WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative economic status

  1. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  2. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine

    2010-06-06

    Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.

  3. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Jarl

    Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  4. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  5. Mediation of psychosocial determinants in the relation between socio-economic status and adolescents' diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Vynckier, Lisa; Moreno, Luis A; Beghin, Laurent; de la O, Alex; Forsner, Maria; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Huybrechts, Inge; Iguacel, Isabel; Kafatos, Antonio; Kersting, Mathilde; Leclercq, Catherine; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascension; Molnar, Denes; Sjöström, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2018-04-01

    To examine the underlying reasons for the positive relation between socio-economic status (SES) and the diet quality of adolescents. In 2081 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) of the European HELENA study, a continuous variable on diet quality via 2-day 24-h recalls was available. SES was reflected by parental education, parental occupation and family affluence. Mediation by several psychosocial determinants was tested: self-efficacy, availability at school and home, social support, barriers, benefits, awareness and some self-reported influencers (parents, school, taste, health, friends, food readily available, easy preparation, hunger, price and habits). Multiple mediation analyses were adjusted for age, sex and country. The availability of soft drinks and fruit at home, social support, parental influence, barriers, price influence, taste influence, health influence and food being readily available were significant mediators. The multiple mediation indirect effect accounted for 23-64% of the total effect. Both occupation and education and both maternal and paternal factors could be explained by the mediation. The unavailability of soft drinks was the strongest mediator (17-44% of the total effect). Up to 64% of the positive relation between SES and the diet quality in adolescence could be explained by several healthy eating determinants. Focusing on these factors in low-SES populations can minimize social inequalities in diet and health by improving the diet of these specific adolescents.

  6. Is Socio-Economic Status a Determinant of HIV-Related Stigma Attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateveke, Kudzanai; Singh, Basant; Chingono, Alfred; Sibanda, E; Machingura, Ian

    2016-08-17

    HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept , which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIV-related stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants' ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR)=1.73, Pstigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population.

  7. Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H

    2006-01-01

    At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent "normal trade relations" (PNTR) status...

  8. Are daughters' childbearing intentions related to their mothers' socio-economic status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Testa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike actual fertility, fertility intentions are often found to be positively correlated with education. The literature explaining this paradox is scarce. Objective: We aim to fill the gap in the existing scientific literature by searching for the main factors that influence highly educated women to plan a larger family size. Methods: Using the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for four countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, and Norway, we analyse the relationship between mother's socio-economic status and daughter's fertility intentions, controlling for daughter's socio-economic status and sibship size. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models are employed to estimate the predictors of women's additionally intended number of children. Results: We find that the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through sibship size among childless daughters: Daughters with more siblings intend to have more children. After the transition to parenthood, the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through the mother's level of education: Daughters with highly educated mothers intend to have more children. Conclusions: The empirical results suggest that the positive link between births intentions and level of education might not merely be an artefact generated by the design of cross-sectional surveys but the outcome of a better socio-economic status that allows forming positive reproductive plans. Contribution: The positive role of mother's socio-economic status on daughter's fertility decision-making offers a valuable interpretation of the positive link between education and fertility intentions which goes beyond the alternative explanations referring to self-selection, partner effect, or time squeeze, and needs to be confirmed by further research.

  9. Obesity and related risk factors among low socio-economic status minority students in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Tussing, Lisa; Braunschweig, Carol; Caballero, Benjamin; Flay, Brian

    2007-09-01

    To assess overweight and related risk factors among urban low socio-economic status (SES) African-American adolescents in an attempt to study the underlying causes of ethnicity and gender disparities in overweight. Cross-sectional data collected on anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity and family characteristics from 498 students in grades 5-7 in four Chicago public schools were analysed to study the risk factors for overweight using stepwise regression analysis. Only 37.2% of the students lived with two parents. Nearly 90% had a television (TV) in their bedroom, and had cable TV and a video game system at home. Overall. 21.8% (17.7% boys versus 25.1% girls) were overweight (body mass index (BMI) >/= 95th percentile); and 39.8% had a BMI >/= 85th percentile. Compared with national recommendations, they had inadequate physical activity and less than desirable eating patterns. Only 66.1% reported having at least 20 min vigorous exercise or 30 min of light exercise in >/= 5 days over the past 7 days; 62.1% spent >3 h days- 1 watching TV/playing video games/computer, while 33.1% spent >/= 5 h days- 1. Their vegetable and fruit consumption was low, and they consumed too many fried foods and soft drinks: 55.1% consumed fried food twice or more daily and 19.5% four times or more daily; 70.3% consumed soft drinks twice or more daily and 22.0% four times or more daily on average. Gender, physical activity and pocket money were significant predictors of overweight (P students' behaviours, school and family environments may increase overweight risk among this population. There is a great need for health promotion programmes with a focus on healthy weight and lifestyle, and targeting urban low-SES minority communities.

  10. Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G

    2010-06-01

    The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess

  11. Is socio-economic status a determinant of HIV-related stigma attitudes in Zimbabwe? Findings from Project Accept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudzanai Mateveke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIVrelated stigma: shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity. Participants’ ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Shame, blame and social isolation component of HIV related stigma was found to be significantly associated with medium [odds ratio (OR=1.73, P<0.01] and low SES (OR=1.97, P<0.01, indicating more stigmatizing attitudes by participants belonging to medium and low SES in comparison to high SES. For HIV related stigma and discrimination programs to be effective, they should take into account the socio-economic context of target population.

  12. Physical growth and health related physical fitness in adolescents of differents socio economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to compare: the physical growth through the body mass (BM, stature and body mass index (BMI between sex and socio-economic status (SES by age; the health-related physical fitness (HRPFbetween gender and SES; the HRPF for sex and SES with the criterion-referenced proposed by AAHPERD (1988. The sample was composed by 191 boys and 212 girls, with ages between 14.49 and 17.50 years, self-evaluated in 4 or 5 TANNER (1962 stages, students from public and private school from Luis Eduardo Magalhães - BA. The SES classification was made by ANEP (1996 questionnaire, adapted to the high, intermediate and low SES. The HRPF components were measured by the respective tests: body fat (sum of the triceps and calf skinfolds; aerobic endurance (run/walk 1600m; muscular strength/endurance (abdominal; upper body muscular strength/endurance (modified pull-up and flexibility (sit and reach. The analysis of the data was made through the descriptive statistics, analysis of variance one-way and the Scheffé’s post-hoc test (p RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivos comparar: o crescimento físico através da massa corporal (MC, estatura e índice de massa corporal (IMC entre os gêneros e os níveis sócio-econômicos (NSE por idade; a aptidão físicarelacionada à saúde (AFRS entre os gêneros e os NSE; a AFRS por gênero e NSE com os critérios-referenciado propostos pela AAHPERD (1988. A amostra foi composta por 191 rapazes e 212 moças, com idades entre 14,49 e 17,50 anos, auto-avaliada nos estágios 4 ou 5 de TANNER (1962, estudantes das redes pública e particular de Luís Eduardo Magalhães - BA. A classificação sócio-econômica foi feita pelo questionário da ANEP (1996, adaptado para os NSE alto, médio e baixo. Os componentes da AFRS foram mensurados pelos respectivos testes: gordura corporal (somatório da dobras cutâneas tricipital e panturrilha; aptidão cardiorrespiratória (correr/caminhar 1600m; for

  13. Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: an integrative review and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F

    2009-02-01

    There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among ethnic groups, and the major evidence on the role of exposure to ethnicity- and SES-related stressors on health. We then offer a reciprocal and recursive lifespan meta-model that considers the interaction of ethnicity and SES history as impacting exposure to psychosocial adversities, including ethnicity-related stresses, and mediating biopsychosocial mechanisms that interact to result in hypothesized cumulative biopsychosocial vulnerabilities. Ultimately, group differences in the burden of cumulative vulnerabilities are hypothesized as contributing to differential health status over time. Suggestions are offered for future research on the unique role that ethnicity- and SES-related processes are likely to play as contributors to persistent ethnic health disparities.

  14. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  15. Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S E; Kawachi, I; Fitzmaurice, G M; Buka, L

    2003-11-01

    Childhood adversity significantly increases the risk of depression, but it is unclear whether this risk is most pronounced for depression occurring early in life. In the present study, we examine whether three aspects of childhood adversity--low socio-economic status (SES), family disruption, and residential instability--are related to increased risk of depression during specific stages of the life course. We also examine whether these aspects of childhood adversity are related to the severity of depression. A sample of 1089 of the 4140 births enrolled in the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project was interviewed between the ages of 18 and 39. Measures of parental SES, childhood family disruption and residential instability were obtained upon mother's enrolment and at age 7. Age at onset of major depressive episode, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and age at last episode were ascertained via structured diagnostic interviews. Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression onset and remission and Poisson regression was used to model the recurrence rate of depressive episodes. Low parental SES, family disruption and a high level of residential instability, defined as three or more family moves, were related to elevated lifetime risks of depression; the effects of family disruption and residential instability were most pronounced on depression onset by age 14. Childhood adversity was also related to increased risk of recurrence and reduced likelihood of remission. Childhood social disadvantage significantly influences risk of depression onset both in childhood and in adulthood. Early childhood adversity is also related to poor prognosis.

  16. Relation between Observed and Perceived Traffic Noise and Socio-Economic Status in Urban Blocks of Different Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte von Szombathely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living in cities offers many benefits and thus more and more people are living in urban areas. However, the concentration of human activities also creates environmental stressors with severe influence on people’s health and well-being. Noise is an environmental stressor with known health impact. Despite this, studies investigating small-scale difference in noise exposure and annoyance are lacking. Against this background, this case study investigates environmental justice empirically, focusing on the distribution of road traffic noise and its perception in Hamburg, Germany. The study outlines a methodological approach that takes into account subjective and objective measures of exposure in small-scale residential blocks. The results show that annoyance by noise is clearly related to noise emission. Moreover, different groups are affected by noise pollution in our study area unequally. In particular, younger people and people with lower socio-economic status have higher probabilities to be affected by noise. Additionally, it emerged that participants reporting higher levels of annoyance from noise are on average younger than those feeling less annoyed. Overall, these results show that the current legal noise limits applicable to residential planning processes in German cities are not sufficient to prevent substantial annoyance effects in residential populations.

  17. Proposers’ Economic Status Affects Behavioral and Neural Responses to Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic status played an important role in the modulation of economic decision making. The present fMRI study aimed at investigating how economic status modulated behavioral and neural responses to unfairness in a modified Ultimatum Game (UG. During scanning, participants played as responders in the UG, and they were informed of the economic status of proposers before receiving offers. At the behavioral level, higher rejection rates and lower fairness ratings were revealed when proposers were in high economic status than in low economic status. Besides, the most time-consuming decisions tended to occur at lower unfairness level when the proposers were in high (relative to low economic status. At the neural level, stronger activation of left thalamus was revealed when fair offers were proposed by proposers in high rather than in low economic status. Greater activation of right medial prefrontal cortex was revealed during acceptance to unfair offers in high economic status condition rather than in low economic status condition. Taken together, these findings shed light on the significance of proposers’ economic status in responders’ social decision making in UG.

  18. Physical activity patterns of children in Toronto: the relative role of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E; Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron

    2012-07-23

    A child's opportunity for physical activity and the safety of engaging in activity are influenced by built environment (BE) elements. This study examined the relationship of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status (SES) with activity using a sampling frame that purposely located schools in varying neighbourhoods to ensure that there was variability in BE characteristics and SES. Participants (1,027 Grade 5 & 6 students, Toronto, ON) were drawn from 16 schools that varied by neighbourhood type (pre-1946 "old/urban BE" with grid-based street layout versus post-1946 "new/inner-suburban BE" with looping street layout) and socio-economic status (low and high SES). Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry for seven days. Only children living within 1.6 km of school were included in the analyses (n=713; boys=339, girls=374). Generalized linear mixed models examined sex-specific differences in physical activity across four geographic stratifications: old BE, low-SES (OL); old BE, high-SES (OH); new BE, low-SES (NL); and new BE, high-SES (NH). Children who attended schools in more affluent neighbourhoods (urban and inner-suburban) had more positive physical activity profiles. Across school days, boys were more active in inner-suburban neighbourhoods whereas urban and inner-suburban girls' activity levels were similar. On the weekend, the influence of the neighbourhood environment was stronger, especially for girls and also for boys with respect to total activity and the accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These findings focus attention on the need to consider the broader social and temporal contexts of specific geographic locations when planning and implementing built environment interventions to increase physical activity among children.

  19. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I; Marino, Bradley S

    2013-06-18

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children's health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family's position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Validation Study. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index (occupational prestige), and highest parent educational attainment level. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators. Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. The correlations among the SES measures were moderately high, with the correlation between the Hollingshead Index and parental education being r = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.56-0.65). There were equally high correlations between family income and the Hollingshead (r = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.57-0.65) and a slightly lower correlation between family income and parental education (r = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.52-0.59). Family income had the highest explanatory value compared to the Hollingshead Index or parental educational attainment, while controlling for sex, race, current cardiac status, and original diagnosis, accounting for 4-5% of the variation in patient and parent Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Total score, respectively, compared to the other SES measures. Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the

  20. [Health-related quality of life of overweight and obese adolescents: what differences can be seen by socio-economic status and education?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L; Ellert, U; Kroll, L E; Lampert, T

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the relation between overweight/obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence is analysed. Of special interest is the question, to what extent this relation varies by socio-economic status (SES) and education. Data base is a subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, n = 6,813, 11-17 years). For the assessment of overweight and obesity, body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on standardised body height and weight measurements. The HRQoL was collected using the KINDL-R-questionnaire, which allows statements concerning a total rating as well as 6 dimensions: physical well-being, emotional well-being, self-worth, family well-being, well-being in relation to friends/peers and school well-being. SES and education are analysed as moderating factors. The results show that obese boys as well as overweight and obese girls have a diminished HRQoL compared to normal weight peers. The analyses according to SES and education suggest that in girls this finding applies for all considered subgroups. Thus, in girls neither SES nor education has a moderating impact on the relation between overweight/obesity and HRQoL. In boys, only SES has a moderating impact on the relation between overweight and HRQoL in favour of the low status group. In terms of the relation between obesity and HRQoL, in boys also only SES has a moderating impact on the analysed relation, but here in favour of the high status group. Altogether, the results show that overweight and especially obese adolescents are affected in their HRQoL, this being almost independent of SES and education. Interventions to improve the HRQoL of overweight and obese adolescents should be independent of SES and education.

  1. The Health Status of the Early Medieval Population of Greater Moravia in Relation to Social and Economic Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2009), s. 91-101 ISSN 0567-8250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Medieval period * Great Moravian population * social -economic structure * demography * Enamel Hypoplasy * Cribra orbitalia * Harris lines * Dental health state * Degenerative changes joints Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  3. Socio-economic status in relation to smoking: The role of (expected and desired) social support and quitter identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M

    2016-08-01

    Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than

  4. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-03-21

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.

  5. Does Socio-Economic Status and Health Consciousness Influence How Women Respond to Health Related Messages in Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Anette Christine; Kraft, Pal

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study investigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women…

  6. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  7. Building dampness and mold in European homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, D; Zock, J-P; Plana, E; Heinrich, J; Tischer, C; Jacobsen Bertelsen, R; Sunyer, J; Künzli, N; Villani, S; Olivieri, M; Verlato, G; Soon, A; Schlünssen, V; Gunnbjörnsdottir, M I; Jarvis, D

    2017-09-01

    We studied dampness and mold in homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status (SES) across Europe, for 7127 homes in 22 centers. A subsample of 3118 homes was inspected. Multilevel analysis was applied, including age, gender, center, SES, climate, and building factors. Self-reported water damage (10%), damp spots (21%), and mold (16%) in past year were similar as observed data (19% dampness and 14% mold). Ambient temperature was associated with self-reported water damage (OR=1.63 per 10°C; 95% CI 1.02-2.63), damp spots (OR=2.95; 95% CI 1.98-4.39), and mold (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.04-4.67). Precipitation was associated with water damage (OR=1.12 per 100 mm; 95% CI 1.02-1.23) and damp spots (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20). Ambient relative air humidity was not associated with indoor dampness and mold. Older buildings had more dampness and mold (Prisk factors for dampness and mold in homes in Europe. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  9. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...

  10. Status threat, not economic hardship, explains the 2016 presidential vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Diana C

    2018-05-08

    This study evaluates evidence pertaining to popular narratives explaining the American public's support for Donald J. Trump in the 2016 presidential election. First, using unique representative probability samples of the American public, tracking the same individuals from 2012 to 2016, I examine the "left behind" thesis (that is, the theory that those who lost jobs or experienced stagnant wages due to the loss of manufacturing jobs punished the incumbent party for their economic misfortunes). Second, I consider the possibility that status threat felt by the dwindling proportion of traditionally high-status Americans (i.e., whites, Christians, and men) as well as by those who perceive America's global dominance as threatened combined to increase support for the candidate who emphasized reestablishing status hierarchies of the past. Results do not support an interpretation of the election based on pocketbook economic concerns. Instead, the shorter relative distance of people's own views from the Republican candidate on trade and China corresponded to greater mass support for Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012. Candidate preferences in 2016 reflected increasing anxiety among high-status groups rather than complaints about past treatment among low-status groups. Both growing domestic racial diversity and globalization contributed to a sense that white Americans are under siege by these engines of change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  12. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  13. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  14. Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.

  15. A school based study of time trends in food habits and their relation to socio-economic status among Norwegian adolescents, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-09-25

    In recent years, adolescents' food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers' food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop. We used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found. The study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by

  16. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  17. The Current Status of the Economic Security of Poltava Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarevska Olha M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.

  18. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  19. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  20. Socio-economic status and preferences in marriage partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    The result revealed that university undergraduates socio-economic status significantly ..... had university education marry university graduates or those with more education than they have. ... Dissertation Abstract. International, 59(9-A0, 3526.

  1. Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.

  2. Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual Blood Pressure in ... data suggest that essential or primary hypertension occurs in the young. ... METHODS: One thousand and eight adolescents attending two secondary ...

  3. Socio-Economic Status and Psychological Constructs of Heads of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.

  4. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  5. Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women beneficiaries of UNICEF-assisted nutrition enhancement programme in Abia State, Nigeria. ... educated, and as a way of sustaining the women's nutritional status for reproduction and food security at the household level and development in its entirety at large.

  6. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  7. Socio-economic status, lifestyle and childhood obesity in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...

  8. Does parents' socio-economic status matter in intentions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior ...

  9. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  10. Health-related morphological characteristics and physiological fitness in connection with nutritional, socio-economic status, occupational workload of tea garden workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav; Sahoo, Sobhana

    2014-09-01

    Reports on the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of male workers engaged in processing of tea leaves in factories within the tea-estates of West Bengal, under the influence of physiological workload, are quite scanty. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate morphometric characteristics based on physiological status and physical fitness of tea factory laborers who are continuously exposed to tea dust in their work environment for more than two years. Subjects were divided into control and tea garden workers groups. Height and weight were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was computed. Physiological parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure, fitness variables like physical fitness index (PFI), energy expenditure (EE), handgrip strength and anthropometric parameters like mid-upper arm (MUAC), thigh circumference (TC), head circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Body surface area (BSA), BMI, body fat percentage and fitness variables (PFI, EE) showed significant difference (p nutritional status (BMI and WHR).

  11. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  13. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  14. Mechanism of economic regulation of land relations

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Stupen'; Svitlana Rogach; Ivan Riy

    2015-01-01

    In the article the mechanism of economic regulation of land relations is revealed. The main functions of the economic evaluation of land resources are: registration of land resources and environment; choices of resources and conditions usage. The author proves that the proper economic regulation needs governmental support which is to preserve the land as a natural resource.

  15. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbron E, E.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  16. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  17. Economic Valuation of European Commercial Fisheries under Good Environmental Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goulding, Ian; Hutniczak, Barbara; Münch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on assessing the economic impact of achieving Good Environmental Status in the EU’s commercial capture fisheries, being one of the descriptors listed under the MSFD in terms of landed value using 2010 prices. The approach adopted is to assess the values of landings under...... different environmental scenarios, and use the differences between them to highlight the economic impacts of each....

