WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative atomic masses

  1. Determination of the Relative Atomic Masses of Metals by Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorne, W. Earle; Rous, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Students determine the relative atomic masses of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum by reaction with hydrochloric acid and measurement of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated. The experiment demonstrates stoichiometry and illustrates clearly that mass of the reagent is not the determinant of the amounts in chemical reactions. The experiment is…

  2. Atomic masses 1995. The 1995 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment or systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  3. Atomic masses 1993. The 1993 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment of systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  4. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q≤μ 2/3 E c -1/3 , where q and μ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E c is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z≤Z * =α -1/3 A 2/3 , where α=e 2 /h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  5. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  6. The role of atomic hydrogen in regulating the scatter of the mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Toby; Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Kilborn, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we stack neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) spectra for 9720 star-forming galaxies along the mass-metallicity relation. The sample is selected according to stellar mass (109 ≤ M⋆/M⊙ ≤ 1011) and redshift (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.05) from the overlap of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We confirm and quantify the strong anticorrelation between H I mass and gas-phase metallicity at fixed stellar mass. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the relationship between gas content and metallicity is consistent between different metallicity estimators, contrary to the weaker trends found with star formation which are known to depend on the observational techniques used to derive oxygen abundances and star formation rates. When interpreted in the context of theoretical work, this result supports a scenario where galaxies exist in an evolving equilibrium between gas, metallicity and star formation. The fact that deviations from this equilibrium are most strongly correlated with gas mass suggests that the scatter in the mass-metallicity relation is primarily driven by fluctuations in gas accretion.

  7. Atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  8. Atomic weight versus atomic mass controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A problem for the Atomic Weights Commission for the past decade has been the controversial battle over the names ''atomic weight'' and ''atomic mass''. The Commission has considered the arguments on both sides over the years and it appears that this meeting will see more of the same discussion taking place. In this paper, I review the situation and offer some alternatives

  9. Quasiparticles of widely tuneable inertial mass: The dispersion relation of atomic Josephson vortices and related solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S. Shamailov, Joachim Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Josephson vortices have direct analogues in ultracold-atom physics as solitary-wave excitations of two-component superfluid Bose gases with linear coupling. Here we numerically extend the zero-velocity Josephson vortex solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to non-zero velocities, thus obtaining the full dispersion relation. The inertial mass of the Josephson vortex obtained from the dispersion relation depends on the strength of linear coupling and has a simple pole divergence at a critical value where it changes sign while assuming large absolute values. Additional low-velocity quasiparticles with negative inertial mass emerge at finite momentum that are reminiscent of a dark soliton in one component with counter-flow in the other. In the limit of small linear coupling we compare the Josephson vortex solutions to sine-Gordon solitons and show that the correspondence between them is asymptotic, but significant differences appear at finite values of the coupling constant. Finally, for unequal and non-zero self- and cross-component nonlinearities, we find a new solitary-wave excitation branch. In its presence, both dark solitons and Josephson vortices are dynamically stable while the new excitations are unstable.

  10. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  11. Non-constant relative atomic masses due to varying isotopic abundance of polynuclidic elements and their effect on the accuracy of analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Alterations of actual relative atomic masses occur in natural samples by natural isotope ratio shifts of polynuclidic elements. Therefore, using nuclear properties for gaining a measuring signal, isotopic shifts of certain elements may lead to significant measuring errors

  12. Mass defect effects in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Valeriy; Taichenachev, Alexey

    2018-03-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (the gravitational shift and motion-induced shifts such as quadratic Doppler and micromotion shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect in quantum atomic physics, i.e. without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions.

  13. Effects of mass defect in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (such as gravitational and quadratic Doppler shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect, i.e., without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions..

  14. Atomic masses of rare-earth isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ott, W.D.; Kantus, R.; Runte, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is given of decay energies of rare-earth isotopes measured in electron-capture decay by relative Psub(K) ratios, ECsub(K)/β + , and EC/β + ratios. Atomic masses of A = 147 isotopes and of 146 Gd and 148 Dy were derived. The masses of these isotopes and of α-decaying precessors are compared with predictions of current mass formulae. The subshell closure at Z = 64 is shown for N = 82, and 84 isotones. (orig.)

  15. High Precision Atomic Mass Measurements: Tests of CVC and IMME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eronen, Tommi

    2011-01-01

    Atomic mass is one of the key ingredients in testing the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and Isobaric Mass Multiplet Equation (IMME). With JYFLTRAP Penning trap installation at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, several atomic massses related to these studies have been measured. The performed atomic mass measurements for CVC tests cover almost all the nuclei that are relevant for these studies. To test IMME, masses in two isobaric mass chains (A = 23 and A = 32) have been determined.

