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Sample records for relative clause structure

  1. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  2. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

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    Damon Tutunjian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE, raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swedish RCEs. The present study uses eyetracking while reading to test whether the apparent acceptability of Swedish RCEs has any processing correlates at the point of filler integration compared to uncontroversial strong island violations. Experiment 1 tests RCE against licit that-clause extraction (TCE, illicit extraction from a non-restrictive relative clause (NRCE, and an intransitive control. For this, RCE was found to pattern similarly to TCE at the point of integration in early measures, but between TCE and NRCE in total durations. Experiment 2 uses RCE and extraction from a subject NP island (SRCE to test the hypothesis that only non-islands will show effects of implausible filler-verb dependencies. RCE showed sensitivity to the plausibility manipulation across measures at the first potential point of filler integration, whereas such effects were limited to late measures for SRCE. In addition, structural facilitation was seen across measures for RCE relative to SRCE. We propose that our results are compatible with RCEs being licit weak island extractions in Swedish, and that the overall picture speaks in favor of a surface rather than a deep variation approach to the lack of island effects in Swedish RCEs.

  3. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunjian, Damon; Heinat, Fredrik; Klingvall, Eva; Wiklund, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE), raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swed...

  4. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  5. Thematic orders and the comprehension of subject-extracted relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese

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    Chien-Jer Charles Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the comprehension of three kinds of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRs in Mandarin Chinese: standard SRs, relative clauses involving the disposal ba construction (‘disposal SRs’, and relative clauses involving the long passive bei constructions (‘passive SRs’. In a self-paced reading experiment, the regions before the relativizer (where the sentential fragments are temporarily ambiguous showed reading patterns consistent with expectation-based incremental processing: standard SRs (with the highest constructional frequency and the least complex syntactic structure were processed faster than the other two variants. However, in the regions after the relativizer and the head noun (where the existence of a relative clause is unambiguously indicated, a top-down global effect of thematic ordering was observed: passive SRs (whose thematic role order conforms to the canonical thematic order of Chinese were read faster than both the standard SRs and the disposal SRs. Taken together, these results suggest that two expectation-based processing factors are involved in the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses, including both the structural probabilities of pre-relativizer constituents and the overall surface thematic orders in the relative clauses.

  6. Relative clauses as a benchmark for Minimalist parsing

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    Thomas Graf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimalist grammars have been used recently in a series of papers to explain well-known contrasts in human sentence processing in terms of subtle structural differences. These proposals combine a top-down parser with complexity metrics that relate parsing difficulty to memory usage. So far, though, there has been no large-scale exploration of the space of viable metrics. Building on this earlier work, we compare the ability of 1600 metrics to derive several processing effects observed with relative clauses, many of which have been proven difficult to unify. We show that among those 1600 candidates, a few metrics (and only a few can provide a unified account of all these contrasts. This is a welcome result for two reasons: First, it provides a novel account of extensively studied psycholinguistic data. Second, it significantly limits the number of viable metrics that may be applied to other phenomena, thus reducing theoretical indeterminacy.

  7. The Syntactic Derivations of Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions

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    Niina Ning Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.

  8. Prenominal and postnominal reduced relative clauses: arguments against unitary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeman, P.

    2007-01-01

    These last years, several analyses have been proposed in which prenominal and postnominal reduced relatives are merged in the same position. Kayne (1994) claims that both types of reduced relative clauses are the complement of the determiner. More recently, Cinque (2005) has proposed that both types

  9. Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Justine B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Race, David S.; Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen [MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). "Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996)." "Psychological…

  10. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  11. Prenominal and postnominal reduced relative clauses: arguments against unitary analyses

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    Petra Sleeman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available These last years, several analyses have been proposed in which prenominal and postnominal reduced relatives are merged in the same position. Kayne (1994 claims that both types of reduced relative clauses are the complement of the determiner. More recently, Cinque (2005 has proposed that both types are merged in the functional projections of the noun, at the left edge of the modifier system. In this paper, I argue against a unitary analysis of prenominal and postnominal participial reduced relatives.

  12. The Role of Working Memory and Contextual Constraints in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghall, Anna R.; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the…

  13. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause substantially...

  14. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

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    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context. Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English

  15. On the structural position of non-peripheral adjunct clauses

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    Maria Lobo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the structural position occupied by a subset of adjunct clauses, namely those which can occur in final position without a special intonational break. After a definition of the structures to be considered, it will be shown that the classical assumption according to which they are generated as adjuncts is empirically superior to the adjunct-as-complement analysis (cf. Larson 1988; 1990, and to more recent analyses, which follow an antisymmetric framework (cf. Kayne 1994. It will also be shown that a base generation account of preverbal adverbial clauses is to be preferred over a movement analysis on the basis of empirical data, and in conformity with theoretical economy assumptions (Merge over Move.

  16. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as relat...

  17. Free relative clauses: a new teaching approach for Italian learners of Latin and German

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    Sabrina Bertollo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we would like to present a new teaching proposal for free relative clauses, with a comparative perspective. The proposal is addressed to Italian learners of Latin and German with an advanced knowledge of the morpho-syntax of the three languages and tries to combine the theories proposed within the Generative Grammar framework with the needs which emerge from school teaching experiences. In the path we will develop, the students will be led to get familiar with this construction, first in the native language and then in German and Latin. Students will be stimulated to analyze the syntactic constraints, which are different in the three languages, so as to develop a new grammatical awareness and be in a position to correctly handle complex syntactic structures such as free relative clauses. This will be helpful to adequately cope with this specific construction, but it will also improve the overall skills.

  18. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  19. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

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    Aliana Lopes CÂMARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional description of the relative clause. In other words, we try to verify as some descriptive aspects can be used in the teaching of relative clause, with the aim of developing reading and writing skills. In order to do that, we take as theoretical framework the different conceptions of grammar proposed in Travaglia (2009, 2011 and Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008. This research points to the need to emphasize the cohesive role established by the relative pronoun that introduces the relative clause, to understand the non-restrictive relative clause from its argumentative function and to review the distinction between subtypes of adjective clause from the criteria of omission of the subordinate clause.

  20. Accusative resumptive pronoun in the Czech relative clauses with absolute relativizer co

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fried, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 16-29 ISSN 1804-137X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : relative clauses * relativizer * resumptive pronoun * corpus analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. Šalutiniai pažyminio sakiniai: kodėl vaikams sunku juos suprasti? | Relative clauses: why children have difficulties to comprehend them?

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    Ineta Dabašinskienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and interpret the results of testing the speech of Lithuanian children in order to find out whether language-specific features of Lithuanian as a highly inflected language help children grasp the complex syntactic relations between the subject and the object in relative clauses. The investigation has been aimed to test the hypothesis to the effect that depending on the language type, object relative clauses are more difficult to acquire than subject relative clauses (Guasti, Cardinaletti 2003; Utzeri 2007; Brandt, Diessel, Tomasello 2008; O’Grady, Kim, Lee et al. 2011; Benţea 2012. The findings of the research support the hypothesis that relative clauses as objects (the OO type are more difficult to grasp than those that function as subjects (OS. This claim has been statistically confirmed in the group of 3 – 4.5 year-olds, which had a big difficulty in perceiving the difference between relative clauses functioning as subjects or objects. These findings are in line with claims related to other languages, which demonstrate that children in early childhood, distinguishing between OS or OO, misinterpret the OO type more often (Guasti, Stavrakaki, Arosio 2008. However, when an unusual, strange situation is described, or an unfamiliar verb is used, children tend to assign the same syntactic function to the head noun and the relative pronoun; in such cases the OS clause is interpreted as the OO type. This tendency also supports the parallel-function hypothesis advanced by Tavakolian (1981. In later years children already perceive the difference between the OS and OO type relative clauses, but in a pre-school period misinterpretations of the OO type are quite numerous. Children of schooling age, on the other hand, have no difficulty in interpreting this difference correctly. The results of the present study confirm the assertion that older children grasp the functions of relative clauses and interpret complex structures

  2. [Japanese learners' processing time for reading English relative clauses analyzed in relation to their English listening proficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshinori

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.

  3. Subject Relative Clauses Are Not Universally Easier to Process: Evidence from Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavia, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-01-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal…

  4. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  5. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroudhan, Hayat Eid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the…

  6. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

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    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  7. How do language-specific characteristics affect the acquisition of different relative clause types? Evidence from Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Minna; Kidd, Evan; Lieven, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We report three studies (one corpus, two experimental) that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs) in Finnish-speaking children. Study 1 found that Finnish children's naturalistic exposure to RCs predominantly consists of non-subject relatives (i.e. oblique, object) which typically have inanimate head nouns. Study 2 tested children's comprehension of subject, object, and two types of oblique relatives. No difference was found in the children's performance on different structures, including a lack of previously widely reported asymmetry between subject and object relatives. However, children's comprehension was modulated by animacy of the head referent. Study 3 tested children's production of the same RC structures using sentence repetition. Again we found no subject-object asymmetry. The pattern of results suggested that distributional frequency patterns and the relative complexity of the relativizer contribute to the difficulty associated with particular RC structures.

  8. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

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    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  9. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

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    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  10. A view on the development of Relative Clauses in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Undersøgelser har vist, at børn med sprogforstyrrelser har betydelige problemer med at tilegne sig objekt-relative sætninger i modsætnig til subjekt-relative (Schriefers, Friederici & Kuehn, 1995; Håkansson & Hansson, 1998; Friedmann & Novogrodsky, 2004, among others). I denne undresøglese studer...

  11. The comprehension of Italian relative clauses in poor readers and in children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Fabrizio Arosio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.

  12. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

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    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  13. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  14. The Conditional Clause in Igbo | Okoro | Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structurally, the conditional clause can occur before or after the main clause, dropping or taking on a variety of subordinating conjunctions, the commonest of which is (mà) ọ bụrụ na; it is also possible to state only the conditional clause without the main clause, or the main clause without the conditional clause, with the ...

  15. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  16. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  17. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed.

  18. Early and late preferences in relative clause attachment in Portuguese and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new data about the cross-language application of the Late Closure principle (Frazier, 1978, whose universality was put in question by data from Spanish (Cuetos & Mitchell, 1988. Using sentences containing a restrictive relative clause unambiguously modifying the first or the second noun of a complex NP (os cúmplices do ladrão/o cúmplice dos ladrões que fugiram, this study compares the behavior of Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers participating in a self-paced reading task. The data confirm that, in early phases of processing, attachment preferences are driven by a locality principle such as Late Closure. Based on a review of studies on Portuguese, Spanish and other Romance languages, we argue that the high- versus low-attachment difference across languages emerges cleanly only in off-line tasks, such as questionnaire studies, thus limiting the types of explanations for the cross-linguistic differences. We also advance an explanation for the high attachment preferences found in unspeeded questionnaire studies based on the Implicit Prosody Hypothesis (Fodor, 1998a, 2002.

  19. [The role of animacy in European Portuguese relative clause attachment: evidence from production and comprehension tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana

    2010-11-01

    This work presents an analysis of the role of animacy in attachment preferences of relative clauses to complex noun phrases in European Portuguese (EP). The study of how the human parser solves this kind of syntactic ambiguities has been focus of extensive research. However, what is known about EP is both limited and puzzling. Additionally, as recent studies have stressed the importance of extra-syntactic variables in this process, two experiments were carried out to assess EP attachment preferences considering four animacy conditions: Study 1 used a sentence-completion-task, and Study 2 a self-paced reading task. Both studies indicate a significant preference for high attachment in EP. Furthermore, they showed that this preference was modulated by the animacy of the host NP: if the first host was inanimate and the second one was animate, the parser's preference changed to low attachment preference. These findings shed light on previous results regarding EP and strengthen the idea that, even in early stages of processing, the parser seems to be sensitive to extra-syntactic information.

  20. Confrontation clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk Sviatoslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution enumerates a cluster of rights granted to criminal defendants and is designed to make criminal prosecutions more accurate, fair, and legitimate. The Confrontation Clause, which states that „In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witness against him” should not be underestimated. This article seeks to analyse the evolution of the Confrontation Clause and the extent of a defendant’s right to face-to-face confrontation. The article analyse the case Crawford v. Washington, which was a key shift in the Supreme Court’s Confrontation Clause jurisprudence.

  1. Direct speech quotations promote low relative-clause attachment in silent reading of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2018-07-01

    The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English. Apart from confirming a general low RC-attachment preference in both production (Experiment 1) and comprehension (Experiments 2 and 3), we found that during written sentence completion (Experiment 1) or when reading silently (Experiment 2), the low RC-attachment preference was reliably enhanced when the critical sentences were embedded in direct speech quotations as compared to indirect speech or narrative sentences. However, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), direct speech did not enhance the general low RC-attachment preference. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest a quantitative boost to implicit prosody (via auditory perceptual simulation) during silent production/comprehension of direct speech. By contrast, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), prosody becomes equally salient across conditions due to its explicit nature; indirect speech and narrative sentences thus become as susceptible to prosody-induced syntactic biases as direct speech. The present findings suggest a shared cognitive basis between default implicit prosody and simulated implicit prosody, providing a new platform for studying the effects of implicit prosody on sentence processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  3. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  4. 48 CFR 251.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles 251.205 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.251-7001, Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS)Vehicles and Related Services, in solicitations and contracts which include the clause at FAR 52.251-2, Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related...

  5. Strategy to Combine Clauses In Waijewa Dialect A Sumbanese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Kasni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Clause is defined as a grammatical unit consisting of the elements of subject (S and predicate (P, both with object (O and adverbial (A, and has the capability of being a sentence. Clauses can be categorized based on (i the core arguments, (ii  the presence or absence of negative words in predicate, (iii the categories of words or phrases that occupy predicate function, (iv  its capacity of being a sentence, (v  their functions in sentences. A clause can be combined in two ways, first using coordinate conjunction forming a coordinate construction, and second using subordinate conjunction forming a subordinate construction. This research attempted to analyze the strategy of combining clauses in Waijewa Dialect; a Sumbanese language. This research applied qualitative method in which the written data were collected from three key informants and four supporting informants from each district in Waijewa using four techniques namely; (1 observation, (2 structure-based interview, (3 documentation, and (4 triangulation. The collected data were analyzed using distributional method. The theory used to analyze the data was the language typology theory proposed by Dixon (1994 and 2010 and Comrie (1983. The result showed that in Waijewa dialect clauses could be divided into two; namely, the clauses having verbal predicates and the ones having nonverbal predicates. Waijewa dialect has clitic pronouns marking the arguments of the verbs. They showed nominative, accusative, and genitive cases. The coordinate constructions in BSDW could be categorized into two forms such as:  (1 syndetic (construction marked by conjunction and (2 asyndetic (without conjunction marker. The forms of subordinate clause in subordinate construction were divided into three; namely, (1 relative clause, (2 complementation clause, and (3 adjunct clause. Arguments A and S were relativized by gapping and attaching the prefix {a-} to the V and the relativization of the arguments O, E

  6. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  7. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  8. Working Memory Effects on L1 and L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses by Korean L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the results of two self-paced reading experiments that investigated working memory capacity effects on the processing of globally ambiguous relative clauses by advanced Korean second language (L2) learners of English. Consistent with previous monolingual literature on the processing of temporary ambiguity, we found that…

  9. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses: How Do Second Language Learners of Arabic Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algady, Dola

    2013-01-01

    The new developments in syntactic theory under Minimalism reconsiders the relation between the language faculty and general cognitive systems whereby language acquisition is accomplished by the interaction of Chomsky (2005)'s three factors: (F1) a minimally specified UG (Genetic endowment); (F2) Primary Linguistic Data (PLD), i.e., input; and (F3)…

  10. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virole, J.; Roubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA) [fr

  11. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of inequalities and disparities in treatment in investment law, they carry a significant risk of over interpretation by .... The last question to be answered in relation to the meaning and ambit of the MFN clause is whether .... for domestic remedies as antecedents to international arbitral jurisdiction 'unduly add to the costs of a.

  12. [Santa Claus is perceived as reliable and friendly: results of the Danish Christmas 2013 survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; West, Anders Sode; Jørgensen, Carina Sleiborg; Simonsen, Sofie Amalie; Lindberg, Ulrich; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen; Hougaard, Anders

    2013-12-02

    Several studies have indicated that the population in general perceives doctors as reliable. In the present study perceptions of reliability and kindness attributed to another socially significant archetype, Santa Claus, have been comparatively examined in relation to the doctor. In all, 52 randomly chosen participants were shown a film, where a narrator dressed either as Santa Claus or as a doctor tells an identical story. Structured interviews were then used to assess the subjects' perceptions of reliability and kindness in relation to the narrator's appearance. We found a strong inclination for Santa Claus being perceived as friendlier than the doctor (p = 0.053). However, there was no significant difference in the perception of reliability between Santa Claus and the doctor (p = 0.524). The positive associations attributed to Santa Claus probably cause that he is perceived friendlier than the doctor who may be associated with more serious and unpleasant memories of illness and suffering. Surprisingly, and despite him being an imaginary person, Santa Claus was assessed as being as reliable as the doctor.

  13. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with S...... with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs....

  14. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  15. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...

  16. Halos and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding of these stru......The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding...... of these structures, with an emphasis on how the structures evolve as more cluster components are added and on the experimental situation concerning halo states in light nuclei....

  17. Clause linkage in Ket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefedov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a typologically oriented description of clause linkage strategies in Ket, a highly endangered language spoken in Central Siberia. It is now the only surviving member of the Yeniseian language family with the last remaining speakers residing in the north of Russia’s Krasnoyarsk

  18. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-AI02 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Contract Financing... Supplement (DFARS) to create an overarching prescription for the set of contract financing related clauses... amend the DFARS to create an overarching prescription for the contract financing clause with one...

  19. 48 CFR 27.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or NASA, and the contractor is other than a small business concern or nonprofit organization. (e)(1... business concern or a nonprofit organization, the contracting officer shall use the clause at 52.227-11... may involve novel structures, machines, products, materials, processes, or equipment (including...

  20. The Simplex Clause in Boruca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Castro García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la cláusula simple en boruca, una lengua chibcha de la zona sur de Costa Rica. Se acude a otras descripciones generales sobre la lengua como fuentes complementarias. Se analiza el orden y la organización de los principales constituyentes de la oración a nivel de frase y oración (frase verbal y nominal. Con particular atención se examinan el papel del orden en la oración, así como la codificación de las relaciones sintácticas principales (sujeto y objeto. El análisis se completa con el estudio de las relaciones gramaticales y los procesos sintácticos, así como con un texto donde se muestran los aspectos presentados en el análisis. A description is provided of the simplex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the south of Costa Rica. Other general descriptions of the language are used as complementary sources. This study deals with the various word-order patterns at the clause level and phrase level (noun and verb phrases. Special attention is given to the role of word order in the codification of the major syntactic relations (subject and object, in particular. An analysis of grammatical relations, syntactic processes and a sample text complete the paper.

  1. constitutional immunity clause and the fight against corruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    immunity clause and its sphere, extent and limits as it relates to the officers protected ..... of the Schooner Exchange v Mcfaddon24 where Chief Justice Marshall of .... Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976 could lead to financial transactions.

  2. Entire Agreement Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina; Neumann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , it can then be expected that the contract drafting practice will in turn influence national legal rules and the courts’ approach. This effect can already be seen in Danish legal scholarship and its presumption that the judges will not entirely disregard EA clauses, but take a middle road in interpreting......, but also the contract drafting style typical for common law countries. In this way, common law concepts and rules can be transferred to civil law jurisdictions, however, without certainty about the legal effects. This is especially pertinent to boilerplate provisions. On this background, the article aims...

  3. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  4. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  5. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    favoured-nation' treatment (MFN) clause which seeks to grant to an investor from ... designed to take account of the special characteristics of international investment disputes ... it regularly publishes information about its activities and cases.

  6. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  7. 48 CFR 1603.7003 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7003 Contract clause. The clause at 1652.203-70...

  8. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  9. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental automated information systems or applications as they are defined in the clause. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2439.107 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  10. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.710 Contract clauses. The clauses and alternates prescribed in this... research and development contract is contemplated and the use of a warranty clause has been approved under... performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and...

  11. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  12. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  13. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  14. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  15. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  16. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  17. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  18. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  19. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  20. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  1. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 819.709... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum...

  2. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.7003... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A decision to include or not include environmental, safety and health clauses in DOE contracts shall be made...

  3. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  4. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  5. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  6. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Savings clause. 221.1 Section 221.1... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...

  7. 48 CFR 1842.271 - NASA clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clause. 1842.271 Section 1842.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... NASA clause. Insert the clause at 1852.242-70, Technical Direction, when paragraph 3(m) of the NASA...

  8. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable posters; and (ii) Insert the website link(s) or other contact information for obtaining the agency... Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct... or will be performed entirely outside the United States, insert the clause at FAR 52.203-14, Display...

  9. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  10. 48 CFR 239.7103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7103 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.239-7000, Protection... requires protection against compromising emanations. (b) Use the clause at 252.239-7001, Information...

  11. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  12. Dissipative structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S

    2013-11-05

    Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.

  13. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence...

  14. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  15. Does main clause word order affect attention to change in subordinate clauses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2018-01-01

    ,and in the article we argue that this ‘Main Clause Phenomena’ (cf. Aelbrechtet al. 2012) functions as a foregroundingdevice, signaling that the more important information of the clause complex isto be found in the subordinate clause instead of in its matrix clause. Aprediction from the foregrounding hypothesis...... is that a subordinate clause withVerb>Adverb word order will attract more attention than a clause withAdverb>Verb word order. To test this, we conducted an experiment under the textchange paradigm. 59 students each read 24 constructions twice, each containinga subordinate clause with either Verb>Adverb or Adverb......>Verb word order.Half of the subordinate clauses were governed by a semifactive predicate (opento both word orders) and the other half by a semantically secondary sentence(in itself strongly favoring Verb>Adverb word order). Attention to thesubordinate clause was tested by measuring how disinclined...