  18. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The rise in the divorce rate over the past 40 years is one of the fundamental changes in American society. A seemingly ever-increasing number of women and children spend some fraction of their life in single female-headed households, leading many to be concerned about the economic circumstances of these women their and children. Estimating the cause-to-effect relationship between marital dissolution and female economic status is complicated because the same factors that increase marital insta...

  19. Gender, socio-economic status and educational level as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...

  20. Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Deviant Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...

  1. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…

  2. Socio-economic status, knowledge, awareness and attitudes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...

  3. Socio-economic status and menarcheal age in urban African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...

  4. socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr

    7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ... 90% of domestic responsibilities and are national resource managers and environmental ..... Education exposes one to better ways of managing resources and doing ... human nutrition basics, as well as rules for healthy eating. ... Second Edition.

  5. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  6. Socio-economic status, risk factors and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.

  7. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  8. The Economic Effects of Providing Legal Status to DREAMers

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Francesc; Edwards, Ryan; Hsin, Amy

    2018-01-01

    This study quantifies the economic effects of two major immigration reforms aimed at legalizing undocumented individuals that entered the United States as children and completed high school: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and the DREAM Act. The former offers only temporary legal status to eligible individuals; the latter provides a track to legal permanent residence. Our analysis is based on a general-equilibrium model that allows for shifts in participation between work, colle...

  9. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  10. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  11. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  12. Educational status, social economic status and evaluation of some dimensions of octogenarians' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva

    2007-01-01

    To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.

  13. Cooperative biogas plants. Economic results and analyses. Status report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    1998-11-01

    The years 1995 - 1998 have been characterised by stabilisation of operation and economy of the Danish co-operative biogas plants. Most of the plants have obtained increasingly better economic results although the increase has been less significant than during earlier periods. There are several reasons for the increase. Most of the plants have been able to increase the sales income because of larger amounts of biomass available resulting in an increased biogas production. Furthermore it has been possible to contain the income level for biomass receipt. Several plants have established gas collection in storage tanks, which has resulted in increased gas yield. The operational stability related to both technique and processes have improved. The operational costs have been stabilised and are under control at most of the plants. The improved economic results have resulted in most of the plants having a satisfactory operation and economy. However, it must be stressed that some of the oldest plants have not been able to settle the investment dept at normal conditions. Also some, even rather new plants, still are in a difficult economic situation. Most of the plants established in the 90'ies have had a good start both operationally and economically. Thus the economic risk of establishing a plant has been reduced compared to earlier years. Generally the prerequisites for establishing a biogas plant are favourable economic conditions and quality assurance of the project. (LN)

  14. The influence of status on satisfaction with relative rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Essen, Emma von; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how induced relative status affects satisfaction with different relative payoffs. We find that participants with lower status are more satisfied with disadvantageous payoff inequalities than equal or higher status participants. In contrast, when receiving an advantageous...... payoff, status does not affect satisfaction. Our findings suggest that relative social status has important implications for the acceptance of income inequalities....

  15. The influence of status on satisfaction with relative rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Konstanze; von Essen, Emma; Fliessbach, Klaus; Falk, Armin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how induced relative status affects satisfaction with different relative payoffs. We find that participants with lower status are more satisfied with disadvantageous payoff inequalities than equal or higher status participants. In contrast, when receiving an advantageous payoff, status does not affect satisfaction. Our findings suggest that relative social status has important implications for the acceptance of income inequalities. PMID:24198802

  16. Economic burden of malaria in rural Tanzania: variations by socioeconomic status and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph D; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2007-10-01

    To determine the economic burden of malaria in a rural Tanzanian setting and identify any differences by socioeconomic status and season. Interviews of 557 households in south eastern Tanzania between May and December 2004, on consumption and malaria-related costs. Malaria-related expenses were significantly higher in the dry, non-malarious season than in the rainy season. Households sought treatment more frequently and from more expensive service providers in the dry season, when they have more money. Malaria expenses did not vary significantly across socioeconomic status quintiles, but poorer households spent a higher proportion of their consumption in both seasons. Poorer households bear a greater economic burden from malaria relative to their consumption than better-off households. Households are particularly vulnerable to malaria in the rainy season, when malaria prevalence is highest but liquidity is lower. Alternative strategies to assist households to cope with seasonal liquidity issues, including insurance, should be investigated.

  17. Socio-economic status and health in a marginalized group: the role of subjective social status among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine

    2010-12-01

    One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.

  18. Socio-Economic Status, Time Spending, and Sleep Duration in Indian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...

  19. Smoking, health-related quality of life and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Ángel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Muñoz, Celia

    2018-06-01

    The economic evaluation of tobacco control policies requires the adoption of assumptions about the impact of changes in smoking status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Estimates for such impacts are necessary for different populations. This paper aims to test whether smoking status has an independent effect on HRQoL over and above the effect derived from the increased likelihood of suffering a tobacco related disease, and to calculate utility values for the Spanish population. Using data from the Spanish Encuesta Nacional de Salud of 2011-12, we estimate statistical models for HRQoL as measured by the EQ-5D-5L instrument as a function of smoking status. We include a comprehensive set of controls for biological, clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics. Smoking status has an independent, statistically significant effect on HRQoL. However, the size of the effect is small. The typical smoking related diseases, such as lung cancer, are associated with a reduction in HRQoL about 5 times larger than the difference between current smokers and never smokers. Attributing substantive HRQoL gains to quitting smoking as well as accounting for the concomitant HRQoL gain derived from a smaller likelihood of contracting tobacco related diseases might lead to an overestimation of the benefits of tobacco control policies. Nonetheless, the relatively large drops in HRQoL associated with being diagnosed with diseases that might be causally linked to tobacco suggest that such diseases should not be omitted from the economic evaluations of tobacco control policies.

  20. [Intelligence, socio-economic status and hospital admissions of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F

    2007-05-12

    To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.

  1. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587

  2. Socioeconomic status and stress-related biological responses over the working day.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steptoe, A.; Kunz-Ebrecht, S.R.; Owen, N.; Feldman, P.J.; Willemsen, G.; Kirschbaum, C.; Marmot, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The influence of low socioeconomic status on cardiovascular disease may be mediated in part by sustained activation of stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine processes. We hypothesized that low socio-economic status would be associated with heightened ambulatory blood pressure and

  3. Effect of socio-economic status on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min

    2017-06-01

    Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K; Biswas, S; Nayak, K; Chatterjee, M K; Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, S

    2012-05-01

    Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.

  5. Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    How did nutritional status develop in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the 20th century, and what role did economic development play in nutrition and health? Aggregating data from more than 200,000 women in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, we use mean height as an indicator of net nutritional status and find that the nutritional status of 1960 birth cohorts was relatively high. This situation, however, was not sustained. In almost all countries examined, mean heights were stagnating or decreasing after the 1970 cohorts. Using regression analysis we model human growth from birth to maturity, and find that economic growth had a significant and robust influence on final adult height at two distinct periods of the life cycle: (1) in the first years of life and (2) at puberty. We conclude that the economic difficulties of the late 1970s and 1980s contributed to the decline or stagnation in heights. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  7. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  8. Economic Status and Adult Mortality in India: Is the Relationship Sensitive to Choice of Indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2018-03-01

    Research on economic status and adult mortality is often stymied by the reciprocity of this relationship and lack of clarity on which aspect of economic status matters. While financial resources increase access to healthcare and nutrition and reduce mortality, sickness also reduces labor force participation, thereby reducing income. Without longitudinal data, it is difficult to study the linkage between economic status and mortality. Using data from a national sample of 132,116 Indian adults aged 15 years and above, this paper examines their likelihood of death between wave 1 of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), conducted in 2004-2005 and wave 2, conducted in 2011-2012. The results show that mortality between the two waves is strongly linked to the economic status of the household at wave 1 regardless of the choice of indicator for economic status. However, negative relationship between economic status and mortality for individuals already suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic conditions varies between three markers of economic status - income, consumption and ownership of consumer durables - varies, reflecting two-way relationship between short and long term markers of economic status and morbidity.

  9. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  10. Socio-Economic status of parents as a correlate of re-entry of girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status (SES) and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated for the study. Two research instruments, the “Socio-Economic Status of Parents” and the “Reentry into ...

  11. Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Khanal, Sami; Manandhar, Ashish; Shah, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production. This review explores the current status of the AD technology worldwide and some of the environmental, economic and policy-related drivers that have shaped the implementation of this technology. The findings show that the regulations and incentives have been the primary factor influencing the steady growth of this technology, in both developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Political-economic values and the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Miller, Dale T

    2007-02-01

    Values concerning the distribution of wealth are an important aspect of identity for many Americans, and such values may therefore influence how Americans experience their own socioeconomic status (SES). Based on this proposition, the present research examines political-economic values as a moderator of the relationship between SES and self-esteem. Results supported the hypothesis that there is a stronger relationship between SES and self-esteem among individuals who report relatively inegalitarian values than among individuals who report relatively egalitarian values. This result was replicated using both objective and subjective measures of SES. Implications of the present findings for the study of values and well-being, psychological conflict, and the influence of economic factors on self-esteem are discussed.

  13. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  14. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  15. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF INDONESIANS AS EFL LEARNERS, GENDER, AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirtya Sunyi Paradewari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the language attitude in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The aim of this study was to find out the relationships among five components of languages attitudes in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES.  There were 256 participants from four universities in Yogyakarta. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the language used and general language attitudes through the Google Form. The results showed that there are five components of language attitudes; 1 Indonesian learners showed positive language attitudes toward English (3.58; 2 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.66; 3 positive language attitudes toward English and negative language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.52; 4 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian and negative language attitudes toward English (3.58; 5 positive language attitudes toward English and Indonesian (3.91. These five components of language attitudes were then correlated with gender; 1 gender was positively related to English language attitude where female learners had higher positive language attitudes than males did toward English (.097; 2 there was no relation between gender and Indonesian language attitude (-.071. In addition, SES was also related to five (5 components of language attitudes in which the learners who came from upper class had higher positive language attitudes towards English (.155 than learners who came from lower class. On the other hand, the correlation between SES and Indonesian language showed the learners from middle class had higher positive language attitudes (.031 than the learners from upper class and lower class.   Keywords: language attitudes, gender, socio-economic status

  16. Barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural Eastern province, Zambia: the role of household economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Rainier; Chowa, Gina; Nyirenda, Victor

    2017-07-01

    In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia. Adherence was measured using patient self-assessment and pharmacy information. Household economic status included components such as occupation, income, assets, food security, and debt. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated with non-adherence. The association between assets and adherence depends on the type of asset. Owning more transportation-related assets was consistently associated with non-adherence, whereas owning more livestock was associated with self-reported adherence. Additionally, living in a community with fewer economic opportunities was associated with non-adherence. The associations between place of residence and pharmacy refill adherence and between transportation assets and self-reported adherence were statistically significant. Improving adherence requires a multifaceted strategy that addresses the role of economic status as a potential barrier and facilitator. Programmes that provide economic opportunities and life-skills training may help PLHIV to overcome economic, social, and psychological barriers.

  17. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torrefaction by providing detailed insights into state of the art prospects of the commercial utilisation of torrefaction technology over time. Focussing on and based on the current status of the compact moving bed reactor, we identify process performance characteristics such as thermal efficiency and mass yield and discuss their determining factors through analysis of mass and energy balances. This study has shown that woody biomass can be torrefied with a thermal and mass efficiency of 94% and 48% respectively (on a dry ash free basis). For straw, the corresponding theoretical energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. In the long term, the technical performance of torrefaction processes is expected to improve and energy efficiencies are expected to be at least 97% as optimal torgas use and efficient heat transfer are realised. Short term production costs for woody biomass TOPs (torrefied pellets) are estimated to be between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , falling to 2.1–5.1 US$/GJ LHV in the long term. At such cost levels, torrefied pellets would become competitive with traditional pellets. For full commercialisation, torrefaction reactors still require to be optimised. Of importance to torrefaction system performance is the achievement of consistent and homogeneous, fully hydrophobic and stable product, capable of utilising different feedstocks, at desired end-use energy densities. - Highlights: • Woody biomass torrefaction thermal efficiency is 94% and mass efficiency is 48% on a daf basis. • Straw theoretical torrefaction energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. • Current woody TOPs production costs are between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , 50

  18. Comparing the Physiological, Socio economic and Nutritional Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of ...

  19. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  20. The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2014-08-23

    Objective walkability is an important correlate of adults' physical activity. Studies investigating the relation between walkability and children's physical activity are scarce. However, in order to develop effective environmental interventions, a profound investigation of this relation is needed in all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity, and to investigate the moderating effect of neighborhood socio-economic status in this relation. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children. Children (9-12 years old; n = 606) were recruited from 18 elementary schools in Ghent (Belgium). Children together with one of their parents completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Children's neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems. Multilevel cross-classified modeling was used to determine the relationship between children's PA and objectively measured walkability and the moderating effect of neighborhood SES in this relation. In low SES neighborhoods walkability was positively related to walking for transportation during leisure time (β = 0.381 ± 0.124; 95% CI = 0.138, 0.624) and was negatively related to sports during leisure time (β = -0.245 ± 0.121; 95% CI = -0.482, -0.008). In high socio-economic status neighborhoods, walkability was unrelated to children's physical activity. No relations of neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socio-economic status with cycling during leisure time, active commuting to school and objectively measured moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity were found. No univocal relation between neighborhood walkability and physical activity was found in 9-12 year old children. Results from international adult studies

  1. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  2. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.

  3. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  4. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    a higher level of attention being paid to the importance of Africa in the public statements of ... policy is based on equal partnership and includes investing in, bringing new .... country can be measured by its economic, cultural and diplomatic activism in ..... business circles also have a strong interest in Turkey's integration into.

  5. Socio-economic and schooling status of dental undergraduates from six French universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, M; Tubert, S; Devillers, A; Müller, M; Michaïlesco, P; Peli, J F; Pouëzat, J

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic status of French undergraduate dental students. A 46-item questionnaire was completed by the dental students of six universities between 1992 and 1995. Subjects related to family background, housing, schooling, income, expenditure and participation in student life were investigated. A total of 1192 out of 1207 questionnaires were returned. Both genders had equal access to dental training. The average overall cost of the four last years of the dental course was 30,302 French francs and varied greatly between faculties, as did the number of hours spent at the faculty for lectures, tutorials and practicals, and clinical work. Overall, the majority of students came from a well off social background, and had a relatively high quality of life while a small minority received no support from their families. Thirty-four per cent of students had never worked. One third of students smoked and one third regularly consumed medication of some sort. A third did not participate in any sport. Only 25% students bought dental text books and 42% of the students reported using the library regularly. This study offers an accurate description of the socio-economic status of French dental students that could be used as a reference for comparable studies in other European countries.

  6. Effects of Rural – Urban Interaction on Socio-Economic Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...

  7. Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant ... Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and ... in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups.

  8. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth.Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women's empowerment (MDG 3.

  9. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O

    2010-06-23

    Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).

  10. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  11. The relative economic progress of male foreign workers in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-qudsi, S S; Shah, N M

    1991-01-01

    "A human capital framework is utilized to examine the economic progress of nine nationality groups of foreign workers [in Kuwait] using data from the 1983 national Labor Survey. The sources of earnings' variations of particular interest to us included different degrees of education and experience transferability, occupational affiliation and ethnic background. In general, the results derived from the analysis suggest that 1) foreign workers achieve a discernible economic progress as their residence lengthens; 2) the rate of economic progress varies depending on worker's education, home and Kuwait-specific experience, occupational status and ethnic background; and 3) about one third of the earnings inequality is due to unexplained factors including discrimination." excerpt

  12. 42 CFR 435.1010 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to institutional status. 435... § 435.1010 Definitions relating to institutional status. For purposes of FFP, the following definitions... the diagnosis, treatment, or rehabilitation of the mentally retarded or persons with related...

  13. ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN MINORITY IN TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Bandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards, there was a sharp economic decline in the entire Soviet Union including Central Asia. People in general were affected due to this economic decline; however, in case of the Slav minority in Central Asia including Tajikistan the outmigration of Russian, which started from the 1980s, affected them more than that of their Central Asian counterparts. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the condition of the leftovers was further accentuated by the language policy, ethnicisation while recruitment in the public offices, etc. Besides this Tajikistan has been the poorest country in the post Soviet space, which in turn is adding to the economic hardships of the people in general and ethnic Russians of the country in particular.

  14. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  15. Adoption of Technology and the Socio-Economic Status of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural women. A comparison of adopters and non-adopters reveals that the adopters are generally more privileged and occupy a higher status because of adoption. In addition, education and awareness are crucial variables in the ...

  16. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  17. Systematic literature review on effectiveness of self-management support interventions in patients with chronic conditions and low socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hecke, Ann; Heinen, Maud; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2017-01-01

    of patients with a low socio-economic status. No differences were found for interventions developed based on health behaviour theoretical models. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence was found for self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with low socio-economic status. Essential......AIM: To assess the quality of evidence and determine the effect of patient-related and economic outcomes of self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with a low socio-economic status. BACKGROUND: Integrated evidence on self-management support interventions in chronically ill...... people with low socio-economic status is lacking. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane database of trials, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs Institute Library were searched (2000-2013). Randomized controlled trials addressing self-management support...

  18. Socio-economic status and incident diabetes mellitus among employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, B.; Hannerz, Harald; Poulsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To contribute to the research on diabetes and social inequality by presenting national data on incident diabetes mellitus, stratified according to socio-economic status. Methods: National registers were combined, linking socio-economic status with incident diabetes over a 10-year period (2001...... had been as low as those in the reference group. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate 95% CIs for excess fraction estimates Results: A total of 1 005 572 men and 951 039 women were included in the analysis. The follow-up yielded 43 439 cases in 9 533 199 person-years at risk among men and 29...... 266 cases in 9 163 405 person-years at risk among women. Using 'professionals' as a reference group, higher levels of relative risk were observed among every other socio-occupational group. The excess fraction was, 0.342 (95% CI 0.329-0.354) among men and 0.359 (95% CI 0.349-0.369) among women...

  19. Relational Aggressive Behaviour: The Contributions of Status Stress and Status Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Relational aggression is a destructive behaviour that increases during adolescence. In order to develop effective interventions aimed to combat relational aggression, there is an urgent need to study what motivates this behaviour. This study investigates the association between status stress, status goals, and relational aggressive behaviour in a…

  20. Family Economic Status and Parental Involvement: Influences of Parental Expectation and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Deng, Ciping; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's education is a critical factor associated with children's socio-emotional and educational outcomes. However, low parental involvement occurs more often among economically disadvantaged families. It is unclear what mechanisms may explain the association between family economic status and parents' educational…

  1. Empirical measurement of socio-economic status of farm families in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A universe of 106 socio-economic status indicators was collated. The t-test and point-biserial correlation were used in the item analysis of quantitatively measured and dichotomous items respectively. Forty items were found valid across all the ethnic groups in the state. The 40 items were standardized into a socio-economic ...

  2. On the disciplinary and functional status of economic lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    of name, size, content, style, and structure may, at least partially, be explained by this fact. In this respect, the article systematizes the functions registered in economic dictionaries during the past 300 years, and presents some suggestions for the immediate future of online dictionaries....

  3. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  4. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  5. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio‐Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke; Gwozdz, Wencke

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio‐economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio‐economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western...... developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio‐economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical...... activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists...

  6. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  7. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  8. Deciding to Wait: Partnership Status, Economic Conditions, and Pregnancy during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Percheski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession was associated with reduced fertility in the United States. Many questions about the dynamics underlying this reduction remain unanswered, however, including whether reduced fertility rates were driven by decreases in intended or unplanned pregnancies. Using restricted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (N = 4,630, we exploit variation in state economic indicators to assess the impact of economic conditions on the likelihood of an intended pregnancy, an unplanned pregnancy, or no pregnancy for adult women without a college education. We focus on variations by partnership and marital status. Overall, we find that worse economic conditions were predictive of a lower risk of unplanned pregnancy. Women's odds of intended pregnancy did not, however, respond uniformly to economic conditions but varied by marital status. When economic conditions were poor, married women had lower odds of intended pregnancy, whereas cohabiting women had greater odds of intended pregnancy.