  16. High Precision Atomic Mass Measurements: Tests of CVC and IMME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, Tommi [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: JYFLTRAP Collaboration

    2011-11-30

    Atomic mass is one of the key ingredients in testing the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and Isobaric Mass Multiplet Equation (IMME). With JYFLTRAP Penning trap installation at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, several atomic massses related to these studies have been measured. The performed atomic mass measurements for CVC tests cover almost all the nuclei that are relevant for these studies. To test IMME, masses in two isobaric mass chains (A = 23 and A = 32) have been determined.

  17. Atom counting with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, Walter

    1995-01-01

    A brief review of the current status and some recent applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are presented. Some connections to resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIS) as the alternate atom counting method are discussed

  18. Atomic mass formula with linear shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami; Ando, Yoshihira; Tachibana, Takahiro.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic mass formula is constructed in the form of a sum of gross terms and empirical linear shell terms. Values of the shell parameters are determined after the statistical method of Uno and Yamada, Which is characterized by inclusion of the error inherent in the mass formula. The resulting formula reproduces the input masses with the standard deviation of 393 keV. A prescription is given for estimating errors of calculated masses. The mass formula is compared with recent experimental data of Rb, Cs and Fr isotopes, which are not included in the input data, and also with the constant-shell-term formula of Uno and Yamada. (author)

  19. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  20. Precise atomic mass measurements by deflection mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, R C

    2003-01-01

    Since its inception nearly 90 years ago by J.J. Thomson, the precise determination of atomic masses by the classical technique of deflecting charged particles in electric and magnetic fields has provided a large body of data on naturally occurring nuclides. Currently, such measurements on stable nuclides have frequently achieved a precision of better than two parts in 10 sup 9 of the mass. A review of the technique, together with a brief summary of the important historical developments in the field of precise atomic mass measurements, will be given. The more recent contributions to this field by the deflection mass spectrometer at the University of Manitoba will be provided as illustrations of the culmination of the techniques used and the applications that have been studied. A brief comparison between this and newer techniques using Penning traps will be presented.

  1. Comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustein, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    A project has been completed recently for a comprehensive update of atomic mass predictions. This last occurred in 1976. Over the last 10 years the reliability of these earlier predictions (and others published later) has been analyzed by comparisons of the predictions with new masses from isotopes that were not in the experimental data base when the predictions were prepared. This analysis has highlighted distinct systematic features in various models which frequently result in poor predictions for nuclei that lie far from stability. An overview of the new predictions from models with different theoretical approaches will be presented

  2. Advances in fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemling, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of fast atom bombardment and field desorption mass spectrometry was made to determine relative sensitivity and applicability. A series of glycosphingolipids and a series of protected oligonucleotides of known structure were analyzed to ascertain the potential utility of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry in the structural elucidation of novel compounds in these classes. Negative ion mass markers were also developed. Fast atom bombardment was found to be one-to-two orders of magnitude more sensitive than field desorption based on the analysis of a limited number of compounds from several classes. Superior sensitivity was not universal and field desorption was clearly better in certain cases. In the negative ion mode in particular, fast atom bombardment was found to be a useful tool for the determination of the primary structure of glycosphingolipids and oligonucleotides. Carbohydrate sequence and branching information, and a fatty acid and lipid base composition were readily obtained from the mass spectra of glycosphingolipids while bidirectional nucleotide sequence, nucleotide base, and protecting group assignments were obtained for oligonucleotides. Based on this knowledge, a tentative structure of a human peripheral nervous system glycosphingolipid implicated in certain cases of disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease, was proposed. Suitable negative ion mass markers were found in dispersions of poly(ethylene) and poly(propylene)glycols in a triethylenetetramine matrix, a matrix which also proved useful in the analysis of glycosphingolipids. These polyglycol dispersions provided ions for calibration to 2300 daltons

  3. History and status of atomic mass measurement and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenxue; Zhu Zhichao; Wang Meng; Wang Yue; Tian Yulin; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing

    2010-01-01

    Mass is one of the most fundamental properties that can be obtained about an atomic nucleus. High-accuracy mass values for atoms let us study the atomic and nuclear binding energies that represent the sum of all the atomic and nucleonic interactions. Looking on the history of nuclear masses, it can be found that it is almost as old as that of nuclear physics itself. The experimental methods for masses and the relevant outcomes are so rich that the evaluation is needed to check the consistency among the various results and obtain more reliable data. The atomic mass evaluation is a considerate and complicated process. This paper introduces briefly the history and status of atomic mass measurement and evaluation. (authors)