  16. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  17. The sequencing of adverbial clauses of time in academic English: Random forest modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rezaee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adverbial clauses of time are positioned either before or after their associated main clauses. This study aims to assess the importance of discourse-pragmatics and processing-related constraints on the positioning of adverbial clauses of time in research articles of applied linguistics written by authors for whom English is considered a native language. Previous research has revealed that the ordering is co-determined by various factors from the domains of semantics and discourse-pragmatics (bridging, iconicity, and subordinator and language processing (deranking, length, and complexity. This research conducts a multifactorial analysis on the motivators of the positioning of adverbial clauses of time in 100 research articles of applied linguistics. The study will use a random forest of conditional inference trees as the statistical technique to measure the weights of the aforementioned variables. It was found that iconicity and bridging, which are factors associated with discourse and semantics, are the two most salient predictors of clause ordering.

  18. Hybrid Tourism-Related Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article is rooted in theories presented in the PhD dissertation Tourism and Strategic Planning (Pasgaard 2012) and features a number of much discussed concepts related to the complicated phenomenon of tourism and to the discipline of strategic urban planning. It is beyond the scope of this a...

  19. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2002-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  20. Hybrid Tourism-Related Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article is rooted in theories presented in the PhD dissertation Tourism and Strategic Planning (Pasgaard 2012) and features a number of much discussed concepts related to the complicated phenomenon of tourism and to the discipline of strategic urban planning. It is beyond the scope...... of this article to enter a detailed discussion of all mentioned concepts; however, it is important to set the stage by providing a few compressed notes on the overall approach to the phenomenon of tourism. Corresponding to the fluid transition between chores of everyday life and tourism behavior, the tourist...... space is not an unequivocal spatial specification. Rather, tourist space is a temporary condition, which depends on tourism activity and the mode of the observer. It is essential to understand and accept the liquidity of the tourism phenomenon and remember that tourism behavior and tourist space...

  1. The idea of Santa Claus in terms of Cognitive Sciences. Cultural persistence and interference with the Christian Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Paul SCARLAT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of Santa Claus is a universal one, which has been carried on for generations despite many obstacles. Although related to fantasy and imagination, he belongs to all cultures and for children he maintains a real presence. Cognitive Science examines the idea of this mysterious individual and brings clarification to his existence in society. Because this “superhero” plays a part in society, he needs a mental structure that can be imagined, a particular and specific cognitive structure. The study identifies the cognitive mechanisms by which the idea of Santa Claus is generated. The history of Santa has interfered with religion since ancient times. He is sometimes confused with religious figures. Cognitive Sciences as applied to religion seem to confirm the universality of religious beliefs and a certain similarity between the idea of Santa Claus and that of holy persons, such as St. Nicholas. However, there are opinions within this field of research that differentiate between the two areas: fantastic and religious.

  2. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....

  3. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  4. 48 CFR 908.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 908.1104 Section 908.1104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1104 Contract clauses. (f...

  5. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  7. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  8. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  9. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or administratively...

  10. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  11. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  12. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  13. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  14. Inversion in Copular Clauses and Its Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Nagarajan

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate specificational copular clauses (Higgins 1973). My aim is to not only propose an analysis for how such specificational copular clauses are derived but also to use such constructions as a testing ground for evaluating and/ or revising different aspects of linguistic theory. The language I primarily use towards…

  15. 48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 11.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for supplies that are not commercial items. ...

  16. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a... subsequent to such effective date, if such conduct would continue to justify suspension or exclusion under...

  17. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems § 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at.... Some DOE sites have a single Environmental Management System for the site while others have separate...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1408 Contract clause. (a) Insert the clause at 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers with...

  19. 48 CFR 432.412 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 432.412 Section 432.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.412 Contract clause. The decision...

  20. 48 CFR 244.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 244.403... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components 244.403 Contract clause. (1) 252.225-7009, Restriction on Acquisition of...

  1. 48 CFR 9.308 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 9.308 Section 9.308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 9.308 Contract clauses. ...

  2. THE LIMITATIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE CURRENCY CLAUSE BY THE PRINCIPLES WITH MORALCONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Akrap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision, which allows the use of currency clause in the Republic of Croatia is introduced in the Law on Obligations in 1994 with the purpose to realize the principle of equal value of performances, in order to protect creditors from the depreciation of the national currency. At the same time no limitations were prescribed in the application of the currency clause, which can, in the different circumstances, lead to a disproportion in the rights and obligations of the parties, on the damage of the debtor. This paper will analyze the economic, social and legal reasons for the introduction of the foreign currency clause in Law, and the importance of legal rules of business with moral content as the limitations of rights based on currency clause during execution of the contract. For that purpose, the general Civil Law rules will be restricted from the separate fields of law, which seek to protect consumers and traders. Furthermore, the authors will examine the possibilities of the protection by these special branches of law against unfair practice during contractual relations with currency clause in Croatian, European and International Law. The authors will observe the recent case law, which classify contracts with a foreign currency clause as the contract with aleatory elements. In conclusion, it would be given the answer to the question whether the basic principles with moral content limit the application of the currency clause.

  3. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  4. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too

  5. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on

  6. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks....

  7. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... Accounting Standards. (b) The following DEAR clauses are standard financial management clauses. The... systems: (1) 970.5232-7, Financial management system. (2) 970.5232-8, Integrated accounting. (c) Any...

  8. 48 CFR 52.252-2 - Clauses Incorporated by Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with the same force and effect as if they were given in full text. Upon request, the Contracting Officer will make their full text available. Also, the full text of a clause may be accessed... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52...

  9. The Politics of Takings Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Versteeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p43 A long-standing consensus exists that the arbitrary or excessive expropriation of private property by a country hurts its economic growth. Although constitutions can play an important role in protecting private property, remarkably little is known about how they actually restrict the power of eminent domain and whether such restrictions are associated with reduced de facto expropriation risks. The main finding of this essay is that no observable relationship exists between de jure constitutional restrictions on the power of eminent domain and de facto expropriation risks. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of takings clauses might depend on the politics surrounding their adoption.

  10. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... a specialised version of each clause. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. The specialisation procedure can be repeated to yield further specialisation. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraint theory...

  11. Functionalist analysis of the positioning of temporal clauses in reports of Revista Seleções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio André de Souza CAVALCANTE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze, subsidized by the vision functionalist, the motivations discursive in employment of temporal clauses. The investigation if justifies by the need of giving a contribution a description of Portuguese based in functionalist studies. The research is of qualitative nature and quantitative, because it uses techniques of interpretation for the description of the data presented and, beyond the more, considers the number of occurrences as a factor important for the analysis of results. Regarding the corpus, were selected editions published during four years of Revista Seleções, which were: 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009. With the results obtained, it was noted that there was a preference for using clauses developed and also a predilection by anteposition of the temporal clauses in relation to its core or main clause, latter being observed fact in more than half of the occurrences analyzed.

  12. 32 CFR 173.3 - Profit reduction clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Profit reduction clause. 173.3 Section 173.3... violating 18 U.S.C. 201-224 (bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest), 18 U.S.C. 371 (conspiracy), 18 U.S.... 1341 (fraud), 18 U.S.C. 1343 (fraud by wire) for any act in connection with or related to the obtaining...

  13. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  14. Nominalized clauses, clausal arguments and agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Picallo, M. Carme

    2001-01-01

    Strict minimalist assumptions require adopting the hypothesis that argument clauses and nominalized clauses are assigned Phi features. The data examined suggest that the interpretable Phi content of these arguments is specified as [-P, -N, -G]. We conclude that all arguments (of the clausal or of the nominal types) are subject to the operation Agree with a functional category. All arguments behave alike as far as abstract computational operations is concerned. The computational component is b...

  15. Direction dependent structures in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberthson, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis deals with, within the theory of general relativity, asymptotic properties of certain types of space-times. Using conformal transformations, it is possible to describe asymptotic properties of a physical space-time in terms of the local behaviour of the new, rescaled space-time. One then uses so called direction dependent structures. We present two such structures and applications to them. One structure is used in the study of spacelike (or spatial) infinity. We discuss the asymptotic conditions on the gravitational and the electromagnetic field, especially the conditions put on directions corresponding to future and past null infinity. It is shown that these fields have desired physical properties. The other structure is used in connection with timelike infinity. Using this structure, we suggest a new definition of timelike infinity. This definition differs significantly from earlier definitions, and leads to the concept of asymptotically stationary space-times. We also suggest a definition of asymptotic flatness at future null infinity, and a definition of a black hole which is, in a sense, local. Both of these definitions fit nicely into the structure. (24 refs.)

  16. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  17. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  18. Are mediation clauses binding and mandatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Miruna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the legal force of mediation clauses in the common law systems and civil law systems with a main focus on the Romanian approach. First, the introductory section illustrates the paradox between the concept of binding and mandatory effect and the mediation mechanism, a voluntary manner to settle disputes. Notwithstanding, the possibility to coerce the parties to engage into a mediation, the voluntary character of the process is illustrated by the parties’ freedom to decide whether they settle or not. Second, the role of mediation clause is analysed and its advantages are briefly described. Third, the non-compliance of the prior mediation mechanism is presented, the starting point of the discussion being represented by the manner in which the parties drafted the mediation clause. A carefully drafted mediation clause, reflecting the parties’ consent, can determine a court or an arbitral tribunal to enforce such clause. Fourth, the study ends by mentioning the approach adopted by different national courts, emphasizing the Romanian legal perspective.

  19. 48 CFR 870.111-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer shall include the clause at 852.270-2, Bread and bakery products—quantities, in solicitations and contracts for bread and bakery products. (b) The contracting officer shall include the clause at 852.270-3...

  20. 48 CFR 803.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 803.570-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-70, Commercial advertising, in...

  1. 48 CFR 503.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570-2 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 552.203-71, Restriction on Advertising, in solicitations and contracts...

  2. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  3. 48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...

  4. 48 CFR 970.1706-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1706... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1706-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 52.217-9, Option to Extend the Term of...

  5. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes...

  6. 48 CFR 970.0470-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0470... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0470-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations, and DOE...

  7. 48 CFR 970.0407-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0407... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0407-1-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-3, Access to and Ownership of Records...

  8. 48 CFR 970.0371-9 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0371... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-9 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970...

  9. 48 CFR 970.1103-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1103... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1103-4 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 48 CFR 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts. ...

  10. 48 CFR 909.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 909.507-2... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 909.507-2 Contract clause. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.209-72, Organizational Conflicts of...

  11. 48 CFR 970.0808-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0808... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Required sources of supplies and services 970.0808-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5208-1, Printing, in all...

  12. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 709.507-2... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 709.507-2 Contract clause. (a)-(b... after award of a contract, the clause found at 752.209-71 shall be inserted in all contracts whenever...

  13. 48 CFR 970.1707-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1707... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1707-4 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 970.5217-1, Work for Others Program (Non-DOE Funded Work), in any contract...

  14. 48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0370... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370-2 Contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970...

  15. 48 CFR 942.270-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 942.270-2 Section 942.270-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 942.270-2 Contract clause. The clause at 952...

  16. 48 CFR 2009.570-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-5 Contract clauses. (a) General contract clause. All contracts and simplified acquisitions of the types set forth in 2009.570-4(b) must include the clause entitled, “Contractor Organizational Conflicts of...

  17. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance will be in Spain. (f) Use the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom.... (i) Use the clause at 252.229-7009, Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel (Passenger... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 229.402-70...

  18. 48 CFR 3027.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing the basic clause unless the HCA approves an exclusion. Additional non-conflicting alternates may... and contract clauses. 3027.409 Section 3027.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3027.409 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses...

  19. 48 CFR 27.201-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the patent indemnity clause. Exclusion from indemnity of identified patents, as distinguished from... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 27.201-2... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201-2 Contract clauses. (a)(1) Insert the...

  20. 48 CFR 925.901 - Omission of the audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omission of the audit clause. 925.901 Section 925.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Clauses 925.901 Omission of the audit clause...

  1. Synthesis of Structures Related to Antifreeze Glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Fyrner, Timmy

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, synthesis of structures related to antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are presented. Synthetic routes to a protected carbohydrate derivative, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-2-deoxy-2-azido-4,6-di-O-benzyl-β-D-thio-1-galactopyranoside, and a tBu-Ala-Thr-Ala-Fmoc tripeptide, are described. These compounds are meant to be used in the assembly of AFGPs and analogues thereof. A Gal-GlcN disaccharide was synthesized via glycosylation between the donor, bromo-2-O-benzo...

  2. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  3. Report on results of audit related to charges for wholesale electric service by New England Power Company under the Fuel-Adjustment Clause filed with the Federal Power Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    During the 39-month period beginning in April 1972 and ending in June 1975, NEPCO, through monthly fuel-adjustment clause (FAC) billings, charged its wholesale customers and certain other customers about $316.1 million. The audit disclosed that in computing FAC charges applicable to its wholesale customers, NEPCO included certain costs not eligible for inclusion in FAC billings under the applicable FAC on file with the Commission. As a result, for the 39-month period ending in June 1975, wholesale customers were overbilled through the FAC an estimated $800,000. The fact that certain costs were not eligible for inclusion under the FAC were not construed as meaning that the costs may not be proper for consideration in establishing NEPCO's cost of service for rate purposes, apart from the FAC. The staff concluded that in all other respects NEPCO had properly billed its customers for charges in the cost of fossil fuel in accordance with its filed fuel-adjustment clause.

  4. Describing Sesotho Names as Clause Complexes in Social Discourse: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masechaba Mahloli L Mokhathi-Mbhele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored Sesotho personal names with clause complex feature as authentic social discourse using systemic functional linguistics (SFL theory to describe them. It used a systemic form-meaning approach to map and interpret Sesotho names structures as enacted messages. The intent was to complement the current syntax and semantics specific formalist approach to onomastic interpretation. The purpose was to reflect a systemic interface of lexico-grammar and social activity by describing these names as contextual lexico-grammatical properties. In this interface modality, noted as negotiated attitudes of awarders, was incorporated. Data was collected from national examinations pass lists, admission and employment roll lists from Public, Private, Tertiary, Orphanage institutions. Other data was identified in Telephone directories and Media. The results revealed that name –surname or surname-name pairs as well as some single names bear the structure and functions of clause complexes and exchange information as statements, demands and commands, as questions and as exclamations and these are Halliday’s Mood types as well as their speech roles - declaratives, imperatives, exclamative and interrogatives depending on the awarder’s evaluation. This form-meaning system is justified as a requirement for the expansion of grammar and its relation to other linguistics disciplines as it has features required for functional language found in discourse particularly because Basotho skillfully create discourse using personal names. The article extends SFL-Onomastica relation and literature and opens ways for the grammar of Sesotho to deepen its roots in SFL as it bears lexico-grammatical properties.

  5. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2432.908 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The... other than the submission of an invoice or voucher, e.g., directly from proceeds of property sales. [71...

  6. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  7. The occupational health of Santa Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa?s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  8. 48 CFR 1851.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1851.205 Section 1851.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  9. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204 Contract...

  10. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in solicitations and contracts that contain the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts. (1) As authorized in... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required to...

  11. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  12. 48 CFR 3019.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 3019.708 Section 3019.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting...

  13. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

  14. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503...

  15. 48 CFR 622.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 622.1408 Section 622.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 622.1408 Contract...

  16. Aging of nuclear safety related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Vydra, V.; Toman, J.; Vodak, F.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of aging processes in nuclear-safety-related concrete structures (NSRCS) is presented. The major environmental stressor and aging factors affecting the performance of NSRCS are summarized, as are drying and plastic shrinkage, expansion of water during the freeze-thaw cycle, water passing through cracks dissolving or leaching the soluble calcium hydroxide, attack of acid rain and ground water, chemical reactions between particular aggregates and the alkaline solution within cement paste, reaction of calcium hydroxide in cement paste hydration products with atmospheric carbon dioxide, and physical radiation effects of neutrons and gamma radiation. The current methods for aging management in NSRCS are analyzed and evaluated. A new treatment is presented for the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of aging processes, consisting in a combination of theoretical methods, laboratory experiments, in-situ measurements and numerical simulations. 24 refs

  17. Infinitival before and after-clauses in European Portuguese: temporal and aspectual properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Silvano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to discuss temporal and aspectual features of sentences with clauses introduced by the connectives antes de + Infinitivo (‘before’ + Infinitive and depois de + Infinitivo (‘after’ + Infinitive combined with situations in the Pretérito Perfeito in European Portuguese. Our discussion is based on the widespread view that these clauses are locating adverbials (cf. Kamp and Reyle (1993 with temporal information of anteriority, in the case of antes de, and posteriority, in the case of depois de. However, this analysis is not as straightforward as one would expect, because, while before-clauses consistently render the same temporal relation (of anteriority, after-clauses may convey a temporal relation of inclusion, in addition to the standard posteriority relation. We put forward the hypothesis that aspectual characteristics play an important role in these differences, insofar as allowing a temporal reading that at first sight is not predicted from the semantic nature of the connective. In order to maintain a uniform treatment of before and after-clauses with respect to their temporal features, accounting simultaneously for the differences that emerge in their linguistic behaviour, we claim, along with Beaver & Condoravdi (2003 and Condoravdi (2010, that the locating time interval provided by these clauses is bounded to the left, but not to the right, that is, what is focused is the initial frontier of the situation that provides the time interval, leaving the final one undetermined. Furthermore, we show that, although the temporal mechanisms are parallel, the interference of aspectual properties leads to interesting differences in the final interpretation of before and after-sentences.

  18. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  19. 48 CFR 12.302 - Tailoring of provisions and clauses for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... practice is inconsistent with the needs of the Government. A waiver may be requested for an individual or... relative volume of the Government's acquisitions in the specific market, contracting officers may, within... inconsistent with customary commercial practice. The contracting officer shall not tailor any clause or...

  20. Facultative reinsurance and the full reinsurance clause

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    The Full Reinsurance clause by which a reinsurer agrees to be bound by the same terms and conditions as the original policy and commits to follow the reinsured’s settlements is widely used in London Market facultative reinsurance contracts. In most disputes the outcome depends upon resolving the fundamental question of whether reinsurance is either a further insurance on the subject matter insured or is a reinsurance of the liability of the reinsured under the direct policy. The interpretatio...

  1. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    -parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  2. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  3. Discovering Multidimensional Structure in Relational Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael Rune; Holmgren, Thomas; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems based on multidimensional databases are essential elements of decision support. However, most existing data is stored in “ordinary” relational OLTP databases, i.e., data has to be (re-) modeled as multidimensional cubes before the advantages of OLAP to...... algorithms for discovering multidimensional schemas from relational databases. The algorithms take a wide range of available metadata into account in the discovery process, including functional and inclusion dependencies, and key and cardinality information....... tools are available. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic construction of multidimensional OLAP database schemas from existing relational OLTP databases, enabling easy OLAP design and analysis for most existing data sources. This is achieved through a set of practical and effective...

  4. The intern structure of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierseaux, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the forgotten fact that in 1905 there were 2 restricted theories of relativity: that of Einstein and that of Poincare. These 2 theories were independently formulated, they are very close to each other but are fundamentally different when we consider their basic principles. Poincare's theory is based on a classical representation of the purely undulatory aspect of light, whereas Einstein stipulates for the quantum aspect of light. Poincare's theory implies the existence of the ether and asserts the primacy of continuity over discontinuity. The author has based his work on a thorough study of the scientific articles in which Poincare and Einstein explained their ideas. The comparison of these 2 theories sheds light on the evolution of concepts on which the whole modern physics is based. An extended bibliography of works published on special relativity or on related topics is given. (A.C.)

  5. Probabilistic Relational Structures and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domotor, Zoltan

    The principal objects of the investigation reported were, first, to study qualitative probability relations on Boolean algebras, and secondly, to describe applications in the theories of probability logic, information, automata, and probabilistic measurement. The main contribution of this work is stated in 10 definitions and 20 theorems. The basic…

  6. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer may insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.216-87, Submission of Vouchers for Payment, in... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70... clause at 1852.216-75, Payment of Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. Modifications to the...

  7. 48 CFR 211.274-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Valuation, in solicitations and contracts that— (i) Require item identification or valuation, or both, in... the clause at— (i) FAR 52.245-1, Government Property; or (ii) FAR 52.245-2, Government Property...— (1) Contain the clause at 252.211-7003, Item Identification and Valuation; and (2) Require the...

  8. 48 CFR 3427.470 - Publication and publicity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and publicity... Copyrights 3427.470 Publication and publicity clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-70, Publication and Publicity, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders. ...

  9. 48 CFR 916.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.203-4 Section 916.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203-4 Contract clauses. (d)(2) The...

  10. 48 CFR 922.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 922.103... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION Basic Labor Policies 922.103-5 Contract clauses. In accordance with FAR 22.101-1(e) and FAR 22.103-5, the contracting officer shall insert the...

  11. 48 CFR 22.1505 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....222-19, Child Labor—Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies, in all solicitations and contracts for... contract clause. 22.1505 Section 22.1505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... contract clause. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of 22.1503, insert the provision at 52.222-18...

  12. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause. 3447.7000 Section 3447.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7403-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance or travel outside the United States, except for contracts with— (a) Foreign governments; (b..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Defense Contractors Outside the United States 225.7403-2 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.225-7043, Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy...

  14. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Copyrights 3427.472 Advertising of awards clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-72, Advertising of Awards, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders. ...

  15. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause at 1552.235-70, Screening Business Information for Claims of Confidentiality, in contracts when... proprietary or confidential by the business that has the right to the information. (b) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 1552.235-71, Treatment of Confidential Business Information, in...

  16. 48 CFR 970.2303-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility, the clause at 48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2303-3 Contract clauses. (a) When work under management and operating contracts and subcontracts thereunder is to be performed at a...