  9. Economic wealth related to use of watercourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations have been made in Finland to establish the level of the national wealth, which consists of different lands of capital items. The present investigation focuses on different types of water use and on the economic wealth which they represent. The types of water use chosen include water supply and sewerage, flood protection, water-borne traffic, timber floating, hydropower production, fishing, fish farming and recreation. Wealth has been defined, whenever possible, according to yearly profit or the increase in profit. Where this has not been possible, wealth has been defined on the basis of investment costs or according to the one-off increase in wealth achieved by the project. This method was first employed for certain types of water use in the Kalajoki watercourse. For this watercourse wealth was calculated by both the methods described above, using profits, wealth was calculated to be FIM 533 million and using investments FIM 557 million. Due to lack of adequate basic information the figures, however, cannot be compared. The estimation method was also extended to cover the whole country, whereby the total wealth was estimated to be approximately FIM 155 billion. Most of this wealth consisted of recreation, water supply, sewerage and hydropower production. Comparison of the results of this investigation with the values determined in other national wealth investigations is difficult due to the presence of different groupings and methods of determination. In this investigation, the wealth gained by recreational use of the Ostrobothnian reservoirs was also separately examined and estimated to be approximately FIM 200 million. Different kinds of estimation methods had to be used and developed in this work, because the types of water use are very different and because similar investigations have not previously been undertaken. (orig.) 42 refs

  10. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady...

  11. Current status in Japan related to LMNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takehiro

    1998-01-01

    Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

  12. A sign of change in industrial structure under stable growth: economic status of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The real economical growth rate in fiscal year 1983 in Japan was 3.7 %, and the business trend showed the sign of restoration. The status of primary energy supply in Japan turned to 4.5 % increase as compared with the previous year. Petroleum increased by 3.5 %, coal by 1.6 %, and nuclear power by 11.1 %. As the result, the proportion of petroleum to total primary energy supply slightly decreased to 61 %. Electric power demand increased by 6.3 %, and the proportion of nuclear power to total generated power quantity increased to 20.4 %. As to the status of atomic energy industry in fiscal 1983, one nuclear power plant started the operation, and the construction of three nuclear power plants began. The investment for nuclear fuel cycle was enthusiastic, and the business progressed favorably. The total outlay related to atomic energy was 2.89 trillion yen, 14 % increase as compared with the previous year. The sales of mining and manufacturing industries was 1.367 trillion yen, 17 % increase. The number of workers related to atomic energy was 65,997, 2 % decrease. The mean capacity ratio of the production facilities for atomic energy products in fiscal 1983 was 66.5 %, far below the target 72 %. (Kako, I.)

  13. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networking and knowledge sharing across boundaries. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis at both theoretical and empirical levels. Theoretically, we propose a conceptualization of relational knowled...

  14. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.

  15. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  16. The family economic status and outcome of people with schizophrenia in Xinjin, Chengdu, China: 14-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Yang, Lawrence H; Liu, Yu-Jun; Huang, Debbie; Mao, Wen-Jun; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Jie; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about whether family economic status might influence the long-term (e.g. over 10 years) outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the community. To examine the differences in outcome at 14-year follow-up of persons with schizophrenia from high versus low family economic status backgrounds in a Chinese rural area. A prospective 14-year follow-up study was conducted in six townships in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. All participants with schizophrenia ( n = 510) were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123,572 people aged 15 years and older and followed up from 1994 to 2008. Individuals from low family economic status (economic status (⩾mean; 3.2% and 76.6%, respectively). Individuals from low family economic status had significantly lower rates of marriage and complete remission, higher mean scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and lower mean score on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those from high family economic status in 2008. The predictors of low family economic status of individuals in 2008 encompassed the baseline low family economic status, poor families' attitude toward the patient, younger age, older age of first onset and longer duration of illness. Low family economic status is a predictive factor of poor long-term outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the rural community. Individuals' family economic status should be considered in making mental health policy and providing community-based mental health services.

  17. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  18. NATURE OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the factors influencing the business environment in the economic relations of enterprises in national and international aspect are discussed. Global interdependencies have been explored and results have been drawn on the impact of international political and economic changes on the business environment of national and supranational companies.

  19. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  20. Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and prospects. ... The incumbent Turkish government now attaches great importance to developing ... It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector.

  1. Social and economic structures and health status of the Early Medieval population from Greater Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub

    Suppl. 36, - (2003), s. 214-215 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /72./. 23.04.2003-26.04.2003, Tempe] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8002910 Keywords : 9th-10th century * socio-economic status * health status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  2. Relativity experiment on Helios - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Melbourne, W. G.; Cain, D. L.; Lau, E. K.; Wong, S. K.; Kundt, W.

    1975-01-01

    The relativity experiment on Helios (Experiment 11) uses S-band and Doppler data, and spacecraft-solar-orbital data to measure the effects of general relativity in the solar system and the quadrupole moment in the solar gravitational field. Specifically, Experiment 11 is converned with measuring the following effects: (1) relativistic orbital corrections described by two parameters of the space-time metric which are both equal to unity in Einstein's theory; (2) orbital perturbations caused by a finite quadrupole moment of an oblate sun, described by zonal harmonics in the solar gravitational field.

  3. Relativity experiment on helios: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Melbourne, W.G.; Cain, D.L.; Lau, E.K.; Wong, S.K.; Kundt, W.

    1975-01-01

    The S-band range and Doppler data and the orbit of the spacecraft in the gravitational field of the sun are used to measure the effects of general relativity in the solar system and to measure the quadrupole moment in the gravity field of the sun. (BJG)

  4. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  5. U.S.-China Relations after Resolution of Taiwan's Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cliff, Roger; Shlapak, David A

    2007-01-01

    Although it appears unlikely that the question of Taiwan's status and ultimate relationship to China will be resolved any time soon, it is instructive to speculate about how its resolution might affect U.S.- China relations...

  6. Neighbourhood walkability, road density and socio-economic status in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Christine T; Ding, Ding; Rolfe, Margaret I; Mayne, Darren J; Jalaludin, Bin; Bauman, Adrian; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-04-27

    Planning and transport agencies play a vital role in influencing the design of townscapes, travel modes and travel behaviors, which in turn impact on the walkability of neighbourhoods and residents' physical activity opportunities. Optimising neighbourhood walkability is desirable in built environments, however, the population health benefits of walkability may be offset by increased exposure to traffic related air pollution. This paper describes the spatial distribution of neighbourhood walkability and weighted road density, a marker for traffic related air pollution, in Sydney, Australia. As exposure to air pollution is related to socio-economic status in some cities, this paper also examines the spatial distribution of weighted road density and walkability by socio-economic status (SES). We calculated walkability, weighted road density (as a measure of traffic related air pollution) and SES, using predefined and validated measures, for 5858 Sydney neighbourhoods, representing 3.6 million population. We overlaid tertiles of walkability and weighted road density to define "sweet-spots" (high walkability-low weighted road density), and "sour- spots" (low walkability-high weighted road density) neighbourhoods. We also examined the distribution of walkability and weighted road density by SES quintiles. Walkability and weighted road density showed a clear east-west gradient across the region. Our study found that only 4 % of Sydney's population lived in sweet-spot" neighbourhoods with high walkability and low weighted road density (desirable), and these tended to be located closer to the city centre. A greater proportion of neighbourhoods had health limiting attributes of high weighted road density or low walkability (about 20 % each), and over 5 % of the population lived in "sour-spot" neighbourhoods with low walkability and high weighted road density (least desirable). These neighbourhoods were more distant from the city centre and scattered more widely. There were

  7. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  8. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  9. Trends in the economic status of the elderly, 1976-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, T; Rassette, M; Iams, H; Koenig, M

    The economic well-being of elderly Americans (aged 65 or older) improved between 1976 and 2000. Overall, poverty rates fell during this period, median real income rose, and median income relative to the working-age population was relatively stable. Most population subgroups shared in the reduced poverty rates; however, the economic status of elderly Hispanics did not improve. This article attempts to explain those economic trends by identifying changes in five sources of income for the elderly and analyzing the changes in the context of demographic changes in the elderly populations over the past 25 years. As a result of increased longevity, for example, larger proportions of elderly men and women are now 80 or older, and smaller proportions are 65 to 69. Hispanics and Asian Americans make up a larger share of the elderly population and whites a smaller share. The fraction of women who are married has increased, the fraction who are widowed has fallen, and the fraction who are divorced has grown. Such demographic changes can greatly affect the economic status of subgroups as well as the overall elderly population. Of the five sources of income for the elderly, Social Security remains the most prevalent and important. While both the rate of receipt and the share of aggregate income from Social Security benefits stayed relatively steady over the past 25 years, the average real Social Security benefit increased because of rising wages. Income from assets, the second most important source of income for the elderly, fluctuated. Because the elderly are more likely to hold interest-bearing assets such as bonds rather than stocks, their asset income is responsive to changes in nominal interest rates and bond yields. Receipt of pension income increased during this period, although it leveled off during the 1990s. Factors contributing to this pattern include enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which increased protections of pension benefits for

  10. Effects of parental cultural and economic status on adolescents’ life course preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, M.G.; Nagel, I.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent adolescents' ideas about their future life course in the professional and family domain are influenced by the cultural and economic status of their parents, and to what extent these influences are mediated by parents' own preferences for their child's future life

  11. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  12. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...

  13. The relationship between parental literacy involvement, socio-economic status and reading literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an

  14. Socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the trend, structures, operations, management of fish farms and the level of acceptability of new technologies. The Local Government Area was divided into eight zones, and each zone was ...

  15. Added-on salt, socio-economic status and blood pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of (pre)hypertension and its relationship with added-on salt and socio-economic status (SES) is under-reported in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus was studied in 315 adolescents (57.8% girls) living in Umuahia, Nigeria. Standard procedures were used for all measurements. (Pre)hypertension were defined ...

  16. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic

  17. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  18. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  19. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  20. Socio-Economic Status And Birth-Order As Correlates Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...

  1. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  2. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  3. Impact of Socio-Economic Status of Parents and Family Location on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of socio-economic status of parents and family location on truant behaviour of secondary school students in the North-West Senatorial District of Benue State. The survey design was used to carry out the study using a sample of 400 respondents selected from different schools within the ...

  4. HIV / AIDS And The Socio – Economic Status Of Victims In Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the ferocious spread of HIV / AIDS and the soaring cases of ill – halth and impending death associated with the epidemic in Nigeria, this study assesses the impact of HIV / AIDS on the socio – economic status. Specifically, it examines the effects of the epidemic on the level of imcome, level of productivity, marital ...

  5. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study

  6. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study

  7. Community participation to refine measures of socio-economic status in urban slum settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert

    Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.

  8. Yugoslav-Italian Economic relations (1918‒1929: Main aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latinović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at some aspects of Yugoslav-Italian economic relations from the end of the First World War to the beginning of the Great Depression. Those relations were not always driven by pure economic interests, but they also had political and strategic aims. Although Yugoslav-Italian political and diplomatic relations were well served in both Serbian/Yugoslav and Italian historiography, little has been written about economic relations between the two countries. Therefore, the article is mainly based on the documents from the Central State Archives (Archivio centrale dello Stato and Historical-Diplomatic Archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Archivio storico-diplomatico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri in Rome, as well as from the Archives of Yugoslavia (Arhiv Jugoslavije in Belgrade.

  9. The development of cross-border economic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills

  10. Relational environment and intellectual roots of 'ecological economics': An orthodox or heterodox field of research?

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Castro e Silva, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The way the fields are delineated has been the Achilles' heel of studies analyzing the status and evolution of given scientific areas. Based on van den Besselaar and Leydesdorff's (Mapping change in scientific specialities; a scientometric reconstruction of the development of artificial intelligence, 1996) contribution, the authors propose a systematic and objective method for delineating the field of ecological economics assuming that aggregated journal-journal citation relations is an appro...

  11. Body mass index of children and youth with an intellectual disability by country economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however, little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-Olympics by country economic status. A total of 14,032 participants (n=8,856 male) measured height and weight records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database. The 141 countries in the database were re-coded according to the World Bank's classification of country economic status. BMI prevalence rates were calculated for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity for children and youth using IOTF cutoffs by economic status. Chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to examine differences in weight status by economy and sex. Overall, 27.87% of Special Olympics participants from low-income economies, 31.04% from lower middle-income, 25.29% from upper middle-income, and 42.36% from high-income economies had BMI levels outside of the normal range. The low-income countries had higher rates of underweight and the high-income countries had higher rates of obesity. The high levels of both underweight and overweight/obesity found in this population of children and youth participating in Special Olympics represents a double burden of health risk. More research is needed to understand why this population experiences such disparities in BMI status and to develop health promotion initiatives targeted at this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Working Conditions of Agricultural Workers: A Reflection of Socio-economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R.K. Sinha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during

  13. Student related determinants of the first semester academic status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student related determinants of the first semester academic status: the case of 2006/7 first year students at some selected faculties of Jimma university. ... This research, therefore, attempted to unfold the magnitude of academic failure and students related factors predicting academic failure in the first semester of 2006/ 07 ...

  14. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  15. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Time,” Economia , Fall 2003. 49 Esquivel, Gerardo, and José Antonio Rodríguez-López, “Technology, trade, and wage inequality in Mexico before and after...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications...25 JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and

  16. Relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Michałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Emerging adulthood is a core developmental period in which individuals can develop a meaningful identity in the relational domain (with a romantic partner. The aim of the study was to examine relationships between relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults. Participants and procedure Participants were 266 (47.30% males emerging adults (M = 22.50, SD = 1.73. They completed self-report measures of relations with parents and identity. Results More than half of the participants were in the moratorium status or were not involved in a romantic relationship (35% and 29%, respectively. Relations with parents were linked to identity statuses in the relational domain. Particularly, the perception of low autonomy given by the father was related to less mature identity statuses. Conclusions This study highlighted that transition from singleness to stable partnerships seems to be challenging. Therefore, it is important to examine correlates of identity statuses in this domain.

  17. Economic abuse between intimate partners in Australia: prevalence, health status, disability and financial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Economic Burden of Human Papillomavirus-Related Diseases in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Gianluca; Capone, Alessandro; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Favato, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 impose a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that has never been quantified fully. The main objective of the present study was to address this gap: (1) by estimating the total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, namely invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and head and neck, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) by providing an aggregate measure of the total economic burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection. Methods For each of the nine conditions, we used available Italian secondary data to estimate the lifetime cost per case, the number of incident cases of each disease, the total economic burden, and the relative prevalence of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, in order to estimate the aggregate fraction of the total economic burden attributable to HPV infection. Results The total direct costs (expressed in 2011 Euro) associated with the annual incident cases of the nine HPV-related conditions included in the analysis were estimated to be €528.6 million, with a plausible range of €480.1–686.2 million. The fraction attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 was €291.0 (range €274.5–315.7 million), accounting for approximately 55% of the total annual burden of HPV-related disease in Italy. Conclusions The results provided a plausible estimate of the significant economic burden imposed by the most prevalent HPV-related diseases on the Italian welfare system. The fraction of the total direct lifetime costs attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections, and the economic burden of noncervical HPV-related diseases carried by men, were found to be cost drivers relevant to the making of informed decisions about future investments in programmes of HPV prevention. PMID:23185412

  19. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a large increase in the number of corporations adopting LGBT-related workplace policies.  This study evaluates the economic impact of non-discrimination and benefits policies by analyzing the extent to which economic reasons motivate corporations to adopt such policies.  This study reviews statements issued when adopting such policies by the top 50 Fortune 500 companies and the top 50 federal government contractors.  Overall, we find that almost all of top 50 Fortune ...

  20. Racial and Ethnic Infant Mortality Gaps and the Role of Socio-Economic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Todd E.; Goddeeris, John H.; Haider, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the extent to which differences in socio-economic status are associated with racial and ethnic gaps in a fundamental measure of population health: the rate at which infants die. Using micro-level Vital Statistics data from 2000 to 2004, we examine mortality gaps of infants born to white, black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Asian, and Native American mothers. We find that between-group mortality gaps are strongly and consistently (except for Mexican infants) associated with maternal marita...

  1. Assessment of socio-economic status in the context of food insecurity: Implications for field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Measures of socio-economic status (SES) were compared with a measure of physical well-being, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), in the food insecure regions of Ethiopia. Income, housing conditions and education had the greatest correlation to MUAC, and significant differences in these measures were observed between malnourished and adequately nourished individuals. Findings indicate that in rural Ethiopia, income, education and housing quality may be better indicators of SES than wealth and measures encompassing home and landownership.

  2. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark

    2016-01-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced...... their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted....

  3. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    OpenAIRE

    De Agostini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...

  4. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...

  5. Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandrashekhar Murthy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218

  6. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  7. Historic, economic and geographic approach to the relations between economic growth and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze the complex relations between energy prices and economic growth. In part 1, the history of the last 30 years is used to analyze the consequences of energy price variations on world economic growth. In part 2, two interpretation schemes are described successively. One has to do with the international oil market, and the other concerns the impact of oil shocks on national economies. In part 3, an approach by type of country leads to conclusions respectively for the industrialized countries, for the developing countries and for the newly industrialized countries. 1 fig

  8. The Current Status and Prospects of the Economic Relationship between North Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungchul Cho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available After the socialist market collapse after 1990s, the economic relationship of North Korea and China is becoming closer. It can be proven by the fact that economic relationship between this two countries are transferring from the national trade model to various models such as border trade, agency trade, the illicit trade and investment aid. In this progress, North Korea rely China more than in 1990. But after 1992, the economic relationship is falling from the political priority as before, blind support and assistance based on the nature of the economic benefits to the rapid changes in relationship. This thesis reviewed economic relations in the world environment which has changed. First it analyzed the national economy and trade policies adopted in the current situation of two countries, and on this basis, it looked forward to the economic relationship between the two countries, and point out the measures regarding the relationship between two countries.

  9. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PERSONAL AND CORPORATE INCOME TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Skica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to discuss the mutual economic relations between personal and corporate income taxes. The article consists of three parts. The first is an introduction to these taxes and taxation. The second is the analysis in which the objective of the taxation is discussed. This part represents the trends in research on taxation and clarifies the aspects of taxes that should be considered in an optimal tax system construction. These include solutions which stimulate taxpayer behavior, the economically and socially oriented objectives of taxation, and guides needed for tax equalization. The conclusions are focused on the tax rates in personal and corporate income tax and their influence on economic behavior of firms and individuals. The authors show different points of view on tax rate equalization and discuss its consequences.

  10. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  11. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  12. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  13. Systematic overview of economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Wilsher, Stephanie; Irvine, Lisa; Fan, Hong; Shakespeare, Tom; Suhrcke, Marc; Horton, Simon; Poland, Fiona; Hooper, Lee; Song, Fujian

    2016-01-01

    Health related rehabilitation is instrumental in improving functioning and promoting participation by people with disabilities. To make clinical and policy decisions about health-related rehabilitation, resource allocation and cost issues need to be considered. To provide an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) on economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. We searched multiple databases to identify relevant SRs of economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. Review quality was assessed by AMSTAR checklist. We included 64 SRs, most of which included economic evaluations alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review quality was low to moderate (AMSTAR score 5-8) in 35, and high (score 9-11) in 29 of the included SRs. The included SRs addressed various health conditions, including spinal or other pain conditions (n = 14), age-related problems (11), stroke (7), musculoskeletal disorders (6), heart diseases (4), pulmonary (3), mental health problems (3), and injury (3). Physiotherapy was the most commonly evaluated rehabilitation intervention in the included SRs (n = 24). Other commonly evaluated interventions included multidisciplinary programmes (14); behavioral, educational or psychological interventions (11); home-based interventions (11); complementary therapy (6); self-management (6); and occupational therapy (4). Although the available evidence is often described as limited, inconsistent or inconclusive, some rehabilitation interventions were cost-effective or showed cost-saving in a variety of disability conditions. Available evidence comes predominantly from high income countries, therefore economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation are urgently required in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  15. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  16. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used...... was a stratified cluster sampling technique; incorporating 3 stratified zones, for each of which a cluster of school children were recruited from randomly selected high schools. The adolescents agreed to participate in the study and to complete a questionnaire. Dental caries status was assessed in terms of decayed...... their teeth on a regular basis. Although the incidence of caries was found to be moderate, it was influenced by demographic factors such as age and gender in addition to socio-behavioral variables such as family income, the level of education attained by parents, the frequency of dental brushing and flossing...