  4. On-line mass separator of superheavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.

    2002-01-01

    The concept is presented of an on-line Mass Analyzer of SuperHeavy Atoms (MASHA) dedicated to the separation and determination of the mass and decay properties of new elements and isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions. The new nuclides with half-lives T 1/2 ≥ 1 s are transported to an ECR-source working at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and are separated by mass with a mass resolution of M/ΔM ∼ 1500. In the focal plane of the magnetic analyzer a front strip detector surrounded by side detectors will be placed to determine the mass according to the signals from the detected α-particles or fission fragments with efficiency of about 90 %. In comparison to other existing in-flight recoil separators, the present setup will be characterized by higher efficiency and high selectivity relative to background reaction products. The setup MASHA may be used also in the investigation of nuclear reactions of different type induced by stable and radioactive beams

  5. On-Line Mass Separator of Superheavy Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, Yu T

    2002-01-01

    The concept is presented of an on-line Mass Analyzer of SuperHeavy Atoms (MASHA) dedicated to the separation and determination of the mass and decay properties of new elements and isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions. The new nuclides with half-lives T_{1/2}\\ge 1 s are transported to an ECR-source working at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and are separated by mass with a mass resolution of M/\\Delta M\\sim 1500. In the focal plane of the magnetic analyzer a front strip detector surrounded by side detectors will be placed to determine the mass according to the signals from the detected alpha-particles or fission fragments with efficiency of about 90 %. In comparison to other existing in-flight recoil separators, the present setup will be characterized by higher efficiency and high selectivity relative to background reaction products. The setup MASHA may be used also in the investigation of nuclear reactions of different type induced by stable and radioactive beams.

  6. Infinite nuclear matter based for mass of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-state energy of an atomic nucleus with asymmetry β is considered to be equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus a residual energy eta, called the local energy. Eta represents the energy due to shell, deformation, diffuseness and exchange Coulomb effects, etc. Using this picture and the generalised Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem of many-body theory, the previously proposed mass relation is derived in a transport way in which eta drops away in a very natural manner. The validity of this mass relation is studied globally using the latest mass table. The model is suitable for the extraction of the saturation properties of nuclear matter. The binding energy per nucleon and the saturation Fermi momentum of nuclear matter obtained through this model are 18.33 MeV and 1.48 fm -1 respectively. It is shown in several representative cases in the Periodic Table that the masses of nuclei in the far unknown region can be reliably predicted. (author)

  7. Guided mass spectrum labelling in atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D., E-mail: daniel.haley@materials.ox.ac.uk [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Plack Straße 1, Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Choi, P.; Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Plack Straße 1, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a valuable near-atomic scale imaging technique, which yields mass spectrographic data. Experimental correctness can often pivot on the identification of peaks within a dataset, this is a manual process where subjectivity and errors can arise. The limitations of manual procedures complicate APT experiments for the operator and furthermore are a barrier to technique standardisation. In this work we explore the capabilities of computer-guided ranging to aid identification and analysis of mass spectra. We propose a fully robust algorithm for enumeration of the possible identities of detected peak positions, which assists labelling. Furthermore, a simple ranking scheme is developed to allow for evaluation of the likelihood of each possible identity being the likely assignment from the enumerated set. We demonstrate a simple, yet complete work-chain that allows for the conversion of mass-spectra to fully identified APT spectra, with the goal of minimising identification errors, and the inter-operator variance within APT experiments. This work chain is compared to current procedures via experimental trials with different APT operators, to determine the relative effectiveness and precision of the two approaches. It is found that there is little loss of precision (and occasionally gain) when participants are given computer assistance. We find that in either case, inter-operator precision for ranging varies between 0 and 2 “significant figures” (2σ confidence in the first n digits of the reported value) when reporting compositions. Intra-operator precision is weakly tested and found to vary between 1 and 3 significant figures, depending upon species composition levels. Finally it is suggested that inconsistencies in inter-operator peak labelling may be the largest source of scatter when reporting composition data in APT. - Highlights: • Demonstration of a complete, but simple, automation chain for APT spectra analysis. • Algorithm for

