abundance = 22) were the most efficient. The visual encounter inventory (45.0 MSI) and patch sampling (65.0 MSI) methods were of comparatively lower efficiency restinga, whereas the plot sampling and the pit-fall traps with drift-fence methods resulted in no frog capture. We conclude that there is a considerable difference in efficiency of methods used in the restinga environment and that the complete species inventory method is highly efficient for sampling frogs in the restinga studied and may be so in other restinga environments. Methods that are usually efficient in forested areas seem to be of little value in open restinga habitats.

  19. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  20. Relative Efficiency Indicators of the Credit Management Process in a Colombian Bank by Means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gooding, Sandra Paola; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Rodríguez-Lozano, Gloria Isabel; Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the relative efficiency of the units that take part in the credit management process in a Colombian bank by means of the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Using a doublé optimization process, this advanced linear programmingmethodology generates a single relative efficiency index for each one of the units being studied, although it is capable of including multiple resources and multiple outputs. In the bank that was used as the object of this study...

  1. Options for a National Framework for Benefit Distribution and Their Relation to Community-Based and National REDD+ Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Skutsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerations, and the kind of data that would be needed for the different options. We contrast output-based distribution systems, in which rewards are distributed according to performance measured in terms of carbon impacts, with input-based systems in which performance is measured in term of compliance with prescribed REDD+ activities. Output-based systems, which would require regular community carbon inventories to produce Tier 3 data locally, face various challenges particularly for the case of assessing avoided deforestation, and they may not be perceived as equitable. Input-based systems would require data on activities undertaken rather than change in stocks; this information could come from community-acquired data. We also consider how community monitored data could support national forest monitoring systems and the further development of national REDD+.

  2. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of peaks of high temperature in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the applications of ion beams in radiotherapy treatments has generated interest in the study of the thermoluminescent materials (TL) that allow to determine the applied doses. A way to quantify the TL response from these materials to ions is by means of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency. In the group of Thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Institute of Physics of the UNAM (IFUNAM) the thermoluminescent response of the TLD-100 dosemeters has been studied, which present a glow curve characteristic with several peaks that correspond to traps and luminescent centers in the material. The stable peaks know each other as 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The efficiencies should be measured using the response so much to the radiation of interest (in this case protons and helium ions) as the response to gamma radiation. In previous works with ions of low energy taken place in the Pelletron accelerator of the IFUNAM was only measured the TL efficiency for the peak 5 and the total signal. It had not been possible to measure the efficiency of the peaks of high temperature (6a-10) because, for the gamma radiation, the peaks of high temperature show very small signals; however, recently Massillon carries out measures of efficiency TL of peaks of high temperature for ions of intermediate energy using a protocol special of reading and of deconvolution that allows to measure the signals coming from the peaks of high temperature. In this work is implemented this same protocol to complete the study of TL efficiencies at low energy of protons and helium and to determine if the values of efficiency depend on the used reading protocol. For it is reported it measures of the relative efficiency of the peaks of high temperature from the TLD-100 exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and nuclei of helium of 3 and 7.5 MeV. (Author)

  3. The efficiency of tax expenses related to sustainable development. Communication to the Senate Commission for Finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Tax expenses correspond to losses of tax direct incomes due to various legal measures (derogations, tax reductions, tax credits) which aim at supporting or promoting various behaviours and activities, notably in favour of the protection of the environment, but their efficiency (in this case, their environmental efficiency), i.e. their ability to reach the ecological objective at a reasonable cost, is difficult to assess. Thus, this report proposes a detailed analysis and comparison of the different tax expenses which have been existing in France between 2010 and 2015 and have been introduced to promote a sustainable development. On the way, the authors identify some failures in the steering of these tax expenses, and show that the efficiency is very much uneven depending on the sector (housing, transports, protection of natural resources). They notably outlines the prevailing weight of expenses unfavourable to a sustainable development (multiple objectives which are often difficult to assess, arrangements without consistency, limits of the public commitment), a failing follow-up (unsuited tools, badly assessed costs, arrangements not enough controlled), and an uncertain efficiency (modest results of the incentive policy for housing renovation, contradictions in policy of transports, and an under-developed policy of protection of natural resources). A set of recommendations is however proposed

  4. Genetic parameters and predicted selection results for maternal traits related to lactation efficiency in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The increased productivity of sows increases the risk of a more pronounced negative energy balance during lactation. One possibility to prevent this is to increase the lactation efficiency (LE) genetically and thereby increase milk output for a given feed intake and mobilization of body tissue. The

  5. Program Evaluation: Roles and Responsibilities of Boards of Education Relative to Thorough and Efficient Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    The process for providing a "thorough and efficient" (T & E) education according to New Jersey statutes and regulations involves six basic steps. This document suggests procedures for handling the fifth step, educational program evaluation. Processes discussed include committee formation, evaluation planning, action plan…

  6. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher's Efficiency within Schools: A Co-Relational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers' efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a…

  7. The benefit of the Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) for high-efficiency installations in industrial buildings; EIA maakt hr-apparatuur voor bedrijfsgebouwen voordelig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, A. [ed.

    1998-02-01

    Gas-fired condensing appliances for space heating of industrial buildings are more expensive than appliances that do not show a high efficiency. In many cases, however, it is still cheaper to invest in condensing appliances. Not only because of lower exploitation costs, but also because of the ISO-high-efficiency subsidy regulation (`ISO-hr`), the energy investment allowance (EIA) and the energy conservation fund. The technologies that are eligible for the EIA are listed in the `Energielijst` (energy list) for 1998

  8. Measurements of the light conversion efficiency of lithium borate for alpha particles relative to cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Wall, B.F.; Fisher, E.S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1982-01-01

    The results are reported of measurements of the light conversion efficiencies of lithium borate TLD phosphor of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. manufacture to 5.65 MeV and 2.4 MeV alpha particles relative to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation.

  9. The electrolysis of a carbonate-borate solution with a platinum anode : II. Relation between current efficiency and perborate concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van der P.M.; Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    The current efficiency R (cor. for the chem. disproportionation of H2O2 in the bulk of electrolyte) of the electrolytic formation of perborate decreases with increasing concn. of H2O2. The factors causing this decrease were investigated. The relation between R and H2O2% and the diffusion coeff. of

  10. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  11. Benefit of modelling regarding the quality and efficiency of PLC-programming in process automation; Nutzen von Modellierung fuer die Qualitaet und Effizienz der Steuerungsprogrammierung in der Automatisierungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, D; Vogel-Heuser, B [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Automatisierungstechnik/Prozessinformatik

    2006-03-15

    Software development in process automation has many deficiencies in procedures, notations and tool support. As a result, modern software engineering concepts and notations, like object oriented approaches or UML, are not wide spread in this field. Hence, drawbacks regarding start-up times, additional costs and low software quality are immense. This paper will evaluate the benefit of modelling as a design step prior to coding, regarding cognitive paradigms. Two modelling notations (UML and ICL) will be compared analyzing their impact on the quality of automation software written in IEC 61131. (orig.)

  12. Lipofectamine and related cationic lipids strongly improve adenoviral infection efficiency of primitive human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Haddada, H; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    1998-11-20

    Adenoviral vectors have the potential to infect a large number of cell types including quiescent cells. Their use in hematopoietic cells is limited by the episomal form of their DNA, leading to transgene loss in the progeny cells. However, the use of this vector may be interesting for short-term in vitro modifications of primitive human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we have investigated the ability of adenovirus to transduce cord blood CD34+ cells. Several promoters were tested using the lacZ reporter gene. The PGK and CMV promoters induced transgene expression in 18-25% of the cells, whereas the HTLV-I and especially the RSV promoter were almost inactive. To improve infection efficiency, adenovirus was complexed with cationic lipids. Lipofectamine, Cellfectin, and RPR120535b, but not Lipofectin, Lipofectace, or DOTAP, markedly improved transgene expression in CD34+ cells (from 19 to 35%). Lipofectamine strongly enhanced infection efficiency of the poorly infectable primitive CD34+CD38low cells (from 11 to 28%) whereas the more mature CD34+CD38+ cells were only slightly affected (from 24 to 31%). Lipofectamine tripled the infection of CFU-GMs and LTC-ICs derived from the CD34+CD38low cell fraction (from 4 to 12% and from 5 to 16%, respectively) and doubled that of BFU-Es (from 13 to 26%). We conclude that cationic lipids can markedly increase the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells.

  13. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  14. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-01-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB 7 , arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  15. Relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy : a fuzzy AHP/DEA hybrid model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2009-01-01

    As a provider of national energy security, the Korean Institute of Energy Research is seeking to establish a long term strategic technology roadmap for a hydrogen-based economy. This paper addressed 5 criteria regarding the strategy, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity, technical spinoff, and development cost. The fuzzy AHP and DEA hybrid model were used in a two-stage multi-criteria decision making approach to evaluate the relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process reflects the uncertainty of human thoughts with interval values instead of clear-cut numbers. It therefore allocates the relative importance of 4 criteria, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity and technical spin-off. The relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy can be measured via data envelopment analysis. It was concluded that the scientific decision making approach can be used effectively to allocate research and development resources and activities

  16. Relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy : a fuzzy AHP/DEA hybrid model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Energy Policy Research Division; Mogi, G. [Tokyo Univ., (Japan). Dept. of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering; Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    As a provider of national energy security, the Korean Institute of Energy Research is seeking to establish a long term strategic technology roadmap for a hydrogen-based economy. This paper addressed 5 criteria regarding the strategy, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity, technical spinoff, and development cost. The fuzzy AHP and DEA hybrid model were used in a two-stage multi-criteria decision making approach to evaluate the relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process reflects the uncertainty of human thoughts with interval values instead of clear-cut numbers. It therefore allocates the relative importance of 4 criteria, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity and technical spin-off. The relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy can be measured via data envelopment analysis. It was concluded that the scientific decision making approach can be used effectively to allocate research and development resources and activities.

  17. Energy efficiency actions related to the rollout of smart meters for small consumers, application to the Austrian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, Luis; Ruester, Sophia; Liong, Siok-Jen; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Smart meters (SM) may provide large benefits to all stakeholders by providing the information required to implement certain sets of demand response actions. Benefits produced by SM related actions depend on the features of these actions, the system and the targeted consumer group. We first lay out an analytical framework to analyze the application of Demand Response (DR) actions. Based on this framework, we describe a way to determine the response of domestic load in a system to the implementation of DR actions. We propose determining the overall change in the consumption behavior of domestic load based on previously obtained estimates of the peak load and overall consumption reduction for different types of consumers in different types of systems resulting from the application of each set of actions. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review to provide here such estimates. We apply the analytical framework and methodology developed to characterize the reaction of consumers in the Austrian system to different SM related actions. Finally, we provide guidelines on which DR actions to implement in this system and how to implement them. The use of advanced indirect feedback on consumption behavior, critical peak prices and simple time-of-use tariffs is advocated. -- Highlights: → System and consumer features determine households' potential benefits from a Demand Response (DR) action. → Consumers' perception of the net benefits of actions determines their actual reaction. → Consumers' reaction can be characterized by their peak load and consumption reduction. → DR actions implemented should be accepted and understood by all stakeholders involved.