  17. Socio-economic status over the life course and obesity: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Suzy; Braithwaite, Dejana; Akinyemiju, Tomi F

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the published literature on the association of childhood, adulthood and life course socio-economic status (SES) with obesity between January 1990 and June 2015. The major medical electronic databases were searched to identify studies that examined SES over the life-course in relation to obesity. A total of 219 studies were identified through the initial search, and 35 qualified for full review. Of these, 14 publications met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, all from developed or upper-middle income countries. There was a consistent association between lower life course SES and obesity among women (summary OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.76), but not among men (summary OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.40). Overall, mean BMI was higher among individuals with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean BMI difference: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71). Mean waist circumference (WC) was higher among women with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean WC: 4.67, 95% CI: 4.15, 5.20), but lower among men (summary mean WC difference: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11, -0.08). The inverse relationship between life course SES and obesity among women was consistent, based mostly on studies in developed countries. Nevertheless, critical information gaps remain in relation to the impact of childhood and life course SES on obesity in developing countries.

  18. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  19. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-05-21

    Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.

  20. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  2. Family affluence, socio - economic status and dietary habits of 1st year University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Syligardou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low socio-economic status (SES is associated with health risk behaviours contributing to the social inequalities in health. However, the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status have not been investigated in emerging adulthood in detail yet. Aim: To investigate the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status in 1st year undergraduate university students. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis draws data from the LATO study, a longitudinal study of all 1st year undergraduate students of TEI Crete during the academic year 2012/13 (Ν=1138, 54% girls, Mean age 18,31 years, response rate 96,7%. The consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, breakfast and delivery food were associated with the following socio-economic indicators: Family affluence (FAS II, paternal and maternal educational level and self-reported economic status. The SPSS v21.0 was used to perform logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Only 24,9%, 12% and 17% of the students were consuming breakfast, fruits and vegetables, respectively, in a daily basis. Soft drinks were consumed daily by 6,1% of the participants but most of them consumed delivery/junk food less than 1/week (73,8%. Higher family affluence was associated with increased odds of consuming breakfast (OR=2,90, 95%CI=1,13-7,44, soft drinks (OR=8,10, 95%CI=1,38-47,68 and delivery/junk food (OR=2,44, 95%CI=1,27-4,70 in boys. High paternal educational level was associated in a protective way with boys’ consumption of delivery food (OR=0,42, 95%CI=0,18-0,95 and soft drinks (OR=0,19, 95%CI=0,05-0,72. Fruits and vegetables consumption was not associated with any SES indicator. Conclusions: The majority of 1st year university students were not following current diet recommendations irrespective of SES. Interventions targeting eating behaviours are needed at higher education institutes.

  3. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  4. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  5. Status of the natural and enriched uranium market: the basic economical factor for the development of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Natural and Enriched Uranium Market - the Basic. Economical Factor for the Development of the Fuel Cycle An overview of the status of the natural and enriched uranium market has been performed and it offers a possibility to estimate the changes and tendencies, the knowledge of which is needed in negotiations about the fresh fuel. The simplified financial analysis presented here demonstrates the economical profitability of the storage of the spent fuel making now the allocations for the future reprocessing

  6. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...

  7. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and most widespread cryptocurrency in different countries of the world is the Bitcoin. The features of issue and circulation of cryptocurrency both in Ukraine and abroad have been clarified. The international experience of work with cryptocurrency was considered and its potential influence on development of the national economy was determined. The economic and legal status of national and foreign cryptocurrencies was researched. The ways of overcoming the legal vacuum of the mode of work with national and foreign cryptocurrencies have been proposed.

  8. Psychosocial Status and Economic Dependence for Healthcare and Nonhealthcare among Elderly Population in Rural Coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rent, Priyanka Dsouza; Kumar, Sudeep; Dmello, Mackwin Kenwood; Purushotham, Jagannath

    2017-01-01

    The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS) among elderly patients. The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September-December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%), whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  9. Psychosocial status and economic dependence for healthcare and nonhealthcare among elderly population in rural coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dsouza Rent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September–December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Results: Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%, whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. Conclusion: The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.

  10. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us

  11. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1 There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years. Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors. The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  13. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3-4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.

  14. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Country's Nuclear Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation's efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country's or region's economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry's output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  15. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident.

  16. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.

  17. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  18. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  19. Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Geelen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Altaba, I.I.; Vinas, B.R.; Ngo, J.; Golsorkhi, M.; Medina, M.; Brzozowska, A.; Szczecinkska, A.; Cock, de D.; Vansant, G.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Serra Majem, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Glibetic, M.; Gurinovic, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for

  20. Urinary incontinence in women in relation to occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kwak, Yeunhee

    2017-01-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore urinary incontinence in women in relation to occupational status and environment. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2009) were used (n = 5,928) excluding those aged under 19 or over 65 years, male, with renal disease, and with missing data. Urinary incontinence was prevalent in working women. Compared to unemployed women, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for women working in services/sales was 1.62 (1.21-2.19); for paid workers was 1.81 (1.20-2.73); and for self-employed workers was 1.46 (1.05-2.03). Compared to unemployed women, the adjusted odds ratio for working women with a daytime work schedule was 2.14 (1.18-3.87), while for those with evening work schedules, it was 1.35 (1.05-1.74). Urinary incontinence was significantly associated with various occupational environments: an unclean and uncomfortable workplace, dangerous job and probability of accidents, feeling pressed for time, awkward position for long periods, and carrying heavy weights. These findings suggest that urinary incontinence was prevalent in working women and was associated with occupational status and working environment. Therefore, improving occupational status and environment for working women-such as modifying the working schedule, posture, and workplace atmosphere-are needed to prevent urinary incontinence.

  1. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  2. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  3. The problem of using trade secrets in economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Олефір

    2015-05-01

    . The objects of trade secrets, depending on the fields may be the following types of information: (1 scientific and technical; (2 management; (3 commercial; (4 financial. At this stage, there is a growing role of know-how, compared with patents, because as their special advantages and drop interest in patenting innovations as an independent factor, as well as economic and legal efficiency mode of trade secrets. Under the know-how necessary to understand the technical, manufacturing, engineering knowledge, experience and skills related to the design, development, manufacture, sale, operation, maintenance, repair, improve technology and other innovative objects which have the status of trade secrets, and a factor of competitiveness entity. Given the fact that the administrative and jurisdictional mechanisms for the protection of trade secrets are more or less clear, we focused on internal corporate events. First, this is consolidation in the basic documents of the entity (statute, founding and collective agreements, work rules on trade secret law such provision as law on ownership and protection of trade secrets. Second, the order of the head of the entity to approve the list of information to be protected as a trade secret. Third, develop and adopt regulations on trade secrets. Fourth, to approve the regulations on the organization of the documents containing trade secrets. Fifth, to include in a labor agreement (contract the condition of non-disclosure of trade secrets or employee expected signing of enhancing privacy protection. Conclusions of the research. In order to stimulate innovation growth and protection of corporate security entities we should propose changes to the legislation: (1 secure the definition of the concept of «know-how (secret production» indicating that the exclusive right to the secret of acting as long as the relation of production secrets operating mode of trade secrets; (2 add Tax Code of Ukraine following types of tax benefits: (a exemption

  4. Comparison of relative and non-relative adoptive parent health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P

    2015-03-01

    Across the United States, kinship parents, extended family members and close friends, render care to the 2.7 million children who have been removed from their birth parents' care. However, differences between relative and non-relative parents reported health statuses have not been explored. The National Survey of Adoptive Parents data were used to investigate the health status of relative (n = 469) and non-relative (n = 1,599) adoptive parents. Perceived happiness in the parent-child relationship and the parents' ability to cope appear to affect parental health status. Only non-related mothers of children younger than 6 years reported better emotional health than those mothers who were related to their children. With this exception, and despite caring for children who have a greater likelihood of abuse, neglect, and exposure to drugs and alcohol prior to birth, the reported health statuses of relative parents did not differ from non-relative parents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  6. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  8. Influence of socio-economic status and television watching on childhood obesity in Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, S; Pal, M; Shome, S; Roy, P; Dhara, P; Bharati, P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is fast becoming an epidemic among the urban children and it has its adverse effect on the status of health even during adulthood. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the percentage of obesity among 6-10 year children and assess the effect of different socio-economic variables and TV watching on childhood obesity. We restricted our study to primary school-going children who attended classes I-IV. The sample consisted of 5216 children from 20 different Bengali medium and English medium schools in Kolkata. Categorical logistic regression of obesity on the socio-economic factors namely type of medium school, religion, parent's education, duration of television watching etc., has been carried out. The categorical logistic regression shows the significant effect of some of the socio-economic or demographic variables including the duration of television watching on obesity. We have seen a positive association between obesity and TV watching and also between obesity and consumption of fast food. This calls for making the parents aware and taking action as early as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Socio-economic Status and Cardiovascular Disease: Role of Healthcare Facility and Policy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardio-vascular disease (CVD is one of the main cause of mortality Worldwide and India is no exception. Unlike developed countries, where both CVD prevalence and mortality has been established to affect lower socio-economic status (SES, in India there is no consensus among researchers over socio-economic patterning of CVD prevalence but the mortality rate has been reported to disproportionately affect the economically weaker sections. Aims & Objectives: This article, focuses at the issue of how lack of good healthcare facilities and non-supportive health policies are affecting CVD mortality positively among lower SES of India. Challenges of the Indian healthcare system in context of lower SES can be described in terms of the issue of availability, accessibility and affordability. Inadequate policy and public healthcare system either leads to the problem of high Out-of-Pocket Payments (OPP or opting out of the treatment, which further increases poverty and mortality among them. Moreover, limited insurance coverage and inadequate regulatory policies for alcohol and tobacco-leading CVD risk factors among lower SES groups – do little to discourage its use among them. Conclusion: Since, lower SES people in India are already under the burden of communicable diseases, government should take immediate steps to control the mortality among them by creating a supportive environment through pro-poor health policies and healthcare facilities.

  10. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  11. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  12. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  13. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced...... changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural...

  14. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  15. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination...... controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between...... of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after...

  16. Economic impacts of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toru

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic impact of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States. Nuclear power plants have been treated equally with other types of power plants in the liberalized electricity market. The existing nuclear power plants were thought to be competitive in liberalized wholesale electricity market. Competitive pressure from the market also facilitated efficiency improvement among the existing nuclear power plants. Although it was difficult to build new reactor, the U.S. nuclear power generators expanded capacity through up rates. In recent years, however, nuclear power plants suffer from the decline in wholesale power prices and some of them are forced to retire early. Although there are some market design issues that could be improved to maintain the efficient nuclear power plants in competitive environment, it is now argued that some additional arrangements to mitigate the investment risks of the nuclear power plants are necessary. (author)

  17. Relative Status Determination for Spacecraft Relative Motion Based on Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the two-satellite formation, the relative motion and attitude determination algorithm is a key component that affects the flight quality and mission efficiency. The relative status determination algorithm is proposed based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the system state optimal estimate linearization. Aiming at the relative motion of the spacecraft formation navigation problem, the spacecraft relative kinematics and dynamics model are derived from the dual quaternion in the algorithm. Then taking advantage of EKF technique, combining with the dual quaternion integrated dynamic models, considering the navigation algorithm using the fusion measurement by the gyroscope and star sensors, the relative status determination algorithm is designed. At last the simulation is done to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the EKF algorithm has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy.

  18. Status Report on Hydrogen Management and Related Computer Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Chan, C.K.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Bentaib, A.; Malet, J.; Sangiorgi, M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gyepi-Garbrah, S.; Duspiva, J.; Sevon, T.; Kelm, S.; Reinecke, E.A.; Xu, Z.J.; Cervone, A.; Utsuno, H.; Hotta, A.; Hong, S.W.; Kim, J.T.; Visser, D.C.; Stempniewicz, M.M.; Kuriene, L.; Prusinski, P.; Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.; Frid, W.; Isaksson, P.; Dreier, J.; Paladino, D.; Algama, D.; Notafrancesco, A.; Amri, A.; Kissane, M.; )

    2014-01-01

    In follow-up to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) decided to launch several high priority activities. At the 14. plenary meeting of the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA), a proposal for a status paper on hydrogen generation, transport and mitigation under severe accident conditions was approved. The proposed activity is in line with the WGAMA mandate and it was considered to be needed to revisit the hydrogen issue. The report is broken down into five Chapters and two appendixes. Chapter 1 provides background information for this activity and expected topics defined by the WGAMA members. A general understanding of hydrogen behavior and control in severe accidents is discussed. A brief literature review is included in this chapter to summarize the progress obtained from the early US NRC sponsored research on hydrogen and recent international OECD or EC sponsored projects on hydrogen related topics (generation, distribution, combustion and mitigation). Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the various reactor designs of Western PWRs, BWRs, Eastern European VVERs and PHWRs (CANDUs). The purpose is to understand the containment design features in relation to hydrogen management measures. Chapter 3 provides a detailed description of national requirements on hydrogen management and hydrogen mitigation measures inside the containment and other places (e.g., annulus space, secondary buildings, spent fuel pool, etc.). Discussions are followed on hydrogen analysis approaches, application of safety systems (e.g., spray, containment ventilation, local air cooler, suppression pool, and latch systems), hydrogen measurement strategies as well as lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power accident. Chapter 4 provides an overview of various codes that are being used for hydrogen risk assessment, and the codes capabilities and validation status in terms of hydrogen related

  19. Legal Status of the Catholic Church as an Economic Entity in EU and Croatian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Sokol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Catholic Church’s legal status in the European Union primarily falls within the competences of the Member States. The Croatian legal framework in this respect consists of various types of legal rules, most important of which is the set of international agreements entered into between the Republic of Croatia and the Holy See. Still, EU competition, state aid and free movement rules affect this legal framework to a significant degree. The aim of this paper is to analyse the applicability of the said EU rules to the activities of the Catholic Church in Croatia, that is to determine whether the Catholic Church can be considered an undertaking conducting an economic activity (and to what degree according to the said legal framework, whether the Croatian national legal framework is aligned with the EU rules, and whether there are points of contention in this area which need to be legally rectified. The second part of this paper analyses the European Union state aid and free movement legal framework, primarily trying to determine whether the Catholic Church is an undertaking carrying out an economic activity as prescribed by EU law. In this analysis, several issues emerge which have not been clearly resolved by the Court of Justice. The following part features an outline of the Croatian national legal framework on the legal status of the Catholic Church, focusing on potential points of contention between the national and the EU law. Finally, certain solutions to the mentioned issues are proposed, on the European and the national level, in accordance with legal certainty as the general principle of (EU law.

  20. The impact of age-related macular degeneration on health status utility values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargues, Mireia; Czoski-Murray, Carolyn J; Bansback, Nicholas J; Carlton, Jill; Lewis, Grace M; Hughes, Lindsey A; Brand, Christopher S; Brazier, John E

    2005-11-01

    To estimate health status utility values in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) associated with visual impairments, by using preference-based measures of health. This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with unilateral or bilateral ARMD who attended a large teaching hospital. Patients underwent visual tests (near and distant visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS]) and completed health status questionnaires including the Index of Visual Function (VF)-14 and three preference-based measures (the Health Utilities Index Mark III [HUI-3], the EuroQoL Health Questionnaire [EQ-5D], and the Short Form 6D Health Status Questionnaire [SF-6D]) and the time tradeoff (TTO). The mean health status is presented for five groups, defined according to the VA in the better-seeing eye and for four CS groups. Two hundred nine patients were recruited with substantial loss of visual function as obtained by visual tests (mean decimal VA in the better-seeing eye: 0.2) and self-report (mean VF-14 score: 41.5). The mean (+/-SD) utilities were 0.34 +/- 0.28 for HUI-3, 0.66 +/- 0.14 for SF-6D, 0.72 +/- 0.22 for EQ-5D, and 0.64 +/- 0.31 for TTO. The HUI-3 had the highest correlation with VA and CS (0.40 and -0.34), followed by TTO (0.25 and -0.21). Across the VA and CS groups, only HUI3 and TTO had a significant linear trend (P preference-based measures used. The HUI-3 seems to be the instrument of choice for use in economic evaluations in which community data are needed. It may be more appropriate to base economic models on CS or some combination of CS and VA rather than on VA alone.

  1. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  2. Socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj in Jhenidah district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee Bappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj of Jhenidah district. Fifty fishermen from 50 families were interviewed. Results revealed that 94% respondents were married and age varied between 30 and 45 years. Almost all the fishermen were Hindus (96%. Most of the people of the community were illiterate (60% and among all of the school going children (58% were boys and (42% were girls. Above fifty percent people lived in nuclear family. 40% people lived in earthen house, constructed by grass leaves and mud. Only a few (18% of them were found to be use electricity. Primary occupation of 60% respondents was fishing and few were also involved in agriculture. They were often found to suffer from various diseases due to lack of pure drinking water. Majority of them got fever and receive treatment from quack. Only twelve percent (12% women were engaged in making nets for fishing. Annual household income of maximum beneficiaries (44% was below BDT 30,000 and above BDT 50,000 found in only 4% cases. In the present study, educational, organizational, and technical credit support were very crucial to develop their better socio-economic conditions.

  3. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  4. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  6. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  7. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and

  8. Cross-Strait Economic Relations: Opportunities Outweigh Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Denny

    2004-01-01

    ...." Taiwan finds the economic opportunities on the mainland irresistible. Yet Taiwan recognizes that trading with China supports the strategy of the country representing Taiwan's chief security threat...

  9. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009. With Particular Emphasis on Economic Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Thomas, Steve; Froggatt, Antony; Koplow, Doug; Hazemann, Julie

    2009-08-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 provides the reader with the basic quantitative and qualitative facts on the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning phases throughout the world. A detailed overview assesses the economic performance of past and current nuclear projects. As of 1 August 2009 there are 435 nuclear reactors operating in the world, nine less than in 2002. There are 52 units listed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as 'under construction'. At the peak of the nuclear industry's growth phase in 1979 there were 233 reactors being built concurrently. Even at the end of 1987, there were still 120 reactors in process. Much has changed. For the first time since commercial use of nuclear energy began in the middle of the 1950's no new nuclear plant was connected to the grid in 2008. In fact, no start-up has been reported for the past two years, since Cernavoda-2 was connected to the grid on 7 August 2007, after 24 years of construction. In 1989 a total of 177 nuclear reactors had been operated in what are now the 27 EU Member States, but as of 1 August 2009 only 144 units were in operation. Today the worldwide operating reactors total 370,000 megawatts (370 GW), about 1,600 MW less than one year ago. In 2007 nuclear power plants generated about 2,600 TWh and provided 14% of the world's electricity. After an unprecedented drop in electricity generation of 2% in 2007, nuclear power plants' output lost another half percentage point in 2008. Nuclear power provided 5.5% of the commercial primary energy production and about 2% of the final energy in the world, and has trended downwards for several years. Twenty-seven of the 31 countries operating nuclear power plants maintained or decreased their share of nuclear power within the electricity mix in 2008 relative to 2007. Four countries (Czech Republic, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia) increased their share. In addition to the 52 units currently under construction

  10. Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Beckman, Robin; Flórez, Karen R; DeSantis, Amy; Collins, Rebecca L; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. We observed declines in food insecurity (-11.8%, P supermarket relative to residents of the comparison neighborhood. We also found suggestive evidence that residents' incomes increased more ($1550, P = .09) and prevalence of diabetes increased less in the neighborhood with the supermarket than in the comparison neighborhood (-3.6%, P = .10). Locating a new supermarket in a low-income neighborhood may improve residents' economic well-being and health. Policymakers should consider broad impacts of neighborhood investment that could translate into improved health for residents of underserved neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to examine the concurrent relationship between global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in developing countries. To achieve this, the paper commenced with the conceptualization of global warming and economic development, the natural and human causes ...