  17. 48 CFR 2011.104-70 - NRC Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules-Contract Clauses 2011.104-70...) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 2052.211-72 Financial Status Report, in applicable cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts when detailed assessment of costs is warranted and a...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7102-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 227.7102..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7102-3 Contract clause. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, use the...

  19. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure

  20. Borel equivalence relations structure and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kanovei, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the theory of Borel equivalence relations and related topics have been very active areas of research in set theory and have important interactions with other fields of mathematics, like ergodic theory and topological dynamics, group theory, combinatorics, functional analysis, and model theory. The book presents, for the first time in mathematical literature, all major aspects of this theory and its applications. This book should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mathematicians working in set theory as well as the other areas mentioned. It provides a systematic exposition of results that so far have been only available in journals or are even unpublished. The book presents unified and in some cases significantly streamlined proofs of several difficult results, especially dichotomy theorems. It has rather minimal overlap with other books published in this subject.

  1. Generalized Disjunctions in (Infinitary) Structural Consequence Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2012), s. 442-443 ISSN 1079-8986. [Logic Colloquium 2011. 11.07.2011-16.07.2011, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Abstract Algebraic Logic * Generalized disjunction * Proof by cases properties * Consequence relations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.ucla.edu/~asl/bsl/1803- toc .htm

  2. Fullerenes, nanotubes, onions and related carbon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C N.R.; Seshadri, Ram; Govindaraj, A; Sen, Rahul [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    1995-12-01

    Fullerenes, containing five- and six-membered carbon rings, of which C{sub 6}0 and C{sub 7}0 are the prominent members, exhibit phase transitions associated with orientational ordering. When C{sub 6}0 is suitably doped with electrons, it shows novel superconducting and magnetic properties. We review these and other properties of fullerenes in bulk or in film form along with the preparative and structural aspects. Carbon nanotubes and onions (hyperfullerenes) are the other forms of carbon whose material properties have aroused considerable interest. Besides discussing these new forms of carbon, we briefly introduce other possible forms, such as those involving five-, six- and seven-membered rings and hybrids between diamond and graphite

  3. Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraan, A.M. van der; Boellaard, E.; Craje, M.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Intelligent structures and design of energy related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Haruyuki

    1994-01-01

    Possibility of applying intelligent structural concepts to civil design of energy plants is discussed. Intelligent structures, which are now common in aerospace engineering field, are also referred to as adaptive structures or smart structures depending on cases. Among various existing concepts, reconfigurable structures, precise shape control, structural monitoring using smart materials of optical fiber sensors, and relation with recent innovative communication technologies are focused from civil engineering point of view. Application of such new technologies will help to enhance design of energy related plants, which include multiplex functions which need to be very reliable and safe. (author)

  5. Information structure and reference tracking in complex sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Gijn, Rik van; Matic, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses argument marking and reference tracking in Mekens complex clauses and their correlation to information structure. The distribution of pronominal arguments in Mekens simple clauses follows an absolutive pattern with main verbs. Complex clauses maintain the morphological absolutive argument marking, but show a nominative pattern with respect to argument reference tracking, since transitive and intransitive subjects function as syntactic pivots. The language extends the use of argument-marking verb morphology to control the reference of discourse participants across clauses.

  6. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... alternate, and to include in the regulation the full text of the alternate clause. DATES: Comment date... provide each alternate clause in full text in the regulation. The inclusion of the full text of the... from from the basic clause. Placing the alternate clause in full text in the regulation will clarify...

  7. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... economic power adjustment clauses. 35.14 Section 35.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.14 Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses. (a) Fuel adjustment clauses (fuel clause) which are not in conformity with the principles set out...

  8. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  9. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  10. The Role of the Penalty Clause in Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stegariu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in this topic is determined, on one hand, by the way of interpreting the provisions which regulate the contractual liability in general and of those regarding the penalty clause in particular, and, on the other hand, by the formulation of certain proposals de lege ferenda. By stipulating the penalty clause, the law seeks to execute the contractual obligations, and not to collect penalties. The legal base of the ancillary character of the penalty clause is article 1538, paragraph 3 of the Civil Code.    

  11. Analysis of Inserted Clauses in the Legal Discourse from the Pragmatic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Karapetyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the given study is to examine the use of inserted clauses in the legal discourse and their unique role in this speech genre.  The investigation of the topic is conducted in line with the principles of Functional Discourse Grammar. In the course of analysis we apply the theory of speech acts, namely performatives, the fundamental tenets of which permit to view the specific combination of shall+inserted clause as a particular feature of legal discourse.  These overcomplicated grammatical structures are shown to fulfill the immediate function of performatives, that of enacting legal acts and doing things in the pragmatic sense of word, to the full extent.

  12. Phenomenological structure functions and Gribov-Lipatov relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, D.K.; Misra, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the Giribov-Lipatov relation using the phenomenological forms of the structure function F 2 ep is made. The analysis indicate breakdown of the relation at PETRA energies. Plausible reasons of the breakdown of Gribov-Lipatov relation are discussed together with its phenomenological form. 33 refs., 6 figures. (author)

  13. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    are asymmetrically distributed, we argue that the word order difference should rather be seen as a signal of (subtle) semantic differences. In main clauses, V3 is highly marked in comparison to V2, and occurs in what may be called emotives. In subordinate clauses, V2 is marked and signals what has been called...... ”assertiveness”, but is rather a question of foregrounding (cf. Simons 2007: Main Point of Utterance). The paper presents the results of a study of word order in subordinate clauses in contemporary spoken Danish and focuses on how to include the proposed semantic difference as a factor influencing the choice...... studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...

  14. 48 CFR 570.604 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... modify the language of a provision or clause mandated by statute (e.g., GSAR 552.203-5, Covenant Against... for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era; and 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers...

  15. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Shrestha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis tests to see the significance of the differences in responses of the stakeholders and Mann-Whitney tests to see the significance of the differences of the pairs of stakeholders. Data analysis showed clauses where the prime stakeholders have similar stand and clauses where the perceptions are divergent. The findings of this paper will help the stakeholders in negotiating PPAs.

  16. 48 CFR 970.2304-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2304-2 Contract clause. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. The contracting officer shall insert the...

  17. 48 CFR 2409.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the nature of the potential conflict and the negotiated terms and duration of the limitation. The... substantially the same as the clause at 2452.209-71, Limitation on Future Contracts, in solicitations and...

  18. 48 CFR 1213.7101 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Data, in all solicitations and requests for quotations, and the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.237-72, Prohibition on Advertising, in solicitations, requests for quotations, and all contracts (e.g., purchase...

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment openings does not require the hiring of any particular job applicants or from any particular group..., Guam, and the Virgin Islands. 6. As used in this clause: i. All employment openings includes all...

  20. Page | 138 JUDICIAL REVIEW OF OUSTER CLAUSE PROVISIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ouster of jurisdiction of the courts on pre-election matters and impeachment of the executive do constitute an ... NAUJILJ 9 (1) 2018. Page | .... Ouster clauses are general provisions, which preclude an organ of government from exercising its.

  1. Tree dimension in verification of constrained Horn clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the notion of tree dimension can be used in the verification of constrained Horn clauses (CHCs). The dimension of a tree is a numerical measure of its branching complexity and the concept here applies to Horn clause derivation trees. Derivation trees of dimension zero c...... algorithms using these constructions to decompose a CHC verification problem. One variation of this decomposition considers derivations of successively increasing dimension. The paper includes descriptions of implementations and experimental results....

  2. PRINCIPLE OF AVAILABILITY IN THE MATTER OF THE REDUCIBILITY OF THE PENALTY CLAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DUMITRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Being receptive to doctrinaire advocacies prior to October 1st 2011 and taking into consideration the social and economical realities of the last decades, the Romanian legislator, in art. 1541 of the civil Code gives the court the power to reduce the evidently excessive penalty clause in relation to the prejudice that could have been foreseen by the parties at the date on which the contract was signed. Amid the silence of the legislator and taking into account the disposition right of the parties over the object of the civil trial, we propose to find whether the court can diminish the obviously excessive penalty clause only when invested with such request or whether this prerogative can be exercised ex officio.

  3. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  4. Ion diffusion related to structure in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1996-08-01

    A model first developed by Zwanzig to derive transport coefficients in cold dense fluids directly from the Green-Kubo time correlation formulae allows one to relate macroscopic diffusion coefficients to the local fluid structure. Applications to various ionic diffusion processes in molten salts are reviewed. Consequences of partial structural quenching are also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 3 tabs

  5. The interplay of structural and relational governance in innovation alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbade, P.J.P.; Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to extend the discussion in the governance literature about whether structural and relational governance mechanisms complement or substitute each other in innovation alliances. Where structural governance mechanisms refer to the division of tasks within the alliance and to

  6. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  7. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    -category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...... used to simplify different structures. Next the chapter points to the blindness of most structural theories of IR to the role of assemblages in general and governance-objects in particular. Thirdly, the idea that a polity is constituted precisely by the assemblage of a governance...

  8. Shell launches its Claus off-gas desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenendaal, W; van Meurs, H C.A.

    1972-01-01

    The Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization (SFGD) Process was developed for removal of sulfur oxides from flue gases originating from oil-fired boilers or furnaces. It can also be used to remove sulfur dioxide from Claus sulfur recovery tail gases if they are combined with boiler/furnace flue gases. For Claus tail gas only, the Shell Claus off-gas desulfurization process was developed. Claus unit operation and desulfurization by low temperature Claus processes and conversion/concentration processes are discussed. The new Shell process consists of a conversion/concentration process involving a reduction section and an amine absorption section. In the reduction section, all sulfur compounds and free sulfur are completely reduced to hydrogen sulfide with hydrogen, or hydrogen plus carbon monoxide, over a cobalt/molybdenum-on-alumina catalyst at a temperature of about 300/sup 0/C. Extensive bench scale studies on the reduction system have been carried out. A life test of more than 4000 hr showed a stable activity of the reduction catalyst, which means that in commercial units, very long catalyst lives can be expected. The commercial feasibility of the reduction section was further demonstrated in the Godorf refinery of Deutsche Shell AG. More than 80 absorption units using alkanolamine (AIDP) solutions have been installed. Bench scale studies of the ADIP absorption units were compared to commercial experience.The total capital investment of the new Shell process is 0.7, 2.0, and 3.2 $ times 10 to the 6th power for 100, 500, and 1000 tons of sulfur/sd capacity Claus units, respectively. The total operating costs for these units are, respectively, 610, 1930 and 3310 $/stream day. The capital investment corresponds to about 75% of the capital investment of the preceding Claus unit.

  9. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions, and the effect of shear on the structure formation was characterized. Special attention was given to the sol-gel transition point, which was defined by a frequency independent loss tangent. It was shown that the sol-gel transit...

  10. Compact complex surfaces with geometric structures related to split quaternions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidov, Johann; Grantcharov, Gueo; Mushkarov, Oleg; Yotov, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of existence of geometric structures on compact complex surfaces that are related to split quaternions. These structures, called para-hypercomplex, para-hyperhermitian and para-hyperkähler, are analogs of the hypercomplex, hyperhermitian and hyperkähler structures in the definite case. We show that a compact 4-manifold carries a para-hyperkähler structure iff it has a metric of split signature together with two parallel, null, orthogonal, pointwise linearly independent vector fields. Every compact complex surface admitting a para-hyperhermitian structure has vanishing first Chern class and we show that, unlike the definite case, many of these surfaces carry infinite-dimensional families of such structures. We provide also compact examples of complex surfaces with para-hyperhermitian structures which are not locally conformally para-hyperkähler. Finally, we discuss the problem of non-existence of para-hyperhermitian structures on Inoue surfaces of type S 0 and provide a list of compact complex surfaces which could carry para-hypercomplex structures.

  11. Composition-structure-property relation of oxide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian

    also increases such properties. Yet, these rules are not strictly followed even for the simplest binary oxide glasses, such as alkali silicates, borates and phosphates. In this thesis it is argued that the missing link between composition and properties is the glass structure. Structural models...... are proposed based on topological selection rules and experimentally verified. The relation between structure and properties is evaluated using topological constraint theory, which in its essence is a theory that quantifies the two intuitions of the glass scientist. The end result is a quantitative model...

  12. The mathematical structure of the approximate linear response relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mathematical structures of the linear response relation based on Plefka's expansion and the cluster variation method in terms of the perturbation expansion, and we show how this linear response relation approximates the correlation functions of the specified system. Moreover, by comparing the perturbation expansions of the correlation functions estimated by the linear response relation based on these approximation methods with exact perturbative forms of the correlation functions, we are able to explain why the approximate techniques using the linear response relation work well

  13. The structure of relation algebras generated by relativizations

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven R

    1994-01-01

    The foundation for an algebraic theory of binary relations was laid by De Morgan, Peirce, and Schröder during the second half of the nineteenth century. Modern development of the subject as a theory of abstract algebras, called "relation algebras", was undertaken by Tarski and his students. This book aims to analyze the structure of relation algebras that are generated by relativized subalgebras. As examples of their potential for applications, the main results are used to establish representation theorems for classes of relation algebras and to prove existence and uniqueness theorems for simple closures (i.e., for minimal simple algebras containing a given family of relation algebras as relativized subalgebras). This book is well written and accessible to those who are not specialists in this area. In particular, it contains two introductory chapters on the arithmetic and the algebraic theory of relation algebras. This book is suitable for use in graduate courses on algebras of binary relations or algebraic...

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Claus Unit Reaction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pahlavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction furnace is the most important part of the Claus sulfur recovery unit and its performance has a significant impact on the process efficiency. Too many reactions happen in the furnace and their kinetics and mechanisms are not completely understood; therefore, modeling reaction furnace is difficult and several works have been carried out on in this regard so far. Equilibrium models are commonly used to simulate the furnace, but the related literature states that the outlet of furnace is not in equilibrium and the furnace reactions are controlled by kinetic laws; therefore, in this study, the reaction furnace is simulated by a kinetic model. The predicted outlet temperature and concentrations by this model are compared with experimental data published in the literature and the data obtained by PROMAX V2.0 simulator. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed kinetic model and PROMAX simulator is almost similar, but the kinetic model used in this paper has two importance abilities. Firstly, it is a distributed model and can be used to obtain the temperature and concentration profiles along the furnace. Secondly, it is a dynamic model and can be used for analyzing the transient behavior and designing the control system.

  15. ESSENTIAL CLAUSES OF INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT - QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gheorghe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the legal texts of the Labour Code which refers to the elements / clauses in individual employment contract and clarifying those that have been essential. Rules of the Labour Code which refer to the contents of the individual employment contract are not consistent. The texts of the La bour Code which refer to the essential and specific clauses in individual employment contract are art. 17 para. (1 - (3, art. 20 and art. 41-48. Also Order no. 64/2003 sets out the mandatory elements that must be included in the individual employment con tract, showing that through negotiation between the parties, the contract may include specific clauses under the law. The analysis is done in the light of the provisions of art. 1179 and art. 1185 of the Civil Code, as in common law. At the end of the stud y, we conclude that certain provisions were essential character to the conclusion of any individual employment contract, others result of the negotiation, have essential character only to the contracting parties, while certain clauses are essential for certain types of individual employment contracts . Finally, it is assessed and the consequences of lack of essential clauses and establish its content contrary to legal norms.

  16. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  17. Integrity of Safety-Related Fast Reactor Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.

    1981-01-01

    The LMFBR contains several structural items whose integrity must be safeguarded during the life of the plant. These items include the main core support structures (strongback, diagrid) and the primary tank to which these structures are attached. In order to demonstrate an acceptable level of structural integrity, the chosen design philosophy must be supported by both analytical and experimental evidence. This paper describes the current approaches in the UK to these requirements. Section 2 describes the materials mechanical properties tests performed to date on both fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth in Type 316 austenitic stainless steel plate and weldments. This data illustrates the problems in identifying the relevant materials fracture parameters for use in assessments. Section 3 shows the test programmes in hand to extend the materials programmes to tests on structural features (mainly welded wide plate tests) which incorporate the complexity of weldments in a structural context. This includes experimental evidence on the effects of local weld residual stresses on structural failure. Various routes are open for the integrity assessment of FR structures. These are discussed in Section 4 but in effect they reduce to a fracture mechanics approach using some technique to cope with elastic-plastic fracture. The main problems at present relate to our ability in analysis to cope with residual stresses and the post-initiation region of the fracture resistance curve. Also, there is the problem of initial defect sizing by current NDE techniques. Current conservative analytical assessments give acceptable defect sizes of order a few millimetres in irradiated weldments. Finally, Section 5 discusses the options open in design to cope with safety related structures under normal and abnormal loading conditions. It is clear that several options exist in design to satisfy the demand for high integrity

  18. The exceptional clauses in the contractual activity on the public administration: freedom of choice or legislative imposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor David Osorio Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracting activity of public administration in Colombia has generally allowed, by order of constitutional and legislative norms, the application of the principle of autonomy, so that those subjects within a public legal transaction can build and establish the conditions governing their contract. The scope of the principle of autonomy must be analyzed and subjected to reflection, especially considering the institution of exception clauses in common law used by State agencies and their legal relationship with contractors. The existence of exception clauses has been justified by the interests of the State (and in particular the public interest without strictly analyzing the essence of the figure. The application of this institution in contractual relations of the State has advanced greatly, but it is still uncertain if the true nature of the figure is caused by the autonomy of the parties in order to celebrate the contract, or if it comes as privileges conferred and imposed by the legislator as a way to concise the principle of legality. This paper concludes that exception clauses in common law, clearly applied in contractual activity within public administration, consist of special privileges imposed by the legislator to State entities, and are therefore opposed to the essence of the clause and the principle of autonomy.

  19. Relativity, symmetry and the structure of quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Klink, William H; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful of all physical theories. Our everyday world is dominated by devices that function because of knowledge of the quantum world. Yet many, physicists and non-physicists alike, find the theory which explains the behavior of the quantum world baffling and strange. This book is the first in a series of three that argues that relativity and symmetry determine the structure of quantum theory. That is to say, the structure of quantum theory is what it is because of relativity and symmetry. There are different types of relativity, each leading to a particular type of quantum theory. This book deals specifically with what we call Newton relativity, the form of relativity built into Newtonian mechanics, and the quantum theory to which it gives rise, which we call Galilean (often misleadingly called non-relativistic) quantum theory. Key Features: • Meaning and significance of the term of relativity; discussion of the principle of relativity. • Relation of symmetry to relati...

  20. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod

    2006-01-01

    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  1. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...

  2. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions, and the effect of shear on the

  3. 48 CFR 14.201-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-3 Part II—Contract clauses... law or by this regulation and any additional clauses expected to apply to any resulting contract, if...

  4. Structural studies of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [College of Medicine, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States); Koski, Raymond A.; Bonafé, Nathalie [L2 Diagnostics LLC, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); College of Medicine, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Structural analysis of a truncated soluble domain of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1, a membrane protein implicated in the proliferation of aggressive brain cancer, is presented. Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a membrane protein that is highly upregulated in brain cancers but is barely detectable in normal brain tissue. GLIPR1 is composed of a signal peptide that directs its secretion, a conserved cysteine-rich CAP (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins) domain and a transmembrane domain. GLIPR1 is currently being investigated as a candidate for prostate cancer gene therapy and for glioblastoma targeted therapy. Crystal structures of a truncated soluble domain of the human GLIPR1 protein (sGLIPR1) solved by molecular replacement using a truncated polyalanine search model of the CAP domain of stecrisp, a snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), are presented. The correct molecular-replacement solution could only be obtained by removing all loops from the search model. The native structure was refined to 1.85 Å resolution and that of a Zn{sup 2+} complex was refined to 2.2 Å resolution. The latter structure revealed that the putative binding cavity coordinates Zn{sup 2+} similarly to snake-venom CRISPs, which are involved in Zn{sup 2+}-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory modulation. Both sGLIPR1 structures have extensive flexible loop/turn regions and unique charge distributions that were not observed in any of the previously reported CAP protein structures. A model is also proposed for the structure of full-length membrane-bound GLIPR1.

  5. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....

  6. Claus sulphur recovery potential approaches 99% while minimizing cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlie, E M

    1974-01-21

    In a summary of a paper presented to the fourth joint engineering conference of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering, the Claus process is discussed in a modern setting. Some problems faced in the operation of sulfur recovery plants include (1) strict pollution control regulations; (2) design and operation of existing plants; (3) knowledge of process fundamentals; (4) performance testing; (5) specification of feed gas; (6) catalyst life; (7) instrumentation and process control; and (8) quality of feed gas. Some of the factors which must be considered in order to achieve the ultimate capability of the Claus process are listed. There is strong evidence to support the contention that plant operators are reluctant to accept new fundamental knowledge of the Claus sulfur recovery process and are not taking advantage of its inherent potential to achieve the emission standards required, to minimize cost of tail gas cleanup systems and to minimize operating costs.

  7. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  8. Dislocations and related defects in niobium oxide structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J S; Hutchinson, J L; Lincoln, F J [Oxford Univ. (UK). Inorganic Chemistry Lab.

    1977-01-07

    Lattice images of the niobium oxides, structures based on the linkage of octahedral groups in continuous networks, occasionally contain features recognizable as dislocations. Since lattice imaging enables the microstructure to be resolved in greater detail, at the level of local structural organization, it is possible to determine the configuration, and also to infer the chemical composition, of dislocated areas. By treating the niobium oxide 'block' structures as superstructures of the ReO/sub 3/ (DO/sub 9/) type, the topology of dislocations can be expressed by relations between the insertion (or deletion) of one or more half-planes of cations, or of oxygen atoms only, changes in the number of crystallographic shear plane interfaces between blocks or columns, changes in (idealized) dimensions and any requisite distortion in the third dimension. Mapping the structure around a dislocation, from the lattice image, is directly equivalent to plotting the Burgers' circuit. In this way, the precise nature of a dislocating perturbation and its implications for the local chemical composition of the crystal can be directly identified. The method is exemplified by analysis of dislocations and of related extended defects of several types, associated with twinning phenomena, semicoherent intergrowth between different ReO/sub 3/-type superstructures and arrays building up a low angle boundary. The essential features of the analysis are not restricted to structures of the niobium oxide type, but can be extended to other types of polyhedron networks.