  18. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  19. Completely oriented anatase TiO2 nanoarrays: topotactic growth and orientation-related efficient photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingling; Wu, Qili; He, Shiman; Yan, Jing; Shi, Jianying; Chen, Jian; Wu, Mingmei; Yang, Xianfeng

    2015-08-01

    A TiO2 film has been facilely grown on a Ti foil via a general and simple acid vapor oxidation (AVO) strategy. Based on detailed characterization by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that the TiO2 film was composed of anatase nanoarrays highly oriented along their direction, resulting in a large exposed {001} top surface on the film. The growth mechanism based on a topotactic transformation was proposed according to a careful study of time-dependent experimental results. Resulting from the evaluation of photocatalytic performance compared with a commercial TiO2 photocatalyst (Degussa P25), the as-prepared oriented anatase TiO2 film showed higher efficiency for degradation of atrazine and acid orange II (AOII). The performance of photocatalysis is highly relevant to the preferential orientation. The efficient photocatalysis could be attributed to the highly reactive {001} facets on the anatase nanoarrays with super-hydrophilicity.A TiO2 film has been facilely grown on a Ti foil via a general and simple acid vapor oxidation (AVO) strategy. Based on detailed characterization by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that the TiO2 film was composed of anatase nanoarrays highly oriented along their direction, resulting in a large exposed {001} top surface on the film. The growth mechanism based on a topotactic transformation was proposed according to a careful study of time-dependent experimental results. Resulting from the evaluation of photocatalytic performance compared with a commercial TiO2 photocatalyst (Degussa P25), the as-prepared oriented anatase TiO2 film showed higher efficiency for degradation of atrazine and acid orange II (AOII). The performance of photocatalysis is highly relevant to the preferential orientation. The efficient photocatalysis could be attributed to the highly reactive {001

  20. The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

  1. National nostalgia : A group-based emotion that benefits the in-group but hampers intergroup relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Social psychological research on nostalgia has mainly considered this emotion at the individual level rather than the group level. The current paper proposes that group-based nostalgia for the nation (i.e., national nostalgia) is likely to be related to a positive in-group orientation and a negative

  2. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  3. Innovations with services relating to energy efficiency. Basic information and examples; Innovationen mit Dienstleistungen im Bereich Energieeffizienz. Basisinformationen und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Michael; Kollnig, Sarah; Oertel, Britta

    2010-07-01

    This study describes how the ''Energy Efficient City'' competition is intended to promote activities towards greater energy efficiency which relate to cities as systems, are innovative, and conceive of and incorporate services as part of the solution. ''Innovation with services'' is not only about the further development of existing services but more particularly about the creation of high-quality services in growth areas which can serve to speed up innovation and create new application potentials for technical developments. They should be based on a holistic view on urban processes of energy use and energy supply and give consideration to all relevant stakeholders. The ''Energy Efficient City'' competition is aimed at systematically linking innovations with services to energy efficiency issues. The implementation of these goals will be facilitated by accompanying research. To this end the present text provides information on how services can be geared to energy efficiency.

  4. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  5. Benefits in the electrical systems through an energy efficiency program; Beneficios en los sistemas electricos a traves de un programa de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushler, M. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The results of the search for electric efficiency programs providing savings during the hot summer days in the United States are presented. This search was named The Electric Energy Efficiency Programs Focused on Reliability and was executed in 50 states of the United States of America with the purpose of describing examples of successful programs that would help to guarantee the uninterrupted power supply, i.e. reliable by means of the consumer side demand management. Here the methodology of the project is described, the results of a discriminatory scrutiny of different programs in 50 states are presented, followed by a description of 22 programs of energy efficiency that were located as study cases along with the executive and legislative order measures taken to guarantee the reliability of the electric energy. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de la busqueda de programas de eficiencia energetica que proporcionen ahorros durante los dias calurosos del verano en Estados Unidos. Esta busqueda se titulo Los Programas de Eficiencia Energetica Enfocados a la Confiabilidad y fue realizada en 50 estados de la union americana con el objetivo de describir ejemplos de programas exitosos que ayudaran a garantizar un suministro electrico ininterrumpido, i. e. confiable por medio de una administracion de la demanda del lado del consumidor. Aqui se describe la metodologia del proyecto, se presentan los resultados de un escrutinio discriminatorio de diferentes programas en los 50 estados, seguidos de una descripcion de 22 programas de eficiencia energetica que se ubicaron como casos de estudio junto con las medidas de orden ejecutivo y legislativo tomadas para garantizar la confiabilidad de la energia electrica.

  6. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  7. Metabolic efficiency in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to temperature dependent growth and biomass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Yang, Xuelian; Reuss, Matthias; Pörtner, Hans Otto

    2015-08-01

    Canonized view on temperature effects on growth rate of microorganisms is based on assumption of protein denaturation, which is not confirmed experimentally so far. We develop an alternative concept, which is based on view that limits of thermal tolerance are based on imbalance of cellular energy allocation. Therefore, we investigated growth suppression of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the supraoptimal temperature range (30-40°C), i.e. above optimal temperature (Topt). The maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of biomass, its concentration and yield on glucose (Yx/glc) were measured across the whole thermal window (5-40°C) of the yeast in batch anaerobic growth on glucose. Specific rate of glucose consumption, specific rate of glucose consumption for maintenance (mglc), true biomass yield on glucose (Yx/glc(true)), fractional conservation of substrate carbon in product and ATP yield on glucose (Yatp/glc) were estimated from the experimental data. There was a negative linear relationship between ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations and specific growth rate at any growth conditions, whilst the energy charge was always high (~0.83). There were two temperature regions where mglc differed 12-fold, which points to the existence of a 'low' (within 5-31°C) and a 'high' (within 33-40°C) metabolic mode regarding maintenance requirements. The rise from the low to high mode occurred at 31-32°C in step-wise manner and it was accompanied with onset of suppression of μmax. High mglc at supraoptimal temperatures indicates a significant reduction of scope for growth, due to high maintenance cost. Analysis of temperature dependencies of product formation efficiency and Yatp/glc revealed that the efficiency of energy metabolism approaches its lower limit at 26-31°C. This limit is reflected in the predetermined combination of Yx/glc(true), elemental biomass composition and degree of reduction of the growth substrate. Approaching the limit implies a reduction of the safety margin

  8. Teaching the relation between solar cell efficiency and annual energy yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sark, Wilfried G J H M van

    2007-01-01

    To reach a sustainable world the use of renewable energy sources is imperative. Photovoltaics (PV) is but one of the technologies that use the power of the sun and its deployment is growing very fast. Several master programs have been developed over the world, including Utrecht University, that teach these technologies. Within the framework of a course on energy conversion technologies, we have developed a classroom problem that focuses on the difference between PV efficiency and annual yield for the two locations: the Utrecht University campus and the African Sahara desert. In spreadsheet format, students calculate annual yield, and they find a best method to do so. The exercise can be done in about three hours, and students will learn that the annual yield in the Sahara is only twice that at Utrecht University,

  9. Extremely efficient crystallization of HKUST-1 and Keggin-loaded related phases through the epoxide route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, Víctor; Jobbágy, Matías

    2017-03-25

    Highly crystalline HKUST-1 and COK-16-like phases were obtained based on a mild in situ alkalinization one-pot epoxide driven method. A slurry composed of finely ground trimesic acid, H 3 BTC, dispersed in a CuCl 2 aqueous solution quantitatively developed well crystallized HKUST-1 after the addition of propylene oxide. The use of solid H 3 BTC ensures a low concentration of free linker, favoring crystalline growth over the precipitation of amorphous or metastable impurities. An extreme space-time yield of 2.1 × 10 5 kg m -3 day -1 was reached, with no linker excess and minimum use of solvent. The method was equally efficient in the achievement of pure NENU/COK-16 phases, containing [PW 12 O 40 ] 3- , [PMo 12 O 40 ] 3- and [SiMo 12 O 40 ] 4- polyoxometalates.

  10. Energy-Efficient Management of Mechanical Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, Jr., Charles R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In hot and humid climates, it is challenging to energy-efficiently maintain indoor RH at acceptable levels while simultaneously providing required ventilation, particularly in high performance low cooling load homes. The fundamental problem with solely relying on fixed capacity central cooling systems to manage moisture during low sensible load periods is that they are oversized for cooler periods of the year despite being 'properly sized' for a very hot design cooling day. The primary goals of this project were to determine the impact of supplementing a central space conditioning system with 1) a supplemental dehumidifier and 2) a ductless mini-split on seasonal energy use and summer peak power use as well as the impact on thermal distribution and humidity control inside a completely furnished lab home that was continuously ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE 62.2-2013.

  11. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance...

  12. The effect of right ventricular pacing on myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency: relation with left ventricular dyssynchrony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukkonen, Heikki; Saraste, Antti; Koistinen, Juhani [Turku University Hospital, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Tops, Laurens; Bax, Jeroen [Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Naum, Alexander [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) apical pacing induces dyssynchrony by a left bundle branch block type electrical activation sequence in the heart and may impair left ventricular (LV) function. Whether these functional changes are accompanied by changes in myocardial perfusion, oxidative metabolism and efficiency, and the relation with the induction of LV dyssynchrony are unknown. Our study was designed to investigate the acute effects of RV pacing on these parameters. Ten patients with normal LV ejection fraction and VVI/DDD pacemaker were studied during AAI pacing/sinus rhythm without RV pacing (pacing-OFF) and with RV pacing (pacing-ON) at the same heart rate. Dynamic [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 11}C]acetate positron emission tomography was used to measure perfusion and oxidative metabolism (k{sub mono}) of the LV. An echocardiographic examination was used to assess LV stroke volume (SV) and LV dyssynchrony. Myocardial efficiency of forward work was calculated as systolic blood pressure x cardiac output/LV mass/k{sub mono}. RV pacing decreased SV in all subjects (mean decrease 13%, from 76 {+-} 7 to 66 {+-} 7 ml, p = 0.004), but global perfusion and k{sub mono} were unchanged. The efficiency tended to be lower with pacing-ON (70 {+-} 20 vs 81 {+-} 21 mmHg l/g, p = 0.066). In patients with dyssynchrony during pacing (n = 6) efficiency decreased by 23% (from 78 {+-} 25 to 60 {+-} 14 mmHg l/g, p = 0.02), but in patients without dyssynchrony no change in efficiency was detected. Accordingly, heterogeneity in myocardial perfusion and oxidative metabolism was detected during pacing in patients with dyssynchrony but not in those without dyssynchrony. RV pacing resulted in a significant decrease in SV. However, deleterious effects on LV oxidative metabolism and efficiency were observed only in patients with dyssynchrony during RV pacing. (orig.)

  13. [Catheter-related bladder discomfort after urological surgery: importance of the type of surgery and efficiency of treatment by clonazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maro, S; Zarattin, D; Baron, T; Bourez, S; de la Taille, A; Salomon, L

    2014-09-01

    Bladder catheter can induce a Catheter-Related Bladder Discomfort (CRBD). Antagonist of muscarinic receptor is the gold standard treatment. Clonazepam is an antimuscarinic, muscle relaxing oral drug. The aim of this study is to look for a correlation between the type of surgical procedure and the existence of CRBD and to evaluate the efficiency of clonazepam. One hundred patients needing bladder catheter were evaluated. Sexe, age, BMI, presence of diabetes, surgical procedure and existence of CRBD were noted. Pain was evaluated with analogic visual scale. Timing of pain, need for specific treatment by clonazepam and its efficiency were noted. Correlation between preoperative data, type of surgical procedure, existence of CRBD and efficiency of treatment were evaluated. There were 79 men and 21 women (age: 65.9 years, BMI: 25.4). Twelve patients presented diabetes. Surgical procedure concerned prostate in 39 cases, bladder in 19 cases (tumor resections), endo-urology in 20 cases, upper urinary tract in 12 cases (nephrectomy…) and lower urinary tract in 10 cases (sphincter, sub-uretral tape). Forty patients presented CRBD, (pain 4.5 using VAS). This pain occurred 0.6 days after surgery. No correlation was found between preoperative data and CRBD. Bladder resection and endo-urological procedures were surgical procedures which procured CRBD. Clonazepam was efficient in 30 (75 %) out of 40 patients with CRBD. However, it was less efficient in case of bladder tumor resection. CRBD is frequent and occurred immediately after surgery. Bladder resection and endo-urology were the main surgical procedures which induced CRBD. Clonazepam is efficient in 75 %. Bladder resection is the surgical procedure which is the most refractory to treatment. 5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The benefits of integrating cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.; Clarke-Whistler, K.