  12. Funding of pensions and economic growth : are they really related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Eelco; Spierdijk, Laura

    We examine whether changes in the degree of pension funding affect economic growth. Our sample consists of 54 countries, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as non-OECD, during 2001-10. We do not find any effect of changes in the degree of funding on growth in the

  13. Oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Montoya, J A; Subirá, C; Ramón, J M; González-Moles, M A

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with malnutrition risk in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was designed using a representative sample of Spaniards over 65 years old. Data on sociodemographics and oral health status were gathered by interview and examination. Oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and malnutrition risk using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The final sample included 2,860 elderly, 41.7 percent males and 58.3 percent females, with a mean age of 73.7 +/- 6.8 years. Mean GOHAI score was 52.1 +/- 7.2, with 70.7 percent of the sample needing oral health care according to this index. The mean MNA score was 24.0 +/- 3.31; 3.5 percent of the elderly were malnourished, 31.5 percent were at risk of malnutrition, and 65.0 percent were considered adequately nourished. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores.

  14. Relationship of family formation characteristics with unsafe abortion: is it confounded by women's socio-economic status? - A case-control study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C; Attygalle, Deepika; Moonasinghe, Loshan

    2016-06-17

    Literature shows that choice for unsafe abortion is often driven by poverty. However, factors related to the family formation behaviour of women are also implied as determinants of this decision. This study assessed which family formation characteristics of women are associated with the risk of unsafe abortion, without being confounded by their low socio-economic status among Sri Lankan women admitted to hospital following post-abortion complications. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in nine hospitals in eight districts in Sri Lanka among 171 women with post-abortion complications following unsafe abortion (Cases) and 600 postpartum mothers admitted to same hospitals during the same period for delivery of term unintended pregnancies (Controls). Interviewer-administered-questionnaires obtained demographic, socio-economic and family formation related characteristics. Risk factors of abortion were assessed by odds-ratio (OR), adjusted for their socio-economic status in logistic regression analysis. Low socio-economic status, characterised by low-education (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95 % CI = 1.1-2.4) and less/unskilled occupations (2.3; 1.4-3.6) was a significant risk factor for unsafe abortion. Independent of this risk, being unmarried (9.3; 4.0-21.6), failure in informed decisions about desired family size (2.2; 1.4-3.5), not having a girl-child (2.2; 1.4-3.4) and longer average birth intervals (0.7 years; 0.6-0.8) signified the vulnerability of women for unsafe abortion. Cases were as fast as the controls in their family completion (4.3 versus 4.5 years; p = 0.4), but were at increased risk for abortion, if their average birth intervals (including the last one) were longer. Previous contraceptive use, age at reproductive events or partners' characteristics did not impart any risk for abortion. Low socio-economic status is not the most influencing risk factor for unsafe abortions leading to complications, but many other factors in relation to

  15. Status, Power, and Intergroup Relations: The Personal Is the Societal

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Susan T.; Dupree, Cydney H.; Nicolas, Gandalf; Swencionis, Jillian K.

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchies in the correlated forms of power (resources) and status (prestige) are constants that organize human societies. This article reviews relevant social psychological literature and identifies several converging results concerning power and status. Whether rank is chronically possessed or temporarily embodied, higher ranks create psychological distance from others, allow agency by the higher ranked, and exact deference from the lower ranked. Beliefs that status entails competence are ...

  16. 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey- Workplace and Gender Relations: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  17. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  18. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  19. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  20. Science identity possibilities: a look into Blackness, masculinities, and economic power relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari

    2018-02-01

    This forum paper dialogues with Sheron Mark's A bit of both science and economics: a non-traditional STEM identity narrative. In her paper, she discusses the development of a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) identity by a young African American male during an informal STEM for Social Justice Program. Here, the discussion focuses on Black masculinities, identity formation, and the role of science educators in making STEM fields a welcoming place for young Black men. Drawing from Mark's data and discussion, this paper is a dialogue between science identity possibilities in the United States and in Brazil when we look at the intersections of race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Using the shared colonial past of both countries a connection is established to address race relations within science education. The main argument in this paper is that racism can no longer be denied and dismissed by the science education community worldwide and that intersectional approaches are needed to face this issue.

  1. National Economic Conditions and Patient Insurance Status Predict Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Rates and Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Adam B; Conti, Rena M; Eggener, Scott E

    2016-05-01

    The recent Great Recession from December 2007 to June 2009 presents a unique opportunity to examine whether the incidence of nonpalpable prostate cancer decreases while conservative management for nonpalpable prostate cancer increases during periods of national economic hardship. We derived rates of national monthly diagnosis and conservative management for screen detected, nonpalpable prostate cancer and patient level insurance status from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database from 2004 to 2011. We derived monthly statistics on national unemployment rates, inflation, median household income and S&P 500® closing values from government sources. Using linear and logistic multivariable regression we measured the correlation of national macroeconomic conditions with prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment patterns. We evaluated patient level predictors of conservative management to determine whether being insured by Medicaid or uninsured increased the use of conservative management. Diagnosis rates correlated positively with the S&P 500 monthly close (coefficient 24.90, 95% CI 6.29-43.50, p = 0.009). Conservative management correlated negatively with median household income (coefficient -49.13, 95% CI -69.29--28.98, p management compared to that in men with private insurance. As indicated by a significant interaction term being diagnosed during the Great Recession increased the Medicaid insurance predictive value of conservative management (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.68, p = 0.037). National economic hardship was associated with decreased diagnosis rates of nonpalpable prostate cancer and increased conservative management. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetically modified (GM) corn in the Philippines : Ecological impacts on agroecosystems, effects on the economic status and farmers’ experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabutol-Afidchao, Miladis B.

    2013-01-01

    To seek answers to the issues on GM corn adoption in the Philippines, the thesis focused to find answers on the general question: How can genetically modified (GM) corn and its attributed changes in agricultural practices affect the agro-ecosystem’s biodiversity and the economic status and social

  3. Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now,

  4. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  5. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  6. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  7. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M.; Dam, van R.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet.

  8. Effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress among farmers and non-farmers of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Argentina's restructuring of over $100 billion in defaulted bond debt in June 2005 demonstrated the country's emergence from its 2001-2002 economic crisis that had caused severe stress on the political system...

  10. Status, Power, and Intergroup Relations: The Personal Is the Societal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Dupree, Cydney H; Nicolas, Gandalf; Swencionis, Jillian K

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchies in the correlated forms of power (resources) and status (prestige) are constants that organize human societies. This article reviews relevant social psychological literature and identifies several converging results concerning power and status. Whether rank is chronically possessed or temporarily embodied, higher ranks create psychological distance from others, allow agency by the higher ranked, and exact deference from the lower ranked. Beliefs that status entails competence are essentially universal. Interpersonal interactions create warmth-competence compensatory tradeoffs. Along with societal structures (enduring inequality), these tradeoffs reinforce status-competence beliefs. Race, class, and gender further illustrate these dynamics. Although status systems are resilient, they can shift, and understanding those change processes is an important direction for future research, as global demographic changes disrupt existing hierarchies.

  11. Economic values of pork production related traits in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate economic values for sow efficiency and meat production traits in the Finnish pork production system including the consideration for subsidies. Economic values were estimated by developing a bio-economic model that describes the Finnish production system. Genetic improvement estimates for meat production traits were also developed in order to evaluate how much genetic gain is reduced due to selection for meat quality. Results showed that the highest economic values, when expressed in genetic standard deviations, were obtained for total number of piglets born (€2.07 per piglet, feed conversion ratio (€2.07 per feed unit per kg, and lean meat percentage (€1.69 per %. Economic values for litter size, piglet mortality, sows length of productive life, and lean meat percentage increased when subsidies were not accounted for in the bio-economic model. Results show further that meat quality should have 15–20 percent weight in the Finnish production trait index in order to prevent its deterioration. When the selection weights are 15–20% for meat quality, the expected loss in genetic gain is approximately 3 percent for other production traits when compared to selection indices where meat quality traits are not included.;

  12. Oropharynx HPV status and its relation to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The number of oropharyngeal lesions caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus has been increasing worldwide in the past years. In spite of the clinical relevance of HPV infection in the anogenital tract of HIV-positive patients, the relevance of oropharynx HPV infection in these patients is not clear. The aim of the present study was to detect HPV infection, and clinical and cytological changes in the oropharynx of HIV-positive patients. Methods Samples collected from the oropharynx of 100 HIV-positive patients were subjected to hybrid capture (HC, conventional and liquid-based cytology. Clinical data were also collected to investigate the relation with HPV status. Results High and low-risk types of HPV were present in 8% and 16.7% of the total sample. The mean ± sd (maximum-minimum of the relative ratio light unit (RLU/cutoff (CO was 2.94 ± 2.58 (1.09–7.87 and 1.61 ± 0.65 (1.07–2.8 for high- and low-risk-HPV, respectively. By cytology, dysplasia was not detected, but atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US were diagnosed in two samples. No clinical change, suggestive of dysplasia/cancer, was detected. Conclusion Our study was able to detect and characterize HPV infection by hybrid capture, which may represent a good tool for screening and follow-up of HPV in the studied population. The frequency and viral load of HPV were low. Neither clinical nor cytological changes suggestive of dysplasia/neoplasia were observed in oropharynx of HIV-positive patients.

  13. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles: 15 year trends and association with socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, P; Chiolero, A; Shamlaye, C; Paccaud, F

    2008-11-01

    We assessed the 15-year trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African Region) and the relationship with socio-economic status (SES). Three population-based examination surveys were conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Occupation was categorized as 'labourer', 'intermediate' or 'professional'. Education was also assessed in 1994 and 2004. Between 1989 and 2004, mean BMI increased markedly in all sex and age categories (overall: 0.16 kg m(-2) per calendar year, which corresponds to 0.46 kg per calendar year). The prevalence of overweight (including obesity, BMI >or= 25 kg m(-2)) increased from 29% to 52% in men and from 50% to 67% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg m(-2)) increased from 4% to 15% in men and from 23% to 34% in women. Overweight was associated inversely with occupation in women and directly in men in all surveys. In multivariate analysis, overweight was associated similarly (direction and magnitude) to occupation and education. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity over time in all age, sex and SES categories suggests large-scale changes in societal obesogenic factors. The sex-specific association of SES with overweight suggests that prevention measures should be tailored accordingly.

  15. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  17. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Amram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods. A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009. Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region.

  18. National female literacy, individual socio-economic status, and maternal health care use in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Sarah; Moore, Spencer; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals have identified improving women's access to maternal health care as a key target in reducing maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Although individual factors such as income and urban residence can affect maternal health care use, little is known about national-level factors associated with use. Yet, such knowledge may highlight the importance of global and national policies in improving use. This study examines the importance of national female literacy on women's maternal health care use in continental sSA. Data that come from the 2002-2003 World Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between national female literacy and individual's non-use of maternal health care, while adjusting for individual-level factors and national economic development. Analyses also assessed effect modification of the association between income and non-use by female literacy. Effect modification was evaluated with the likelihood ratio test (G(2)). We found that within countries, individual age, education, urban residence and household income were associated with lack of maternal health care. National female literacy modified the association of household income with lack of maternal health care use. The strength of the association between income and lack of maternal health care was weaker in countries with higher female literacy. We conclude therefore that higher national levels of female literacy may reduce income-related inequalities in use through a range of possible mechanisms, including women's increased labour participation and higher status in society. National policies that are able to address female literacy and women's status in sub-Saharan Africa may help reduce income-related inequalities in maternal health care use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  20. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  1. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    under the Concertación’s free market economic policies and moderate social programs, which have produced notable economic growth and considerable...April 8, 2009. 21 “Supera Enríquez-Ominami a Candidato Presidencial Oficialista en Chile,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, June 2, 2009. 22 “People...Negociaría Estado Chileno Con Bancos Que Ocultaron Dinero de Pinochet,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, March 15, 2009. 34 Helen Hughes & Jack Chang, “Ex

  2. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  3. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  4. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in ... that both developing and developed countries should sink their differences, .... with time. Other fossils exist but are still under investigation. These fossil fuels contribute greatly to human existence in the areas of. Electricity generation and ...

  5. Tabulations of Responses from the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey- Workplace and Gender Relations: Volume 2, Gender Related Experiences in the Military and Gender Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenlees, James

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  6. Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status at Birth among Black than White Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001 and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001 at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001 and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001 at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra cost of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should

  7. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  8. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SHIRAZ, SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Robab; Chan, Yoke Mun; Khor, Geok Lin; Rahman, Hejar Abul; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Wong, Teck Wee

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its individual components with socio-economic factors among 14-18 year-old adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. Using a multistage random sampling, a total of 538 (289 males and 249 females) adolescents consented to the study. Socio-economic status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire while presence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components was ascertained using NCEP-ATP III criteria. The relationships between the participants' socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its components were determined using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Approximately 6% of the adolescents had metabolic syndrome, with significantly more males than females (9.3% vs 2.4%, p Metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent in obese participants (44.4%) than those with normal body weight (2.0%) or overweight (9.3%). There were positive associations between the components of metabolic syndrome and parental education, school location and household monthly income. Having a family history of obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for other variables (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.9-5.2, p = 0.042). Overweight and obese subjects were approximately 8 times and 15 times more likely to develop metabolic syndrome, respectively (overweight: OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 3.6-17.2; obese: OR = 15.4; 95% CI: 4.8-43.7). In conclusion, a positive association exists between socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the studied participants. An intervention program to prevent metabolic syndrome needs to be developed for this young generation, especially among those who are overweight or obese and those with a family history of obesity. Keywords: adolescents, metabolic syndrome, components of metabolic syndrome, socio-economic status, Iran

  10. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppin Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems

  11. Anthropometry of fetal growth in rural Malawi in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn

  12. Economic relations EU-China - the mechanism that the European Union outlines the position of the economic actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana JITARU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the EU and China face a number of challenges. The EU has reached the pinnacle of international identity and is going through a rather difficult process of rethinking it. Regarding China, this actor goes through a phase of rethinking its economic growth model, namely the transition from an economy based, in greater extent on exports and investment to an economic growth based on stimulating domestic consumption. In this context, in order to meet the challenges of the third millennium and beyond, the two actors need to strengthen their cooperative relations as they are vital in solving the challenges of this millennium. This paper aims to provide an overview of EU-China economic relations and to analyse the impact of these relations on the EU economy.

  13. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F; Sweat, Michael

    2012-03-07

    Zimbabwe's HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional

  14. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.

  15. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...

  16. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-01-01

    Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics o...

  17. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  18. Sino-U.S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-20

    implementing mandatory or guidance plans are also influenced by changes in prices, taxation and credits, these economic levers are all applied by the...trade protectionism practised by a number of the developed countries, their reduction of official development aid, and rising real interest rates have... taxation for the first three years, and their tax rate will be 15% in the subsequent three years; if the export of an enterprise’s products can reach a

  19. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    RN) and the rightist Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente , UDI). A third coalition, the “Broad Party of the Socialist Left...independents and members of the Regionalist Party of Independents (Partido Regionalista de los Independientes , PRI), who are unaffiliated with either of the...Wilde, “Piñera Won. Will he uphold Chile’s post -Pinochet moral legacy?” Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 2010. Chile: Political and Economic

  20. Relation of Infant Vision to Early Cognitive and Language Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckman, Robert; Tulloch, Deborah

    Relationships between infant visual skills and the development of object permanence and expressive language skills were examined with 31 infants in three groups: visually typical, visually atypical, and Down Syndrome. Measures used to evaluate visual status were: forced preferential looking, optokinetic nystagmus, and behavioral. Object permanence…

  1. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and glucose intolerance, and its impact on pregnant women and their newborns. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women were divided into three groups: women with gestational diabetes mellitus, ones with normal results both after the 50 gr and 100 ...

  2. Nutritional status, feeding practices and state of other related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate nutrition is a pre-requisite for human capital formation and economic ... African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 4, December, 2016. 892 ... of village health teams, women groups and others in- volved in ... males, those in rural areas, lower education of care givers and lower ..... Salary/wage employment. 24(9.7).

  3. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  4. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  5. Economic assessment factors relating to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part I discusses the factors to be applied in an economic assessment of reprocessing. It sets forth three basic cost components, namely capital costs, operating costs and the cost of capital utilization. It lists the various components of each cost area. Part II proposes a relationship between these respective cost areas, tabulates a range of costs and then develops unit costs for reprocessing operations. Finally, an addendum to the paper gives a more detailed breakdown of the capital costs of a reprocessing plant

  6. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-10

    pace to meet all eight of the United Nations ( UN ) Millennium Development Objectives by 2015.9 Recent Political and Economic Developments Bachelet...Front For Elections,” EFE News Service, June 15, 2009; “‘Hombres Fuertes’ de Las Campañas Analizan lo que Está en Juego en la Elección Presidencial...Enriquez-Ominami Paves Way For Younger Leaders,” Oxford Analytica, September 7, 2009. 42 “Marco Enríquez es, Políticamente, Hijo de Bachelet y Lagos

  7. China’s Economic Relations with Indonesia: Threats and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of China’s economic ties with Southeast Asia over the last two decades, culminating in the inauguration of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA in 2010. Particular reference is made to China’s trade ties with Indonesia. Although two-way trade between China and Indonesia has grown rapidly since 2000, Indonesian exports to China are dominated by primary products, while imports from China are dominated by manufactures. While this pattern might reflect short-term comparative advantage in both economies, it is causing some concern in Indonesia. The paper assesses these concerns, and possible political reactions.

  8. Use of hospital services and socio-economic status in urban India: Does health insurance ensure equitable outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2012-01-01

    In recent years universal health coverage has become an important issue in developing countries. Successful introduction of such a social security system requires knowledge of the relationship between socio-economic status and usage of health care services. This paper examines this relationship, and analyzes the impact of introducing health insurance into the model, using data for India, a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to similar works undertaken for develope...

  9. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gary T.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Yeung, Vincent T.F.; Chow, Chun-Chung; Tsang, Lynn W.W.; Cockram, Clive S.

    2001-01-01

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  10. China-USA economic relations: bilateral ties and multilateral economic projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Troush

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of US-China trade is going up notwithstanding the slowdown of Chinese economy. Those US fi rms who placed production in China became more involved into Chinese internal market. Chinese investments into US prevail over the US investments in China. The decisions of the Chinese leadership to set up the new market priorities in the economic development are implemented with obvious diffi culties, but being implemented, could stimulate US-China ties.

  11. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  12. Status of Occupational Health and Safety and Related Challenges in Expanding Economy of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Ezra J; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; Mamuya, Simon H D

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety is related with economic activities undertaken in the country. As the economic activities grow and expand, occupational injuries and diseases are more likely to increase among workers in different sectors of economy such as agriculture, mining, transport, and manufacture. This may result in high occupational health and safety services demand, which might be difficult to meet by developing countries that are prioritizing economic expansion without regard to their impact on occupational health and safety. To describe the status of occupational health and safety in Tanzania and outline the challenges in provision of occupational health services under the state of an expanding economy. Tanzania's economy is growing steadily, with growth being driven by communications, transport, financial intermediation, construction, mining, agriculture, and manufacturing. Along with this growth, hazards emanating from work in all sectors of the economy have increased and varied. The workers exposed to these hazards suffer from illness and injuries and yet they are not provided with adequate occupational health services. Services are scanty and limited to a few enterprises that can afford it. Existing laws and regulations are not comprehensive enough to cover the entire population. Implementation of legislation is weak and does not protect the workers. Most Tanzanians are not covered by the occupational health and safety law and do not access occupational health services. Thus an occupational health and safety services strategy, backed by legislations and provided with the necessary resources (competent experts, financial and technological resources), is a necessity in Tanzania. The existing legal provisions require major modifications to meet international requirements and standards. OHS regulations and legislations need refocusing, revision, and strengthening to cover all working population. Capacities should be improved through training and research

  13. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  14. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  15. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  16. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.; van Zanden, J.L.; Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we

  17. Transatlantic Economic Relations and the Prospects of a New Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the international context in which negotiations between the European Union and United States on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have been launched in July 2013. This context includes both the repeated failures of the Doha Round negotiations as well as the previous attempts and achievements of the European Union and United States to create a transatlantic partnership. The author considers that the current circumstances are more favourable for the successful finalization of the transatlantic partnership but, at the same time, stresses the sensitive issues that may delay or divert the negotiations. The paper concludes that there are many possible immediate positive consequences on economic growth and creation of jobs of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership as well as a high potential to expand its implementation in North America through NAFTA and in some other countries that have free trade agreements with either the European Union or the United States.