  9. Reliability of containment and safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    A research program on Reliability of Containment and Safety-related Structures has been developed and is described in this document. This program is designed to support AECB's regulatory activities aimed at ensuring the safety of these structures. These activities include evaluating submissions by operators and requesting special assessments when necessary. The results of the proposed research will also be useful in revising and enhancing the CSA design standards for containment and safety-related structures. The process of developing the research program started with an information collection and review phase. The sources of information included C-FER's previous work in the area, various recent research publications, regulatory documents and relevant design standards, and a detailed discussion with AECB staff. The second step was to outline the process of reliability evaluation, and identify the required models and parameters. Comparison between the required and available information was used to identify gaps in the state-of-the-art, and the research program was designed to fill these gaps. The program is organized in four major topics, namely: development of an approach for reliability analysis; compilation and development of the required analysis tools; application to specific problems related to design, assessment, maintenance and testing of structures; and testing and validation. It is suggested that the program should be supported by an on-going process of communication and consultation between AECB staff and industry experts. This will lend credibility to the results and facilitate their future application. (author). 1 fig

  10. 48 CFR 1649.101-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP termination for convenience clause. 1649.101-71 Section 1649.101-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-71 FEHBP termination for convenience clause. The clause set forth in...

  11. Clause packaging in writing and speech: A cross-linguistic developmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Aparici, M.; Cahana-Amitay, D.; Hell, J.G. van; Kriz, S.; Vigué-Siom, A.

    2002-01-01

    This article analyses clause packaging in the written narrative and expository texts in Dutch, English, French, Hebrew, and Spanish by grade-school children and adults. A “clause package” is defined as a text unit consisting of clauses linked by syntactic, thematic, and discursive criteria. Our

  12. 48 CFR 1836.570 - NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. 1836.570 Section 1836.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 1836.570 NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. (a) The contracting...

  13. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ...

  15. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivation...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....

  16. Graphite structure and its relation to mechanical engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocklehurst, J.E.; Kelly, B.T.

    1980-01-01

    The inhomogeneous nature of polycrystalline graphite requires property measurements to be made over dimensions large enough to average the local variations in the structure. This is particularly true for mechanical integrity, and experimental data are presented which illustrate the importance of the real aggregate structure of graphite and the difficulties of interpreting strength data from different tests. The classical statistical treatments do not hold generally, and the problem of defining a failure criterion for graphite is discussed. It is suggested that the stress conditions in graphite components might be classified in terms of the dimensions and stress gradients related to the characteristic flaw size of the material as determined experimentally. (author)

  17. UbSRD: The Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joseph S; Jacobs, Tim M; Houlihan, Kevin; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Kuhlman, Brian

    2016-02-22

    The structurally defined ubiquitin-like homology fold (UBL) can engage in several unique protein-protein interactions and many of these complexes have been characterized with high-resolution techniques. Using Rosetta's structural classification tools, we have created the Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database (UbSRD), an SQL database of features for all 509 UBL-containing structures in the PDB, allowing users to browse these structures by protein-protein interaction and providing a platform for quantitative analysis of structural features. We used UbSRD to define the recognition features of ubiquitin (UBQ) and SUMO observed in the PDB and the orientation of the UBQ tail while interacting with certain types of proteins. While some of the interaction surfaces on UBQ and SUMO overlap, each molecule has distinct features that aid in molecular discrimination. Additionally, we find that the UBQ tail is malleable and can adopt a variety of conformations upon binding. UbSRD is accessible as an online resource at rosettadesign.med.unc.edu/ubsrd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subordinate clause comprehension and tense/agreement inconsistency in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Sofía M; Leonard, Laurence B; Deevy, Patricia; Fey, Marc E; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that the production errors of children with specific language impairment (SLI) such as The girl singing may be explained by a misinterpretation of grammatical adult input containing a similar structure (e.g., The boy hears the girl singing). Thirteen children with SLI and 13 younger typically developing children with comparable sentence comprehension test scores (TD-COMP) completed a comprehension task to assess their understanding of sentences involving a nonfinite subject-verb sequence in a subordinate clause such as The dad sees the boy running. TD-COMP children were more accurate on subordinate clause items than children with SLI despite similar performance on simple transitive (e.g., The horse sees the cow) and simple progressive (e.g., The cow is eating) items. However, no relationship was found between the SLI group's specific subordinate clause comprehension level and their specific level of auxiliary is production, casting some doubt on this type of structure as a source for inconsistent use of auxiliary is. The reader will learn that children with specific language impairment (SLI): (1) have difficulty understanding complex sentences that include nonfinite subject-verb sequences; (2) that this difficulty is apparent in comparison to younger typically developing peers who have similar scores not only on a sentence comprehension test, but also on simple sentences that correspond to the component parts of the complex sentences; and (3) that this weakness is concurrent with these children's inconsistent use of auxiliary is in production. Although novel verb studies show a clear connection between how children with SLI hear new verbs and how they use them, we do not yet have evidence that this connection is tied to a poor understanding of the input sentences that house the verbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Gd14Ag51 structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd 14 Ag 51 shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE 14 Ag 51 structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd 14 Ag 51 ). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE 14 Ag 51 structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd 14 Ag 51 , the parent compound of this structure family

  20. Relation between rheological and structural properties of suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcal, M; Sebor, G; Volsicky, Z

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses results of investigations into separation processes for coal and kaolin suspensions. Effects of potassium chlorides and methanol additives on electrostatic potential of solid particles and on sedimentation rate are analyzed. Investigation results are shown in 5 diagrams. The relation between rheological and structural properties of coal and clay suspensions is investigated. Investigations show that the non-Newtonian behavior of suspensions cannot be attributed exclusively to the electrostatic and mechanical action of the solid phase particles. It is also caused by structure of the liquid phase, particularly on the surface of the solid particles, which depends mostly on hydrogen bonds. The internal structure of the liquid phase influences differential viscosity much more than the electrical surface properties of the solid phase. Bonds between the molecules of water and methanol are much stronger than bonds between water molecules alone. (9 refs.)

  1. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  2. Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.

  3. Chemical and physical structures of proteinoids and related polyamino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Hajime; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Nomoto, Shinya

    Studies of polyamino acid formation pathways in the prebiotic condition are important for the study of the origins of life. Several pathways of prebiotic polyamino acid formation have been reported. Heating of monoammonium malate [1] and heating of amino acids in molten urea [2] are important pathways of the prebiotic peptide formation. The former case, globular structure called proteinoid microsphere is formed in aqueous conditions. The later case, polyamino acids are formed from unrestricted amino acid species. Heating of aqueous aspargine is also interesting pathway for the prebiotic polyamino acid formation, because polyamino acid formation proceeds in aqueous condition [3]. In this study, we analyzed the chemical structure of the proteinoids and related polyamino acids formed in the above three pathways using with mass spectrometer. In addition, their physical structures are analyzed by the electron and optical microscopes, in order to determine the self-organization abilities. We discuss the relation between the chemical and the physical structures for the origins of life. References [1] Harada, K., J. Org. Chem., 24, 1662 (1959), Fox, S. W., Harada, K., and Kendrick, J., Science, 129, 1221 (1959). [2] Terasaki, M., Nomoto, S., Mita, H., and Shimoyama, A., Chem. Lett., 480 (2002), Mita, H., Nomoto, S., Terasaki, M., Shimoyama, A., and Yamamoto, Y., Int. J. Astrobiol., 4, 145 (2005). [3] Kovacs, K and Nagy, H., Nature, 190, 531 (1961), Munegumi, T., Tanikawa, N., Mita, H. and Harada, K., Viva Origino, 22, 109 (1994).

  4. Relative Clauses and Register Expansion in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explores aspects of linguistic variation and change in written Tok Pisin, an English-based pidgin/creole that is spoken in Papua New Guinea as a second language by over 1,5000,000 people and as a first language by over 20,000 people.(Author/VWL)

  5. Certain Legal Aspects of the Himalaya Clause in the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Sea A critical perspective on legal challenges raised by the clause under international uniform law and general contract law principles

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Description of the Himalaya clause and its benefits; considerations on benefits for third parties over international uniform law; observations on construction of the clause under the model of the contract for the benefit of a third party; remarks on circular indemnity clauses; application of rules of exclusion of liability to Himalaya clause; conclusion.

  6. 48 CFR 1237.7003 - Solicitation provisions and contact clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.237-72, Prohibition on Advertising, in solicitations and contracts for training services when the content and/or presentation of the course is controlled by DOT. (b... descriptive information (i.e., dated material such as resumes, company and/or personnel qualifications) to...

  7. 48 CFR 1239.70 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1252.239-71, Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation, and the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.239-70, Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources, in all... TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 1239.70...

  8. 45 CFR 650.4 - Standard patent rights clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 121.3-12, respectively, will be used. (6) Nonprofit organization means a domestic university or... the grantee or assignee has not taken, or is not expected to take within a reasonable time, effective... paragraph (k)(4). (1) Communications. All communications required by this Patents Rights clause must be...

  9. 23 CFR 635.109 - Standardized changed condition clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.109 Standardized changed condition clauses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following changed conditions contract... contract or if unknown physical conditions of an unusual nature, differing materially from those ordinarily...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as [provide illustrative examples, such... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 716, App. B Appendix B to Part 716—SAMPLE CLAUSES This appendix only... disclose nonpublic personal information about you to the following types of third parties: • Financial...

  11. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as [provide illustrative examples, such as “mortgage bankers”]; • Non-financial companies, such as... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to privacy notices provided before January 1, 2011. Financial institutions, including a group of financial...

  12. 48 CFR 30.201-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... established cost accounting practices consistently. (b) Disclosure and consistency of cost accounting practices. (1) Insert the clause at FAR 52.230-3, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices... follow consistently its established cost accounting practices. (c) Disclosure and Consistency of Cost...

  13. 48 CFR 1319.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall insert the clause 1352.219-71, Notification to Delay Performance (Deviation), in solicitations and...) Direct Award (Deviation), in direct contracts and purchase orders processed under the Partnership... 1352.219-72, Notification of Competition Limited to Eligible 8(a) Concerns, Alternate III (Deviation...

  14. 48 CFR 411.171 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provision at 452.211-70, Brand Name or Equal, in solicitations, other than those for construction, where “brand name or equal” purchase descriptions are used. (b) Contracting officers shall insert the clause at..., Attachment to Statement of Work/Specifications, when there are attachments to the description (statement of...

  15. Non-Trade Concerns in Interpreting General Exception Clauses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Primarily, the objective of the measure must fall within the scope of any of the ... Balancing the Toothless Tiger and the Undermining Mole”, Journal of ..... listed in the exception clauses, there is a significant risk for abuse if they are left.

  16. 48 CFR 9.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 9.507-2 Contract clause. (a) If..., for example, when the first production contract using the contractor's specifications or work statement is awarded, or it might extend through the entire life of a system for which the contractor has...

  17. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  18. 48 CFR 538.7104 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the clause at 552.238-76, Definition (Federal Supply Schedules)—Recovery Purchasing, in Federal Supply... Homeland Security to facilitate recovery from major disasters, terrorism, or nuclear, biological, chemical... recovery from major disasters, terrorism, or nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack. (c) The...

  19. 17 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information Pt. 248, Subpt. A, App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 248—Sample Clauses Link to an amendment..., such as “call the following toll-free number: (insert number)”]. A-7—Confidentiality and Security (All...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 216 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Pt. 216, App. B Appendix B to Part 216—Sample Clauses Link to..., such as “call the following toll-free number: (insert number)”]. A-7—Confidentiality and security (all...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 573 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Pt. 573, App. B Appendix B to Part 573—Sample Clauses Link to an amendment published at 74 FR..., such as “call the following toll-free number: (insert number)”]. A-7—Confidentiality and security (all...

  2. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply ...

  3. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... software or computer software documentation (see 227.72), commercial items (see 227.7102-3), existing works...-engineer and construction contracts. (b)(1) Use the clause at 252.227-7013 with its Alternate I in research... Software Previously Delivered to the Government, in solicitations when the resulting contract will require...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of nonpublic personal information about customers and former customers that the bank discloses and... nonpublic personal information about our customers or former customers to anyone, except as permitted by law... permitted by law. A-5—Service provider/joint marketing exception A bank may use one of these clauses, as...

  5. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, N.T.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  6. 48 CFR 237.7101 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services to be provided on a count-of-articles basis. (d) Use the clause at 252.237-7015, Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles), in solicitations and contracts for laundry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions...

  7. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....

  8. Abstract numeric relations and the visual structure of algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition, it has often been assumed that skilled users of these formalisms treat situations in terms of semantic properties encoded in an abstract syntax that governs the use of notation without particular regard to the details of the physical structure of the equation itself (Anderson, 2005; Hegarty, Mayer, & Monk, 1995). We explore how the notational structure of verbal descriptions or algebraic equations (e.g., the spatial proximity of certain words or the visual alignment of numbers and symbols in an equation) plays a role in the process of interpreting or constructing symbolic equations. We propose in particular that construction processes involve an alignment of notational structures across representation systems, biasing reasoners toward the selection of formal notations that maintain the visuospatial structure of source representations. For example, in the statement "There are 5 elephants for every 3 rhinoceroses," the spatial proximity of 5 and elephants and 3 and rhinoceroses will bias reasoners to write the incorrect expression 5E = 3R, because that expression maintains the spatial relationships encoded in the source representation. In 3 experiments, participants constructed equations with given structure, based on story problems with a variety of phrasings. We demonstrate how the notational alignment approach accounts naturally for a variety of previously reported phenomena in equation construction and successfully predicts error patterns that are not accounted for by prior explanations, such as the left to right transcription heuristic.

  9. Elucidation of Operon Structures across Closely Related Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components. PMID:24959722

  10. Consequence clauses with a meaning of measure and degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a new classification of consequence clauses that is based on a category of degree. Based on that parameter, consequence clauses are classified into the ones that have a meaning of degree and the ones that don’t have that meaning. Furthemore, consequence clauses with a meaning of degree can be divided into the clauses with a meaning of measure (Napolju je toliko hladno da smo se odmah vratili iz šetnje./It is so cold outside that we had to return immediately back; On je takav prevarant, da će te sigurno preći/ He is such a chouse - he will cheat for sure. and into excessive clauses (Previše je debela da uđe u tu haljinu/ She is too fat to fit in this dress; Devojčica je premalena da ostane sama kod kuće/ The girl is too small to stay at home alone; Buka je bila dovoljna da natera dete u plač/The noise was loud enough to cause the baby cry. The article provides the arguments that the category of degree in this sentences is grammaticalized with the help of certain modifiers and a conjunction of result da. The author applies the onomasiological method in the analysis and uses the theory of semantic locations. An existence of certain meanings is confirmed by the transformational test. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika, potprojekat: Sintaksa složene rečenice

  11. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...

  12. Composition-Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Borosilicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N.; Bechgaard, Tobias K.; Fuglsang, Søren D.; Pedersen, Rune H.; Tjell, Anders Ø.; Østergaard, Martin B.; Youngman, Randall E.; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-08-01

    Hot isostatic compression is an interesting method for modifying the structure and properties of bulk inorganic glasses. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not yet well understood. In this study, we report on the pressure and composition dependences of density and micromechanical properties (hardness, crack resistance, and brittleness) of five soda-lime borosilicate glasses with constant modifier content, covering the extremes from Na-Ca borate to Na-Ca silicate end members. Compression experiments are performed at pressures ≤1.0 GPa at the glass transition temperature in order to allow processing of large samples with relevance for industrial applications. In line with previous reports, we find an increasing fraction of tetrahedral boron, density, and hardness but a decreasing crack resistance and brittleness upon isostatic compression. Interestingly, a strong linear correlation between plastic (irreversible) compressibility and initial trigonal boron content is demonstrated, as the trigonal boron units are the ones most disposed for structural and topological rearrangements upon network compaction. A linear correlation is also found between plastic compressibility and the relative change in hardness with pressure, which could indicate that the overall network densification is responsible for the increase in hardness. Finally, we find that the micromechanical properties exhibit significantly different composition dependences before and after pressurization. The findings have important implications for tailoring microscopic and macroscopic structures of glassy materials and thus their properties through the hot isostatic compression method.

  13. ISINN-2. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Second International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-2) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1994. Over 120 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Holland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, US and about 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The main problems discussed are the following: P-odd and P-even angular correlation and T-reversal invariance in neutron reactions, nuclear structure investigations by neutron capture, the mechanism of neutron reactions, nuclear fission processes, as well as neutron data for nuclear astrophysics

  14. Structure-function relations in physiology education: Where's the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E; Gardner, Stephanie M

    2017-06-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such as structure-function relations, selectively neglect mechanisms by not mentioning this term explicitly. We explored how students characterized mechanisms and functions to shed light on how students make sense of these terms. Students characterized mechanisms as 1 ) processes that occur at levels of organization lower than that of functions; and 2 ) as detailed events with many steps involved. We also found that students produced more variability in how they characterized functions compared with mechanisms: students characterized functions in relation to multiple levels of organization and multiple definitions. We interpret these results as evidence that students see mechanisms as holding a more narrow definition than used in the biological sciences, and that students struggle to coordinate and distinguish mechanisms from functions due to cognitive processes germane to learning in many domains. We offer the instructional suggestion that we scaffold student learning by affording students opportunities to relate and also distinguish between these terms so central to understanding physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Electronic structure and superconductivity of FeSe-related superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; He, Junfeng; Liu, Defa; Mou, Daixiang; Shen, Bing; Hu, Yong; Huang, Jianwei; Zhou, X J

    2015-05-13

    FeSe superconductors and their related systems have attracted much attention in the study of iron-based superconductors owing to their simple crystal structure and peculiar electronic and physical properties. The bulk FeSe superconductor has a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of ~8 K and it can be dramatically enhanced to 37 K at high pressure. On the other hand, its cousin system, FeTe, possesses a unique antiferromagnetic ground state but is non-superconducting. Substitution of Se with Te in the FeSe superconductor results in an enhancement of Tc up to 14.5 K and superconductivity can persist over a large composition range in the Fe(Se,Te) system. Intercalation of the FeSe superconductor leads to the discovery of the AxFe2-ySe2 (A = K, Cs and Tl) system that exhibits a Tc higher than 30 K and a unique electronic structure of the superconducting phase. A recent report of possible high temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films with a Tc above 65 K has generated much excitement in the community. This pioneering work opens a door for interface superconductivity to explore for high Tc superconductors. The distinct electronic structure and superconducting gap, layer-dependent behavior and insulator-superconductor transition of the FeSe/SrTiO3 films provide critical information in understanding the superconductivity mechanism of iron-based superconductors. In this paper, we present a brief review of the investigation of the electronic structure and superconductivity of the FeSe superconductor and related systems, with a particular focus on the FeSe films.

  16. [Structure analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of the structure and properties of identified pathogenic proteins are important for elucidating the molecular basis of diseases and in drug discovery research. Vibrational spectroscopy has advantages over other techniques in terms of sensitivity of detection of structural changes. Spectral analysis, however, is complicated because the spectrum involves a substantial amount of information. This article includes examples of structural analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy in combination with additional techniques that facilitate data acquisition and analysis. Residue-specific conformation analysis of an amyloid fibril was conducted using IR absorption spectroscopy in combination with (13)C-isotope labeling, linear dichroism measurement, and analysis of amide I band features. We reveal a pH-dependent property of the interacting segment of an amyloidogenic protein, β2-microglobulin, which causes dialysis-related amyloidosis. We also reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH-dependent sugar-binding activity of human galectin-1, which is involved in cell adhesion, using spectroscopic techniques including UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. The decreased activity at acidic pH was attributed to a conformational change in the sugar-binding pocket caused by protonation of His52 (pKa 6.3) and the cation-π interaction between Trp68 and the protonated His44 (pKa 5.7). In addition, we show that the peak positions of the Raman bands of the C4=C5 stretching mode at approximately 1600 cm(-1) and the Nπ-C2-Nτ bending mode at approximately 1405 cm(-1) serve as markers of the His side-chain structure. The Raman signal was enhanced 12 fold using a vertical flow apparatus.

  17. Cross-cultural structures of concentric and diametric dualism in Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology: structures of relation underlying the self and ego relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The parallels between Jung's and Lévi-Strauss' concentric cross-cultural structures of the unconscious are highlighted. Lévi-Strauss' basic contrasts between concentric and diametric dualisms are developed into psychologically relevant differences regarding symmetry, connection and separation, and interaction between foreground and background structures respectively. These contrasts between concentric and diametric structures are applied as a common structural framework for understanding Jungian conceptions of the self, the ego and their relations, Freudian views of compensation and repetition in obsessional neurosis, and Winnicott's conception of a child's transitional object. Developing the contrasts between concentric and diametric structures reveals a compensatory relation between both structures. This supports an argument that concentric structures express the self and diametric structures express the ego in their mutual compensatory interrelation. Contrasting concentric with diametric structures challenges traditional Western logic, including Fordham's view that it is contradictory to treat the self as both centre and totality. It also develops an understanding of Jung's transcendent function which seeks to go beyond the ego-shadow opposition.

  18. Examining Similarity Structure: Multidimensional Scaling and Related Approaches in Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Shinkareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers similarity analyses, a subset of multivariate pattern analysis techniques that are based on similarity spaces defined by multivariate patterns. These techniques offer several advantages and complement other methods for brain data analyses, as they allow for comparison of representational structure across individuals, brain regions, and data acquisition methods. Particular attention is paid to multidimensional scaling and related approaches that yield spatial representations or provide methods for characterizing individual differences. We highlight unique contributions of these methods by reviewing recent applications to functional magnetic resonance imaging data and emphasize areas of caution in applying and interpreting similarity analysis methods.