    1995-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that knowledge of risks in the absence of benefits and costs cannot dictate appropriate public policy choices. Recent evidence of this recognition includes the proposed EPA Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis Act of 1995, a number of legislative changes in Canada and the US, and the increasing demand for field studies combining measures of impacts, risks, costs and benefits. Failure to consider relative environmental and human health risks, benefits, and costs in making public policy decisions has resulted in allocating scarce resources away from areas offering the highest levels of risk reduction and improvements in health and safety. The authors discuss the implications of not taking costs and benefits into account in addressing environmental risks, drawing on examples from both Canada and the US. The authors also present the results of their recent field work demonstrating the advantages of considering costs and benefits in making public policy and site remediation decisions, including a study on the benefits and costs of prevention, remediation and monitoring techniques applied to groundwater contamination; the benefits and costs of banning the use of chlorine; and the benefits and costs of Canada's concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The authors conclude that a properly conducted Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide critical input to a Risk Assessment and can ensure that risk management decisions are efficient, cost-effective and maximize improvement to environmental and human health

  15. The effect of the downturn in oil prices on the relative efficiency of government expenditure in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.; Perera, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper tests a control model to discover the effect of the decline in oil prices on the relative efficiency of government expenditure in the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. The econometric analysis shows that as a consequence of the decline in oil prices, the GCC countries need a relatively higher proportional rate of growth in their government expenditure to maintain a given percentage of income growth in the long run. This may, however, prove difficult, which necessitates greater reliance on other means of control. (author)

  16. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance value determined by using resistor with variable value of resistance and known value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon.

  17. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Karen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

  18. Costs and benefits of children's physical and relational aggression trajectories on peer rejection, acceptance, and friendships: Variations by aggression subtypes, gender, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; Mage = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; Mage = 13.9). Using a sample of 477 children (240 girls), the findings indicated there were multiple heterogeneous subgroups of children who followed distinct co-occurring aggression trajectories. For each of these subgroups, multiple indices of their relational development were assessed and findings revealed notable group differences. These results have implications about the potential costs and benefits of aggression, and how its associations with children's peer relationships may vary as a function of aggression subtype, developmental timing, and gender. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Cognitive benefits of last night's sleep: daily variations in children's sleep behavior are related to working memory fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested substantial fluctuations of cognitive performance in adults both across and within days, but very little is known about such fluctuations in children. Children's sleep behavior might have an important influence on their daily cognitive resources, but so far this has not been investigated in terms of naturally occurring within-person variations in children's everyday lives. In an ambulatory assessment study, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) completed sleep items and working memory tasks on smartphones several times per day in school and at home for 4 weeks. Parents provided general information about the children and their sleep habits. We identified substantial fluctuations in the children's daily cognitive performance, self-reported nightly sleep quality, time in bed, and daytime tiredness. All three facets were predictive of performance fluctuations in children's school and daily life. Sleep quality and time in bed were predictive of performance in the morning, and afternoon performance was related to current tiredness. The children with a lower average performance level showed a higher within-person coupling between morning performance and sleep quality. Our findings contribute important insights regarding a potential source of performance fluctuations in children. The effect of varying cognitive resources should be investigated further because it might impact children's daily social, emotional, and learning-related functioning. Theories about children's cognitive and educational development should consider fluctuations on micro-longitudinal scales (e.g., day-to-day) to identify possible mechanisms behind long-term changes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Comminution efficiency attracts attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.J.; Lewis-Gray, E.

    2011-01-01

    The mining sector, both at a technical and board level is pursuing opportunities to achieve cost savings and reduce energy usage in their operations. Research and debate on step change efficiency benefits is particularly evident in the field of comminution (crushing and grinding) circuit design and operation. Published literature that quantifies mining related energy consumption in South Africa and Australia has been reviewed by the authors.

  1. Energy-Efficient Hosting Rich Content from Mobile Platforms with Relative Proximity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Woong; Lee, Younho; Baek, Sung Hoon

    2017-08-08

    In this paper, we present a tiny networked mobile platform, termed Tiny-Web-Thing ( T-Wing ), which allows the sharing of data-intensive content among objects in cyber physical systems. The object includes mobile platforms like a smartphone, and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms for Human-to-Human (H2H), Human-to-Machine (H2M), Machine-to-Human (M2H), and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. T-Wing makes it possible to host rich web content directly on their objects, which nearby objects can access instantaneously. Using a new mechanism that allows the Wi-Fi interface of the object to be turned on purely on-demand, T-Wing achieves very high energy efficiency. We have implemented T-Wing on an embedded board, and present evaluation results from our testbed. From the evaluation result of T-Wing , we compare our system against alternative approaches to implement this functionality using only the cellular or Wi-Fi (but not both), and show that in typical usage, T-Wing consumes less than 15× the energy and is faster by an order of magnitude.

  2. Variation in water-use efficiency and its relation to carbon isotope ratio in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranga, Y.; Flash, I.; Yakir, D.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is often exposed to drought, which adversely affects both yield and quality. Improved water-use efficiency (WUE = total dry matter produced or yield harvested / water used) is expected to reduce these adverse effects. Genetic variability in WUE and its association with photosynthetic rate and carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) in cotton are reported in this paper. WUE of six cotton cultivars--G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., and an interspecific F1 hybrid (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense, ISH), was examined under two irrigation regimes in two field trials. The greatest WUE was obtained by two G. hirsutum cultivars (2.55 g dry matter or 1.12 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O) the ISH obtained similar or somewhat lower values, and that G. barbadense cultivars and one G. hirsutum cultivar exhibited the lowest values (2.1 g dry matter or 0.8 to 0.85 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O). These results indicate that different cotton cultivars may have evolved different environmental adaptations that affect their WUE. Photosynthetic rate was correlated with WUE in only a few cases emphasizing the limitation of this parameter as a basis for estimating crop WUE. Under both trials WUE was positively correlated with carbon isotope ratio, indicating the potential of this technique as a selection criterion for improving cotton WUE

  3. Dextran-related complications in head and neck microsurgery: do the benefits outweigh the risks? A prospective randomized analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disa, Joseph J; Polvora, Virginia P; Pusic, Andrea L; Singh, Bhuvinesh; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2003-11-01

    , pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and pneumonia) was as follows: low-molecular-weight dextran 120 hours, 51 percent; low-molecular-weight dextran 48 hours, 29 percent; and aspirin, 7 percent. Analysis of these data suggests that the method of prophylaxis had no effect on overall flap survival. However, the incidence of systemic complications was significantly related to the method of prophylaxis, with patients receiving low-molecular-weight dextran 120 hours and 48 hours at a 7.2 and 3.9 times greater relative risk, respectively, of developing a systemic complication compared with patients receiving aspirin. The results of this study have eliminated the routine use of low-molecular-weight dextran prophylaxis at our institution in an effort to reduce morbidity in head and neck microsurgical reconstruction.

  4. Relative Efficiency of Field and Online Strategies in the Recruitment of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Andrea C; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to reach HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and link them to care must be expanded; however, finding and recruiting them remains a challenge. We compared the efficiency of three recruitment sources in reaching self-identified HIV-positive MSM with various characteristics. Relative to recruitment online and at clubs and bars, AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) were significantly more efficient in reaching HIV-positive MSM in general. This was also true for those with specific characteristics of interest such as substance/stimulant use, and HIV-positive MSM who were racial/ethnic minorities. Both ASOs and online recruitment were more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM not taking HIV medication. This was also the case for White HIV-positive MSM in general, and White HIV-positive MSM who used substances and stimulants. Online recruitment was also more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM who were young across the board.

  5. Genetic Dissection of Root Morphological Traits Related to Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Brassica napus L. under Two Contrasting Nitrogen Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the major determinant for nutrient uptake, root system architecture (RSA has a massive impact on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. However, little is known the molecular control of RSA as related to NUE in rapeseed. Here, a rapeseed recombinant inbred line population (BnaZNRIL was used to investigate root morphology (RM, an important component for RSA and NUE-related traits under high-nitrogen (HN and low-nitrogen (LN conditions by hydroponics. Data analysis suggested that RM-related traits, particularly root size had significantly phenotypic correlations with plant dry biomass and N uptake irrespective of N levels, but no or little correlation with N utilization efficiency (NUtE, providing the potential to identify QTLs with pleiotropy or specificity for RM- and NUE-related traits. A total of 129 QTLs (including 23 stable QTLs, which were repeatedly detected at least two environments or different N levels were identified and 83 of them were integrated into 22 pleiotropic QTL clusters. Five RM-NUE, ten RM-specific and three NUE-specific QTL clusters with same directions of additive-effect implied two NUE-improving approaches (RM-based and N utilization-based directly and provided valuable genomic regions for NUE improvement in rapeseed. Importantly, all of four major QTLs and most of stable QTLs (20 out of 23 detected here were related to RM traits under HN and/or LN levels, suggested that regulating RM to improve NUE would be more feasible than regulating N efficiency directly. These results provided the promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection on RM-based NUE improvement in rapeseed.

  6. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  7. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient utilization of rare variants for detection of disease-related genomic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When testing association between rare variants and diseases, an efficient analytical approach involves considering a set of variants in a genomic region as the unit of analysis. One factor complicating this approach is that the vast majority of rare variants in practical applications are believed to represent background neutral variation. As a result, analyzing a single set with all variants may not represent a powerful approach. Here, we propose two alternative strategies. In the first, we analyze the subsets of rare variants exhaustively. In the second, we categorize variants selectively into two subsets: one in which variants are overrepresented in cases, and the other in which variants are overrepresented in controls. When the proportion of neutral variants is moderate to large we show, by simulations, that the both proposed strategies improve the statistical power over methods analyzing a single set with total variants. When applied to a real sequencing association study, the proposed methods consistently produce smaller p-values than their competitors. When applied to another real sequencing dataset to study the difference of rare allele distributions between ethnic populations, the proposed methods detect the overrepresentation of variants between the CHB (Chinese Han in Beijing and YRI (Yoruba people of Ibadan populations with small p-values. Additional analyses suggest that there is no difference between the CHB and CHD (Chinese Han in Denver datasets, as expected. Finally, when applied to the CHB and JPT (Japanese people in Tokyo populations, existing methods fail to detect any difference, while it is detected by the proposed methods in several regions.

  9. Relation between efficiency and energy cost with coordination in aquatic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Toussaint, Huub M; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the intracycle velocity variation (IVV) and Froude efficiency (η(T)), energy cost (C), and index of coordination (IdC) throughout a 200-m freestyle race. Ten male international level swimmers performed a maximum 200 m front crawl swim. Performance was recorded with four below- and two above-water synchronized cameras. Oxygen consumption was measured continuously during the effort, and blood samples were collected before and after the test. IdC, body center of mass' IVV (x, y and z), and η(T) were also calculated. For assessing C swimmers performed also 50, 100 and 150 m at the same pace as in the 200-m splits to capture blood lactate samples after each 50-m lap of the 200-m effort. Swimmers attained a stable IVV (x, y, and z), as fatigue development along the 200-m effort induced a decrease in velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, η(T), and an increase of IdC. Direct relationships between C and IdC for the second and fourth lap were found: R = 0.63 and R = 0.69 (P < 0.05), respectively. Computing partial correlation, also IdC and η(T) in the first lap were significantly correlated (R = -0.63, P < 0.05). IdC and η(T) showed to be significant for the within-subjects correlation (R = -0.45, P = 0.01), and IdC and C for the between-subjects correlation (R = 0.66, P = 0.04). Patterns of coordination modified during the 200-m event in response to the task constraints, observed by the changes in the other studied parameters, and allowing the IVV stability along the effort.

  10. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? : an explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for

  11. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? : an explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for

  12. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO 2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO 2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option. (author)

  14. Efficiency of producing anion and relative humidity of the indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-G.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, C.-M.; Byun, K.-O.