  18. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  19. Effective fillips for the harmonization of relations in an economic organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Georgievna Kalabina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of harmonization of economic interests in mutual relations between the employee and the employer of the economic organization through a prism of the economic theory of stimulus. Mutual relations between the employee and the employer in the economic organization are accompanied transaction costs and the control costs which combination and size define a choice of type of the contract which typology is presented in work. A condition of maintenance of long contract relations between the employee and the employer in the economic organization is construction of the stimulating contract which maintenance allows each participant to take the maximum utility in all admissible forms. On the basis of studying of interests of each party, conditions of the conclusion and base parameters, the model of the effective stimulating contract between the employee and the employer in the economic organization is developed

  20. Associations among Friendship Jealousy, Peer Status, and Relational Aggression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Caroline; Mayeux, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among peer status, friendship jealousy, and relational aggression in early adolescence, with a focus on peer status as a moderator of the association between relational aggression and friendship jealousy. Three hundred eighteen sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students completed a sociometric assessment…

  1. 'When psychology and economics meet: Relational goods in training groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Di Caccamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the concept of relational goods is an innovation in the economy as opposed to the predominant instrumental logic and the ultimate aim of achieving profit. By facilitating the process of remodeling and reconfiguration the modalities of entering into a relationship, and allowing a new connection between different dimension of one's family, relational and cultural experience, median training groups are a place of choice for developing relational good in different contexts.Keywords: Relational good; Median training group; Social well-being

  2. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  3. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  4. Economic development and declining vulnerability to climate-related disasters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Han, Guoyi; Zhou, Hongjian; Li, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Exposure and vulnerability are the main contributing factors of growing impact from climate-related disasters globally. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vulnerability is important for designing effective disaster risk mitigation and adaptation measures. At national scale, most cross-country studies have suggested that economic vulnerability to disasters decreases as income increases, especially for developing countries. Research covering sub-national climate-related natural disasters is indispensable to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the effect of regional economic growth on vulnerability reduction. Taking China as a case, this subnational scale study shows that economic development is correlated with the significant reduction in human fatalities but increase in direct economic losses (DELs) from climate-related disasters since 1949. The long-term trend in climate-related disaster vulnerability, reflected by mortality (1978-2015) and DELs (1990-2015) as a share of the total population and Gross Domestic Product, has seen significant decline among all economic regions in China. While notable differences remain among its West, Central and East economic regions, the temporal vulnerability change has been converging. The study further demonstrated that economic development level is correlated with human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and this vulnerability decreased with the increase of per-capita income. This study suggested that economic development can have nuanced effects on overall human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters. We argue that climate change science needs to acknowledge and examine the different pathways of vulnerability effects related to economic development.

  5. Nigeria-China Economic Relations Under the South-South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The defining characteristic of the South-South solidarity is cooperation among the ... relations which appear to be in great disequilibrium and to China's advantage. ... penetration of the Nigerian economy, observers of Nigeria's international ...

  6. Predicting social influence with faction sizes and relative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V

    2013-09-01

    Building on a recent theoretical development in the field of sociological social psychology, we develop a formal mathematical model of social influence processes. The extant theoretical literature implies that factions and status should have non-linear effects on social influence, and yet these theories have been evaluated using standard linear statistical models. Our formal model of influence includes these non-linearities, as specified by the theories. We evaluate the fit of the formal model using experimental data. Our results indicate that a one-parameter mathematical model fits the experimental data. We conclude with the implications of our research and a discussion of how it may be used as an impetus for further work on social influence processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of technologies related to radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The document discusses the status of technologies relevant to radioactive waste management and disposal, as defined by the INFCE Working Group 7 study. All fuel cycle wastes, with the exception of mill tailings, are placed in mined geologic repositories. In addition to the availability of technologies, the document discusses the: a) importance of the systems viewpoint, b) importance of modeling, c) need for site-specific investigations, d) consideration of future sub-surface human activities and e) prospects for successful isolation. In the sections on waste isolation and repository safety assessments, principal considerations are discussed. The document concludes that successful isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere appears technically feasible for periods of thousands of years provided that the systems view is used in repository siting and design

  8. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  9. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  10. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  11. The economic impact of insulin-related hypoglycemia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoskins, Nicki; Tikkanen, Christian Klyver; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the direct cost of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Local Impact of Hypoglycemia Tool (LIHT) was used to estimate the costs associated with insulin-related hypoglycemia. Average...

  12. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Amin, M.; Amber, M.; Malik, M.W.; Sherwani, S.K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  13. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already

  14. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  15. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Wah

    Full Text Available To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI in an Asian population.Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004-2011 in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30, low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00, and blindness (logMAR≥1.00. Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI, created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models.The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%. Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of any VI was 2.11(1.88-2.37 for low-SES and 1.07(1.02-1.13 per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40-65 years and male.In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both

  16. Sino-Japanese Relations: Cooperation, Competition, or Status Quo?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Fred H

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of their history, bilateral Sino-Japanese relations have experienced a paradoxical relationship of autonomy and interdependence, mutual respect and suspicion, and admiration and condescension...

  17. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  18. Application of economic techniques to fire management - A status review and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie K. Gorte; Ross W. Gorte

    1979-01-01

    Discusses both the historic and contemporary influences of economic in formulating USDA, Forest Service fire management policy in allocating money for fire management and in appraising fire effects. Includes a partial listing of publications that deal with resource valuation.

  19. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    .... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

  20. Environmental and resource economics in South Africa: status quo and lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the potential contributions of environmental and resource economics (ERE) to the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries and highlights the limitations associated with applying ERE within a developing country...

  1. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    improving the transparency of its financial system. It signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States in November 2010, and by...work of money launderers. Both the signing of a TIEA with the United States and Panama’s approval of legislation related to “bearer shares” were...had wanted to delay consideration of the Panama FTA until the United States and Panama signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ). This

  2. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  3. Do Better Political Relations with the USA Improve A Country's Economic Outlook?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Aridi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations of countries with the USA could be considered as helpful in their quest for enhanced economic performance. Does an improvement or deterioration in relations with the USA bring significant economic and financial benefits or costs, in areas such as, trade, capital flows, remittances, aid, military expenditures, and education? The results based on an event study are very preliminary. Nevertheless, this line of research could be fruitful and may enhance our appreciation of international political-economic relations and the ability to build more comprehensive theories of trade, capital flows and the like.

  4. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Relation Between Management and Economics from the Perspective of Institutional Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every country's economic development affects all levels of its society and thus the results of its social science research. To make social science research better serve their economic development, many countries have established social science research institutes, among which are management research institutes more related to economic research institutes. Through comparative research of the locations and founding dates of the institutes in different countries, this article analyses the development trends and the relationship between economics and management research, providing us with the relevant experience and background for planning purposes.

  6. The Relations of Migrant Status and Parenting to Chinese Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhen; Eisenberg, Nancy; Liang, Zongbao; Li, Yi; Deng, Huihua

    2017-01-01

    The main goals of the present study were (a) to compare Chinese migrant and nonmigrant adolescents on mean levels of parenting, positive adjustment, and academic functioning, and to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) accounted for any obtained differences, (b) to examine whether the relations of SES and migrant status to youths' positive…

  7. Status of serum adiponectin related to insulin resistance in prediabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, S.; Ahmed, S.D.H.; Nauman, K

    2014-01-01

    Obejctive: To find the status of serum adiponectin in individuals progressing towards Type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare it with normal glucose tolerant subjects to determine the stage where alteration of adiponectin occurred. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, during January to August 2008. Subjects were invited through various diabetes screening camps. A total of 608 subjects >30 years of age without prior history of diabetes were screened through fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Forty randomly selected pre-diabetic subjects and 40 age and gender-matched subjects were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were done. Serum insulin and adiponectin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance mathematically. Result: Mean fasting and two-hour plasma glucose, body mass index, waist, hip circumference and blood pressure were significantly raised in pre-diabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance. Adiponectin was significantly decreased, while insulin and HOMA-IR were raised significantly in the pre-diabetics. Adiponectin showed significant negative correlation with body mass index (r=-0.31, p=0.005), fasting plasma glucose (r=-0.24, p= 0.032), 2-hour plasma glucose (r=-0.42, p<0.0001)), insulin (r-0.43, p<0.0001) and HOMA-IR (r= -0.43, p<0.0001) and remained significant after adjustment of body mass index, gender and insulin level in pre-diabetics. Conclusion: Adiponectin estimation may help in earlier identification of impending diabetes. However, casual link between adiponectin and pre-diabetes remained unexplored due to the study design and small sample size that warrants longitudinal large-scale studies. (author)

  8. The Relation between Heat strain and hydration status among

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bolghanabadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: during the physical activity in hot environments, sweating with evaporation, the important physiological response of the body  increases which can be lead to dehydration . Long-term water shortages could adversely affect vital organs. The aim of this study was to determine heat stress and dehydration status of workers in hot workplaces. Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 90 workers of workers in sugar factory which were exposed to heat. Heart rate and oral temperature were respectively measured using a heart rate meter and an oral thermometer. WBGT index was recorded and the HSSI questionnaire was completed simultaneously, in order to assess dehydration level was measured of refractometer. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using compare means and t-test, paired t-test tests by SPSS 20 software Results: Heat stress exceeded the national and international recommended limits based on the WBGT index in 44% of cases of workstations. According to this study, 8.5% of our population had some degree of dehydration.63.4% of them were significantly dehydrated (urine SG>1.020 and 28% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1.030 and the mean specific gravity was 1.025±0.043 The correlations between heat strains, Urine Density and heat stress including oral temperature, heart rate were significant(p<0.05. Conclusion: A high percentage of the study population had some degree of dehydration that based on the results is worrying. It seems that planning in order to control of heat stresses by replace drinking is necessary.

  9. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.

  10. EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS (SES) WITH LEISURE TIME SPENDING OF GIRLS EMPHASIZING SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...

  11. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  12. "The way I am is the way you ought to be": perceiving one's relational status as unchangeable motivates normative idealization of that status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kille, David R; Eibach, Richard P

    2013-08-01

    People often become evangelists for their own lifestyles. When it comes to relational status, people are rarely content to simply say "being single works for me" or "being in a relationship suits my disposition." Results from four studies suggested that this tendency to view one's own relational status as the universal ideal emerges in part from a desire to rationalize one's own relational status. Building on existing evidence that people are motivated to rationalize circumstances they perceive as likely to persist, we predicted that participants' perceptions of the stability of their own relational status would lead them to rationalize that status. In Studies 1 and 2, we found evidence for an association between perceptions of stability and idealizations and ruled out an alternative explanation. In Studies 3 and 4, we found evidence of the effect of stability on people's judgments of same- and different-status others in contexts in which relational status should carry little objective weight.

  13. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  14. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  15. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...

  16. Health-related fitness, body composition and physical activity status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity (PI) is found to be a major contributor to the high incidence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. As such, PI was significantly related to risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Studies especially in the 14-years in adolescents' learners are sparse. The purpose of this study was to ...

  17. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The desire to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 has stimulated several investiga-tions related to pregnancy and birth outcome. Gestational weight gain and haemoglobin levels of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Nkawie Government Hospital were assessed to ascertain their ...

  18. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  19. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  20. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  1. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BASES FOR EVALUATION OF THE BUSINESS EXCELLENCE STATUS IN RELATION TO THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Jankalová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has started the need to achieve the Business Excellence status. Emphasizing the responsibility of the company's behaviour towards society and the environment is confirmed by the adoption of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Based on theoretical background review, there is no single unified methodology for the evaluation of the Business Excellence status in relation to the CSR concept. The aim of this paper is to identify bases for the evaluation of Business Excellence status in relation to the CSR concept. The most important tasks include: to identify internal and external factors affecting Business Excellence status; to identify CSR areas for the needs of evaluation of the Business Excellence status. Primary sources included especially national and foreign scientific publications.

  3. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedgwick JEC

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.

  4. Socio-economic Differences in Dietary Intakes: The Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Based on our findings, an unhealthier dietary intake may exist among the households belonging to lower socio-economic level in Iran. This calls for appropriate policy making and intervention(s. Keywords: Socio-economic status, Food and nutrient intakes, Factor analysis, Household

  5. Social-Economic Status, Work Conditions and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    -age respondents. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS22 (logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the variables on poor SRH). Such variables as, socio-economic status, economic activity, work conditions were created by using principal component analysis.A binomial logistic regression...

  6. 75 FR 42774 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water...

  7. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental...

  8. The association between perceived social support, socio-economic status and mental health in young Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H

    2011-06-01

    To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.

  9. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Social and economic factors are known to affect health and well-being in several ... -seeking attitudes in childhood cancer; this usually re- sults in late ..... reported in guardians of 5.0% in Kenya and 19% in. Uganda.20 This ...

  10. Influence of health risk behavior and socio-economic status on health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out

  11. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  12. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Socioeconomic factors are known to affect health quality, disease occurrence as well as health-seeking behaviors in several ways. Objectives: To determine the influence of socio-economic factors on awareness of cancer, healthseeking behaviors among parents of children with cancer in a developing country ...

  13. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  14. The Economic Activity Rate of the Romanian Population. Status and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA SIMION

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of balance of national budgets and, in particular, of the social security budget, makes decision makers to look increasingly to the characteristics of the labour market and to the general output of economic activity. The better a country is placed in terms of the technological performance of economic activities, which favours an increased labour productivity, the higher are the values of the gross domestic product of the state's general income, and the country's possibility to afford a social policy that is more adapted to the needs of the population. Innovation performance classifies EU member states into four groups, each of these groups having almost a specific curve of the participation rates according to age and sex. In Romania, the population's activity rates according to age groups in the more developed regions are closer to those in the countries with the best innovation performance, although, as a whole, Romania is placed in the fourth and last group according to innovation results among EU member states. In our country, the activity rates according to age group have decreased in recent years, especially with respect to groups aged 50 or more, although the retirement age for men is the highest among EU countries. The increase of labour productivity has boosted economic growth in the recent past but, because of the lack of coherent economic policies, this growth has not. In Romania, activity rates for certain age groups were higher three decades ago and even in the first years of the transition to the market economy. Several scenarios for the projection of rates of participation to economic life until 2020, according to age groups are useful - and, possibly, also realistic, even if the (optimistic scenario with the highest activity rates is taken into account. The latter could be achieved if policies are implemented which enable workforce retention in the country and a better match between the qualification level and profile and

  15. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  16. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, María Virgínia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection. PMID:24892315

  17. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  18. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Олеговна Пучинская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.

  19. The peculiarities of connection between social capital and psychological health of the people with different economic status: the analysis of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given

  20. Status of research reactor utilization and other related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    The report covers two parts; the first is on the progress of the cooperative projects planned for 2002 under the FNCA and the other part on the activities related to the PRR1, Philippine Research Reactor. In the 2001 Workshop at Beijing, the Country agreed to participate in the three areas for collaboration. A brief reports on these three projects are included. The Country representatives during this 2002 Workshop will do a more detailed presentation on Radioisotope Production (TcG) and Neutron Activation Analysis projects. The second part of this report deals with the issues/concerns impeding the rehabilitation of PRR1. In January 2002, the Institute created the PRR1 Strategic Plan Committee to look deeply into these issues and concerns. The results of the Committee's work are discussed. (author)

  1. Present status of the VMI and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1980-05-01

    This article traces the evolution of the Variable Moment of Inertia model in its relation to the shell model, the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Model. The discovery of a new type of spectrum, that of pseudomagic nuclei (isobars of doubly magic nuclei) is reported, and an explanation for their dynamics is suggested. The type of rotational motion underlying the ground state band of an e-e nucleus is shown to depend on whether the minimum number of valence nucleon pairs of one kind (neutrons or protons) is less than or equal to 2 or > 2. In the former case the alpha-dumbbell model holds; in the latter the two-fluid model

  2. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the need for economic integration of agricultural enterprises. Methods abstractlogical monographic. Results economic integration in agriculture is needed due to the destruction of economic relations in the period of economy liberalization and decrease in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. The solution to the problems of financing pricing and marketing of agricultural products lies in the sphere of forming integrative relations between enterprises producing processing and marketing agricultural products. Basing on the analysis of theoretical provisions the main forms of enterprises integration is identified such as contractual relationship without creating new legal entities formation of associations unions holding companies financialindustrial groups. It was found that the most effective are those forms of associations that form a complete closed cycle of production and sales i.e. holdings and financialindustrial groups. Basing on the analysis of the economic integration principles the necessity was determined of implementing the principle of stability of economic relations which will allow to overcome the crisis in the agrarian sector. In addition the author has formulated principles for the implementing the economic mechanism in integrated groups based on equality freedom and integrity of such groups. The key components of economic relations in terms of integration were identified ndash organizational unity of the technological process as well as the transformation of the interests of technologically related actors towards a common result. Scientific novelty the principle of stability of economic links during integration of agricultural enterprises was formulated. The necessity was proved of integrating the enterprises providing comparable levels of capacity utilization and the possibility of complete product sales as well as the necessity of forming integration relations as a single object of ownership

  3. Are all immigrant mothers really at risk of low birth weight and perinatal mortality? The crucial role of socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racape, Judith; Schoenborn, Claudia; Sow, Mouctar; Alexander, Sophie; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2016-04-08

    Increasing studies show that immigrants have different perinatal health outcomes compared to native women. Nevertheless, we lack a systematic examination of the combined effects of immigrant status and socioeconomic factors on perinatal outcomes. Our objectives were to analyse national Belgian data to determine 1) whether socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the association between maternal nationality and perinatal outcomes (low birth weight and perinatal mortality); 2) the effect of adopting the Belgian nationality on the association between maternal foreign nationality and perinatal outcomes. This study is a population-based study using the data from linked birth and death certificates from the Belgian civil registration system. Data are related to all singleton births to mothers living in Belgium between 1998 and 2010. Perinatal mortality and low birth weight (LBW) were estimated by SES (maternal education and parental employment status) and by maternal nationality (at her own birth and at her child's birth). We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios for the associations between nationality and perinatal outcomes after adjusting for and stratifying by SES. The present study includes, for the first time, all births in Belgium; that is 1,363,621 singleton births between 1998 and 2010. Compared to Belgians, we observed an increased risk of perinatal mortality in all migrant groups (p order to understand more fully the relationship between migration and perinatal outcomes. Further studies are needed to analyse more finely the impact of socio-economic characteristics on perinatal outcomes.

  4. Changes in insurance status and emergency department visits after the 2008 economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Susan H; David Bryan, E; Tarwater, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    As the U.S. economy began its downward trend in 2008, many citizens lost their jobs and, ultimately, their employer-sponsored health care insurance. The expectation was that many of the newly uninsured would turn to emergency departments (EDs) for their health care. This study was undertaken to determine, first, if changes in the insurance status of the general population were reflected in the ED insurance payer mix and, second, whether there was evidence of an increased reliance on the ED as a continuing source of health care for any payer group(s). This was a retrospective observational study using public data files from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for Emergency Departments for years 2006 through 2010 (2008 ± 2 years). Changes in the relative proportions of ED visits funded annually by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and self-pay (uninsured) were analyzed using a logistic model. Poisson regression was used to compare trends in the rates of ED visits for each payer type (i.e., number of ED visits per 100 persons with each insurance type). A linear spline term was used to determine if there was a change in each risk estimate after 2008 compared to the risk estimate before 2008. Before 2008, the odds of an ED visit being funded by private insurance increased by 4% per year (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 1.10; p = 0.15), but after 2008 the odds reversed, decreasing by nearly 10% per year (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.97; p = 0.02). Medicaid-funded visits demonstrated opposite trends with a small decreasing trend of 2% per year before 2008 (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.04; p = 0.52), followed by a significantly increasing trend of 20% per year after 2008 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.27; p = 0.001). The growth in Medicaid-funded ED visits was attributable to increased numbers of visits by both pediatric (<18 years old) and non-elderly adult (19 to 64 years old) patients. For both Medicaid and private

  5. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAS. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  6. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  7. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and m...

  8. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, A.; Morrison, E.

    2013-01-01

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated w...