  19. Universal Scaling Relations in Scale-Free Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Hopkins, Philip F.; Grudić, Michael Y.

    2018-04-01

    A large number of astronomical phenomena exhibit remarkably similar scaling relations. The most well-known of these is the mass distribution dN/dM∝M-2 which (to first order) describes stars, protostellar cores, clumps, giant molecular clouds, star clusters and even dark matter halos. In this paper we propose that this ubiquity is not a coincidence and that it is the generic result of scale-free structure formation where the different scales are uncorrelated. We show that all such systems produce a mass function proportional to M-2 and a column density distribution with a power law tail of dA/d lnΣ∝Σ-1. In the case where structure formation is controlled by gravity the two-point correlation becomes ξ2D∝R-1. Furthermore, structures formed by such processes (e.g. young star clusters, DM halos) tend to a ρ∝R-3 density profile. We compare these predictions with observations, analytical fragmentation cascade models, semi-analytical models of gravito-turbulent fragmentation and detailed "full physics" hydrodynamical simulations. We find that these power-laws are good first order descriptions in all cases.

  20. Lagged and instantaneous dynamical influences related to brain structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eAlonso Montes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary neuroimaging methods can shed light on the basis of human neural and cognitive specializations, with important implications for neuroscience and medicine. Indeed, different MRI acquisitions provide different brain networks at the macroscale; whilst diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI provides a structural connectivity (SC coincident with the bundles of parallel fibers between brain areas, functional MRI (fMRI accounts for the variations in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent T2* signal, providing functional connectivity (FC. Understanding the precise relation between FC and SC, that is, between brain dynamics and structure, is still a challenge for neuroscience.To investigate this problem, we acquired data at rest and built the corresponding SC (with matrix elements corresponding to the fiber number between brain areas to be compared with FC connectivity matrices obtained by three different methods: directed dependencies by an exploratory version of structural equation modeling (eSEM, linear correlations (C and partial correlations (PC. We also considered the possibility of using lagged correlations in time series; in particular, we compared a lagged version of eSEM and Granger causality (GC. Our results were two-fold: firstly, eSEM performance in correlating with SC was comparable to those obtained from C and PC, but eSEM (not C, nor PC provides information about directionality of the functional interactions. Second, interactions on a time scale much smaller than the sampling time, captured by instantaneous connectivity methods, are much more related to SC than slow directed influences captured by the lagged analysis. Indeed the performance in correlating with SC was much worse for GC and for the lagged version of eSEM. We expect these results to supply further insights to the interplay between SC and functional patterns, an important issue in the study of brain physiology and function.

  1. The Guadalquivir Diapiric Ridge: Deep Tectonics and Related Gas Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Puga, M. C.; Somoza, L.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Magalhães, V.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-del-Río, V.; Ivanov, M.

    Cooperation between the Spanish TASYO project during the cruises Tasyo/2000, Anastasya/99, Anastasya/00 and Anastasya/01 and the UNESCO-IOC Trainning Trough Research Programme during the TTR9, TTR10 and TTR-11 cruises have per- mitted to identify numerous structures related to hydrocarbon seepages in the Gulf of Cadiz, located between the Africa and Eurasia plate. The interpretation of multibeam bathymetry and a large database of reflection seismic profiles shows two important morphotectonics structures: the Cadiz Diapiric Ridge (CDR) and the Guadalquivir Di- apiric Ridge (GDR). The CDR is a diapiric elongate structure located between 400 and 700m water depth, with a N-S direction. The GDR is an elongated ridge, situated west- ward of this structure and located along the shelf and slope between 300-1100m depth. This highly deformed ridge, formed by several diapirs oriented in NE-SW direction, has been mapped using industrial multifold seismic, core logs, gravity cores, dredge samples and photographs, obtained during the ANASTASYA 01/09 cruise. This data has shown that it is composed of early-middle Miocene blue marls (Maldonado et al, 1999), mud breccias and calcarenites. In fact, this diapiric structure is associated with a complex tectono-sedimentary history related to along slope gravity gliding and tec- tonic compression westward the fronts of the deformed wedges of the SOlistostromic & cedil;allochtonous unitsT (Somoza et al., 1999). According to the observed and sampled structures along the GDR, this ridge can be divided in three areas: (a) The NE area is characterized by the existence of a series of wide single sub-circular mud volcanoes (Anastasya, Tarsis and Pipoca), surrounded by a ring shaped seafloor depression. Mud breccia has been collected from these mud volcanoes (ANAS00-TG5,TG6,TG7,TG8 and ANAS01-TG2); (b) a central sector with long rounded-like crater structures, of unknown origin, from which calcarenites were collected (ANAS01-DA13); and (c) a SW

  2. Constructed Action, the Clause and the Nature of Syntax in Finnish Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantunen Tommi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interplay of constructed action and the clause in Finnish Sign Language (FinSL. Constructed action is a form of gestural enactment in which the signers use their hands, face and other parts of the body to represent the actions, thoughts or feelings of someone they are referring to in the discourse. With the help of frequencies calculated from corpus data, this article shows firstly that when FinSL signers are narrating a story, there are differences in how they use constructed action. Then the paper argues that there are differences also in the prototypical structure, linkage type and non-manual activity of clauses, depending on the presence or non-presence of constructed action. Finally, taking the view that gesturality is an integral part of language, the paper discusses the nature of syntax in sign languages and proposes a conceptualization in which syntax is seen as a set of norms distributed on a continuum between a categorial-conventional end and a gradient-unconventional end.

  3. Relation of a unified quantum field theory of spinors to the structure of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Based on a unified quantum field theory of spinors assumed to describe all matter fields and their interactions we construct the space-time structure of general relativity according to a general connection within the corresponding spinor space. The tetrad field and the corresponding metric field are composed from a space-time dependent basis of spinors within the internal space of the fundamental matter field. Similar to twistor theory the Minkowski signature of the space-time metric is related to this spinor nature of elementary matter, if we assume the spinor space to be endowed with a symplectic structure. The equivalence principle and the property of background independence arise from the fact that all elementary fields are composed from the fundamental spinor field. This means that the structure of space-time according to general relativity seems to be a consequence of a fundamental theory of matter fields and not a presupposition as in the usual setting of relativistic quantum field theories.

  4. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  5. Can rent adjustment clauses reduce the income risk of farms?

    OpenAIRE

    Hotopp, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is gaining importance in agriculture. In addition to traditional instruments, new risk management instruments are increasingly being proposed. These proposals include the rent adjustment clauses (RACs), which seem to be an unusual instrument at first sight. In contrast with conventional instruments, RACs intentionally allow fixed-cost ‘rent payments’ to fluctuate. We investigate the whole-farm risk reduction potential of different types of RACs via a historical simulation....

  6. A new clause to the Sexual Contract: surrogate pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nuño Gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the debate on the regulation of commercial pregnancies as a revision on the market’s demand and under the fallacy of free will, incorporates a new clause to the Sexual Contract. This debate requires that we analyse the limits of commodification on the one hand and on the other, the ethical requisites of referring to free will in a globalized context of feminization of poverty, sexual inequality and the rearmament of patriarchal neoliberalism.

  7. Structure-charge mobility relation for hexabenzocoronene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, James [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Marcon, Valentina; Kremer, Kurt [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Nelson, Jenny [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Andrienko, Denis

    2008-05-15

    Charge mobilities of several derivatives of discotic liquid crystals have been determined by combining three methods into one scheme: (i) quantum chemical methods for the calculation of molecular electronic structures and reorganization energies (ii) molecular dynamics for simulation of the relative positions and orientations of molecules in a columnar mesophase, and (iii) kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and Master Equation approach to simulate charge transport. Applying this scheme to differently substituted hexabenzocoronene derivatives we reproduce the trends and magnitudes of mobilities as measured by pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) and connect mobility directly to the microscopic morphology of the columns. Our study also shows that it is possible to understand and reproduce experimental charge transport parameters, and, in some cases, accurately predict them. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. ISINN-3. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Third International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-3) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1995. Over 100 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA and from more than 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The Seminar is dedicated to the memory of the founder of the Neutron Physics Laboratory of JINR, the famous soviet scientist Professor Fedor L. Shapiro, whose 80th anniversary is being observed. The main problems discussed are the following: fundamental interactions and symmetries in neutron-induced reactions, fundamental properties of the neutron, properties of excited nuclei after neutron capture and some other ones. Special emphasis is laid upon γ decay and neutron induced nuclear fission as well as upon the methodical aspects of new experiments

  9. Entropy, related thermodynamic properties, and structure of methylisocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Phil S.; Kilpatrick, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamic properties of methylisocyanate have been determined by isothermal calorimetry from 15 to 298.15 K. ► The third law entropy has been compared with the entropy calculated by statistical thermodynamics. ► The comparisons are consistent with selected proposed molecular structures and vibrational frequencies. -- Abstract: The entropy and related thermodynamic properties of methylisocyanate, CH 3 NCO, have been determined by isothermal calorimetry. The entropy in the ideal gas state at 298.15 K and 1 atmosphere is S m o = 284.3 ± 0.6 J/K · mol. Other thermodynamic properties determined include: the heat capacity from 15 to 300 K, the temperature of fusion (T fus = 178.461 ± 0.024 K), the enthalpy of fusion (ΔH fus = 7455.2 ± 14.0 J/mol), the enthalpy of vaporization at 298.15 K (ΔH vap = 28768 ± 54 J/mol), and the vapor pressure from fusion to 300 K. Using statistical thermodynamics, the entropy in this same state has been calculated for various assumed structures for methylisocyante which have been proposed based on several spectroscopic and ab initio results. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated entropy have led to the following conclusions concerning historical differences among problematic structural properties: (1) The CNC/CNO angles can have the paired values of 140/180° or 135/173° respectively. It is not possible to distinguish between the two by this thermodynamic analysis. (2) The methyl group functions as a free rotor or near free rotor against the NCO rigid frame. The barrier to internal rotation is less than 2100 J/mol. (3) The CNC vibrational bending frequency is consistent with the more recently observed assignments at 165 and 172 cm −1 with some degree of anharmonicity or with a pure harmonic at about 158 cm −1

  10. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  11. Indirect radiation effects related to the environmental structure of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is supposed, that in biological systems there are direct as well as indirect radiation effects. Their contributions to lethal effects depend mainly on two different kinds of structures within irradiated systems: the microscopic energy deposition patterns of radiation and the environmental structures of targets. The approach to determine these contributions of the lethal action of ionizing radiation in yeast cells was, to use chemical compounds, which specifically change the radical spectrum of water radiolysis. The efficiency of such chemical compounds in scavenging specifically water radicals was tested in aqueous solutions of thymine molecules, in which indirect radiation effects occur exclusively. The main result is, that the OH'-radical is by far the most effective radical to destroy thymine molecules. The relative contributions of direct and indirect radiation effects to lethal actions of ionizing radiation was investigated in yeast cells. The radical spectrum of water radiolysis was changed by bubbling the cell suspensions with different gases. The main result is, that there are no lethal radiation effects du to the action of water radicals

  12. Growth-related magnetic and physical structures in CMR films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.; Hundley, M.F. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) have proven to be powerful tools for revealing property-sensitive structures in magnetic materials. With the renewed interest in perovskite films as materials for read-heads in high density magnetic data storage, the same challenges faced by high temperature superconductor (HTS) film fabrication are repeated for these materials. To begin addressing these challenges, we used vapor phase epitaxy to fabricate La (Sr, Ca,) based manganate films on single crystal perovskite substrates under different conditions and characterized them with scanning probe microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and temperature-dependent magnetization and resistivity measurements (M(T) and {rho}(T)). The as-grown films were polygranular with grain sizes increasing with increasing temperature (T). The post-deposition annealed films consisted of coalesced layers with improved transport properties. The room temperature magnetic structure of the Sr-based films appeared to be related to defects and/or strain.

  13. [Conscience clause in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Ludovica; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cola, Luisanna; Gasparini, Maddalena; Porteri, Corinna; Tarquini, Daniela; Tiezzi, Alessandro; Veronese, Simone; Zullo, Silvia; Pucci, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    The article proposes a critical reflection on issues that appeal to the conscience clause as part of end of life care can produce and what can guarantee freedom of conscience, self-determination of those involved and respect for the dignity of the sick person. After a philosophical and normative analysis, the article is organized on the basis of two important documents for discussion: a position paper of Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) signed by several scientific societies "Grandi insufficienze d'organo end stage: cure intensive o cure palliative?" and the Design of Law currently being debated "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento". In particular, the conscience clause has been discussed in the light of advance care planning (ACP), which represents the instrument to guarantee the shared planning of care and the shared-decision making. In this context, recourse to the clause of conscience brings out critical ethical and deontological issues that the article discusses, using the position paper SIAARTI and the text of law currently being debated, both built on the assumptions of a shared care relationship, where patient has a key-role in medical decisions.

  14. Interpolant Tree Automata and their Application in Horn Clause Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishoksan Kafle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this paper. The role of an interpolant tree automaton is to provide a generalisation of a spurious counterexample during refinement, capturing a possibly infinite set of spurious counterexample traces. In our approach these traces are then eliminated using a transformation of the Horn clauses. We compare this approach with two other methods; one of them uses interpolant tree automata in an algorithm for trace abstraction and refinement, while the other uses abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra without the generalisation step. Evaluation of the results of experiments on a number of Horn clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead.

  15. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-01-01

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress–displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements. (paper)

  16. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  17. The validity of knock-for-knock clauses in comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    This article discusses the validity of so-called knock-for-knock clauses, by which parties to offshore oil and gas or maritime contracts agree that each of them will cover its own losses regardless of who caused them. The issue of validity of such clauses and of the liability exclusions they cont......This article discusses the validity of so-called knock-for-knock clauses, by which parties to offshore oil and gas or maritime contracts agree that each of them will cover its own losses regardless of who caused them. The issue of validity of such clauses and of the liability exclusions...... criteria used to promote or dismiss knock-for-knock clauses in case law and academic literature, the article reaches the conclusion that the question of whether knock-for-knock clauses should be held valid depends on whose interests are being considered, and that further research is warranted...

  18. 48 CFR 51.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS... Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services, in solicitations and contracts when a cost... interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. [48 FR 42476, Sept. 19, 1983, as...

  19. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  20. 48 CFR 233.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition is for— (i) Aircraft (ii) Spacecraft and launch vehicles (iii) Naval vessels (iv) Missile systems (v) Tracked combat vehicles (vi) Related electronic systems; (2) The contracting officer determines...

  1. Structure of some relative relation modules of finite p-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, M.

    1990-06-01

    Let G be a finite p-group generated by (g i , 1 ≤ i ≤ d), G i the cyclic subgroup generated by g i , E the free product of the G i , 1 ≤ i ≤ d, and S the kernel of the natural epimorphism of E onto G. The largest elementary abelian p-quotient S-circumflex = S/S'S p , regarded as an IF p G-module via conjugation in E, is called a relative relation module of G. If d is the minimum number of generaters for G, the author has proved that S-circumflex is nonprojective and indecomposable. The aim of this paper is to give an alternative proof for the indecomposability of S-circumflex; the proof here is more informative as it deals with Loewy structure and generating sets of S-circumflex and other associated modules. (author). 9 refs

  2. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  3. Optical properties of humic substances and CDOM: relation to structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Erin S; Guerriero, Nicolas; Thiallet, Anthony; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Blough, Neil V

    2009-04-01

    The spectral dependencies of absorption and fluorescence emission (emission maxima (lamdamax), quantum yields (phi), and mean lifetimes (taum)) were acquired for a commercial lignin, Suwannee River humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids, and a series solid phase extracts (C18) from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB extracts). These parameters were compared with the relative average size and total lignin phenol content (TLP). TLP was strongly correlated with absorption at 280 and 355 nm for the MAB extracts, SRHA, and SRFA. The spectral dependence of lamdamax, phi), and taum was very similar for all samples, suggesting a common photophysical and thus structural basis. A strong decrease of phi and taum with increasing average size indicates that intramolecular interactions must be important. When combined with previous work, the results lead us to conclude that the optical properties commonly associated with terrestrial humic substances and chromophoric dissolved organic matter arise primarily from an ensemble of partially oxidized lignins derived from vascular plant sources. Theyfurther provide additional support for an electronic interaction model in which intramolecular energy transfer, excited-state electron transfer, as well as charge transfer likely play important roles in producing the observed optical and photochemical properties of these materials.

  4. Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduani, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900, SC (Brazil)

    2003-11-01

    The electronic structure of AlB{sub 2}-type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB{sub 2} was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N({epsilon}{sub F})). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N({epsilon}{sub F}) for boron. In the MB{sub 2} diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N({epsilon}{sub F}) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB{sub 2} possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B{sub 2}/Mg/B{sub 2}/.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduani, C.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of AlB 2 -type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB 2 was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N(ε F )). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N(ε F ) for boron. In the MB 2 diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N(ε F ) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB 2 possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B 2 /Mg/B 2 /.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. 78 FR 22795 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... printing/duplication. ``Desktop Publishing'' is a method of composition using computers with the final... considered ``printing.'' However, if the output from desktop publishing is being sent to a typesetting device... preparing related illustrative material to a final document (camera-ready copy) using desktop publishing. (2...

  7. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the behavior of structures yet to come, and to be able to forecast it in part. This process brought some building contrivances to perfection, as exclusive and enduring features of Venice, overcoming changes in style and architectural layout, till they grew into essential elements of a whole and adaptable “device”. This writing is meant for a concise interpretation of this device, which is the result of some research works carried out at Venice IUAV University.

    En este texto, se describen sintéticamente algunas peculiaridades de la edificación residencial de Venecia, analizando su relación con el abanico de problemas estructurales que caracterizan el comportamiento estructural del edificio a lo largo del tiempo. Se aventura la hipótesis que las construcciones venecianas y, en particular, algunos de sus detalles, concebidos específicamente para la laguna donde se enclava, han sido objeto de una adaptación evolutiva a través de la observación de los problemas estructurales de los edificios precedentes. Los alarifes venecianos aprendieron a tener en cuenta el comportamiento estructural posterior del edificio, que previeron en cierta medida. Este proceso ha llevado a perfeccionar algunos detalles constructivos exclusivos de Venecia que han perdurado en el tiempo, que han resistido impertérritos a mutaciones de estilo y de configuración arquitectónica, hasta constituir elementos esenciales de un aparato indivisible y adaptable cuya interpretaci

  8. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  9. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  10. Electronic structure of palladium and its relation to uv spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The electronic-energy-band structure of palladium has been calculated by means of the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method covering energies up to 30 eV above the Fermi level. The optical interband transitions producing structure in the dielectric function up to photon energies of 25 eV have ...

  11. Factors related to the capital structure of small new ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Breitenecker, R.; Schwartz, E.J.; Wdowiak, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, there exists evidence on the capital structure determinants for small ventures, but empirical research for new ventures is limited. We seek to address this gap by presenting a confirmatory analysis of determinants of capital structure of a sample of small new ventures in Austria.

  12. Local symplectic operators and structures related to them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, I.Y.; Mokhov, O.I.

    1991-01-01

    Matrices with entries being differential operators, that endow the phase space of an evolution system with a (pre)symplectic structure are considered. Special types of such structures are explicitly described. Links with integrability, geometry of loop spaces, and Baecklund transformations are traces

  13. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  14. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Withdrawal Clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutherin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Like any international agreement, the NPT includes a withdrawal clause. The North Korean withdrawal, which was announced in 1993 and became effective in 2003, shows how difficult it is to preserve this possibility, while guaranteeing compliance with signed agreements. To achieve this target, two conditions are required: first, enhancing the means by which the reasons for withdrawals can be made clear and second, to allow the Security Council to draw all the consequences of withdrawals that could imply that a treaty has been violated

  15. Relation between native ensembles and experimental structures of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, R. B.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; DePristo, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Different experimental structures of the same protein or of proteins with high sequence similarity contain many small variations. Here we construct ensembles of "high-sequence similarity Protein Data Bank" (HSP) structures and consider the extent to which such ensembles represent the structural...... Data Bank ensembles; moreover, we show that the effects of uncertainties in structure determination are insufficient to explain the results. These results highlight the importance of accounting for native-state protein dynamics in making comparisons with ensemble-averaged experimental data and suggest...... heterogeneity of the native state in solution. We find that different NMR measurements probing structure and dynamics of given proteins in solution, including order parameters, scalar couplings, and residual dipolar couplings, are remarkably well reproduced by their respective high-sequence similarity Protein...

  16. [Neutron scatter studies of chromatin structure related to function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study is concerned with the application of neutron scatter techniques to the different structural states of nucleosomes and chromatin with the long term objective of understanding how the enormous lengths of DNA are folded into chromosomes. Micrococcal nuclease digestion kinetics have defined two subnucleosome particles; the chromatosome with 168 bp DNA, the histone octamer and one H1 and the nucleosome core particle with 146 bp DNA and the histone octamer. As will be discussed, the structure of the 146 bp DNA core particle is known in solution at low resolution from neutron scatter studies and in crystals. Based on this structure, the authors have a working model for the chromatosome and the mode of binding of H1. In order to define the structure of the nucleosome and also the different orders of chromatin structures they need to know the paths of DNA that link nucleosomes and the factors associated with chromosome functions that act on those DNA paths. The major region for this situation is the inherent variabilities in nucleosome DNA sequences, in the histone subtypes and their states of chemical modification and in the precise locations of nucleosomes. Such variabilities obscure the underlying principles that govern the packaging of DNA into the different structural states of nucleosomes and chromatin. The only way to elucidate these principles is to study the structures of nucleosomes and oligonucleosomes that are fully defined. They have largely achieved these objectives

  17. 48 CFR 27.202-5 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing data are obtained under 15.403; or (ii) Sealed bid solicitations only if the need for such... the contract. If a fixed-price incentive contract is contemplated, change “price” to “target cost and target profit” wherever it appears in the clause. The clause may be used in cost-reimbursement contracts...