    2009-04-01

    This study is to evaluate the ability of interior plants to produce anion and relative humidity that can purify polluted indoor air. Four indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands such as Sarcandra glaber (Thunb.) Nakai, Illicium anisatum L, Cleyera japonica Thunb. and Ilex rotunda Thunb. were used. Sansevieria trifasciata cv. Laurentii was also used as a comparative plant. The amount of anion and increment of relative humidity produced by five species of indoor plants was assessed by anion measurement (ITC-201A)in a sealed acryl chamber (118Ã-118Ã-119.5cm). The highest amount of anion was 515 ea/cm3produced by I. rotunda. The amounts of anion were 293 ea/cm3, 273 ea/cm3, and 211 ea/cm3 in S. glaber, I. anisatum and C. japonica, respecively while it was 220 ea/cm3 in S. trifasciata. The increment of relative humidity was highest in I. anisatum as 27.4% while it was lowest in S. trifasciata as 14.0%. This result suggested that all four indigenous plants tested were more effective to purify the indoor polluted air than S. trifasciata. Key words: interior plant, S. glaber, I. anisatum, C. japonica, I. rotunda, indoor polluted air

  15. Regression relation for pure quantum states and its implications for efficient computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A; Fine, Boris V

    2013-02-15

    We obtain a modified version of the Onsager regression relation for the expectation values of quantum-mechanical operators in pure quantum states of isolated many-body quantum systems. We use the insights gained from this relation to show that high-temperature time correlation functions in many-body quantum systems can be controllably computed without complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonians, using instead the direct integration of the Schrödinger equation for randomly sampled pure states. This method is also applicable to quantum quenches and other situations describable by time-dependent many-body Hamiltonians. The method implies exponential reduction of the computer memory requirement in comparison with the complete diagonalization. We illustrate the method by numerically computing infinite-temperature correlation functions for translationally invariant Heisenberg chains of up to 29 spins 1/2. Thereby, we also test the spin diffusion hypothesis and find it in a satisfactory agreement with the numerical results. Both the derivation of the modified regression relation and the justification of the computational method are based on the notion of quantum typicality.

  16. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  17. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  18. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  19. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-10-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  20. Relation between the Hurst Exponent and the Efficiency of Self-organization of a Deformable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfyorova, E. A.; Lychagin, D. V.

    2018-04-01

    We have established the degree of self-organization of a system under plastic deformation at different scale levels. Using fractal analysis, we have determined the Hurst exponent and correlation lengths in the region of formation of a corrugated (wrinkled) structure in [111] nickel single crystals under compression. This has made it possible to single out two (micro-and meso-) levels of self-organization in the deformable system. A qualitative relation between the values of the Hurst exponent and the stages of the stress-strain curve has been established.

  1. An Efficient Quality-Related Fault Diagnosis Method for Real-Time Multimode Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixiang Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on quality-related complex industrial process performance monitoring, a novel multimode process monitoring method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, principal component space clustering is implemented under the guidance of quality variables. Through extraction of model tags, clustering information of original training data can be acquired. Secondly, according to multimode characteristics of process data, the monitoring model integrated Gaussian mixture model with total projection to latent structures is effective after building the covariance description form. The multimode total projection to latent structures (MTPLS model is the foundation of problem solving about quality-related monitoring for multimode processes. Then, a comprehensive statistics index is defined which is based on the posterior probability of the monitored samples belonging to each Gaussian component in the Bayesian theory. After that, a combined index is constructed for process monitoring. Finally, motivated by the application of traditional contribution plot in fault diagnosis, a gradient contribution rate is applied for analyzing the variation of variable contribution rate along samples. Our method can ensure the implementation of online fault monitoring and diagnosis for multimode processes. Performances of the whole proposed scheme are verified in a real industrial, hot strip mill process (HSMP compared with some existing methods.

  2. Relative benefit of a stage of change approach for the prevention of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doda, Diana; Rothmore, Paul; Pisaniello, Dino; Briggs, Nancy; Stewart, Sasha; Mahmood, Mohammed; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-11-01

    To examine the benefit of a psychological Stage of Change (SOC) approach, relative to standard ergonomics advice, for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal pain and discomfort (MSPD). A cluster randomised trial was conducted in South Australia across a broad range of workplaces. Repeated face-to-face interviews were conducted onsite to assess MSPD, safety climate, job satisfaction and other factors. Changes in MSPD across intervention groups and time were investigated using Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) methods. 25 workgroups (involving 242 workers) were randomly allocated to either a standard intervention or an intervention tailored according to SOC. The prevalence of MSPD increased for both groups, but was only significant for the standard group, in respect of lower back MSPD. Workers receiving tailored interventions were 60% less likely to experience lower back MSPD. After adjusting for age, gender and job satisfaction, it was found that company safety climate and length of employment were significantly correlated to the time-intervention effect. There was no correlation with workload. Compared with standard ergonomics advice to management, there was evidence of a benefit of stage-matched intervention for MSPD prevention, particularly for low back pain. Organisational safety climate should be taken into account when planning prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  4. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor 'simultaneous localization and mapping‘ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  5. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere. In general, P fertilization has low efficiency, as only a fraction of the applied P is acquired by roots, leaving a substantial amount to be accumulated in soil as not readily available P. Breeding for P-efficient cultivars is a relatively low cost alternative and can be done through two mechanisms: i) improving P use efficiency (PUE), and/or ii) P acquisition efficiency (PAE). PUE is related to the internal allocation/mobilization of P, and is usually represented by the amount of P accumulated per biomass. PAE relies on roots ability to acquire P from the soil, and is commonly expressed as the relative difference of P acquired under low and high P availability conditions. In this review, plant adaptations related to improved PAE are described, with emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is generally accepted to enhance plant P acquisition. A state of the art (1980–2018) of AM growth responses and P uptake in wheat and barley is made to discuss about the commonly accepted growth promoting effect and P increased uptake by AM fungi and the contrasting evidence about the generally accepted lack of positive responses in both plant species. Finally, the mechanisms by which AM symbiosis can affect wheat and barley PAE are discussed, highlighting the importance of considering AM functional diversity on future studies and the necessity to improve PAE definition by considering the carbon trading between

  7. Long-term field metal extraction by Pelargonium: phytoextraction efficiency in relation to plant maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pinelli, Eric; Probst, Anne; Baque, David; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

    2012-01-01

    The long length of periods required for effective soil remediation via phytoextraction constitutes a weak point that reduces its industrial use. However, these calculated periods are mainly based on short-term and/or hydroponic controlled experiments. Moreover, only a few studies concern more than one metal, although soils are scarcely polluted by only one element. In this scientific context, the phytoextraction of metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and As) by Pelargonium was measured after a long-term field experiment. Both bulk and rhizosphere soils were analyzed in order to determine the mechanisms involved in soil-root transfer. First, a strong increase in lead phytoextraction was observed with plant maturity, significantly reducing the length of the period required for remediation. Rhizosphere Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As accumulation was observed (compared to bulk soil), indicating metal mobilization by the plant, perhaps in relation to root activity. Moreover, metal phytoextraction and translocation were found to be a function of the metals' nature. These results, taken altogether, suggest that Pelargonium could be used as a multi-metal hyperaccumulator under multi-metal soil contamination conditions, and they also provide an interesting insight for improving field phytoextraction remediation in terms of the length of time required, promoting this biological technique.

  8. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  9. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  10. A cause and effect two-stage BSC-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeel Najafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration of balanced score card (BSE with two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA. The proposed model of this paper uses different financial and non-financial perspectives to evaluate the performance of decision making units in different BSC stages. At each stage, a two-stage DEA method is implemented to measure the relative efficiency of decision making units and the results are monitored using the cause and effect relationships. An empirical study for a banking sector is also performed using the method developed in this paper and the results are briefly analyzed.

  11. Marketing energy-efficient solar houses: A method to locate and identify people who will buy energy-efficient solar houses, or related services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Houses built in New England within the last six years, equal to or exceeding energy-efficiency standards from Energy Crafted Homes (ECH) or from DOE's Energy Star Homes are termed energy-efficient for this study. An assumption is that people who purchase houses being newly constructed may request special features including more energy-efficient features. The average house being constructed today is not as energy-efficient as it could easily be; therefore, owners of recently constructed energy-efficient houses may be termed early-adopters of an innovation. It has been demonstrated that early adopters have different personal attitudes and perceptions of an innovation compared to later-adopters. Both types of adopters--owners of recently constructed energy-efficient or energy-inefficient houses, have been surveyed in New England to determine whether their differences are significant enough to be used in identifying future potential early-adopters. Solar houses also are usually energy-efficient, and should be termed an innovation

  12. Durable Clinical Benefit in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Who Discontinue PD-1/PD-L1 Therapy for Immune-Related Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Dylan J; Hamieh, Lana; McKay, Rana R; Harshman, Lauren C; Brandao, Raphael; Norton, Craig K; Steinharter, John A; Krajewski, Katherine M; Gao, Xin; Schutz, Fabio A; McGregor, Bradley; Bossé, Dominick; Lalani, Aly-Khan A; De Velasco, Guillermo; Michaelson, M Dror; McDermott, David F; Choueiri, Toni K

    2018-04-01

    The current standard of care for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients is PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors until progression or toxicity. Here, we characterize the clinical outcomes for 19 mRCC patients who experienced an initial clinical response (any degree of tumor shrinkage), but after immune-related adverse events (irAE) discontinued all systemic therapy. Clinical baseline characteristics, outcomes, and survival data were collected. The primary endpoint was time to progression from the date of treatment cessation (TTP). Most patients had clear cell histology and received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy as second-line or later treatment. Median time on PD-1/PD-L1 therapy was 5.5 months (range, 0.7-46.5) and median TTP was 18.4 months (95% CI, 4.7-54.3) per Kaplan-Meier estimation. The irAEs included arthropathies, ophthalmopathies, myositis, pneumonitis, and diarrhea. We demonstrate that 68.4% of patients ( n = 13) experienced durable clinical benefit off treatment (TTP of at least 6 months), with 36% ( n = 7) of patients remaining off subsequent treatment for over a year after their last dose of anti-PD-1/PD-L1. Three patients with tumor growth found in a follow-up visit, underwent subsequent surgical intervention, and remain off systemic treatment. Nine patients (47.4%) have ongoing irAEs. Our results show that patients who benefitted clinically from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can experience sustained beneficial responses, not needing further therapies after the initial discontinuation of treatment due to irAEs. Investigation of biomarkers indicating sustained benefit to checkpoint blockers are needed. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(4); 402-8. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Costs, benefits, and international financing related to the water sector in the Danube and Black Sea region in the perspective of WFD implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleari, S.

    2006-01-01

    Further to constitute a challenge far many EU15 countries, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is going to represent the main reference for the process of approximation of water legislation of accession countries, as well as water policy and legislation of many third countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In this work we focus on expected investment costs, estimated benefits, and external financing programmes for water policies and WFD implementation in an extensive geographical area, the Black Sea region, which includes the Danube Basin (that is the second largest European water basin after the Volga Basin) and covers industrial and agricultural areas of 22 countries. As we are primarily interested in the economic aspects of water policies and the WFD implementation in the above geographical area, we will develop a joint analysis of: (a) the available estimates on the size of investments in the water sector required to approximate the provisions and/or (depending on single countries) the principles of WFD; (b) the available estimates on the expected benefits from implementing EU water legislation and the WFD; (c) the flows of international assistance and financial resources available during the next few years for investing in water-sector infrastructures and management in the countries of the Black Sea region. The approximation of EU water legislation and the implementation of the WFD will entail huge investment costs by accession countries during the next decades and water is expected be the most significant area of investment within the environmental sector in the majority of these countries. The attempts to estimate economic and environmental benefits indicate that the same process of compliance with EU legislation and the WFD will produce significant benefits for the economy and the environment of these countries. During the last part of the I990s, however, the trends of actual expenses in environmental and water infrastructures in the countries of

  14. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Jao

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries.Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates.The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science.Given background structural inequities in much

  15. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Given background structural inequities in much international research

  16. Research Stakeholders’ Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural

  17. The Role of Relational Reward Benefits for Developing the Non-Financial Value of a Customer to an Organization: Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Kristiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the customer value to an organization has been widely explored, yet most studies only determined on the financial value based on the customer’s purchasing behavior. The value of customers beyond their purchasing behavior –defined as the relational worth - has not been commonly captured yet. This non-financial value is one of the drivers in retaining customers, hence it becomes a crucial factor in preserving the profitability of the organization. For this reason, this paper aims to examine the customer non-financial valuations of a loyalty reward program. The scope of the study covered a reward program involving consumer exertions in the context of a Frequent Flyer Program (FFP offered by an airline in Indonesia. The hypotheses are empirically tested with a sample of FFP members conducted through an online survey (n=475. The data were statistically analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM as a first order construct. Results indicate that the perceived social rewards lead to an affective and normative commitment as well as consumers’ satisfaction, while the economic reward did not have an effect on developing affective bonds with members for long-term relationships. The relational benefit offered through the FFP creates affectively and normatively committed members who produce relational behaviors, in terms of WOM, immunity, openness and acquiescence of the members to the airline. Furthermore, the FFP members produced social behaviors toward the airline when they felt satisfied with their relational exchanges.