  9. A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on the island of Utila, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angela R; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D

    2017-09-10

    Numerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol. Participants were residents (age 18-79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD. Assessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD. For adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Economic Dimension in China’s Foreign Relations: Reflections for China Studies in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina S. Clemente

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay elucidates the economic dimension of China’s foreign relations in aid of gleaning critical reflections on how China Studies in the Philippines can better consider China’s development experience and the Philippines’ economic engagement with China. Whether Philippines-China relations are tense or warm, the discourse on bilateral ties is dominated by interrogations from the vantage points of international relations, diplomacy, politics, and security analysis, which feature peripheral content on economic analysis even when improving economic linkages is invoked as a focal point of relations. Meanwhile, existing economic studies that touch on the bilateral relations do not have the interdisciplinary or area studies approach that must underpin the analysis. Employing a qualitative research design that involves content analysis, key informant interviews, and comparative reflection, the essay begins with an overview of how China’s development strategy has shaped its foreign relations. The essay opens with a brief overview of how China’s development strategy evolved since 1 978. The next section focuses on innovations in foreign relations and China’s grand new initiatives. What follows is the section on China’s need for further development, which consists of a discussion on inclusive development issues and resource demand. The fourth section underscores insights for China Studies in the Philippines. The essay ends with closing remarks.

  11. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential, 1992-1993 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambles, R.L.; Kenney, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    An update is presented of a study carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Developments in economics and yields in short rotation intensive silviculture for the production of biomass energy since 1991 are documented. The most substantial changes have been: the introduction of new clones in Sweden with a 20% increase in yield; illustrating the potential genetic gains achievable through selection and breeding; and halving of harvesting costs with new machinery. Harvesting costs with chipping incorporated have fallen to $51.21/dry tonne. The twin row ESM and Frobbester harvesters have lower estimated costs of $36.62 and $ 33.69 respectively. Agricultural based machines have further reduced costs to $19.42 and $26.12/dry tonne. Using these new data, three new scenarios were developed for cost of production analysis, using contract labour, farm labour or farm labour plus a subsidy. A contracted operation is now viable with an annual equivalent net value (AENV) of $35/ha. With the use of farm labour for most operations and omitting land rent, profitability increased to $127/ha. With a subsidy of $75/ha, the AENV increases to $205/ha. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  13. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  14. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  15. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  16. Child Mortality, Women's Status, Economic Dependency, and State Strength: A Cross-National Study of Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ce; Williamson, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Data from 86 developing countries suggest that foreign investment and debt dependency have adverse indirect effects on child mortality--effects mediated by variables linked to industrialism theory and gender stratification theory: women's education, health, and reproductive autonomy and rate of economic growth. State strength was related to lower…

  17. Vitamin D status and health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krul-Poel, Y H M; Westra, S; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To test whether vitamin D status was associated with health-related quality of life in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life scores, were obtained from 241 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes managed...... associations were found between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was not associated with health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This could be explained by the relatively high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, good glycaemic...... of the patients included in the study was 67 ± 8 years. Their mean HbA1c concentration was 52 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.7%) and their mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 59 ± 23 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

  18. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  19. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Junqing Chu

    Full Text Available University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP. The aim of this study was to assess (1 whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2 whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students.A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately.The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74 with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02 than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77. NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73. Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found.To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  20. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010–2011. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer’s Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. Results The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11–1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08–2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89–1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09–1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. Conclusions To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration. PMID:26675032

  1. The correlation between burn mortality rates from fire and flame and economic status of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael; Pressman, Melissa A

    2013-09-01

    Over 95% of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries globally. However, the association between burn mortality rates and economic health has not been evaluated for individual countries. This study seeks to answer the question, how strong is the correlation between burn mortality and national indices of economic strength? A retrospective review was performed for 189 countries during 2008-2010 using economic data from the World Bank as well as mortality data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries were categorized into four groups based on income level according to stratification by the World Bank: low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, and high income. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to estimate presence and strength of association among death rates, Gini coefficient (measure of inequality of distribution of wealth), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and gross national index (GNI) per capita. Statistically significant associations (p<0.05) were found between burn mortality and GDP per capita (r=-0.26), GNI per capita (r=-0.36), and Gini (r=+0.17). A nation's income level is negatively correlated with burn mortality; the lower the income level, the higher the burn mortality rates. The degree to which income within a country is equitably or inequitably distributed also correlates with burn mortality. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations need to focus on preventing burns in low-income countries, as well as in other countries in which there is marked disparity of income. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between socio-economic status and childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh; a comparison of possession score and poverty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2010-10-01

    To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged <5 years was obtained. Some 57.8 % of the sample was either stunted, wasted or underweight (7.7 % were stunted, wasted and underweight). Of those stunted (48.4 %), 25.7 % were also underweight. Underweight and wasting prevalences were 40.7 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Mean WAZ, HAZ and WHZ did not differ by sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.

  3. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  4. The Effect of Socio-Economic status of Parents, Family Financial Management Education and Learning in Universities Connected with the Financial Literacy of the Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irin Widayati

    2015-02-01

    Key Words: socio-economic status of parents, family financial management education, learning in college, financial literacy   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Data dikumpulkan dengan melalui tes dan angket. Teknik analisis data dengan analisis jalur dan analisis regresi dengan uji selisih mutlak. Hasil penelitian adalah terdapat pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Kata kunci: status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, pembelajar-an di perguruan tinggi, literasi finansial

  5. Syndrome of Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep: Epileptic Encephalopathy Related to Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Qiao; Zhang, Wei-Na; Hu, Lin-Yan; Liu, Meng-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep is an age-related and self-limited disorder. The present study analyzed the etiology, demographics, and pathogenesis of patients with electrical status epilepticus during sleep to provide information on the diagnosis and therapy of this syndrome. The etiologies of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep in patients admitted in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into the genetic, structural-metabolic, and unknown groups according to the etiology. Demographics and clinical characteristics of all the patients were then analyzed and compared among groups. The etiologies of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep in 75 patients mainly included benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, polymicrogyria, and migration disorders. Age at onset of epilepsy did not show a specific pattern, but age at onset of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep was concentrated at age 6-9 years. The mean age at onset of epilepsy in the genetic group was significantly older than that in the structural-metabolic group (P status epilepticus during sleep did not significantly differ between the two groups. Electrical status epilepticus during sleep is an epileptic encephalopathy related to brain development and presents an age-dependent occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Who is eating where? Findings from the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women (SESAW) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie

    2011-03-01

    Foods prepared outside of the home have been linked to less-than-ideal nutrient profiles for health. We examine whether the locations where meals are prepared and consumed are associated with socio-economic predictors among women. A cross-sectional study using self-reported data. We examined multiple locations where meals are prepared and consumed: (i) at home; (ii) fast food eaten at home; (iii) fast food eaten at the restaurant; (iv) total fast food; (v) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at home; (vi) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at the restaurant; and (vii) all non-fast-food restaurant meals. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether frequent consumption of meals from these sources varied by level of education, occupation, household income and area-level disadvantage. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1328 women from forty-five neighbourhoods randomly sampled for the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. Those with higher educational qualifications or who were not in the workforce (compared with those in professional employment) were more likely to report frequent consumption of meals prepared and consumed at home. High individual- and area-level socio-economic characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of frequent consumption of fast food and a higher likelihood of frequent consumption of meals from non-fast-food sources. The strength and significance of relationships varied by place of consumption. The source of meal preparation and consumption varied by socio-economic predictors. This has implications for policy makers who need to continue to campaign to make healthy alternatives available in out-of-home food sources.

  7. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  8. Differences in mathematics and science performance by economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear Texas statewide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela Bennett

    Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to

  9. Modernization in Bali, Indonesia and the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of preschool children in 1989/1990: an anthropometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, A C; White, N G

    2007-01-01

    Bali has undergone rapid economic modernization over the past 30 years, however, very few anthropometric studies have examined the impact of modernization variables on the nutritional status of Balinese children. The study examined the relationships between variables associated with the modernization process on the nutritional status of Balinese children in 1989/1990, as assessed by anthropometrics. The mean height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age of 691 preschool children from nine localities across Bali were reported by age group and gender and related to the degree of modernization (using such parameters as household wealth and education level of the mother) and other variables such as the age, weight and height of the mother. Using the CDC/WHO 1978 growth references (Dibley et al. 1978), overall 35% of children were stunted (height-for-age 2 SD). The nutritional status of infants was significantly better than that of older children with growth faltering most evident during the second year of life. Maternal height and weight, the age of the child and wealth index were significantly associated with height-for-age of children, while the age of the child, maternal weight and family size were significantly associated with weight-for-height and weight-for-age of children. Maternal height and weight, wealth index and the age of the child were key factors influencing the body size for age of Balinese children. The strong association between maternal and child nutritional status was most likely due to environmental rather than genetic factors.

  10. [Estimation on the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Feng, Luzhao; Zheng, Yaming; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012. Both human capital approach and friction cost methods were used to compute the indirect economic burden of premature deaths from the following sources: mortality from the national disease surveillance system in 2012, average annual income per capita from the China Statistic Yearbook in 2012, population size from the 2010 China census, and life expectancy in China from the World Health Organization life table. Data from the Human Capital Approach Estimates showed that the indirect economic burden of premature deaths in China was 425.1 billion in 2012, accounting for 8‰ of the GDP. The indirect economic burden of chronic non-communicable diseases associated premature deaths was accounted for the highest proportion(67.1%, 295.4 billion), followed by those of injuries related premature deaths (25.6% , 108.9 billion), infectious diseases, maternal and infants diseases, and malnutrition related deaths (6.4% , 26.9 billion). The top five premature deaths that cause the indirect economic burden were malignancy, cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, intentional injuries, and diseases of the respiratory system. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the population of 20-59 year-olds. Under the Friction Cost method, the estimates appeared to be 0.11%-3.49% of the total human capital approach estimates. Premature death caused heavy indirect economic burden in China. Chronic non-communicable diseases and injuries seemed to incur the major disease burden. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the working age group.

  11. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  13. An Integrated Economics Model for ISRU in Support of a Mars Colony - Initial Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, Rene; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this effort is to develop an integrated set of risk-based financial and technical models to evaluate multiple Off-Earth Mining (OEM) scenarios. This quantitative, scenario- and simulation-based tool will help identify combinations of market variables, technical parameters, and policy levers that will enable the expansion of the global economy into the solar system and return economic benefits. Human ventures in space are entering a new phase in which missions formerly driven by government agencies are now being replaced by those led by commercial enterprises - in launch, satellite deployment, resupply of the International Space Station, and space tourism. In the not-too-distant future, commercial opportunities will also include the mining of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. This investigation will examine the role of OEM in a growing space economy. (In this investigation, the term 'mining' is taken to embrace minerals, ice/water, and other in situ resources.) OEM can be the engine that drives the space economy, so it would be useful to understand what OEM market conditions and technology requirements are needed for that economy to prosper. These specific elements will be studied in the wider context of creating an economy that could ultimately support a sustainable Mars Colony. Such a colony will need in situ resources not only for its own survival, but to prosper and grow, it must create viable business ventures, essentially by fulfilling the demand for in situ resources from and on Mars. This investigation will focus on understanding the role and economic prospect for OEM associated with the Human Colonization of Mars (HCM).

  14. Leisure of the theory class. [Relationship of socio-economic status and espousals on energy or the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.V.

    1978-05-11

    The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The affluent U.S. college-educated, primarily concerned with self-actualization, show an inversion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs compared to people in developing countries. They are also in a position to express and promote theories for no-risk technology. The author suggests that these theorists be required to submit the same detailed support for their theories as is required for new energy facilities. The theory class is noted for acting upon faith rather than evidence; for ideas rather than workable plans.

  15. Prospects and risks of development of ukrainian-chinese trade and economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Rogovyj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main prospects and risks of development of Ukrainian-Chinese trade and economic relations have been researched in the article. It has been grounded that there is a considerable need for attraction of external financing for Ukraine, and China is one of the potential partners for this purpose. The areas of interest of Ukraine in cooperation with China have been determined, in particular, the attraction of external investments that will allow the intensification of economic growth in the country, and will provide creation of new workplaces. The sphere of interests of China in Ukraine has been determined, namely, the possibility of attraction of Ukrainian technologies to Chinese market with the placement of production in the territory of China. It has been found out that it is considerable risk for Ukraine as in 5–7 years Chinese partners will seize Ukrainian technologies and the need in Ukrainian partners for them will disappear. Besides, there is a risk of irrational use of land resources that may lead to depletion and decline of its quality. In order to avoid negative consequences of economic cooperation with China Ukraine needs to develop strategy of the economic partnership providing satisfaction of national interests. Keywords: Ukraine; China; economic cooperation; trade; trade and economic relations.

  16. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  17. European economic policies, stock-flow relations and the great double crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2015 crisis has been the most devastating economic depression in the last seven decades. It has struck in different ways and with different amplitude the US and most European countries. In most countries it has been a double crisis (financial and real, but in Eurozone's financially vulnerable countries it has also badly worsened public finance indicators. There was therefore in those countries, a complex perverse feedback between public finance weakness, the harsh application of austerity policy and a further increase in the depth and duration of real and financial crisis. The paper focus on the importance of stock-flow relations in worsening and prolonging economic depressions triggered by structural bubbles or other chronic imbalances. It also gives a critical assessment of some aspects of EU economic policies, outlining some elements for a possible alternative economic strategy.

  18. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  19. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heelan Kate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.

  20. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  1. The role of husband's and wife's economic activity status in the demand for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y

    1987-04-01

    Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a

  2. The status of preschool teachers in two municipalities following the economic collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey Axelsdóttir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This feminist study examines the working conditions of preschool teachers, a female dominated occupation, in two municipalities in Iceland and asks, in light of government policy, if and then how the municipalities facilitate preschool teachers professionalism following the 2008 bank collapse. Weber´s (2001 theoretical framework is applied to explore the professional status of the preschools and the impact of local government on preschool teachers’ position. Qualitative methods were used and data was gathered in 2011 and 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with women and men in two preschools and the schools administrative environment. Preschool teachers employed in management and non-management positions as well as assistants were interviewed. The study’s results show that financial cutbacks in local government affect preschool teachers and assistants and thus the position of women in the labour market by preserving their subordination. Furthermore, preschool children seem to be affected by the cutbacks which possibly have negative consequences on their well-being. Reforms and developments of the preschool teachers education seem to be met with considerable opposition from local government and more emphasis is placed on operational costs rather than strengthening the preschool teachers in their role as professionals. The results thus point to a gap between government policy and the municipalities’ local version of that same policy.

  3. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  4. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  5. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  6. Investment in radiotherapy infrastructure positively affected the economic status of an oncology hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated.

  7. Status and economics of fish markets in Rajshahi City Corporation of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hossain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the existing fish distribution and marketing systems, assess marketing costs and margins and identify constraints of fish marketing systems. Methods: Data were collected from three different markets by fishermen, commission agents, wholesalers, retailers, day laborers etc. through questionnaire interviews and participatory approach during June to September, 2013. Results: Four types of marketing channel were identified from farmers to consumers in all the three fish markets through a number of intermediaries. The daily supply of total fish in Binodpur Market, Talaimari Market and Shaheb Market was estimated 0.8-1 ton, 0.2-0.3 ton and 8-8.1 ton, respectively. Virtually, most of the fish (75% is imported from outside; the local supply amount is only 25%. The total marketing cost of wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 8.58 and $ 6.47 per day, respectively. The average marketing margin of the wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 0.18 and $ 0.25 per kg respectively. Income of fisherman, wholesaler, retailer and day laborer was estimated at $ 350, $ 9.75, $ 6.48, and $ 1.69, respectively. Conclusions: Traders have broadly improved their food consumption, standards of living, purchasing power, choice and ability as an economic sector.

  8. Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.

  9. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  10. A systematic review of economic evaluations of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehlmoos Tracey P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER. Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis

  11. A systematic review of economic evaluations of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis of knowledge in the area. The

  12. Children′s growth pattern and mothers′ education and socio-economic status in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The

  13. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  14. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

  15. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and

  16. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  17. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: - To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; - To discuss the results of studies and on-going R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; and - To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  18. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: • To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; • To discuss the results of studies and ongoing R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; • To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  19. Deep geothermics in Germany. An energy-economic analysis of the status and possible developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to supply the energy-intense and highly industrialized economy of the Federal Republic of Germany more climate-friendly and crisis-safely with a larger contribution of homelike energy in the past years by the federal government a manifold of obligatory aims were composed. So for instance the greenhouse-gas emissions of 1990 shall be reduced against 2020 by 40 %. This shall be reached among others by an increased use of the renewable energies. But a transformation of these ambitionized aims seems from the present view only realistic, if in future all in Germany available options for the supply of current and heat from renewable energies are distinctly more intensively used. In front of the background of the geothermic potentials available in Germany the current and heat supply from deep geothermics is a very much promising option. But in 2012 only one facility and in 2013 three facilities have gone to the net. But against this a far-reaching usage of the geothermics in the context of the energy transition and the large heat and current production potentials in Germany is worth to be aspired. In front of the described problematics the aim of this work is to show how the system technics of the facilities for the usage of the deep underground for a current respectively heat production present themselves and how such complete facilities can be evaluated by means of technical, economical, and ecological characteristics. Base on the shown political aim settings it then shall be analyzed, how the calculated characteristics could change in future and whether the deep geothermics can provide an increasing contribution in the energy system of the future. The corresponding potential further developments are thereby analyzed regarding a short-termed (i. e. 2020) and an intermediate-termed (i. e. 2030) time horizon.

  20. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  1. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Yun Ho; Park, Byoung Ho; Choi, Tae Jung; Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, You Lim; Koh, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations. PMID:25049531

  2. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.

    1996-01-01

    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  3. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast...

  4. Ups and Downs. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1998-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents text and data tables covering higher education faculty salaries for the period 1998-1999. A text discussion of academic salaries since the l970s reviews relative and real trends, salary differences between public and private institutions, salary advantages of research universities, gender differences, and other salary inequalities.…

  5. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.:...

  6. The Impact of Merger Status and Relative Representation on Identification with a Merger Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Boen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment tested to what extent identification with a new merger group is determined by the status of that merger group and by the relative representation of the pre-merger ingroup. One hundred university students were assigned to a team of 'inductive' thinkers, and were later merged with a team of 'deductive' thinkers to form a team of 'analyst' thinkers. The status of the merger group (low, high and the relative representation of the ingroup into the novel merger group (low, high were manipulated. Participants identified more with the merger group in the high than in the low status condition, and they identified more in the high than in the low representation condition. The predicted interaction between relative representation and merger status was not significant. However, relative representation did interact with participants' pre-merger identification: Pre- and post-merger identification were positively related when the ingroup was highly represented, but 'negatively' when the ingroup was lowly represented.

  7. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  8. The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Inter-Ethnic Relations in Cypriot Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryonides, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the effects of the current economic crisis in the way teenagers experience and report interethnic relations with emphasis on interethnic violence in the school environment in Cyprus. It will report findings from an EU funded project which was recently completed (2012) titled: "Children's voices: Exploring…

  9. Alcohol-related hand injuries: an unnecessary social and economic cost.

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Severe hand injuries constitute the largest number of acute referrals to this plastic surgery unit, the admission of these patients often displacing routine admissions due to bed shortages, thus increasing waiting list time. This study showed that a high percentage of these injuries were alcohol-related and were therefore preventable. The economic cost to the unit is discussed.