  18. 48 CFR 1835.070 - NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses and....070 NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... ensure that the provision at 1852.235-72, Instructions for Responding to NASA Research Announcements, is...

  19. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It…

  20. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001 ER08MR10...

  1. 48 CFR 3019.708-70 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.708-70 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.219-70, Small Business...

  2. 77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... commercial items, that includes the clause at 252.225-7001, Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program... Acquisitions of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... acquisition of commercial items and to specify flowdown of clauses to commercial subcontracts. DATES: Comments...

  3. 78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... contractual obligations. b. Specific Clause Flowdown Requirements Comment: One respondent commented that if... to excessive practice by the primes to flowdown any and all clauses to satisfy its contractual obligations. Response: DoD has retained in the final rule the language at 252.244-7000(b), which is the same...

  4. Relations of Control: Walkthroughs and the Structuring of Player Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Videogame walkthroughs provide instructions on various elements of gameplay in relation to specific digital games, and exist as text-based documents and, to a lesser extent, as recorded moving image game footage. We focus here on written-walkthroughs for the purposes of depth, while recognising the specific and significant position that moving image walkthroughs hold (see Ashton, forthcoming. Player-produced walkthroughs, freely and widely distributed online, point to the broader social contexts that inform and structure player agency. In this article, we emphasize three perspectives on these documents. First, walkthroughs can be approached as a means of recording and codifying playing styles, thereby legitimising specific approaches or strategies. Accordingly, we highlight glitch hunting and the Pokémon series to illustrate the diversity of these playing styles and the significance of the walkthrough as a form of ludic archival document. Second, walkthroughs as textual codifications of gameplay potential can encourage new styles of engagement with authors and performers by outlining opportunities for play, and illuminating strategies and techniques previously unknown to the reader. Importantly, as we shall demonstrate, walkthroughs not only investigate and interrogate game texts – exploring their every narrative turn and spatial aspects in minute detail – but also frequently present techniques that take advantage of weaknesses and flaws in the ruleset or code of the game in order to offer new gameplay options. In this respect, as James Newman (2008 suggests, walkthroughs can be understood as a form of reverse-engineering that renegotiates the player-designer relationship and encourages (perhaps even demands deliberately investigative, resistant and deviant strategies of gameplay. These modes of engagement frequently involve playing beyond performative norms and technical limits. The walkthrough, then, is both a document of the game as

  5. Improvements in or relating to the inspection of underwater structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecourt, L.R.; Evans, G.V.; Parsons, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector is described, for use in the inspection of underwater structures, which is capable of withstanding high pressures and arduous marine conditions. The ingress of water into the body of the radiation detector tube is prevented by the use of a resilient waterproof compound. Marine structures incorporating such radiation detectors are described, whereby the presence or density of flowing cement grout in the legs of an offshore platform may be determined. (U.K.)

  6. Structural Integrity and Aging-Related Issues of Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best

  7. The structure of the pelagic food web in relation to water column structure in the Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Kaas, H.; Kruse, B.

    1990-01-01

    by a doming of the pycnocline, with a deep mixed layer along the periphery and a very shallow pycnocline in central parts. Average phytoplankton size increased with the depth of the upper mixed layer, and the central stratified area was characterized by small flagellates while large and chain-forming diatoms...... on particle surface area rather than particle volume or chl a, and showed a distributional pattern that was nearly the inverse of the distribution of copepod activity. That is, peak bacterial growth rates occurred in central, stratified parts and lower rates were found along the margin with a deep mixed layer....... Thus a 'microbial loop' type of food web seemed to be evolving in the central, strongly stratified parts of the Skagerrak, while a shorter 'classical' type of food web appeared to dominate along the margin. The relation between food web structure and vertical mixing processes observed on oceanwide...

  8. Functional clustering in hippocampal cultures: relating network structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, S; Dzakpasu, R; Olariu, E; Żochowski, M; Wang, J X; Shtrahman, E

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate the relationship between gross anatomic structural network properties, neuronal dynamics and the resultant functional structure in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Specifically, we studied cultures as they developed under two conditions: the first supporting glial cell growth (high glial group), and the second one inhibiting it (low glial group). We then compared structural network properties and the spatio-temporal activity patterns of the neurons. Differences in dynamics between the two groups could be linked to the impact of the glial network on the neuronal network as the cultures developed. We also implemented a recently developed algorithm called the functional clustering algorithm (FCA) to obtain the resulting functional network structure. We show that this new algorithm is useful for capturing changes in functional network structure as the networks evolve over time. The FCA detects changes in functional structure that are consistent with expected dynamical differences due to the impact of the glial network. Cultures in the high glial group show an increase in global synchronization as the cultures age, while those in the low glial group remain locally synchronized. We additionally use the FCA to quantify the amount of synchronization present in the cultures and show that the total level of synchronization in the high glial group is stronger than in the low glial group. These results indicate an interdependence between the glial and neuronal networks present in dissociated cultures

  9. Switch-attention (aka switch-reference in South-American temporal clauses: facilitating oral transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik van Gijn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultures without a written tradition depend entirely on the oral channel to transmit sometimes highly complex information. It is therefore not surprising that in the languages of such cultures linguistic devices evolve that enhance textual coherence, and thus comprehension. These devices should ideally also be economical in terms of morphosyntactic complexity in order to facilitate both production and comprehension. In this paper, I will argue that switch-attention (a term preferred over the traditional switch-reference systems in temporal clauses fulfill these requirements of cohesion and complexity reduction, making them particularly apt for orally transmitting texts. Moreover, switch-reference systems seem to diffuse relatively easily. These features taken together are suggested to be (partly responsible for the widely attested phenomenon in areas without a lengthy written tradition.

  10. About Hierarchical XML Structures, Replacement of Relational Data Structures in Construction and Implementation of ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The projects essential objective is to develop a new ERP system, of homogeneous nature, based on XML structures, as a possible replacement for classic ERP systems. The criteria that guide the objective definition are modularity, portability and Web connectivity. This objective is connected to a series of secondary objectives, considering that the technological approach will be filtered through the economic, social and legislative environment for a validation-by-context study. Statistics and cybernetics are to be used for simulation purposes. The homogeneous approach is meant to provide strong modularity and portability, in relation with the n-tier principles, but the main advantage of the model is its opening to the semantic Web, based on a Small enterprise ontology defined with XML-driven languages. Shockwave solutions will be used for implementing client-oriented hypermedia elements and an XML Gate will be de-fined between black box modules, for a clear separation with obvious advantages. Security and the XMLTP project will be an important issue for XML transfers due to the conflict between the open architecture of the Web, the readability of XML data and the privacy elements which have to be preserved within a business environment. The projects finality is oriented on small business but the semantic Web perspective and the surprising new conflict between hierarchical/network data structures and relational ones will certainly widen its scope. The proposed model is meant to fulfill the IT compatibility requirements of the European environment, defined as a knowledge society. The paper is a brief of the contributions of the team re-search at the project type A applied to CNCSIS "Research on the Role of XML in Building Extensible and Homogeneous ERP Systems".

  11. The syntax of appositive relativization : On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appositive relative clauses differ in some essential respects from restrictive relative clauses. I argue that appositive relatives and appositions can be put together as a third class of coordination denoting specification. Thus, an appositive relative is a specifying conjunct to the visible

  12. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  13. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  14. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order. (paper)

  15. Improvements in or relating to cellular grid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    In cellular grid structures for positioning an array of nuclear fuel rods by locating them individually in a ferrule joined to its neighbours to form the grid structure, the ferrules are formed in pairs from tubular members each deformed to provide a waist. A bridge piece extends across the waist to divide the tubular member into two cells and it may incorporate a resilient member which projects into the two cells to urge fuel rods in the cells towards co-planar dimples formed in the tubular member opposite the resilient member. (author)

  16. Structure-Function Relations in Physiology Education: Where's the Mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such…

  17. Geometrical structure of shock waves in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modugno, M [Istituto di Matematica, Universita di Lecce (Italia); Stefani, Gianna [Florence Univ. (Italy)

    1979-01-01

    A systematic and geometrical analysis of shock structures in a Riemannian manifold is developed. The jump, the infinitesimal jump and the covariant derivative jump of a tensor are defined globally. By means of derivation laws induced on the shock hypersurface, physically significant operators are defined. As physical applications, the charged fluid electromagnetic and gravitational interacting fields are considered.

  18. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  19. Physical relativity. Space-time structure from a dynamical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harvey R.

    Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein's treatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines and extends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with the role this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity. Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory with quantum mechanics. Harvey Brown's new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on

  20. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  1. Using computational models to relate structural and functional brain connectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Coombes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 2137-2145 ISSN 0953-816X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 200728 - BRAINSYNC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : brain disease * computational modelling * functional connectivity * graph theory * structural connectivity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.753, year: 2012

  2. Localizing age-related individual differences in a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and self-reported health could be localized. The results indicated that each type of individual difference characteristic exhibited a d...

  3. Structure-property relations in amorphous carbon for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risplendi, Francesca; Cicero, Giancarlo; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon is emerging as a material with great potential for photovoltaics (PV). However, the amorphous form (a-C) has not been studied in detail as a PV material, even though it holds similarities with amorphous Silicon (a-Si) that is widely employed in efficient solar cells. In this work, we correlate the structure, bonding, stoichiometry, and hydrogen content of a-C with properties linked to PV performance such as the electronic structure and optical absorption. We employ first-principles molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations to generate and analyze a set of a-C structures with a range of densities and hydrogen concentrations. We demonstrate that optical and electronic properties of interest in PV can be widely tuned by varying the density and hydrogen content. For example, sunlight absorption in a-C films can significantly exceed that of a same thickness of a-Si for a range of densities and H contents in a-C. Our results highlight promising features of a-C as the active layer material of thin-film solar cells.

  4. Structure of Clavicle In Relation to Weight Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routatal, Rohini V

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives It is a known fact that weight of upper limb is transmitted to the axial skeleton through clavicle. The present study is an attempt to correlate pattern of compact and trabecular bone of clavicle as a weight transmitting bone. Materials and Methods Sixty clavicles were studied from right and left sides of 30 cadavers donated to the Anatomy department, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, India. The study was focused on the thickness of compact bone of clavicle and trabecular pattern of this bone. Results Cancellous bone: Cancellous bone near both ends of clavicle presented meshwork of thin bony plates. Between the conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament, cancellous bone showed a definite pattern. Thickness of compact bone The compact bone was thicker between conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament. At midshaft point thickness of compact bone was maximum. Conclusion The structure of clavicle between conoid tubercle and area for costoclavicular ligament showed thick compact bone and definite pattern of cancellous bone. This structure of clavicle between conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament transmits weight from lateral to medial direction and this knowledge of clavicular structure will also be useful to orthopedic surgeons to deal with clavicular fractures and other abnormalities. PMID:26393112

  5. Structure-property relations in amorphous carbon for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risplendi, Francesca; Cicero, Giancarlo [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bernardi, Marco [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Grossman, Jeffrey C., E-mail: jcg@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Carbon is emerging as a material with great potential for photovoltaics (PV). However, the amorphous form (a-C) has not been studied in detail as a PV material, even though it holds similarities with amorphous Silicon (a-Si) that is widely employed in efficient solar cells. In this work, we correlate the structure, bonding, stoichiometry, and hydrogen content of a-C with properties linked to PV performance such as the electronic structure and optical absorption. We employ first-principles molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations to generate and analyze a set of a-C structures with a range of densities and hydrogen concentrations. We demonstrate that optical and electronic properties of interest in PV can be widely tuned by varying the density and hydrogen content. For example, sunlight absorption in a-C films can significantly exceed that of a same thickness of a-Si for a range of densities and H contents in a-C. Our results highlight promising features of a-C as the active layer material of thin-film solar cells.

  6. Diffusionless phase transitions and related structures in oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulesteix, C.

    1992-01-01

    The relative importance of oxides in the field of materials science has been spectacularly increasing during the last twenty years. First the study of ferroelectrics kept the attention of scientists. Nevertheless this domain is far from being worked out and a lot of new results and of new fields of interest were recently discovered. Other ferroic oxides, especially ferroelastics, have also been the subject of a very great number of new results. In these cases the properties of oxides are at room temperature very tightly related to the phase transition that is generally occurring a few hundred of degrees above this room temperature. In many other cases also properties of oxides can be related to the existence of a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon. This book has been specially devoted to the study of the properties of oxides which are in some way related to the existence of a phase transition. The first chapters are focussed on general considerations: the first one is devoted to a general study of phase transitions, the second one to the twinning phenomenon which is of special interest for many oxides. Chapters 3 and 4 are focussed on ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials. These four chapters consitute the first part of the book. Chapters 5 to 8 are devoted to the study of oxides of special interest which have some of their properties related to a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon: rare earth oxides, oxides with a diffuse phase transition, zirconia and alumina systems, tungsten oxides and their relatives. These four chapters constitute the second part of the book. (orig.)

  7. Relation between structure and organisation properties of new amphiphilic cyclodextrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutard, Stephane

    2003-01-01

    Since a number of years, special attention and efforts have been made to prepare amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CDs) with the objective to use them to obtain supramolecular assemblies as such or in the presence of preformed lipidic structures. The aim of these investigation is in both cases to combine the size specificity of cyclodextrins for guests and the transport properties of phospho-lipidic structures. The final objects could be of importance to transport or target biologically relevant molecules such as drugs using new galenic formulations. In a first step, a new family of amphiphilic CDs was prepared from a pure phospholipids (DMPE) onto cyclodextrins or methylated derivatives through a spacing arm. The afforded compounds (phospholipidyl-cyclodextrins) were fully characterized by high field NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry. The methylated derivatives were shown to self-organize in water with low CMC to form fluctuating micellar fibers retaining the inclusion capacity of the cyclodextrin cavities. The interactions of these compounds with membrane systems were investigated as black films using X-ray reflectivity and by evaluation of their detergent power towards model DMPC liposomes. Their ability to cross over the Blood Brain Barrier was evidenced by a new approach making use of novel immuno-enzymatic assays. In a second step, a new class of amphiphilic cyclodextrins was considered (peptidolipidyl-cyclodextrins). Although they are structurally similar to phospholipidyl-CDs, their preparation overcomes the tedious steps of the later and lead to a considerable versatility in terms of the number of possible molecules to be prepared. Moreover, the stability problems encountered with phospholipids are avoided. Several examples have been prepared, fully characterized and their organization properties investigated by the determination of CMC and by deuterium NMR on a pure and homogeneous mixed peptidolipidyl-CD / DMPC lamellar phase. This novel class of

  8. A Logical Deduction Based Clause Learning Algorithm for Boolean Satisfiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clause learning is the key component of modern SAT solvers, while conflict analysis based on the implication graph is the mainstream technology to generate the learnt clauses. Whenever a clause in the clause database is falsified by the current variable assignments, the SAT solver will try to analyze the reason by using different cuts (i.e., the Unique Implication Points on the implication graph. Those schemes reflect only the conflict on the current search subspace, does not reflect the inherent conflict directly involved in the rest space. In this paper, we propose a new advanced clause learning algorithm based on the conflict analysis and the logical deduction, which reconstructs a linear logical deduction by analyzing the relationship of different decision variables between the backjumping level and the current decision level. The logical deduction result is then added into the clause database as a newly learnt clause. The resulting implementation in Minisat improves the state-of-the-art performance in SAT solving.

  9. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture...

  10. Structures and related properties of helical, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-11-01

    The three dimensional structure of several peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. Each peptide formed a predictable, rigid structure, consisting of an α-helix, a "scaffold" region which packed along one face of the helix, and two disulfide bridges which covalently connect the helix and scaffold regions. The peptide Apa-M5 was designed to constrain the M5 peptide from MLCK in a helical geometry using the apamin disulfide scaffold. This scaffold constrains the N- terminal end of the helix with two disulfide bridges and a reverse turn. Like the M5 peptide, Apa-M5 was found to bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 stoichiometry. However, the dissociation constant of the (Apa-M5)-calmodulin complex, 107 nM, was 100-fold higher than the dissociation constant of the M5-calmodulin complex. This difference was due to a putative steric overlap between the Apa-M5 scaffold and calmodulin. The peptide Apa-Cro was designed to replace the large structural protein matrix of λ Cro with the apamin disulfide scaffold. However, Apa-Cro did not bind the consensus DNA operator half-site of λ Cro, probably due to a steric overlap between the Apa-Cro disulfide framework and the DNA. The amino acid sequence of the scaffold-disulfide bridge arrangement of the peptide Max was derived from the core sequence of scyllatoxin, which contains an α-helix constrained at the C-terminal end by two disulfide bridges and a two-stranded βsheet scaffold. Max was shown to fold with >84% yield to form a predictable, stable structure that is similar to scyllatoxin. The folding and stability properties of Max make this scaffold and disulfide bridge arrangement an ideal candidate for the development of hybrid sequence peptides. The dynamics of a fraying C-terminal end of the helix of the peptide Apa-AlaN was determined by analysis of 15N NMR relaxation properties.

  11. [Age-related characteristics of structural support for ovarian function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'skiĭ, G B

    1984-12-01

    Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.

  12. The Labour Relations Act, majoritarianism and union structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 INTRODUCTION. The new Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (LRA) has been viewed by many ... economic and political changes being experienced in South Africa since ... unions perpetuates fragmentation of a union movement and weakens workers ... particular geographic areas. A good ... international labour standards.

  13. Cluster decay analysis and related structure effects of fissionable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Collective clusterization approach of dynamical cluster decay model (DCM) has been ... fusion–fission process resulting in the emission of symmetric and/or ... represents the relative separation distance between two fragments or clusters ... decay constant λ or decay half-life T1/2 is defined as λ = (ln 2/T1/2) ...

  14. Relation between photochromic properties and molecular structures in salicylideneaniline crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johmoto, Kohei; Ishida, Takashi; Sekine, Akiko; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Ohashi, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structures of the salicylideneaniline derivatives N-salicylidene-4-tert-butyl-aniline (1), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-methoxyaniline (2), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-bromoaniline (3), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-chloroaniline (4), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-bromoaniline (5), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-aniline (6), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-carboxyaniline (7) and N-salicylidene-2-chloroaniline (8) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient temperature to investigate the relationship between their photochromic properties and molecular structures. A clear correlation between photochromism and the dihedral angle of the two benzene rings in the salicylideneaniline derivatives was observed. Crystals with dihedral angles less than 20° were non-photochromic, whereas those with dihedral angles greater than 30° were photochromic. Crystals with dihedral angles between 20 and 30° could be either photochromic or non-photochromic. Inhibition of the pedal motion by intra- or intermolecular steric hindrance, however, can result in non-photochromic behaviour even if the dihedral angle is larger than 30°.

  15. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered...... or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states...... which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm....

  16. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  17. Relations of Control: Walkthroughs and the Structuring of Player Agency

    OpenAIRE

    James Newman; Daniel Ashton

    2010-01-01

    Videogame walkthroughs provide instructions on various elements of gameplay in relation to specific digital games, and exist as text-based documents and, to a lesser extent, as recorded moving image game footage. We focus here on written-walkthroughs for the purposes of depth, while recognising the specific and significant position that moving image walkthroughs hold (see Ashton, forthcoming). Player-produced walkthroughs, freely and widely distributed online, point to the broader social cont...

  18. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  19. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  20. Neutron scatter studies of chromatin structures related to functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Despite of setbacks in the lack of neutrons for the proposed We have made considerable progress in chromatin reconstitution with the VLR histone H1/H5 and in understanding the dynamics of nucleosomes. A ferromagnetic fluid was developed to align biological molecules for structural studies using small-angle-neutron-scattering. We have also identified and characterized an intrinsically bent DNA region flanking the RNA polymerase I binding site of the ribosomal RNA gene in Physarum Polycephalum. Finally projects in progress are in the areas of studying the interatctions of histone H4 amino-terminus peptide 1-23 and acetylated 1-23 peptide with DNA using thermal denaturation; study of GGAAT repeats found in human centromeres using high resolution Nuclear magnetic Resonance and nuclease sentivity assay; and the role of histones and other sperm specific proteins with sperm chromatin

  1. Neutron scatter studies of chromatin structures related to functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    We have made considerable progress in chromatin reconstitution with very lysine rich histone H1/H5 and in understanding the dynamics of nucleosomes. A ferromagnetic fluid was developed to align biological molecules for structural studies using small-angle-neutron-scattering. We have also identified and characterized in intrinsically bent DNA region flaking the RNA polymerase I binding site of the ribosomal RNA gene in Physarum Polycephalum. Finally projects in progress are in the areas of studying the interactions of histone H4 amino-terminus peptide 1-23 and acetylated 1-23 peptide with DNA using thermal denaturation; study of GGAAT repeats found in human centromeres using high resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nuclease sentivity assay; and the role of histones and other sperm specific proteins with sperm chromatin

  2. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerback, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. This paper summarizes a study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) Legal Considerations, (2) Liability, (3) Staffing and Operations, (4) Costs, (5) Relationship to Off-site Forces, (6) Management and Control, (7) Transportation

  3. Cultural regulation of emotion: Individual, relational, and structural sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozefien eDe Leersnyder

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships—close others shape people’s environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways—and are afforded by structural conditions—people’s daily lives limit the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.

  4. Cultural regulation of emotion: individual, relational, and structural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships-close others shape people's environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways-and are afforded by structural conditions-people's daily lives "limit" the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.