  18. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  19. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  20. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, R N; Mohanty, S K; Patnaik, S [Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India)

    1977-12-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using /sup 32/P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil.

  1. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.N.; Mohanty, S.K.; Patnaik, S.

    1977-01-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using 32 P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil. (M.G.B.)

  2. Estimating the Influence of Housing Energy Efficiency and Overheating Adaptations on Heat-Related Mortality in the West Midlands, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Taylor

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates rise during hot weather in England, and projected future increases in heatwave frequency and intensity require the development of heat protection measures such as the adaptation of housing to reduce indoor overheating. We apply a combined building physics and health model to dwellings in the West Midlands, UK, using an English Housing Survey (EHS-derived stock model. Regional temperature exposures, heat-related mortality risk, and space heating energy consumption were estimated for 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s medium emissions climates prior to and following heat mitigating, energy-efficiency, and occupant behaviour adaptations. Risk variation across adaptations, dwellings, and occupant types were assessed. Indoor temperatures were greatest in converted flats, while heat mortality rates were highest in bungalows due to the occupant age profiles. Full energy efficiency retrofit reduced regional domestic space heating energy use by 26% but increased summertime heat mortality 3–4%, while reduced façade absorptance decreased heat mortality 12–15% but increased energy consumption by 4%. External shutters provided the largest reduction in heat mortality (37–43%, while closed windows caused a large increase in risk (29–64%. Ensuring adequate post-retrofit ventilation, targeted installation of shutters, and ensuring operable windows in dwellings with heat-vulnerable occupants may save energy and significantly reduce heat-related mortality.

  3. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

  4. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  5. Benefits of a self-myofascial release program on health-related quality of life in people with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceca, Diego; Elvira, Laura; Guzmán, José F; Pablos, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disease with symptoms that significantly limit the life of affected patients. Earlier studies have shown that the application of self-myofascial release provides benefits in variables such as fatigue, range of motion (ROM) or perceived muscle pain in a healthy population. Despite this, the self-myofascial release technique has not yet been used in people with FM. This study aimed to find out the benefits of applying a self-myofascial release program on health-related quality of life in people with FM. Sixty-six participants with FM were randomized into two groups, intervention (N.=33) and control (N.=33). The intervention group (IG) participated in the self-myofascial release program for twenty weeks. The study assessed the impact of a self-myofascial release program on cervical spine, shoulder and hip ROM and self-reported disease impact. Two measurements were performed, one at baseline (preintervention) and one postintervention. Two-way mixed-effect (between-within) ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Significant changes (PFibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-S) Score and for five of its seven subscales, including: days per week feeling good, pain intensity, fatigue, stiffness and depression/sadness, as well as all the ROM variables evaluated (neck flexion, neck extension, lateral neck flexion and rotation (bilateral), shoulder flexion and abduction and hip abduction) excluding hip flexion. The application of a self-myofascial release program can improve the health-related quality of life of people with FM, provided that regular, structured practice is carried out.

  6. Age and Early Graft Function Relate With Risk-Benefit Ratio of Allogenic Islet Transplantation Under Antithymocyte Globulin-Mycophenolate Mofetil-Tacrolimus Immune Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DaHae; Keymeulen, Bart; Hilbrands, Robert; Ling, Zhidong; Van de Velde, Ursule; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Maleux, Geert; Lapauw, Bruno; Crenier, Laurent; De Block, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-09-01

    Induction therapy with a T cell-depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. Fifty-one patients (age, between 29 and 63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin-mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus protocol. They were followed up for over 48 months for function of the implant and adverse events. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were absent in patients with functioning graft. Immune suppressive therapy was maintained for 48 months in 29 recipients with sustained function (group A), whereas 16 patients stopped earlier due to graft failure (group B) and in 6 for other reasons. Group A was significantly older at the time of implantation and achieved higher graft function at posttransplantation month 6 under similar dose of IS. Prevalence of IS-related side effects was similar in groups A and B, occurring predominantly during the first year posttransplantation. IS-related serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in 47% of patients, with 4 presenting with cytomegalovirus infection and 4 (age, 42-59 years) diagnosed with cancer. Except in 1 patient with cancer, all SAEs resolved after appropriate treatment. These risk/benefit data serve as a basis for clinical decision-making before entering an intraportal islet transplantation protocol. A longer benefit is observed in recipients of higher age (≥40 years), but it is not associated with more side effects and SAE.

  7. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  8. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  9. Estimating the net benefit of a specialized return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder: an example exploring investment in collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    This article estimates the net benefit for a company incorporating a collaborative care model into its return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. Employing a simple decision model, the net benefit and uncertainty were explored. The breakeven point occurs when the average short-term disability episode is reduced by at least 7 days. In addition, 85% of the time, benefits could outweigh costs. Model results and sensitivity analyses indicate that organizational benefits can be greater than the costs of incorporating a collaborative care model into a return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. The results also demonstrate how the probability of a program's effectiveness and the magnitude of its effectiveness are key factors that determine whether the benefits of a program outweigh its costs.

  10. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  11. Proclus' Elaboration of Platonic Remarks on the Problem of Evils, and their Relation to Divine Providence and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza korrang beheshti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is not a fully developed theory of evil in Plato, some various remarks are interspersed throughout his dialogues which provided the main materials for subsequent Platonists to elaborate a systematic doctrine of evil. Proclus is the most distinguished philosopher of the later Neoplatonism whose view became authoritative within the School and thus is most representative of the Neoplatonic doctrine of evil. By a critical assessment of the antecedent theories of evil, Proclus attempts to give a monistic interpretation of Platonic remarks on the problem of evil. According to his explanation, the higher degrees and principles of Being are only and purely good and are not the causes of evils but the good things for all things alone. Evils, however, exist necessarily but only among particular beings in a relative, parasitic, accidental way and dependent upon the good. The parasitic accidental existence of evil does not have a real efficient cause. It arises due to an asymmetry between the activities of the several faculties or powers of a complex particular being. Moreover, the existence of evil is so mixed with and dependent upon the good that despite its opposition to the good, contributes, in its own manner, to the fulfillment of goodness of the whole Universe, being thus reconcilable with Divine Providence and Efficiency.

  12. Impaired postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder is related to less efficient central as well as peripheral control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Andersen, Ken Kjøller

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental impairment that affects approximately 6% of children in primary school age. Children with DCD are characterized by impaired postural control. It has yet to be determined what effect peripheral and central neuromuscular...... control has on their balance control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms to impaired postural control in children with DCD using the rambling-trembling decomposition of the center of pressure (CoP). METHOD: Nine children with DCD (9.0±0.5years, 7 boys, 2 girls...... with fixed support surface. In ML direction children with DCD had a lower relative contribution of rambling to total sway (p=0.013). CONCLUSION: This study showed that impaired postural control in children with DCD is associated with less efficient supraspinal control represented by increased rambling...

  13. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Sumesh M. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States); Linton, Joseph A. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  14. Attitude Determination Algorithm based on Relative Quaternion Geometry of Velocity Incremental Vectors for Cost Efficient AHRS Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byungjin; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2018-05-01

    A novel attitude determination method is investigated that is computationally efficient and implementable in low cost sensor and embedded platform. Recent result on attitude reference system design is adapted to further develop a three-dimensional attitude determination algorithm through the relative velocity incremental measurements. For this, velocity incremental vectors, computed respectively from INS and GPS with different update rate, are compared to generate filter measurement for attitude estimation. In the quaternion-based Kalman filter configuration, an Euler-like attitude perturbation angle is uniquely introduced for reducing filter states and simplifying propagation processes. Furthermore, assuming a small angle approximation between attitude update periods, it is shown that the reduced order filter greatly simplifies the propagation processes. For performance verification, both simulation and experimental studies are completed. A low cost MEMS IMU and GPS receiver are employed for system integration, and comparison with the true trajectory or a high-grade navigation system demonstrates the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  16. The Features of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries Related to Hepatic Artery Occlusion and Benefits in the Trans arterial Management of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, X.M.; Ren, Y.J.; Miao, N.D.; Huang, X.H.; Dong, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the extrahepatic collateral arteries related to hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) and to determine its benefits in the trans arterial management of liver tumors. Methods and Findings. Eleven patients (7 hepatocellular carcinomas, 3 liver metastases, and 1 with hemangioma) with HAO confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were admitted to our hospital. Of the 11 patients, 7 were men and 4 were women, with an average age of 41.5 ± 15.5 years (range: 29 to 70 years). DSA was performed to evaluate the collateral routes to the liver. In the 11 patients with HAO, DSA showed complete occlusion of the common hepatic artery in 9 patients and the proper hepatic artery (PHA) in 2 patients. Extrahepatic collateral arteries supplying the liver were readily evident. The collateral arteries originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 8 patients, from the gastroduodenal artery in 2 patients, and from the left gastric artery (LGA) in 1 patient. Transcatheter treatment was successfully performed via the collateral artery in all patients except the one who had hemangioma. Conclusions. DSA is an effective method for detecting collateral circulation related to HAO and may provide information to guide transcatheter management decisions.

  17. Patient Access, Unmet Medical Need, Expected Benefits, and Concerns Related to the Utilisation of Biosimilars in Eastern European Countries: A Survey of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Inotai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This policy research aims to map patient access barriers to biologic treatments, to explore how increased uptake of biosimilars may lower these hurdles and to identify factors limiting the increased utilisation of biosimilars. A policy survey was developed to review these questions in 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. Two experts (one public and one private sector representative from each country completed the survey. Questions were related to patient access, purchasing, clinical practice, and real-world data collection on both original biologics and biosimilars. Restrictions on the number of patients that can be treated and related waiting lists were reported as key patient access barriers. According to respondents, for both clinicians and payers the primary benefit of switching patients to biosimilars would be to treat more patients. However, concerns with therapeutic equivalence and fear of immunogenicity may reduce utilisation of biosimilars. Similar limitations in patient access to both original biologics and biosimilars raise concerns about the appropriateness and success of current biosimilar policies in CEE and CIS countries. The conceptual framework for additional real-world data collection exists in all countries which may provide a basis for future risk-management activities including vigorous pharmacovigilance data collection.

  18. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  19. Benefit of Doubt Approach to Case Weighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Jesper; Bogetoft, Peter

    The implementation of an efficient and reliable case weighting system (CWS) is currently considered essential for running an efficient judiciary. However, traditional models for establishing case weights are time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, since such case weights are often viewed...... as indications of the relative " importance " of different types of court cases, they are bound to raise controversy. The most elaborate weighting system is likely to have its critics who question whether the established weights are fair. To address these issues, we suggest a new " benefit of the doubt...... between 150 and 250 minutes, or as simple ordinal rankings, e.g., case type B requires more time than case type A. The use of partial weight information and a benefit of the doubt approach reduces the need for detailed time-studies and prolonged " negotiations " among stakeholders. Moreover, most...