  10. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 Economics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayd Waghid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-apartheid schooling in South Africa is challenged with the task of contributing towards social justice, as has been evident from the emergence of a plethora of education policies following the promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996. One of the most significant ways in which social justice can be cultivated in schools, especially where exclusion and marginalisation have been in ascendancy for decades, is through improved pedagogical activities, which receive focus in this article. The article focuses on investigating how the learning goals for Grade 11 Economics with the aid of an educational technology, in particular Facebook, engender opportunities for socially just relations in the classroom. The researcher is concerned with how these learning goals are related to three underlying aspects of Economics education, namely sustainable development, equity (including equality and economic development, and how they may or may not engender opportunities for social justice. Critical discourse analysis is the research approach used to analyse learners' comments on Facebook in relation to their understandings of three films. It was found that it is possible to teach and learn education for social justice in the classroom. Learners treated one another equally; enacted their pedagogical relations equitably; and learnt to become economically aware of their society's developmental needs. Thus, it is recommended that education for social justice be cultivated in school classrooms through the use of Facebook.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WORK ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR HOME ECONOMICS RELATED OCCUPATIONS, 1964-1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FETTERMAN, ELSIE

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY, WHICH IS A SUMMARY OF A DOCTORAL DISSERTATION, WAS TO DEVELOP A WORK ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR HOME ECONOMICS-RELATED OCCUPATIONS IN CONNECTICUT. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO 43 TEACHERS OF SUCH PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ALL RESPONDED, GIVING INFORMATION ABOUT THEIR OBJECTIVES, COURSES, TEACHERS' BACKGROUNDS,…

  12. Changes in Economic Status and Timing of Marriage of Young Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishUsing the longitudinal panel data collected through the Canadian Surveys ofLabour and Income Dynamics (SLID from 1993 to1998, we examined thehypotheses that (a higher education delays marriage; (b labour forceparticipation and earnings of women, like those of men, increase the likelihoodof marriage; and, (c the magnitude of the effects of education and income variesby life course stages of the youth. Analyses were done for men aged 17-19, 20-22, and 23-25 and for women aged 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 at the start of thepanel surveys. Our findings confirm our hypotheses, namely, a longer stay inschool lowers the risk of marrying while greater economic well-being increasesthe risk. The results also show that the effects of wages and salaries are strongestamong the middle cohorts of men (20-22 and women (18-20 who are at thestage of forming their own independent lives.FrenchEn utilisant les données recueillies par le panel longitudinal de l’Enquête sur ladynamique du travail et du revenu (EDTR de 1993 à 1998; nous examinons leshypothèses que : a un plus haut niveau d’éducation délaie le mariage; b laparticipation à la main d’oeuvre et les gains des femmes, comme ceux deshommes, augmentent la vraisemblance de mariage; et c que l’importance deseffets de l’éducation et des gains varie selon les groupes de cours de vie desjeunes. Nous avons conduit des analyses sur des groupes d’hommes âgés de 17 à19 ans, de 20 à 22 ans, et de 23 à 25 ans et sur des groupes de femmes âgées de15 à 17 ans, 18 à 20 ans, et de 21 à 23 au début de l’enquête par panel. Nosconstatations confirment nos hypothèses, c’est à dire que des études prolongéesdiminuent le risque de mariage tandis qu’un niveau économique plus confortablel’augmente. Les résultats démontrent aussi que l’effet des salaires est plus élevédans la cohorte médiane des hommes (20 à 22 ans et des femmes (18 à 20 anslorsqu’ils sont au stage de former

  13. Sociocultural and Environmental Influences on Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Child Feeding and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria H; Machado, Marcia M T; Mezzavilla, Raquel S; Detro, Barbara M

    2017-05-01

    Background Length of residence in the United States (US), changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors, and economic and social barriers contribute to high childhood obesity rates among children from immigrant families in the US. Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on health issues affecting Brazilian children in immigrant families. Understanding sociocultural and environmental influences on parents' beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status is essential to altering obesity trends in this group. Methods Qualitative study consisting of five focus groups with a convenience sample of 29 Brazilian immigrant mothers. Results Analyses revealed that the sociocultural and environment transitions faced by Brazilian immigrant mothers' influence their beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status. Additionally, acculturation emerged as a factor affecting mothers' feeding practices and their children's eating habits, with mothers preferring Brazilian food environments and that their children preferring American food environments. Mothers viewed themselves as being responsible for promoting and maintaining their children's healthy eating and feeding behaviors, but changes in their social and cultural environments due to immigration and the pressures and demands of raising a family in a new country make this difficult. Conclusions Health promotion interventions to improve healthful eating and feeding practices of Brazilian children in immigrant families must account for social and cultural changes and daily life demands due to immigration as well as potential variation in the levels of acculturation between mothers and their children.

  14. A randomized-controlled trial focusing on socio-economic status for promoting vegetable intake among adults using a web-based nutrition intervention programme: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based nutritional education programmes appear to be comparable to those delivered face-to-face. However, no existing web-based nutrition education or similar programme has yet been evaluated with consideration of socio-economic status. The objective of a nutritional education programme of promoting vegetable intake designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT is to evaluate the results of intervention and to determine how socio-economic status influences the programme effects. Methods/Design Participants will be randomly sampled individuals (aged 30–59 stratified according national population statistics for sex, age, and household income. Participants were consented to survey participation (n = 1500, and will be randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention period is 5 weeks with one step of diet-related education per week. The main outcome of the programme is dietary behaviour as eating vegetable (350 g per day, five small bowl. To encourage behavioural changes, the programme contents are prepared using behavioural theories and techniques tailored to the assumed group stages of behavioural change. In the first step, we employ the health belief model to encourage a shift from the pre-contemplative to the contemplative phase; in the second and third steps, social cognitive theory is used to encourage transition to the preparatory phase; in the fourth step, social cognitive theory and strengthening social support are used to promote progression to the execution phase; finally, in the fifth step, strengthening social capital and social support are used to promote the shift to the maintenance phase. The baseline, post intervention and follow-up survey was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. For process evaluation, we use five items relating to programme participation and satisfaction. A follow-up survey of participants will be carried out 3 months after intervention completion

  15. Perception of economic crisis among Spanish nursing students: Its relation to burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Montañés, Pilar; Megías, Jesús L

    2017-05-01

    The high levels of indebtedness and deficit of Spain's autonomous communities as a consequence of the national and European economic crisis have caused radical changes in the Spanish National Health Service. At the present time, the economic crisis is seriously affecting nurses in several European countries, and especially in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse whether nursing students' perceptions of economic crisis influence their levels of burnout and engagement in relation to their studies. We have also tried to clarify the relationship of sociodemographic variables (age and gender) and personal control factors (self-efficacy, locus of control and success) with these factors. This was a transversal study based on descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Analysis of the quantitative data was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, IBM 19.0 (SPSS, 2010). 166 nursing students participated in the study, comprising 142 women and 24 men studying in Schools of Nursing in the North of Spain. They completed various questionnaires to gather information on sociodemographic variables and measure burnout, engagement, locus of control, expectations of success and perceptions of threat due to the economic crisis. Higher perception of economic crisis by the students is related to higher scores for burnout and lower scores for engagement. The scores for burnout were also positively predicted by external locus of control and negatively predicted by perception of self-efficacy. The age of participants is related to lower levels of burnout and higher levels of engagement. Finally, expectation of success also positively predicted the level of engagement. The results demonstrate the importance of the perceptions of the economic crisis on the development of burnout and engagement among nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-ratings of materialism and status consumption in a Malaysian sample: effects of answering during an assumed recession versus economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, W J; Heaney, J G; Goldsmith, R E

    2001-06-01

    Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences.

  17. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  18. [Valuation of health-related quality of life and utilities in health economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Status of Credentialing Structures Related to Secondary Transition: A State-Level Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Monica L.; Novak, Jeanne A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    To understand the current status of transition-related credentialing systems in driving personnel preparation, it is necessary to identify which state education and rehabilitation services agencies are currently providing certification and licensure in the area of secondary transition. The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of…

  20. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, Olga; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  1. Nutritional status and related factors of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Lu, Yuhan; Fang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    The scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is considered to be the most appropriate tool for detecting malnutrition in cancer patients. In particular, malignant tumours derived from the gastrointestinal tract may impair nutrient intake and absorption and cause malnutrition. We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status and related factors of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional status was determined using the scored PG-SGA in patients (n 498) with advanced gastrointestinal cancer admitted to the Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Unit at Beijing Cancer Hospital between 1 August 2012 and 28 February 2013. The possible related factors including age, sex, hospitalisation frequency and pathology were explored. We found that 98% of the patients required nutrition intervention and 54% of the patients required improved nutrition-related symptom management and/or urgent nutritional support (PG-SGA score ≥9). Factors related to malnutrition were age (r 0.103, Pcancer had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients with other types of gastrointestinal cancer (F=35.895, Pnutritional status of gastrointestinal patients, especially those at a higher risk of malnutrition, such as elderly patients, those hospitalised for the first time, male patients and those with other types of gastrointestinal cancer except rectal cancer. The nutritional status of these patients should be evaluated and they should be given proper nutrition education and nutritional support in a timely manner.

  2. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  3. Parsing the Relations of Race and Socioeconomic Status in Special Education Disproportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Aleksis P.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how student and school-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures predict students' odds of being identified for special education, particularly high-incidence disabilities. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, hierarchical models were used to determine the relations of student and school SES to…

  4. Postharvest flower development in asiatic hybrid lilies as related to tepal carbohydrate status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2001-01-01

    For three Asiatic hybrid lily cultivars (‘Bright Beauty’, ‘Fashion’, ‘Orlito’) the potential postharvest performance of floral buds in terms of growth, anthesis and longevity was studied in relation to tepal carbohydrate status. To determine the importance of carbohydrate redistribution within lily

  5. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  6. Dental status and oral health-related quality of life. A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Schuller, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with tooth wear and tooth loss. This study investigated the association between OHRQoL and dental status (in terms of natural dentition, partial or complete dentures, or edentulism). Sixteen hundred and twenty-two persons who

  7. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O...

  8. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  9. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  10. Diabetes and depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low and middle income countries (LMICs: a mapping of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Tiziana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.

  11. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Chi-kin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men, they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59 were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  12. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Leung, Candi M C

    2012-07-06

    Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20-59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  13. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  14. Association of socio-economic status with diabetes prevalence and utilization of diabetes care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low income appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes and diabetes related complications, however, little is known about how income influences access to diabetes care. The objective of the present study was to determine whether income is associated with referral to a diabetes centre within a universal health care system. Methods Data on referral for diabetes care, diabetes prevalence and median household income were obtained from a regional Diabetes Education Centre (DEC database, the Canadian National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS and the 2001 Canadian Census respectively. Diabetes rate per capita, referral rate per capita and proportion with diabetes referred was determined for census dissemination areas. We used Chi square analyses to determine if diabetes prevalence or population rates of referral differed across income quintiles, and Poisson regression to model diabetes rate and referral rate in relation to income while controlling for education and age. Results There was a significant gradient in both diabetes prevalence (χ2 = 743.72, p 2 = 168.435, p Conclusion Low income is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes and a higher population rate of referral to this regional DEC. After accounting for diabetes prevalence, however, the equal proportions referred to the DEC across income groups suggest that there is no access bias based on income.

  15. Systematic review of employer-sponsored wellness strategies and their economic and health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2013-02-01

    This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.

  16. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  17. Socio-economic status and incident diabetes mellitus among employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, B.; Hannerz, Harald; Poulsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    had been as low as those in the reference group. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate 95% CIs for excess fraction estimates Results: A total of 1 005 572 men and 951 039 women were included in the analysis. The follow-up yielded 43 439 cases in 9 533 199 person-years at risk among men and 29...... 266 cases in 9 163 405 person-years at risk among women. Using 'professionals' as a reference group, higher levels of relative risk were observed among every other socio-occupational group. The excess fraction was, 0.342 (95% CI 0.329-0.354) among men and 0.359 (95% CI 0.349-0.369) among women...... the potential gains to be had by better use of the workplace as an arena for prevention. Greater integration of occupational health and general healthcare is required to achieve this....

  18. Tingkat Pendidikan dan Status Ekonomi Pemilik Hewan Kesayangan dalam Hal Pengetahuan dan Penerapan Kesejahteraan Hewan (EDUCATION LEVEL AND ECONOMIC STATUS OF PET OWNERS ON KNOWLEDGE AND ANIMAL WELFARE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Utari Rahmiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pet is an animal that lives to partially or completely dependent on humans for a particular purpose.Keep a pet as a companion animal, should pay attention to animal welfare. This study aims to gain insightabout the relationship between education level and economic status of pet owners on knowledge andimplementation of the animal welfare principles. The data were collecting by direct interview or a face toface interview to the animal clinic or hospital visitors on site (accidental technique. The data were calculatedby statistical methods chi square to examined the relationship or the impact of the two nominal variablesand measure the strengthness of the relationships between variables with each other nominal variables.Data showed a significantly correlation between the economic status of n North Jakarta respondentsbehavior (p value is 0.040, with the economic status of the Central Jakarta respondents’ attitudes (pvalue is 0.020, level of education and attitude of South Jakarta respondents (p value is 0.000. There wereno difference significantly between the level of education and economic status of the respondents’ knowledgewas observed in all study sites. However, based on current information and on site observation, NorthJakarta and West Jakarta respondents were considered to be able to demonstrate more sufficientknowledge of the animal welfare principles.

  19. The Development of Economic and Business Relations between PRC and European Union: Possible contribuition of economic and business schools administration schools

    OpenAIRE

    Murteira, Mário

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of economic and business administration schools in the relations between the PRC and the European Union. The influence of dominant trends in todays's world economy: globalization and regionalization.

  20. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. Methods On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player (“Proposer”) splits ten dollars with another player (“Responder”) who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For unfair offers (i.e., offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. Conclusions High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may be involved in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead facilitate social relationships. PMID:22237008

  1. Effects of age-related differences in empathy on social economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player ("Proposer") splits $10 with another player ("Responder") who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For "unfair" offers (i.e. offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision-making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may play a role in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead be involved in facilitating social relationships.

  2. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Welk, Greg; Heelan, Kate; Gentile, Douglas; Walsh, David

    2010-04-27

    While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p depended on the methodology used to determine time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only one equation resulted in significant group differences (p = 0.015), and these differences remained after controlling for BMI. Significant differences between SES groups were shown for sedentary behavior in both cohorts (P < 0.05) with higher SES groups spending less time watching TV than low SES groups. Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher

  3. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  4. Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior: Measurement and Relations With Sociometric Status and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A; Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles. Each participant role subscale was positively associated with depressive symptoms with the exception of the overt and relational outsider subscales. Future research and intervention efforts should consider overt and relational aggression participant roles, separately. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. Economic Diplomacy, Soft Power, and Taiwan’s Relations with Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramitaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to discuss the recent developments of Taiwan-Indonesia relations. It especially aims to identify the diverse efforts that Taiwan has made to secure an improved position in its relation with Indonesia, amid an increasingly cordial relation between Indonesia and China. Among the efforts that Taiwan has conducted is using the attractiveness of its economic resources to achieve a better recognition from Indonesia. However, this practice of “economic diplomacy” has been combined with an attempt to invest soft power through various means. They include, among others, promoting Taiwanese education attraction among middle-class Indonesians, particularly Chinese Indonesians, attracting Indonesian students to pursue a higher degree in Taiwan through various scholarship programs, and establishing a network between the Taiwanese and Indonesian scholars. While the above efforts have arguably enabled Taiwan to have a better recognition among certain segments of the Indonesian public and government, it still faces a number of challenges.

  6. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, Aaron Simon; Chen, Jun; Rabiti, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Continued effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year (FY) 2016. The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status of their progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, a synthetic time history generator has been developed in RAVEN, which consists of Fourier series and autoregressive moving average model. The former is used to capture the seasonal trend in historical data, while the latter is to characterize the autocorrelation in residue time series (e.g., measurements with seasonal trends subtracted). As demonstration, both synthetic wind speed and grid demand are generated, showing matching statistics with database. In order to build a design and operations optimizer in RAVEN, a new type of sampler has been developed with highly object-oriented design. In particular, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is implemented. The optimizer is capable to drive the model to optimize a scalar objective function without constraint in the input space, while the constraints handling is a work in progress and will be implemented to improve the optimization capability. Furthermore, a simplified cash flow model of the performance of an NHES in the electric market has been developed in Python and used as external model in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces. Finally, an example calculation is performed that shows the integration and proper data passing in RAVEN of the synthetic time history generator, the cash flow model and the optimizer. It has been shown that the developed Python models external to RAVEN are able to communicate with RAVEN and each other through the newly developed RAVEN capability called “EnsembleModel”.

  7. Socio-economic status and environmental problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Jarin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic status of the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City and to study the environment problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City. This study used a mixed method research design and utilized a survey questionnaire to gather response from 60 fishers selected through proportionate sampling. The fishermen along the tributaries of Dagupan City are mostly male, young adult with family of their own, attended primary education, and belong to big family size. All respondents owned houses made only of light materials. Shrimps and crabs were the most frequently caught species now compared to many small pelagic fishes before, when there were no aquaculture structures like fish pens and cages. Fishermen were limited to the ownership of passive fishing gears like gill nets, skylab, skyblue, and liftnet. Fishpen or cage structures were owned by big businessmen while the fishers served only as caretakers. The respondents are worried on the decrease of fish catch. It is recommended that the government of the City of Dagupan should continue its program in demolishing pen and cage structures to free the rivers from pollution of feed inputs. Management and economic measures should be considered in order to gain significant effect on income of the fishermen. In designing management systems which have income improvement as a goal, appropriate implementation, monitoring and evaluation initiatives should be conducted and taken cared of for sustainable income improvement of farmers in the community of Dagupan and, perhaps, wealth distribution.

  8. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Continued effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year (FY) 2016. The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status of their progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, a synthetic time history generator has been developed in RAVEN, which consists of Fourier series and autoregressive moving average model. The former is used to capture the seasonal trend in historical data, while the latter is to characterize the autocorrelation in residue time series (e.g., measurements with seasonal trends subtracted). As demonstration, both synthetic wind speed and grid demand are generated, showing matching statistics with database. In order to build a design and operations optimizer in RAVEN, a new type of sampler has been developed with highly object-oriented design. In particular, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is implemented. The optimizer is capable to drive the model to optimize a scalar objective function without constraint in the input space, while the constraints handling is a work in progress and will be implemented to improve the optimization capability. Furthermore, a simplified cash flow model of the performance of an NHES in the electric market has been developed in Python and used as external model in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces. Finally, an example calculation is performed that shows the integration and proper data passing in RAVEN of the synthetic time history generator, the cash flow model and the optimizer. It has been shown that the developed Python models external to RAVEN are able to communicate with RAVEN and each other through the newly developed RAVEN capability called “EnsembleModel”.

  9. Economics of farm biogas plants. Status of 4 plants 1988-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    1994-06-01

    For the four biogas plants balance sheets have been prepared to show the operating results. Operating income and cost are a mixture of actual accounts, estimates, and calculations. The results are shown both with and without taxes. Only one of the four plants can present a positive result before tax. Three of the plants, however, have positive results after tax. This stresses the importance of the fact that the part of the energy production that is used on the farm is not taxed. The analyses show that one of the plants in 1992 obtained an income, that makes it feasible to assume that the plant would be profitable provided in gets 30% of investment subsidy. An important condition for this is a relatively high gas yield which hardly can be obtained by digesting manures alone. Some of the most important unsolved problems of farm-based biogas plants are the missing possibilities of selling heat, the operating reliability, and the repair costs for generators. (LN)

  10. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  11. The Contours of Inequality: The Links between Socio-Economic Status of Students and Other Variables at the University of Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, André

    2016-01-01

    The low level of student success in South Africa is an intractable problem, with levels of success differing between the various groups that make up South African society. One of the major constraints influencing student success involves the socio-economic status (SES) of newly entering students. In the South African context, with its very high…

  12. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  13. Social engagement from childhood to middle age and the effect of childhood socio-economic status on middle age social engagement: results from the National Child Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, H; Aartsen, M.J.; Kiuru, N.; Lyyra, T.M.; Read, S.

    2016-01-01

    Social engagement has powerful effects on wellbeing, but variation in individual engagement throughout the lifecourse is wide. The trajectories may differ by gender and be affected by socio-economic status (SES). However, long-term development of social engagement is little studied and the effect of

  14. Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Sixth-Grade Students' Socio-Economic Status and School Factors on Mathematics Achievement: Case Studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Ayieko, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic status, school-level variables and mathematics achievement of sixth graders in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The study is based on secondary data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ III). SACMEQ employed cluster-sampling procedures…

  15. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

  16. Investigating Stratification within Higher Education through Examining the Status of Students in Different Academic Majors in Terms of Cultural, Social and Economic Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…

  17. Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Mead

    The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

  18. A meta-analysis of marijuana and alcohol use by socio-economic status in adolescents aged 10-15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Bennett, Norman R.; Neudorf, Cory; Kunst, Anton; Nannapaneni, Ushasri; Warren, Lynne M.; Kershaw, Tanis; Scott, Christina R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A majority of population-based studies suggest prevalence of drug and alcohol risk behaviour increases during late adolescence to early adulthood. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to clarify if socio-economic status (SES) is a determinant of marijuana and alcohol risk

  19. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  20. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…