  5. Constitutive relation of concrete containing meso-structural characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    Full Text Available A constitutive model of concrete is proposed based on the mixture theory of porous media within thermodynamic framework. By treating concrete as a multi-phase multi-component mixture, we constructed the constitutive functions for elastic, interfacial, and plastic strain energy respectively. A constitutive law of concrete accommodating internal micro-cracks and interfacial boundaries was established. The peak stress predicted with the developed model depends primarily on the volume ratio of aggregate, and the results explain very well reported experimental phenomena. The strain-stress curve under uniaxial loading was found in a good agreement with experimental data for concrete with three different mixing proportions. Keywords: Constitutive model of concrete, Mixture theory of porous media, Meso-structure, Interfacial energy

  6. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We derive consistency relations for the late universe (CDM and ΛCDM): relations between an n-point function of the density contrast δ and an (n+1)-point function in the limit in which one of the (n+1) momenta becomes much smaller than the others. These are based on the observation that a long mode, in single-field models of inflation, reduces to a diffeomorphism since its freezing during inflation all the way until the late universe, even when the long mode is inside the horizon (but out of the sound horizon). These results are derived in Newtonian gauge, at first and second order in the small momentum q of the long mode and they are valid non-perturbatively in the short-scale δ. In the non-relativistic limit our results match with [1]. These relations are a consequence of diffeomorphism invariance; they are not satisfied in the presence of extra degrees of freedom during inflation or violation of the Equivalence Principle (extra forces) in the late universe

  7. Estimating material parameters of a structurally based constitutive relation for skin mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Jor, Jessica W. Y.; Nash, Martyn P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a structurally based modeling framework to characterize the structure-function relation in skin tissues, based upon biaxial tensile experiments performed in vitro on porcine skin. Equi-axial deformations were imposed

  8. Extract relation between structures of proton and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, E.A.; Gareeva, G.; )

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Schroedinger wrote that an interaction between microscopic physical objects is controlled by specific resonance laws. According to these laws, the difference between two eigenenergies (eigenfrequencies) in one system should be equal to each other: hv 1 -hv' 1 =hv 2 -hv' 2 , v 1 -v' 1 =v 2 -v' 2 . Therefore, the eigenfrequencies are additive. In other words, the resonance condition is formulated in the following way: oscillations participating in an interaction process should be constituents of the same frequency. Thus, we come to the conclusion: in a whole interacting self-consistent wave system the hierarchy of frequencies is established So, the sum of all partial frequencies is an integral of motion. Any interaction in a microscopic hierarchic wave system exhibits the resonance character. Due to the above-said the corresponding partial motions are determinate. As the resonance condition arises from the fundamental energy conservation law, the rhythms and synchronization of the majority of phenomena to be observed are the reflection of the universal property of self-organization of the Universe. The Huygens synchronization principle is substantiated at the microscopic level. We come to the conclusion that the proton stability can be explained by the assumption: channel motions in a proton are exactly synchronous. Therefore proton represent coherent synchronized states The aim this paper is to establish some bridge between structures of proton and nuclei as the further extension our phenomenological analysis. The parameter-free formula for spectra of nuclei has been obtained which establish some bridge between the structures of a proton and nuclei. The energies of nuclear states have been systematically analyzed by using all available experimental data. The interest of our results is not only in their closeness to the experimental data, but also in the derivation of formula from the fundamental law of Nature: the conservation law of energy

  9. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities using a battery of eleven representative tasks. An application of parallel analysis, hierarchical-cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to the inter-task correlation matrix revealed four functional clusters, representing spatiotemporal attention, global attention, transient attention, and sustained attention, organized along two dimensions, one contrasting spatiotemporal and global attention and the other contrasting transient and sustained attention. Comparison with the neuroscience literature suggests that the spatiotemporal-global dimension corresponds to the dorsal frontoparietal circuit and the transient-sustained dimension corresponds to the ventral frontoparietal circuit, with distinct sub-regions mediating the separate clusters within each dimension. We also obtained highly specific patterns of gender difference, and of deficits for college students with elevated ADHD traits. These group differences suggest that different mechanisms of voluntary visual attention can be selectively strengthened or weakened based on genetic, experiential, and/or pathological factors. PMID:25867505

  10. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  11. Structural changes of the brain in relation to occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2015-06-01

    Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive functions, it is still uncertain whether and how this type of stress is associated with cerebral changes. This issue was addressed in the present MRI study, in which cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes were compared between 40 subjects reporting symptoms of chronic occupational stress (38 ± 6 years) and 40 matched controls (36 ± 6 years). The degree of perceived stress was measured with Maslach Burnout Inventory. In stressed subjects, there was a significant thinning of the mesial frontal cortex. When investigating the correlation between age and Cth, the thinning effect of age was more pronounced in the stressed group in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, their amygdala volumes were bilaterally increased (P = 0.020 and P = 0.003), whereas their caudate volumes were reduced (P = 0.040), and accompanied by impaired fine motor function. The perceived stress correlated positively with the amygdala volumes (r = 0.44, P = 0.04; r = 0.43, P = 04). Occupational stress was found to be associated with cortical thinning as well as with selective changes of subcortical volumes, with behavioral correlates. The findings support the hypothesis that stress-related excitotoxicity might be an underlying mechanism, and that the described condition is a stress related illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  13. The structure of executive functions and relations with early math learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, S.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, the relation between executive functions and mathematical skills in children was investigated. Two main aims were addressed: (1) unraveling the structure of executive functions, and (2) investigating the nature of the relations between executive functions and mathematics.

  14. 75 FR 1788 - General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael O. Jackson, Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Branch, by telephone (202) 208-4949 or via e- mail at michaelo.jackson@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose GSAR clause 552...

  15. REFORMING THE NE BIS IN IDEM CLAUSE OF ARTICLE 20(3)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    deal with all perpetrators of the crimes that come under its jurisdiction wherever such crimes are ... KAYITANA: Complementarity and Completed Trials: Reforming the Ne Bis in Idem Clause of Article 20(3) of ..... exchange for lenient sentences.

  16. 76 FR 2761 - Proposed Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... contracts for the acquisition of non-personal health care services. It requires the bidder/offeror prior to... Regulation clause 52.207-3, Right of First Refusal of Employment. Affected Public: Business or other for...

  17. 76 FR 16043 - Agency Information Collection (Department of Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations Clause 852...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... contracts for the acquisition of non-personal health care services. It requires the bidder/offeror prior to... Acquisition Regulation Clause 52.207-3, Right of First Refusal of Employment. An agency may not conduct or...

  18. The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.hoch@cup.uni-muenchen.de

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}, the parent compound of this structure family.

  19. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences...... thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability....

  20. Birds through a ceiling of alabast: genderproblematiek in de romans van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Lech, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the novels of Hugo Claus in which an "impossible love" is an important issue, we find, almost without exception, characters having characteristics that are typical for members of the opposite sex. (Latent) homosexuality plays an important role. The androgyny theme is the main theme in most of Claus' novels. There are two sources to be designated for this theme. In the first place, that is Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The other source is the ancient belief that man is an androgynou...

  1. Numeric Input Relations for Relational Learning with Applications to Community Structure Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    distribution is defined by the model from numerical input variables that are only used for conditioning the distribution of discrete response variables. We show how numerical input relations can very easily be used in the Relational Bayesian Network framework, and that existing inference and learning methods......Most work in the area of statistical relational learning (SRL) is focussed on discrete data, even though a few approaches for hybrid SRL models have been proposed that combine numerical and discrete variables. In this paper we distinguish numerical random variables for which a probability...... use the augmented RBN framework to define probabilistic models for multi-relational (social) networks in which the probability of a link between two nodes depends on numeric latent feature vectors associated with the nodes. A generic learning procedure can be used to obtain a maximum-likelihood fit...

  2. Related Structure Characters and Stability of Structural Defects in a Metallic Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Shidong; Pan, Shaopeng

    2018-03-22

    Structural defects were investigated by a recently proposed structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in a modeled Zr 50 Cu 50 metallic glass through molecular dynamics simulations. More QNAs around an atom usually means that more defects are located near the atom. Structural analysis reveals that the spatial distribution of the numbers of QNAs displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, QNA is closely correlated with cluster connections, especially four-atom cluster connections. Atoms with larger coordination numbers usually have less QNAs. When two atoms have the same coordination number, the atom with larger five-fold symmetry has less QNAs. The number of QNAs around an atom changes rather frequently and the change of QNAs might be correlated with the fast relaxation metallic glasses.

  3. Related Structure Characters and Stability of Structural Defects in a Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Shidong; Pan, Shaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Structural defects were investigated by a recently proposed structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in a modeled Zr50Cu50 metallic glass through molecular dynamics simulations. More QNAs around an atom usually means that more defects are located near the atom. Structural analysis reveals that the spatial distribution of the numbers of QNAs displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, QNA is closely correlated with cluster connections, especially four-atom cluster connections. Atoms with larger coordination numbers usually have less QNAs. When two atoms have the same coordination number, the atom with larger five-fold symmetry has less QNAs. The number of QNAs around an atom changes rather frequently and the change of QNAs might be correlated with the fast relaxation metallic glasses. PMID:29565298

  4. Structural Power and International Relations Analysis: "Fill your basket, get your preferences"

    OpenAIRE

    Pustovitovskij, Andrej; Kremer, Jan-Frederik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we will address current deficits of the study of power in IR by introducing a new concept of structural power. After briefly presenting existing concepts of relational power, of structural power as well as of conceptualizing power as the possession of resources (power-as-resources), we will introduce our concept of structural power as an approach suitable for bridging the gap between existing concepts (by strongly focusing on the importance of the structural level). We will s...

  5. MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS (THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION CLAUSE IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Florinel Augustin Ignat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It often happens that the end of the contracts to be existing commercial relationships and a new contract has already intuitu personae character. But not always the case, that those who enter into legal commercial forcing consideration to the benefits and under commercial contracts, know the dealer or individual that established commercial relations. These traders resort to contractual conditions which states precisely the extent of the obligations assumed by each party, setting rules, deadlines, penalties and even ways of interpretation of contracts. Contracting Parties, namely traders aware that the law is the contract parties by special caluze invest ( to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or punishment for failure and even termination obligations tribunalule arbitration courts or the territorial and material .

  6. Fast detection of the main anatomical structures in digital retinal images based on intra- and inter-structure relational knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Casado, José M; Carmona, Enrique J; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2017-10-01

    The anatomical structure detection in retinal images is an open problem. However, most of the works in the related literature are oriented to the detection of each structure individually or assume the previous detection of a structure which is used as a reference. The objective of this paper is to obtain simultaneous detection of the main retinal structures (optic disc, macula, network of vessels and vascular bundle) in a fast and robust way. We propose a new methodology oriented to accomplish the mentioned objective. It consists of two stages. In an initial stage, a set of operators is applied to the retinal image. Each operator uses intra-structure relational knowledge in order to produce a set of candidate blobs that belongs to the desired structure. In a second stage, a set of tuples is created, each of which contains a different combination of the candidate blobs. Next, filtering operators, using inter-structure relational knowledge, are used in order to find the winner tuple. A method using template matching and mathematical morphology is implemented following the proposed methodology. A success is achieved if the distance between the automatically detected blob center and the actual structure center is less than or equal to one optic disc radius. The success rates obtained in the different public databases analyzed were: MESSIDOR (99.33%, 98.58%, 97.92%), DIARETDB1 (96.63%, 100%, 97.75%), DRIONS (100%, n/a, 100%) and ONHSD (100%, 98.85%, 97.70%) for optic disc (OD), macula (M) and vascular bundle (VB), respectively. Finally, the overall success rate obtained in this study for each structure was: 99.26% (OD), 98.69% (M) and 98.95% (VB). The average time of processing per image was 4.16 ± 0.72 s. The main advantage of the use of inter-structure relational knowledge was the reduction of the number of false positives in the detection process. The implemented method is able to simultaneously detect four structures. It is fast, robust and its detection

  7. Structural Aging Program to evaluate continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the Structural Aging (SAG) Program which is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into three technical tasks: Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  8. Structural Aging Program approach to providing an improved basis for aging management of safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into four tasks: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  9. Santa Claus visited CERN on Saturday, 3 December!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised an annual Children’s Christmas Party. This party brings together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. On Saturday, 3 December, the Staff Association welcomed no less than 230 children who attended with joy and enthusiasm a magical clown show presented at 13.30 and 15.30. After the show, they were offered a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their generous contribution, as well as their personnel for their valuable help. Then, Santa Claus himself came to hand out presents to the children. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for despite his busy schedule for the season, he took the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and older ones alike! Finally, we would like to thank all the parents who volunteered to help look after the children. Their presence and contribution are indispensable for the success of the party. This year, the Staff Association’s organ...

  10. Assessment and management of aging of nuclear power plant safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Graves, H.L. III; Ellingwood, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background information and data have been developed for improving existing and developing new methods to assist in quantifying the effects of age-related degradation on the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety-related structures. Factors that can lead to age-related degradation of safety-related structures are identified and their manifestations described. Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are noted and guidance provided on repair options available for various forms of degradation. A probabilistic methodology for condition assessment and reliability-based life prediction has been developed and applied to structures subject to combinations of structural load processes and to structural systems. The methodology has also been used to investigate optimization of in-service inspection and maintenance strategies to maintain failure probability below a specified target value as well as to minimize costs. Fragility assessments involving analytical solutions and finite-element methods have been utilized to predict the effect of aging degradation on structural component performance. (author)

  11. The effect of structurally related impurities on crystallinity reduction of sulfamethazine by grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshito; Ono, Makoto; Ohara, Motomu; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-12-30

    In this study, the effect of structurally related impurities on crystallinity reduction of sulfamethazine by grinding was evaluated. The crystallinity of sulfamethazine was not decreased when it was ground alone. However, when structurally related impurities with sulfonamide derivatives were blended, the crystallinity of sulfamethazine was decreased by grinding. Other materials without a sulfonamide moiety showed no such effect. The Raman spectra of sulfamethazine demonstrated that there was a difference between its crystalline and amorphous states within its sulfonamide structure. It was suggested that the sulfonamide structure of the impurities was important in causing the inhibition of recrystallization of sulfamethazine during grinding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  13. Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

  14. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  15. "No-hire" clauses in healthcare sector contracts: their use and enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, W Eugene

    2006-01-01

    In today's healthcare industry, many hospitals utilize outside agencies for both business and clinical functions. This Article acknowledges the prevalence of outsourcing contract labor in the healthcare arena and focuses on the restrictive provisions included in these employment contracts, particularly "no-hire" clauses. No-hire clauses are often included in contracts between healthcare providers and professional groups that provide clinical service employees to the provider, such as a medical practice group providing physicians to a hospital or an agency providing nurses to a nursing home. These clauses usually provide that the healthcare provider may not directly hire an employee provided by the professional group, nor may it contract with another professional group that later hires the employee. The purpose of a no-hire clause is two-fold: to protect the professional group's investment of time and moneyfor recruiting, training, and establishing the employee's clinical practice, and to give the professional group leverage to retain its employees. While noncompete clauses in employment contracts have traditionally been the subject of litigation, no-hire clauses raise distinct legal issues. Case law provides conflicting views as to the enforceability of these provisions. Some courts find no-hire clauses to be per se illegal restrictions on trade, while others will permit them when they are reasonable within a specific context. The author proposes that a multifactor test be applied on a case-by-case basis to determine the reasonableness of the no-hire provision in a given employment contract and suggests drafting improvements to facilitate enforcement.

  16. Analysis of social relations among organizational units derived from process models and redesign of organization structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Song, M.S.; Kim, K.M.; Lee, Y-H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite surging interests in analyzing business processes, there are few scientific approaches to analysis and redesign of organizational structures which can greatly affect the performance of business processes. This paper presents a method for deriving and analyzing organizational relations from

  17. The optimal structure-conductivity relation in epoxy-phthalocyanine nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, L.J.; Brom, H.B.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Kemerink, M.; Chen, Z.; Goeje, de M.P.; Yuan, M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalcon-11 (aquocyanophthalocyaninatocobalt (III)) forms semiconducting nanocrystals that can be dispersed in epoxy coatings to obtain a semiconducting material with a low percolation threshold. We investigated the structure-cond. relation in this composite and the deviation from its optimal

  18. Continuing the service of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitative methodologies for continued service determinations. Recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are summarized

  19. Effects of turbidity on the neural structures of two closely related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neural structures of the sister species Pseudobarbus afer and P. asper were compared. P. afer, a redfin minnow which inhabits clear, perennial mountain streams, was found to have larger neural structures related to vision than P. asper, which inhabits turbid, intermittent streams of the Gamtoos River system, ...

  20. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…

  1. The Relative Effects of Alternative Learning Structures on Attitudes and Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James

    This study compared two learning structures for an introductory course in tests and measurements in terms of their relative effects on attitudes and achievement. The first structure represented a functionally arranged instructional sequence (FAIS). The second represented a psychologically arranged instructional sequence (PAIS). The instructional…

  2. Dynamical and structural properties of lipid membranes in relation to liposomal drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kent; Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Pedersen, Tina B.

    2001-01-01

    The structural and dynamical properties of DPPC liposomes containing lipopolymers (PEG-lipids) and charged DPPS lipids have been,studied in relation to the lipid membrane interaction of enzymes and peptides. The results suggest that both the lipid membrane structure and dynamics and in particular...

  3. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juntang; Wang Chengwei; Feng Shirong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)

  4. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  5. Transactional, Cooperative, and Communal: Relating the Structure of Engineering Engagement Programs with the Nature of Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julia D.; Jesiek, Brent K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how the structural features of engineering engagement programs (EEPs) are related to the nature of their service-learning partnerships. "Structure" refers to formal and informal models, processes, and operations adopted or used to describe engagement programs, while "nature" signifies the quality of…

  6. Obstacles Related to Structuring for Mathematization Encountered by Students when Solving Physics Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called structuring for mathematization, where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report...

  7. Review of Differences of Steel related Properties between Proposals of European Structural Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    Differences of Steel related Properties between fire chapters of the Proposals of European Structural Codes are indicated for the same physical properties, the right properties are found and it is proposed to use these properties in all codes.......Differences of Steel related Properties between fire chapters of the Proposals of European Structural Codes are indicated for the same physical properties, the right properties are found and it is proposed to use these properties in all codes....

  8. Modeling Structural, Dyadic, and Individual Factors: The Inclusion and Exclusion Model of HIV Related Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.; Glasman, Laura R.; Rothman, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals...

  9. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

  10. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  11. The SCOPIC clause as a major development in salvage law : The SCOPIC clause in the context of the Lloyd’s Open Form and the International Convention on Salvage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djadjev, Ilian

    2015-01-01

    The SCOPIC clause (Special Compensation P&I Club Clause) provides an alternative remuneration to salvors, which is computed differently to the awards provided in Article 13 and Article 14 of the International Convention on Salvage (1989). In essence, SCOPIC provides agreed tariff rates under the

  12. Atomic structure and orientation relations of interfaces between Ag and ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, W.P.; Hosson, de J.Th.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of Ag-ZnO interfaces, produced by internal oxidation of an Ag-Zn alloy. ZnO precipitates with the wurtzite structure were found exhibiting mainly one orientation relation with the Ag matrix. However, closely related ORs were found, rotated by small

  13. Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.

    2000-01-01

    Mellema, M. (Michel), Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gels , PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, 150 + 10 pages, references by chapter, English and Dutch summaries (2000).

    The relation between (colloidal)

  14. Running in the family? : structural brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger

  15. Asynchronous Communication: Investigating the Influences of Relational Elements and Background on the Framing Structure of Emails

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…

  16. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  17. CP-recursion and the derivation of verb second in Germanic main and embedded clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    , this is normally not the case for all types of embedded clauses, as e. g. embedded questions (almost) never allow V2 (Julien 2007, Vikner 2001, though see McCloskey 2006 and Biberauer 2015). As in Nyvad et al. (2016), I will explore a particular derivation of (embedded) V2, in terms of a cP/CP-distinction, which...... may be seen as a version of the CP-recursion analysis (deHaan & Weerman 1986, Vikner 1995 and many others). The idea is that because embedded V2 clauses do not allow extraction, whereas other types of CP-recursion clauses do (Christensen et al. 2013a; Christensen et al. 2013b; Christensen & Nyvad 2014...

  18. 48 CFR 3028.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 3028.311 Section 3028.311... contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...

  19. 48 CFR 328.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 328.311 Section 328.311 Federal... Insurance 328.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

  20. A relational approach to health practices: towards transcending the agency-structure divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2014-02-01

    Many health scholars find that Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice leaves too little room for individual agency. We contend that, by virtue of its relational, field-theoretic underpinnings, the idea of leaving room for agency in Bourdieu's theory of practice is misguided. With agency manifested in interactions and social structures consisting of relations built upon relations, the stark distinction between agency and structure inherent to substantialist thinking is undermined, even dissolved, in a relational field-theoretic context. We also contend that, when treated as relationally bound phenomena, Bourdieu's notions of habitus, doxa, capital and field illuminate creative, adaptive and future-looking practices. We conclude by discussing difficulties inherent to implementing a relational theory of practice in health promotion and public health. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  2. Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature†of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized) model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

  3. Long wave dispersion relations for surface waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, I.C.; Roberts, B.

    1983-01-01

    A means of obtaining approximate dispersion relations for long wavelength magnetoacoustic surface waves propagating in a magnetically structured atmosphere is presented. A general dispersion relation applying to a wide range of magnetic profiles is obtained, and illustrated for the special cases of a single interface and a magnetic slab. In the slab geometry, for example, the dispersion relation contains both the even (sausage) and odd (kink) modes in one formalism

  4. QCD at low Q2 - a correspondence relation for moments of structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1980-01-01

    The precocious validity of QCD predictions in deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering and e + e - annihilation is interpreted as a signal for an underlying 'correspondence principle' relating perturbative and nonperturbative physics on the Q 2 average. Correspondence relations for nonsinglet moments of deep inelastic structure functions are formulated, discussed and successfully tested against experiment. The relations provide an independent determination of the QCD Λ-parameter from low Q 2 data in perfect agreement with results from large Q 2 analyses. (author)

  5. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article...... turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question....