  20. Obesity-related costs and the economic impact of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures: benefits in the Texas Employees Retirement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, M Ray; Gleghorn, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the return on investment (ROI) and economic impact of providing insurance coverage for the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) procedure in classes II and III obese members of the Texas Employees Retirement System (ERS) and their dependents from payer, employer, and societal perspectives. Classes II and III obese employee members and their adult dependents were identified in a Texas ERS database using self-reported health risk assessment (HRA) data. Direct health costs and related absenteeism and mortality losses were estimated using data from previous research. A dynamic input-output model was then used to calculate overall economic effects by incorporating direct, indirect, and induced impacts. Direct health costs were inflation-adjusted to 2008 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index for Medical Care and other spending categories were similarly adjusted using relevant consumer and industrial indices. The future cost savings and other monetary benefits were discounted to present value using a real rate of 4.00%. From the payer perspective (ERS), the payback period for direct health costs associated with the LAGB procedure was 23-24 months and the annual return (over 5 years) was 28.8%. From the employer perspective (State of Texas), the costs associated with the LAGB procedure were recouped within 17-19 months (in terms of direct, indirect, and induced gains as they translated into State revenue) and the annual return (over 5 years) was 45.5%. From a societal perspective, the impact on total business activity for Texas (over 5 years) included gains of $195.3 million in total expenditures, $93.8 million in gross product, and 1354 person-years of employment. The analysis was limited by the following: reliance on other studies for methodology and use of a control sample; restriction of cost savings to 2.5 years which required out-of-sample forecasting; conservative assumptions related to the cost of the procedure; exclusion of presenteeism

  1. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  2. Comparison of relative efficiency of genomic SSR and EST-SSR markers in estimating genetic diversity in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, S; Govindaraj, P; Senthilkumar, S

    2018-03-01

    Twenty-five primer pairs developed from genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR) were compared with 25 expressed sequence tags (EST) SSRs to evaluate the efficiency of these two sets of primers using 59 sugarcane genetic stocks. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) of genomic SSR was higher (0.72) compared to the PIC value recorded by EST-SSR marker (0.62). The relatively low level of polymorphism in EST-SSR markers may be due to the location of these markers in more conserved and expressed sequences compared to genomic sequences which are spread throughout the genome. Dendrogram based on the genomic SSR and EST-SSR marker data showed differences in grouping of genotypes. A total of 59 sugarcane accessions were grouped into 6 and 4 clusters using genomic SSR and EST-SSR, respectively. The highly efficient genomic SSR could subcluster the genotypes of some of the clusters formed by EST-SSR markers. The difference in dendrogram observed was probably due to the variation in number of markers produced by genomic SSR and EST-SSR and different portion of genome amplified by both the markers. The combined dendrogram (genomic SSR and EST-SSR) more clearly showed the genetic relationship among the sugarcane genotypes by forming four clusters. The mean genetic similarity (GS) value obtained using EST-SSR among 59 sugarcane accessions was 0.70, whereas the mean GS obtained using genomic SSR was 0.63. Although relatively lower level of polymorphism was displayed by the EST-SSR markers, genetic diversity shown by the EST-SSR was found to be promising as they were functional marker. High level of PIC and low genetic similarity values of genomic SSR may be more useful in DNA fingerprinting, selection of true hybrids, identification of variety specific markers and genetic diversity analysis. Identification of diverse parents based on cluster analysis can be effectively done with EST-SSR as the genetic similarity estimates are based on functional attributes related to

  3. Polygenic Risk Score Identifies Subgroup With Higher Burden of Atherosclerosis and Greater Relative Benefit From Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Young, Robin; Stitziel, Nathan O; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha; Fuster, Valentin; Reilly, Dermot F; Butterworth, Adam; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-05-30

    burden of subclinical atherosclerosis and derive greater relative and absolute benefit from statin therapy to prevent a first coronary heart disease event. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00738725 (BioImage) and NCT00005130 (CARDIA). WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials using generalized estimating equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxia; Colditz, Graham A

    2018-05-01

    There is growing interest in conducting cluster randomized trials (CRTs). For simplicity in sample size calculation, the cluster sizes are assumed to be identical across all clusters. However, equal cluster sizes are not guaranteed in practice. Therefore, the relative efficiency (RE) of unequal versus equal cluster sizes has been investigated when testing the treatment effect. One of the most important approaches to analyze a set of correlated data is the generalized estimating equation (GEE) proposed by Liang and Zeger, in which the "working correlation structure" is introduced and the association pattern depends on a vector of association parameters denoted by ρ. In this paper, we utilize GEE models to test the treatment effect in a two-group comparison for continuous, binary, or count data in CRTs. The variances of the estimator of the treatment effect are derived for the different types of outcome. RE is defined as the ratio of variance of the estimator of the treatment effect for equal to unequal cluster sizes. We discuss a commonly used structure in CRTs-exchangeable, and derive the simpler formula of RE with continuous, binary, and count outcomes. Finally, REs are investigated for several scenarios of cluster size distributions through simulation studies. We propose an adjusted sample size due to efficiency loss. Additionally, we also propose an optimal sample size estimation based on the GEE models under a fixed budget for known and unknown association parameter (ρ) in the working correlation structure within the cluster. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Clinical benefit of liver stiffness measurement at 3 months after Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy to predict the liver related events in biliary atresia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Hahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The progression of hepatic fibrosis may result in decompensated hepatic failure with cirrhosis, liver related events (LRE such as ascites, variceal bleeding, and death after successful and timely Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE in biliary atresia. The aim of this study is to suggest clinical benefit of the liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography at 3 months after the Kasai operation to predict LRE. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2011, 69 eligible biliary atresia patients who underwent Kasai HPE and performed transient elastography before and 3 months after HPE were included. The occurrences of LRE were analyzed for all patients. All patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without LRE for comparison. Multivariate analysis was used to detect the independent risk factors of LRE. The area under the receiver operation characteristics curve (AUROC was used to establish the LSM optimal cutoff value of 3 months after Kasai operation in predicting LRE. RESULTS: LSM value, aminotransferase, albumin, bilirubin, and PT-INR significantly differed among the two groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated LSM value as the most powerful independent factor of the development of LRE. The cut-off value of 19.9 kPa was calculated to be optimal for predicting LRE development with total sensitivity and specificity of 1.804. AUROC resulted in 0.943, with sensitivity of 85.3% and specificity of 95.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The LSM value of 3 months after Kasai HPE can be a useful predictor of LRE development.

  6. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  7. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    accuracies and a reduced number of selected markers in AIM panels. Conclusions Integrative analysis of SNP and GE markers provides high-accuracy and/or cost-effective classification results for assigning samples from closely related or distantly related ancestral lineages to their original ancestral populations. User-friendly BIASLESS (Biomarkers Identification and Samples Subdivision software was developed as an efficient tool for selecting key SNP and/or GE markers and then building models for sample subdivision. BIASLESS was programmed in R and R-GUI and is available online at http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/prediction/BIASLESS.htm.

  8. Markets and employment related to energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies: situation 2012-2013 and short term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleuriot, Fanny; Gaudin, Thomas; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Louis, Jonathan; Vesine, Eric; Greffet, Pierre; Randriambololona, Celine; Rageau, Francois; Carabot, Cyril

    2014-11-01

    Since 2008, ADEME has regularly compiled an overview of markets and employment related to the main activities connected with improving energy efficiency and developing renewable sources of energy in France. The activities were selected partly according to their connection with ADEME's field of activity and partly according to their connection with the main policies determined by the Grenelle environment summit. Another factor taken into account was the existence of statistical data enabling the relevant markets to be regularly monitored. Since the very first version of the report, each time it has analysed some thirty market segments, all of which fall into one of three main sectors: - Energy efficiency improvements in residential accommodation: work to improve energy efficiency in existing housing (insulation of outside walls and replacement of windows and doors with more effective solutions), purchase of condensing boilers, energy efficient large household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps; - Energy efficiency improvements in transport systems: developments in urban public transport systems and railways, including equipment and sales of category A and B private vehicles; - Investments in the production of renewable energy (RE) and sales of renewably sourced energy. Over the years, several new markets have been added, including controlled mechanical ventilation systems (CMV), city bike schemes, etc. For this edition of the report, three new markets have been introduced, each with its own individual 'Market Report': Marine Renewable Energies, Heating Networks, and Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, while thermodynamic domestic boilers and sales of LED lamps have been added to markets for heat-pumps and compact fluorescent lamps respectively. The possibility of including markets related to energy efficiency improvements in industry and non-residential buildings was also investigated, but no regular statistical data enabling proper

  9. Markets, jobs, and energetic challenge of activities related to renewable energies and to energy efficiency. Situation in 2007-2008. Perspectives for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This study proposes an annual evolution survey of markets and jobs related to the development of renewable energies and to the improvement of energy efficiency in the housing and transport sectors. Markets are related to wind energy, thermal and photovoltaic energy, heat pumps, wood, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, biogas, waste energetic valorization, geothermal energy, and hydro-energy. Energy efficiency improvements in the housing sector are related to energetic improvement of existing dwellings, condensing boilers, energetically performing household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps. In the transport sector, energy efficiency improvements concern rail transports and tramways as well as individual vehicles. New markets are identified and discussed: research and development for renewable energies, energy consultancy and diagnosis, energy efficiency in the office building sector and in the industrial sector

  10. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  11. Relative biological efficiency of 592 MeV protons. Analysis of the biological effect of secondary radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Baarli, J.

    1968-01-01

    The relative biological efficiency (RBE) of high energy protons is of importance because of their effects in the field of radioprotection around large accelerators and during space-flights. The nature of the interactions between 592 MeV protons and biological tissues makes it necessary to take into consideration the contribution of secondary radiation to the biological effect. Since it is not possible to obtain from a synchrotron a beam having a sufficiently large cross-section to irradiate large animals, one has to resort to certain devices concerning the mode of exposure when small laboratory animals are used. By irradiating rats individually and in groups, and by using the lethal test as a function of time, the authors show that the value of the RBE is different for animals of the same species having the same biological parameters. Thus there appears an increase in the biological effect due to secondary radiation produced in nuclear cascades which develop in a large volume, for example that of a human being. (author) [fr

  12. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in relation to climate and canopy nitrogen in U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Lepine, Lucie; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ollinger, Scott V.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding relations among forest carbon (C) uptake and water use is critical for predicting forest-climate interactions. Although the basic properties of tree-water relations have long been known, our understanding of broader-scale patterns is limited by several factors including (1) incomplete understanding of drivers of change in coupled C and water fluxes and water use efficiency (WUE), (2) difficulty in reconciling WUE estimates obtained at different scales, and (3) uncertainty in how evapotranspiration (ET) and WUE vary with other important resources such as nitrogen (N). To address these issues, we examined ET, gross primary production (GPP), and WUE at 11 AmeriFlux sites across North America. Our analysis spanned leaf and ecosystem scales and included foliar δ13C, δ18O, and %N measurements; eddy covariance estimates of GPP and ET; and remotely sensed estimates of canopy %N. We used flux data to derive ecosystem WUE (WUEe) and foliar δ13C to infer intrinsic WUE. We found that GPP, ET, and WUEe scaled with canopy %N, even when environmental variables were considered, and discuss the implications of these relationships for forest-atmosphere-climate interactions. We observed opposing patterns of WUE at leaf and ecosystem scales and examined uncertainties to help explain these opposing patterns. Nevertheless, significant relationship between C isotope-derived ci/ca and GPP indicates that δ13C can be an effective predictor of forest GPP. Finally, we show that incorporating species functional traits—wood anatomy, hydraulic strategy, and foliar %N—into a conceptual model improved the interpretation of Δ13C and δ18O vis-à-vis leaf to canopy water-carbon fluxes.

  13. 29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3 Guaranteed...

  14. Final rules relating to use of electronic communication and recordkeeping technologies by employee pension and welfare benefit plans. Notice of final rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    This document contains final rules under Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), concerning the disclosure of certain employee benefit plan information through electronic media, and the maintenance and retention of employee benefit plan records in electronic form. The rules establish a safe harbor pursuant to which all pension and welfare benefit plans covered by Title I of ERISA may use electronic media to satisfy disclosure obligations under Title I of ERISA. The rules also provide standards concerning the use of electronic media in the maintenance and retention of records required by sections 107 and 209 of ERISA. The rules affect employee pension and welfare benefit plans, including group health plans, plan sponsors, administrators and fiduciaries, and plan participants and beneficiaries.

  15. Survival benefit of chemoembolization plus Iodine125 seed implantation in unresectable hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT: a retrospective matched cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mingsheng; Wang, Haofan; Chen, Junwei; Bai, Mingjun; Wang, Long; Zhu, Kangshun; Jiang, Zaibo; Guan, Shouhai; Li, Zhengran; Qian, Jiesheng; Li, Mingan; Pang, Pengfei; Shan, Hong [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Ling-nan Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University, Interventional Radiology Institute, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Qu [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Oncology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the survival benefit of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus Iodine125 seed implantation (TACE-Iodine125) in hepatitis B-related HCC patients with portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) and the underlying prognostic factors. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on consecutive HCC patients with PVTT from January 2011 to June 2014. Seventy patients (TACE-Iodine125 group) who underwent TACE-Iodine125 were compared with a historical case-matched control group of 140 patients (TACE group) who received TACE alone. The survival of patients and the underlying prognostic factors were analysed. The median survival times of the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups were 11.0 and 7.5 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The survival probability at 12, 24, and 36 months was 50 %, 14.5 %, and 14.5 % vs. 25 %, 9 %, and 5 % in the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The PVTT responders had better survival than the PVTT non-responders (p < 0.001). For the PVTT non-responders, there were no differences in the survival curves between the groups (p = 0.353). Multivariate analysis showed that type III PVTT (p < 0.001) and APS (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. In contrast, the treatment modality of TACE-Iodine125 (p < 0.001) and PVTT response (p = 0.001) were favourable prognostic features. TACE combined with Iodine125 seed implantation may be a good choice for selected HB-HCC patients with PVTT. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of the system efficiency of an intermediate temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seung Won; Cha, Dowon; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • System efficiency of PEMFC is evaluated at elevated temperature and humidity. • Operating parameters are optimized using response surface methodology. • The optimal operating parameters are T = 90.6 °C, RH = 100.0%, and ζ = 2.07. • The power output and system efficiency are 1.28 W and 15.8% at the optimum. • The system efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing relative humidity. - Abstract: Humidification of the membrane is very important in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), to maintain high ionic conductivity. At an elevated temperature, a large amount of thermal energy is required for humidification because of the exponentially increased saturation vapor pressure. In this study, the system efficiency of a PEMFC was evaluated by considering the heat required for preheating/humidification and compression work. Three-dimensional steady-state simulations were conducted using Fluent 14 to simulate the electrochemical reactions. The operating conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by considering both the fuel cell output and system efficiency. In addition, the effects of operating parameters such as the temperature, relative humidity, and stoichiometric ratio were investigated. The system efficiency can be improved more effectively by increasing relative humidity rather than increasing operating temperature because the ionic conductivity of the membrane was strongly influenced by the relative humidity.

  17. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  18. Absolute versus Relative Environmental Sustainability: What can the Cradle-to-Cradle and Eco-efficiency Concepts Learn from Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    The cradle-to-cradle (C2C) concept has emerged as an alternative to the more established eco-efficiency concept based on life cycle assessment (LCA). The two concepts differ fundamentally in that eco-efficiency aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities while C2C...... attempts to increase the positive footprint. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each concept and suggests how they may learn from each other. The eco-efficiency concept involves no long-term vision or strategy, the links between resource consumption and waste emissions are not well...... related to the sustainability state, and increases in eco-efficiency may lead to increases in consumption levels and hence overall impact. The C2C concept's disregard for energy efficiency means that many current C2C products will likely not perform well in an LCA. Inherent drawbacks are restrictions...

  19. Effect of reproductive disorders on productivity and reproductive efficiency of dromedary she-camels in relation to cytokine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Malky, O M; Mostafa, T H; Abd El-Salaam, A M; Ayyat, M S

    2018-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of reproductive disorders on reproductive efficiency and milk production in relation with pro-inflammatory cytokines in dromedary she-camels. Total of 20 late pregnant Maghrabi she-camels, aging 6-9 years, weighing 420-550 kg, and between the second and third parities were divided into two groups. Animals in the first group (n = 12) showed normal reproductive status (G 1 ) at parturition, while those in the second one (n = 8) were suffered from reproductive disorders after parturition (G 2 ). Results showed that during pre-partum, red blood cells (RBCs) count decreased (P ≤ 0.05), while white blood cells (WBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) value, and neutrophils percentage increased (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Percentages of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils as well as hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05) in G1 and G2. During postpartum period, the same results were noticed in addition to increase (P ≤ 0.05) in eosinophil and decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in basophils percentages. During prepartum period, concentration of total proteins, albumin (AL) and IGF-1decreased (P ≤ 0.05), cholesterol concentration, and activity of AST and ALT were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Globulin (GL), AL: GL ratio, glucose, urea-N, creatinine, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ significantly in G 1 and G 2 . During postpartum period, the same results were noticed with decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in GL and glucose concentrations in G 2 as compared to G 1 . Concentration of all pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ, was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 at different peri-parturient times. Milk yield, days in milk, protein and lactose percentages, and IgG concentration were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 1 than in G 2 . Fat, total solids, solid non-fat, and ash percentages did not show any significant differences

  20. Water-use efficiency and relative growth rate mediate competitive interactions in Sonoran Desert winter annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Kimball, Sarah; Keck, Katie R; Huxman, Travis E; Angert, Amy L; Venable, D Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    A functional approach to investigating competitive interactions can provide a mechanistic understanding of processes driving population dynamics, community assembly, and the maintenance of biodiversity. In Sonoran Desert annual plants, a trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE) contributes to species differences in population dynamics that promote long-term coexistence. Traits underlying this trade-off explain variation in demographic responses to precipitation as well as life history and phenological patterns. Here, we ask how these traits mediate competitive interactions. • We conducted competition trials for three species occupying different positions along the RGR-WUE trade-off axis and compared the effects of competition at high and low soil moisture. We compared competitive effect (ability to suppress neighbors) and competitive response (ability to withstand competition from neighbors) among species. • The RGR-WUE trade-off predicted shifts in competitive responses at different soil moistures. The high-RGR species was more resistant to competition in high water conditions, while the opposite was true for the high-WUE species. The intermediate RGR species tended to have the strongest impact on all neighbors, so competitive effects did not scale directly with differences in RGR and WUE among competitors. • Our results reveal mechanisms underlying long-term variation in fitness: high-RGR species perform better in years with large, frequent rain events and can better withstand competition under wetter conditions. The opposite is true for high-WUE species. Such resource-dependent responses strongly influence community dynamics and can promote coexistence in variable environments.

  1. Tuning the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO2 nanocrystals leads to high photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Li, Yuanzhi; Chen, Xiong; Tian, Tingting; Fang, Pengfei; Zheng, Feng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2011-10-19

    TiO(2) nanocrystals with tunable bulk/surface defects were synthesized and characterized with TEM, XRD, BET, positron annihilation, and photocurrent measurements. The effect of defects on photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found for the first time that decreasing the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO(2) nanocrystals could significantly improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency.

  2. 22 CFR 191.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.21 Section 191.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE Medical Benefits § 191.21 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical...

  3. 22 CFR 192.31 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.31 Section 192.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.31 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part...

  4. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  5. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a) Type of benefits. A former spouse who meets the eligibility requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  6. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a

  7. Advice on the beam of inland vessels and width of locks related to efficient continental container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorsser, J.C.M.; Verheij, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This report, that serves as an advice report to PIANC InCom WG 179, addresses the optimal dimensions for inland waterway infrastructures as required for the efficient transport of continental pallet wide high cube 45 foot containers.

  8. Impact of Risk-Benefit Perception and Trust on Medical Technology Acceptance in Relation to Drug and Device Lag: A Tripartite Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Koji; Kishimoto, Junji; Ikeda, Masayuki; Ikeda, Koji; Yamamoto, Haruko

    2017-01-01

    New drug and medical device introduction in Japan usually lags behind that in the West. Many reports indicate that in Japan, the associated risks are considered greater than the benefits recognized in other countries. This study aimed to compare the relationship between risk-benefit perception and acceptance of medical technologies in 3 leading markets. A tripartite cross-sectional survey of the general public was used. In total, 3345 adults in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan participated, and sexes and age groups were equally represented. Questions about the perception of risk, benefit, and acceptance of medical and other scientific technologies, and trust of medical product providers or regulatory authorities were included. Five-step Likert coding for risk/benefit/acceptance of 4 medical items (x-rays, antibiotics, vaccines, and cardiac pacemakers) and 6 general items (such as automobiles and airplanes) were collected. Relationships between benefit perception and acceptance were linear for 4 medical technologies. The relationship had a similar slope but was shifted downward in Japan compared with the UK and US ( P medical technologies, benefits of medical technologies, trust in doctors, and trust in the Department of Health. The UK and US attributes were clustered with positive responses such as "useful," "acceptable," and "trustworthy," whereas Japan was clustered with intermediate to negative responses such as "neither" and "untrustworthy." Acceptance of medical technologies was low in Japan because of significant differences in trust for doctors and authorities compared with that in the UK and US. This is a possible basis for delays of 24 to 60 months for medical product approval in Japan.

  9. Evaluation of Biofertilizer “Myco-green” on Water Relation and Efficiency of Potato Minituber Production in Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parvizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today biological fertilizers are suitable substitutes for chemical manure. Hence they can improve soil fertility in sustainable agriculture system (Mandal et al, 2007. Moreover, in some composition they are accompanied with plant growth promoting rhizibacteria (PGPR, namely Pseudomonas and some Bacillus species. These bacteria can improve growth rate of the plants by some physiological aspects namely, cidrophore acid production, increasing endogenously phytohormone and helping more phosphor absorption and fixation of biological nitrogen (Tilack et al., 2005. The symbiosis of mycorrhiza with plants confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved plant growth and mineral nutrient absorption, tolerance to diseases and stresses such as drought, temperature fluctuation, metal toxicity, salinity and other adverse conditions (Fortin et al, 2002. Ryan et al, (2003 and Smith and Reed, (2008.Mycorrhizal plants are capable of absorbing more water in lower potential of water as compared with non-mycorrhizal plants (Sanchez and Blanco, 2001. Micro propagation of potato by micro and mini tubers have been established for improving multiplication rate and possibility of reserving some more stock plants as germplasm. Multiplication of the minitubers already have been accompanied by lower establishment that causes low vigor and performance of the plant. This experiment was performedto study the effect of biological manure accompanied with mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on water relationship and vigor of the plantlets derived from minituber in water stress condition. Material and Methods Myco-green is produced by Peat grow company in Malaysia and has been spreading in floriculture, seed beds, vegetable crops, seedling plant of oil palm and many other plants. The experiment was performedatthe University of International Technology Mara Sarawak (UITM. As first step, soil bed composition was combined with peat and perlite

  10. Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhammar, Carl Johan; Machacek, Erika; Bundgaard, Anja

    related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes...