  6. The utility of the rescission clause in the settlement of disputes arising from international trade contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the opportunities that the creditor of an obligation has in order to settle his claims by means of the commercial arbitration, as an alternative to court under common law, with a view to punishing in the most effective way the failure of the obligation by the borrower reveals the necessity to introduce the rescission clause in international commercial contracts governed by a foreign law. This paper aims to emphasize the practical utility of the institution of rescission clause in the light of the new Civil Code regulations, in whose presence the role of the court is entirely removed in as far as the decision statement is concerned.

  7. CP-recursion and the derivation of verb second in Germanic main and embedded clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the verb second (V2) phenomenon, as found in both main and embedded clauses in Germanic, and it will also explore a particular derivation of (embedded) V2, in terms of a cP/CP-distinction.All the Germanic languages except modern English (but including e. g. Old English) are V2, i. e. in all declarative main clauses and in all wh-questions, the finite verb is in the second position, regardless of whether the first position is occupied by the subject or by so...

  8. Origins of misapprehension concerning the purpose of the foreign currency clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a widespread misapprehension concerning the purpose of the foreign currency clause and analyses the various possible reasons behind that misapprehension. The omnipresent dilemmas in domestic legal theory regarding the legal principle of monetary nominalism and valoristic doctrine are deliberated in the first part of the paper. The second part deals with the wider macroeconomic context in which the legislator enabled contractual arrangements containing foreign currency clauses, thus providing a comprehensive explanation as to the origins of factual errors, and thereby misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the law.

  9. On the relation between primary and eutectic solidification structures in gray iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmquist, L; Sonawane, P A

    2012-01-01

    The solidification of hypoeutectic gray cast iron starts with the nucleation of primary austenite crystals. Before graphite is nucleated, and the eutectic structure is formed, these crystals start to grow as columnar or equiaxed dendrites. However, very little is known about these dendrites, and especially how they influence the subsequent eutectic structure. Besides, it has previously been shown that the primary solidification structure influences the formation of defects. Shrinkage porosity was found between the dendrites, in the grain boundaries, and the formation of the primary solidification structure was found to influence problems related to metal expansion penetration. Therefore a better understanding about the formation of this structure is of importance. In this work, different inoculants and their influence on the formation of the micro- and macrostructures has been investigated. The inoculants considered are commercially used inoculants, i.e. inoculants used in the foundries, as well as different iron powders. The addition of iron powder is used to promote the primary solidification structure. It is shown that the nucleation of the dendrites is influenced by the amount of iron powder. Secondary dendrite arm spacing is a quantitative measurement in the microstructure related to these dendrites, which in turn depends on the solidification time. Eutectic cell size, on the other hand, is found to depend on secondary dendrite arm spacing. It is shown how the addition of inoculants influences both primary and eutectic solidification structures, and how they are related to each other.

  10. Resistance ability evaluation of safety-related structures for the simulated aircraft accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Woon; Choi, Jang Kyu [Daewoo E and C Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Aircraft accidents on nuclear safety-related structures can cause severe damage to the safety of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant)s. To assess the safety of nuclear safety-related structures, the local damage and the dynamic response of global structures should be investigated together. This study have compared several local damage assessment formulas suggested for aircraft as an impactor, and have set the assessment system of local damage for impact-proof design of NPP containment buildings. And the local damage of nuclear safety-related structures in operation in Korea for commercial aircraft as impactor have been estimated. Impact load-time functions of the aircraft crash have been decided to assessment the safety of nuclear safety-related structures against the intentional colliding of commercial aircraft. Boeing 747 and Boeing 767 is selected as target aircraft based on the operation frequencies and weights. Comparison of the fire analysis methods showed that the method considering heat convection and radiation is adequate for the temperature analysis of the aircraft fuel fire. Finally, the study covered the analysis of the major structural drawings and design drawings with which three-dimensional finite element model analysis is expected to be performed.

  11. Similarity of High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra of Structurally Related Micropollutants and Transformation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Stravs, Michael A.; Gulde, Rebekka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS2) with electrospray ionization is frequently applied to study polar organic molecules such as micropollutants. Fragmentation provides structural information to confirm structures of known compounds or propose structures of unknown compounds. Similarity of HRMS2 spectra between structurally related compounds has been suggested to facilitate identification of unknown compounds. To test this hypothesis, the similarity of reference standard HRMS2 spectra was calculated for 243 pairs of micropollutants and their structurally related transformation products (TPs); for comparison, spectral similarity was also calculated for 219 pairs of unrelated compounds. Spectra were measured on Orbitrap and QTOF mass spectrometers and similarity was calculated with the dot product. The influence of different factors on spectral similarity [e.g., normalized collision energy (NCE), merging fragments from all NCEs, and shifting fragments by the mass difference of the pair] was considered. Spectral similarity increased at higher NCEs and highest similarity scores for related pairs were obtained with merged spectra including measured fragments and shifted fragments. Removal of the monoisotopic peak was critical to reduce false positives. Using a spectral similarity score threshold of 0.52, 40% of related pairs and 0% of unrelated pairs were above this value. Structural similarity was estimated with the Tanimoto coefficient and pairs with higher structural similarity generally had higher spectral similarity. Pairs where one or both compounds contained heteroatoms such as sulfur often resulted in dissimilar spectra. This work demonstrates that HRMS2 spectral similarity may indicate structural similarity and that spectral similarity can be used in the future to screen complex samples for related compounds such as micropollutants and TPs, assisting in the prioritization of non-target compounds. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Identification and detection of a novel human endogenous retrovirus-related gene, and structural characterization of its related elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyi Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Up-regulation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs is associated with many diseases, including cancer. In this study, an H family HERV (HERV-H-related gene was identified and characterized. Its spliced transcript lacks protein-coding capacity and may belong to the emerging class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. The 1.3-kb RNA consisting of four exons is transcribed from an Alu element upstream of a 5.0-kb structurally incomplete HERV-H element. RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that expression of this HERV-related transcript was negatively associated with colon, stomach, and kidney cancers. Its expression was induced upon treatment with DNA methylation and histone deacetylation inhibitors. A BLAT search using long terminal repeats (LTRs identified 50 other LTR homogenous HERV-H elements. Further analysis of these elements revealed that all are structurally incomplete and only five exert transcriptional activity. The results presented here recommend further investigation into a potentially functional HERV-H-related ncRNA.

  13. Relation between molecular electronic structure and nuclear spin-induced circular dichroism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Coriani, Sonia; Sundholm, Dage

    2017-01-01

    with spatially localized, high-resolution information. To survey the factors relating the molecular and electronic structure to the NSCD signal, we theoretically investigate NSCD of twenty structures of the four most common nucleic acid bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine). The NSCD signal correlates...... with the spatial distribution of the excited states and couplings between them, reflecting changes in molecular structure and conformation. This constitutes a marked difference to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift, which only reflects the local molecular structure in the ground electronic state....... The calculated NSCD spectra are rationalized by means of changes in the electronic density and by a sum-over-states approach, which allows to identify the contributions of the individual excited states. Two separate contributions to NSCD are identified and their physical origins and relative magnitudes...

  14. Age-Related Degradation of Nuclear Power Plant Structures and Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Chang, T.-Y.; Chokshi, N.; Hofmayer, C.; Morante, R.; Shteyngart, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes and highlights the results of the initial phase of a research project on the assessment of aged and degraded structures and components important to the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). A review of age-related degradation of structures and passive components at NPPs was performed. Instances of age-related degradation have been collected and reviewed. Data were collected from plant generated documents such as Licensing Event Reports, NRC generic communications, NUREGs and industry reports. Applicable cases of degradation occurrences were reviewed and then entered into a computerized database. The results obtained from the review of degradation occurrences are summarized and discussed. Various trending analyses were performed to identify which structures and components are most affected, whether degradation occurrences are worsening, and what was the most common aging mechanisms. The paper also discusses potential aging issues and degradation-susceptible structures and passive components which would have the greatest impact on plant risk

  15. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg 0.3 Cd 0.7 Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  16. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  17. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. Results We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the

  18. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Paul; Moss, David S; Alex, Alexander; Yeap, Siew K; Povia, Alice; Nobeli, Irene; Williams, Mark A

    2012-03-14

    Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i) analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the conserved occurrence of surface pockets at the active

  19. Evaluation the relation between organizational structure and entrepreneurship in physical education of Islamic Azad University

    OpenAIRE

    Gargari, Amineh Sahranavard; Asadollahi, Abedin

    2014-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, the most successful organizations will be those who use their organizational structure in most effective ways to improve performance. On the other hand, achieving high levels of organizational performance requires the creation and development of entrepreneurialt. This study aims to investigate the relation between organizational structure and entrepreneurship which is of discretional – correlational type , done by the field method among all the physical educati...

  20. Overview of the age-related degradation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    License renewal of nuclear power plants is an issue of increasing interest to the U.S. nuclear industry and the U.S. NRC. This paper presents and evaluates the plausible age-related degradation mechanisms that may affect the concrete and steel containment structures and other Class I structures to continue to perform their safety functions. Preventive and/or mitigative options are outlined for managing degradation mechanisms that could significantly affect plant performance during the license renewal period. The provided technical information and the degradation management options may be used as references for comparison with plant specific conditions to ensure that age-related degradation is controlled during the license renewal term. Plausible degradation mechanisms described and analyzed as they may affect the concrete, reinforcing steel, containment steel shell, prestressed-tendon, steel liner and other structural components typically used in Class I structures. The significance of these age-related degradation mechanisms to the structural components are evaluated, giving consideration to the design basis and quality of construction; typical service conditions; operating and maintenance history; and current test, inspection and refurbishment practices for containment and Class I structures. Degradation mechanisms which cannot be generically dispositioned on the basis of the two-step approach: (1) they will not cause significant degradation, or (2) any potential degradation will be bounded by current test, inspection, analytical evaluation, and/or refurbishment programs are identified. Aging degradation management measures are recommended to address the remaining age-related degradation mechanisms. A three-phase approach for the management of the containment and Class I structures is introduced. Various techniques, testing tools and the acceptable criteria for each step of the evaluation of the structures status are provided. The preventive and mitigative

  1. Relation between Kitaev magnetism and structure in $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Glamazda, A.; Lemmens, P.; Do, S. -H.; Kwon, Y. S.; Choi, K. -Y.

    2017-01-01

    Raman scattering has been employed to investigate lattice and magnetic excitations of the honeycomb Kitaev material $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ and its Heisenberg counterpart CrCl$_3$. Our phonon Raman spectra give evidence for a first-order structural transition from a monoclinic to a rhombohedral structure for both compounds. Significantly, only $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ features a large thermal hysteresis, consistent with the formation of a wide phase of coexistence. In the related temperature interval of $...

  2. Relating structural parameters to leachability in a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice parameters for a crystalline material can be obtained by several methods, notably by analyzing x-ray powder diffraction patterns. By utilizing a computer program to fit a pattern, one can follow the evolution or subtle changes in a structure of a crystalline species in different environments. This work involves such a study for an essential component of the ceramic waste form that is under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Zeolite 4A and zeolite 5A are used to produce two different types of waste forms: a glass-bonded sodalite and a glass-bonded zeolite, respectively. Changes in structure during production of the waste forms are discussed. Specific salt-loadings in the sodalite waste form are related to relative peak intensities of certain reflections in the XRD patterns. Structural parameters for the final waste forms will also be given and related to leachability under standard conditions

  3. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships and Docking Studies of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Kyani, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range...... of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression....... The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model...

  4. Modeling structural, dyadic, and individual factors: the inclusion and exclusion model of HIV related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B; Glasman, Laura R; Rothman, Alexander J

    2010-12-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals' ability and motivation to detect, prevent, and treat HIV. Structural interventions create inclusions that increase one's ability or motivation to perform these behaviors or exclusions that hinder one's ability or motivation to execute counterproductive behaviors. The need to expand research regarding multilevel influences on HIV-related behavior is also discussed, particularly concerning further understanding of sustained behavior change and effective dissemination of evidence-based intervention strategies.

  5. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight systems, namely: cooling water system, emergency cooling system, moderator recovery system, supplementary safety system, water removal system, service raw water system, service clarified water system, and river water system. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four major disciplines, including: structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management, and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five subsystems. These subsystems were then ranked with six attributes, namely: safety classification, degradation mechanisms, difficulty of replacement, failure mode, radiation dose to workers, and consequence of failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  6. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  7. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (pFoot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  9. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Nav channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Nav channels, with Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Nav channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Nav channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Cav channel Cav1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Nav channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Nav channels, generated a homologous model of human Nav1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Nav channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Nav channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  10. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiyun; Liu, Minhao; Yan, S Frank; Yan, Nieng

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Na v channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Na v channels, with Na v 1.1 and Na v 1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Na v channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Na v channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Ca v ) channel Ca v 1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Na v channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Na v channels, generated a homologous model of human Na v 1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Na v channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Na v channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  11. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  12. Effects of weak nonlinearity on dispersion relations and frequency band-gaps of periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    of these for nonlinear problems is impossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable for linear systems only. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applica-tions may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response to be accounted for....... The present work deals with analytically predicting dynamic responses for nonlinear continuous elastic periodic structures. Specifically, the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion re-lation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending os-cillations are analyzed......The analysis of the behaviour of linear periodic structures can be traced back over 300 years, to Sir Isaac Newton, and still attracts much attention. An essential feature of periodic struc-tures is the presence of frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate...

  13. An analysis of students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercek Cem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic aims of environment-related subjects included in the biology curriculum is to raise environmental awareness. Yet, the fact that the concepts taught especially in the context of environmental issues are abstract influences meaningful learning. This, in turn, influences behaviours displayed. Exhibiting students’ cognitive structures in assuring effective and meaningful concept teaching increases the importance of studies conducted. Unavailability of studies in the literature analysing students’ cognitive structures in relation to their sensitivity to the environment demonstrates the importance of this current study. This study aims to analyse students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. The study employs survey model- one of the qualitative research designs. The study group was composed of 56 high school students in the 2016-2017 academic year. The study group was formed through purposeful sampling. Word Association Test (WAT was prepared in order to uncover students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. Having transcribed the data obtained, they were put to content analysis and were transferred to the medium of computer. The results showed that students’ cognitive structure concerning their environmental sensitivity was divided into categories.

  14. Age-related changes in dermal fiber-like structures in facial cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, K; Hirayama, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent progress in non-invasive measurement methods, such as in vivo laser confocal microscopy (CLSM), it is difficult to quantitatively measure age-related changes in dermal fibrous structures in the face using these methods and qualitative characteristics. We used characteristics extracted from the analysis of CLSM images to quantitatively investigate the effects of aging on dermal fibrous structures in the face. CLSM images of dermal fibrous structures were obtained from 90 Japanese females, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years. The feature values of CLSM images were extracted using image analysis methods, such as short-line segment-matching processing and spatial frequency analysis. The qualitative characteristics of the dermal fibrous structures in the CLSM images were obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) of these feature values. The fibrous structures were scored on the basis of qualitative characteristics and then age-related changes in the scores among the subjects were quantitatively evaluated. The PCA results showed that there were two characteristics in the images of fibrous structures: clearness and directionality. The clearness of fibrous structures decreased and directionality isotropy increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details.

  16. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women.......02-14.94) and ORdiv: 6.04 (1.30-28.03). In summary, we found rather larger age differences in the strength of the association between change in structural social relations and mortality. Furthermore, the associations seemed stronger among women than men, which may however mainly be explained by the small number...

  17. STRUCTURE RELATION OF VIOLENCE AND PERSONALITY LATENT DIMENSIONS OF PREADOLESCENT BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Ivanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define structure relations of latent dimension violence among peers structure, characteristics and parent’s educational attitudes. In this research participated 134 basketball players (mini-jam, younger pioneers and pioneers. The research was conducted using the PRONA questionnaire for peers violence evaluation (Maksimovic and collaborators, 2008. Analysing the main components space of peers’ violence, three main components have been determined as dangerous behaviour exposure, announced victim and physiological violence. Mutual relation of these latent personality characteristics examinees dimensions and educational attitudes of their parents has been determined using the Pirson’s correlation coefficien.

  18. Bilingualism modulates the white matter structure of language-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Sini; Sairanen, Viljami; Leminen, Alina; Lehtonen, Minna

    2017-05-15

    Learning and speaking a second language (L2) may result in profound changes in the human brain. Here, we investigated local structural differences along two language-related white matter trajectories, the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), between early simultaneous bilinguals and late sequential bilinguals. We also examined whether early exposure to two languages might lead to a more bilateral structural organization of the arcuate fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivities (FA, MD, and RD respectively) were extracted to analyse tract-specific changes. Additionally, global voxel-wise effects were investigated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). We found that relative to late exposure, early exposure to L2 leads to increased FA along a phonology-related segment of the arcuate fasciculus, but induces no modulations along the IFOF, associated to semantic processing. Late sequential bilingualism, however, was associated with decreased MD along the bilateral IFOF. Our results suggest that early vs. late bilingualism may lead to qualitatively different kind of changes in the structural language-related network. Furthermore, we show that early bilingualism contributes to the structural laterality of the arcuate fasciculus, leading to a more bilateral organization of these perisylvian language-related tracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation of high harmonic spectra to electronic structure in N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J.P.; McFarland, B.K.; Guehr, M.; Bucksbaum, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    High harmonics of N 2 exhibit a number of features that are related to the electronic structure and sub-femtosecond dynamics of the molecule. Through measurements and simulations, we show how the harmonic spectral shape, spectral phase, alignment angle dependence, and intensity dependence can be related to the strong-field ionization and recombination dynamics of the HOMO and HOMO-1 electron orbitals. A field-free static model of the molecule is insufficient to explain the observations.

  20. Study on the Chinese Goods Market Structure and Related Integrated Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the Chinese goods market structure and related integrated marketing strategy. In recent years, it is becoming more and more popular for Chinese consumers to go on luxury consuming in a variety of large cities in China, showing the increasing demand of luxury for Chinese people possessed relatively high fortune. Further, dozens of international famous luxury brands are pouring into the Chinese market such as LVMH and Gucci, recognizing the huge consumption demand...

  1. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a running...

  2. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Notification. The Contractor agrees to notify the Contracting Officer in writing immediately of any breach of... Notification. The Contractor agrees to notify the Contracting Officer in writing immediately of any breach of... basic and alternates of DFARS clauses will facilitate the use of automated contract writing systems. The...

  3. Trojan Ponies: Undermining the Establishment Clause in the Name of "Child Benefit Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurau-Gray, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases illustrate that whenever the schools or courts abandon the Establishment Clause and embrace "child benefit theory," religious schoolchildren are the only winners. Application of "child benefit theory" has engendered religious strife, increased public funds for religious schools, increased sectarian control of public…

  4. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a term...

  5. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... (2) Use the provision at 252.229-7013, Tax Exemptions (Spain)-- Representation, in solicitations that... (Spain)--representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following clause: TAX EXEMPTIONS...)--Representation. 252.229-7005, Tax Exemptions (Spain)... 252.229-7013, Tax Exemptions (Spain)--Representation...

  6. The scope and applicability of Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) clause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 'treatment' in the jurisprudence of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) with a view of promoting a common vision about the scope and contours of the MFN clause contained in a number of bilateral investment treaties (BITs). Keywords: MFN, BIT, Most-Favoured Nation, investment treaties ...

  7. 12 CFR 591.5 - Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... penalties and forfeitures, equitable restrictions and state law dealing with equitable transfers. (b..., or operation of law on the death of a joint tenant or tenant by the entirety; (iv) The granting of a... PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS § 591.5 Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses. (a) General...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 205 - Model Disclosure Clauses and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Forms Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 59053, Nov. 17, 2009. Table of Contents A-1—Model Clauses...) Limitations on frequency of transfers—(i) You may make only [insert number, e.g., 3] cash withdrawals from our terminals each [insert time period, e.g., week]. (ii) You can use your telephone bill-payment service to pay...

  9. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal...

  10. 48 CFR 48.201 - Clauses for supply or service contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production, based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted... production, based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted... low-rate-initial-production or early production units, the contracting officer must modify the clause...

  11. 48 CFR 515.209-70 - Examination of records by GSA clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property, compliance with the price reduction clause). Counsel and the Assistant Inspector General—Auditing or Regional Inspector General—Auditing, as appropriate, must concur in any modifications to the... likelihood of significant harm to the Government and submit it to the Senior Procurement Executive for...

  12. Birds through a ceiling of alabast : genderproblematiek in de romans van Hugo Claus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lech, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the novels of Hugo Claus in which an "impossible love" is an important issue, we find, almost without exception, characters having characteristics that are typical for members of the opposite sex. (Latent) homosexuality plays an important role. The androgyny theme is the main theme in most of

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) B-8—Sample Form (Money Market Share Account Disclosures) B-9—Sample Form (Term Share (Certificate... money market accounts. These are some of the more common limitations applicable. The credit union... will assist members in reviewing and understanding the change. B-3Model Clauses for Pre-Maturity...

  14. Protection of third parties by collateral clauses of plan approvals or licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badura, P.

    1989-01-01

    This contribution discusses the regulatory functions of collateral clauses of plan approvals or licences, the legal protection of the constitutional and other rights of third parties in connection with the licensing of installations or similar projects, infringements of such rights and means of defence, and protection of neighbours under public law against noise. (RST) [de

  15. 46 CFR 308.516 - Failure to comply with Clause 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....516 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.516 Failure to comply with Clause 21. (a) If the assured willfully fails to maintain a collateral deposit fund or a surety bond in...

  16. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  17. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-01-01

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  18. 48 CFR 3003.203 - Reporting suspected violations of the Gratuities clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting suspected violations of the Gratuities clause. 3003.203 Section 3003.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7003-5 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals, in solicitations and contracts... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 225.7003-5 Section 225.7003-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  20. 136 | P a g e THE IMPERATIVE OF REMOVING IMMUNITY CLAUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2007-09-06

    Sep 6, 2007 ... Government would have so obeyed a court order were it not for the immunity clause ... In Africa, immunity in government is not strange especially to ..... personally attend or appear in court or to produce any person or thing.