  11. Population Dynamics and Cost-Benefit Analysis. An Attempt to Relate Population Dynamics via Lifetime Reproductive Success to Short-Term Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Balen, J.H. van; Drent, P.J.; Cavé, A.J.; Mertens, J.A.L.; Boer-Hazewinkel, J. den

    1987-01-01

    1. The aim of this article is to explore whether cost-benefit analysis of behaviour may help to understand the population dynamics of a species. The Great Tit is taken as an example. 2. The lifetime reproductive success in different populations of Great Tits amounts from 0.7 (Hoge Veluwe, Wytham) to

  12. Age-related differences in signaling efficiency of human lens cells underpin differential wound healing response rates following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Lucy Jean; Duncan, George; Wormstone, Ian Michael

    2013-01-14

    Cataract surgery is blighted by posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is more severe and frequent in the young than the elderly (>60 years). Our aim was to understand the biological basis for these age-related differences in PCO/wound healing rates. Human capsular bags were prepared by cataract surgery on donor lenses (young [60 years] groups) and maintained in serum-free Eagle's minimum essential medium. Cell growth was determined using the MTS assay. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were determined using ELISA. Protein synthesis rates were elucidated by 35S-methionine incorporation. U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 were used to disrupt ERK-, p38-, and JNK-mediated signaling, respectively. Level of total and phospho-ERK, -c-jun, -P38, and -JNK plus cytokines were detected using a BIOPLEX array system. Following a 2-day culture period, significant decreases in IL-1β and IL-6, and increases in IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and VEGF in the >60 years group were observed compared with their younger counterparts. Capsular bags (cells and capsule) from aged donors contained greater than or equal levels of HGF and FGF than younger counterparts and had greater rates of protein synthesis. Inhibition of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling significantly suppressed cell coverage on the posterior capsule. pERK, p-c-jun, p-p38, and pJNK were consistently lower in aged cell populations; total signaling protein expression was unaffected by age. Serum stimulation increased pERK, p-c-jun, and pJNK levels in cells of all ages; p-p38 was significantly increased in the >60 years group only. Ligand availability to cells is not a limiting factor as we age, but the ability to convert this resource into signaling activity is. We therefore propose that overall signaling efficiency is reduced as a function of age, which consequently limits wound-healing response rates after injury.

  13. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  14. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  15. Design of field experiments: Influence of treatment response relative to standard deviation and blocking factor characteristics on efficient blocking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection of experimental design can markedly influence efficiency of field research. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to compare the ability of different field experimental designs to distinguish defined treatment differences, and the paper concludes with a section on practical use of the in...

  16. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and trans piration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (g s) and mesophyll conductance (g m) and their anatomical determinants were

  17. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  18. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  19. Effect of task complexity on intelligence and neural efficiency in children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Jiannong; Luo, Yuejia; Liu, Sainan; Yang, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2007-10-08

    The present study investigates the effects of task complexity, intelligence and neural efficiency on children's performance on an Elementary Cognitive Task. Twenty-three children were divided into two groups on the basis of their Raven Progressive Matrix scores and were then asked to complete a choice reaction task with two test conditions. We recorded the electroencephalogram and calculated the peak latencies and amplitudes for anteriorly distributed P225, N380 and late positive component. Our results suggested shorter late positive component latencies in brighter children, possibly reflecting a higher processing speed in these individuals. Increased P225 amplitude and increased N380 amplitudes for brighter children may indicate a more efficient allocation of attention for brighter children. No moderating effect of task complexity on brain-intelligence relationship was found.

  20. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.M.; Carrasco, M.F.; Lencart, J.; Bastos, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for 99m Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  1. Relating Structure to Efficiency in Surfactant-Free Polymer/Fullerene Nanoparticle-Based Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Clulow, Andrew J; Howard, Ian A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Colsmann, Alexander

    2017-12-13

    Nanoparticle dispersions open up an ecofriendly route toward printable organic solar cells. They can be formed from a variety of organic semiconductors by using miniemulsions that employ surfactants to stabilize the nanoparticles in dispersion and to prevent aggregation. However, whenever surfactant-based nanoparticle dispersions have been used to fabricate solar cells, the reported performances remain moderate. In contrast, solar cells from nanoparticle dispersions formed by precipitation (without surfactants) can exhibit power conversion efficiencies close to those of state-of-the-art solar cells processed from blend solutions using chlorinated solvents. In this work, we use small-angle neutron scattering measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate why surfactant-free nanoparticles give rise to efficient organic solar cells. We show that surfactant-free nanoparticles comprise a uniform distribution of small semiconductor domains, similar to that of bulk-heterojunction films formed using traditional solvent processing. This observation differs from surfactant-based miniemulsion nanoparticles that typically exhibit core-shell structures. Hence, the surfactant-free nanoparticles already possess the optimum morphology for efficient energy conversion before they are assembled into the photoactive layer of a solar cell. This structural property underpins the superior performance of the solar cells containing surfactant-free nanoparticles and is an important design criterion for future nanoparticle inks.

  2. In-Depth Analysis of Energy Efficiency Related Factors in Commercial Buildings Using Data Cube and Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongjoon Noh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of energy are consumed in the commercial building sector, resulting in various adverse environmental issues. To reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings, it is necessary to develop effective methods for analyzing building energy use. In this study, we propose a data cube model combined with association rule mining for more flexible and detailed analysis of building energy consumption profiles using the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS dataset, which has accumulated over 6700 existing commercial buildings across the U.S.A. Based on the data cube model, a multidimensional commercial sector building energy analysis was performed based upon on-line analytical processing (OLAP operations to assess the energy efficiency according to building factors with various levels of abstraction. Furthermore, the proposed analysis system provided useful information that represented a set of energy efficient combinations by applying the association rule mining method. We validated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed analysis model by structuring a building energy analysis system and applying it to different building types, weather conditions, composite materials, and heating/cooling systems of the multitude of commercial buildings classified in the CBECS dataset.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish) consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products...... effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence...... of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption...

  4. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PACIFIER RELATED TO THE MOTHER’S PRACTICE WITH PRETERM INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalto, Elâine Cristina Vargas; Rosa, Edinete Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and expectations of mothers of preterm newborn infants admitted in a neonatal intensive care unit about breastfeeding and pacifier use, and to analyze their experience in dealing with the sucking urge in the first months of life. Methods: Mothers were interviewed during hospitalization of the newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit and when the infant was six months old. All mothers with availability to participate in the study were included. Exclusion criteria comprised infants with syndromes and neurological disorders and mothers with cognitive impairment, depression, and drug users. Data were analyzed with the SPSS software, with descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: Sixty-two mothers were interviewed in the beginning and 52 at a six-month follow-up. Mothers’ expectations concerning breastfeeding were positive when they listed the benefits to the mother (90.3%) and infant (100%). However, they had difficulties maintaining exclusive breastfeeding and used the baby bottle (75.0%), which most mothers (69.4%) had already acquired before the infant was born. The fact of having a pacifier in the infant’s layette (43.6%) did not influence its use (p=0.820). This also occurred among mothers who said they would not offer the pacifier due to disadvantages to the mother (80.7%) and infant (96.8%). The previous expectation that the pacifier could bring benefits for mother and infant did not affect its use (p=0.375 and p=0.158). Conclusions: Mothers demonstrated prior knowledge about breastfeeding benefits and disadvantages of the pacifiers. However, they changed their view when dealing with the infant and introduced bottles and pacifiers. PMID:28977129

  5. Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Risonarta, Victor; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements and slag analysis are necessary to reliably determine energy sinks. In this paper 70 energy balances and energy efficiencies from multiple EAFs are presented, including data calculated from plant measurements and compiled from the literature. Potential errors that can be incorporated in these calculations are also highlighted. The total energy requirement of these modern EAFs analysed ranged from 510 to 880 kWh/t, with energy efficiency values (η = ΔH Steel /E Total ) of between 40% and 75%. Furthermore, the focus was placed on the total energy related CO 2 emissions of EAF processes comprising NG combustion and electrical energy input. By assessing multiple EAF energy balances, a significant correlation between the total energy requirement and energy related specific CO 2 emissions was not evident. Whilst the specific consumption of NG in the EAF only had a minor impact on the EAF energy efficiency, it decreased the specific electrical energy requirement and increased EAF productivity where transformer power was restricted. The analysis also demonstrated that complementing and substituting electrical energy with NG was beneficial in reducing the total energy related CO 2 emissions when a certain level of substitution efficiency was achieved. Therefore, the appropriate use of NG burners in modern EAFs can result in an increased EAF energy intensity, whilst the total energy related CO 2 emissions remain constant or are even decreased.

  6. A BSC-DEA approach to measure the relative efficiency of service industry: A case study of banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Aryanezhad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation plays an important role in determining faults and difficulties of any organization as well as attempting to increase capabilities and improve activities. Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a non-parametric method, has been one of the most important and significant management tools for measuring output or efficiency. In this paper, we propose a method to utilize balanced score card (BSC as a tool for designing performance evaluation indices of an organization. The integrated BSC-DEA has been applied as an empirical case for a major private bank organization and the results are analyzed.

  7. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Carrasco, M.F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Lencart, J. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for {sup 99m}Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  8. Ethnic, racial and cultural identity and perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for breast cancer among at-risk women of African descent in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, K M; Edwards, T A; Thompson, H S; Jandorf, L; Kwate, N O; Forman, A; Brown, K; Kapil-Pair, N; Bovbjerg, D H; Schwartz, M D; Valdimarsdottir, H B

    2011-01-01

    Due to disparities in the use of genetic services, there has been growing interest in examining beliefs and attitudes related to genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk among women of African descent. However, to date, few studies have addressed critical cultural variations among this minority group and their influence on such beliefs and attitudes. We assessed ethnic, racial and cultural identity and examined their relationships with perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for cancer risk in a sample of 160 women of African descent (49% self-identified African American, 39% Black-West Indian/Caribbean, 12% Black-Other) who met genetic risk criteria and were participating in a larger longitudinal study including the opportunity for free genetic counseling and testing in New York City. All participants completed the following previously validated measures: (a) the multi-group ethnic identity measure (including ethnic search and affirmation subscales) and other-group orientation for ethnic identity, (b) centrality to assess racial identity, and (c) Africentrism to measure cultural identity. Perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing included: (1) pros/advantages (including family-related pros), (2) cons/disadvantages (including family-related cons, stigma and confidentiality concerns), and (3) concerns about abuses of genetic testing. In multivariate analyses, several ethnic identity elements showed significant, largely positive relationships to perceived benefits about genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, the exception being ethnic search, which was positively associated with cons/disadvantages, in general, and family-related cons/disadvantages. Racial identity (centrality) showed a significant association with confidentiality concerns. Cultural identity (Africentrism) was not related to perceived benefits and/or barriers. Ethnic and racial identity may influence perceived benefits and barriers

  9. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  10. A hybrid method of grey relational analysis and data envelopment analysis for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers plus a novel ranking method for grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sayyah Markabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluation and selection of efficient suppliers is one of the key issues in supply chain management which depends on wide range of qualitative and quantitative criteria. The aim of this research is to develop a mathematical model for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers when faced with supply and demand uncertainties.Design/methodology/approach: In this research Grey Relational Analysis (GRA and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA are used to evaluate and select efficient suppliers under uncertainties. Furthermore, a novel ranking method is introduced for the units that their efficiencies are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers.Findings: The study indicates that the proposed model in addition to providing satisfactory and acceptable results avoids time-consuming computations and consequently reduces the solution time. To name another advantage of the proposed model, we can point out that it enables us to make decision based on different levels of risk.Originality/value: The paper presents a mathematical model for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers in a stochastic environment so that companies can use in order to make better decisions.

  11. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign....... Altogether 874 children were randomly selected and included in the study. Sugar-free meals and drinks were provided in all primary schools throughout the campaign week. Dental officers held 30-minute information sessions with each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities. Dental...... knowledge and behaviour were evaluated by interviews immediately before and after the campaign. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about diet and dental health and a significantly higher proportion of children claimed to choose non-cariogenic foods and drinks as a result of the campaign...

  12. Comparative studies of the relation costs/benefits of the production methods of 99Mo: fission of 235U and neutron capture reaction on 98Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sergio Yukio

    2004-01-01

    This work analyses the benefits and costs that are the results of the production of Technetium generators, using 99 Mo produced by two different ways. For this analysis, the production process of 99 Mo, nowadays imported, obtained through the fission of uranium. The second process is the gel generator that is totally national, developed by researcher at IPEN. The self-sustained costs were evaluated for both production processes. The conclusion was that although positive and negative aspects appear in both processes, they must remain: Fission Mo will supply the generators with activities higher than 1.85x10 10 Bq and the gel generator will supply activities up to 1.85x10 10 Bq. This limitation can be overcome if the power of the Reactor is upgraded and if the irradiation time covers the 3 shifts. (author)

  13. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  14. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the add