  8. Guided mass spectrum labelling in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.; Choi, P.; Raabe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a valuable near-atomic scale imaging technique, which yields mass spectrographic data. Experimental correctness can often pivot on the identification of peaks within a dataset, this is a manual process where subjectivity and errors can arise. The limitations of manual procedures complicate APT experiments for the operator and furthermore are a barrier to technique standardisation. In this work we explore the capabilities of computer-guided ranging to aid identification and analysis of mass spectra. We propose a fully robust algorithm for enumeration of the possible identities of detected peak positions, which assists labelling. Furthermore, a simple ranking scheme is developed to allow for evaluation of the likelihood of each possible identity being the likely assignment from the enumerated set. We demonstrate a simple, yet complete work-chain that allows for the conversion of mass-spectra to fully identified APT spectra, with the goal of minimising identification errors, and the inter-operator variance within APT experiments. This work chain is compared to current procedures via experimental trials with different APT operators, to determine the relative effectiveness and precision of the two approaches. It is found that there is little loss of precision (and occasionally gain) when participants are given computer assistance. We find that in either case, inter-operator precision for ranging varies between 0 and 2 “significant figures” (2σ confidence in the first n digits of the reported value) when reporting compositions. Intra-operator precision is weakly tested and found to vary between 1 and 3 significant figures, depending upon species composition levels. Finally it is suggested that inconsistencies in inter-operator peak labelling may be the largest source of scatter when reporting composition data in APT. - Highlights: • Demonstration of a complete, but simple, automation chain for APT spectra analysis. • Algorithm for

  9. Mass relation for neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu; Barr

    2000-08-07

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  10. Mass Relation for Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly and atomic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayans, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new form of the nuclear energy-density functional for describing the ground state properties of finite nuclei up to the drip lines and beyond is proposed. The surface energy-density term has a fractional form containing (∇ρ) 2 both in the numerator and in the denominator. An effective ρ-dependent Coulomb-nuclear correlation term is added. A fit to the nuclear masses and radii shows that the latter term gives contribution of the same order of magnitude as the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly in Coulomb displacement energy. The self-consistent run with the suggested functional, performed for about 100 spherical nuclei, has given the rms deviations from the experiment of ≅1.2 Mev in masses and ≅0.01 fm in radii. The extrapolation to the drip lines goes in between the ETFSI and the macroscopic-microscopic model predictions

  12. Toward the Atomic-Level Mass Analysis of Biomolecules by the Scanning Atom Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    In 1994, a new type of atom probe instrument, named the scanning atom probe (SAP), was proposed. The unique feature of the SAP is the introduction of a small extraction electrode, which scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field, required for field evaporation of surface atoms in a small space, between the specimen and the electrode. Thus, the SAP does not require a sharp specimen tip. This indicates that the SAP can mass analyze the specimens which are difficult to form in a sharp tip, such as organic materials and biomolecules. Clean single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), made by high-pressure carbon monoxide process are found to be the best substrates for biomolecules. Various amino acids and dipeptide biomolecules were successfully mass analyzed, revealing characteristic clusters formed by strongly bound atoms in the specimens. The mass analysis indicates that SAP analysis of biomolecules is not only qualitative, but also quantitative.

  13. Atomic collisions related to atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    Atomic collisions are important in various places in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). At a vaporization zone, many atomic collisions due to high density have influence on the atomic beam characteristics such as velocity distribution and metastable states' populations at a separation zone. In the separation zone, a symmetric charge transfer between the produced ions and the neutral atoms may degrade selectivity. We have measured atomic excitation temperatures of atomic beams and symmetric charge transfer cross sections for gadolinium and neodymium. Gadolinium and neodymium are both lanthanides. Nevertheless, results for gadolinium and neodymium are very different. The gadolinium atom has one 5d electron and neodymium atom has no 5d electron. It is considered that the differences are due to existence of 5d electron. (author)

  14. Electrochemically assisted fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    The hybridization of electrochemistry and fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry (MS) creates a new hyphenated technique, referred to as electrochemically assisted FAB (EFAB) MS, which improves the applicability of FAB MS in selectivity and extends the range of compounds to include low polarity molecules, and also reduces mass spectral complications due to matrix-related artifacts. FAB MS has proven to be indispensable in analysis of samples that are otherwise too intractable for conventional MS, such as peptides, oligosaccharides, and oligonucleotides, due to low volatility and ready thermal degradation. There are limits on its applicability, however, in that it works best with samples that are already ionic, or predisposed to become so by simple proton transfer to or from the matrix. A wide range of chemical substances can be ionized/analyzed by electrochemical methods. Therefore, a possible approach towards improving applicability of FAB MS is through its hybridization with electrochemistry. Samples are activated by electrolysis, carried out directly in the sample matrix through use of a modified FAB sample probe which was constructed containing a small electrolytic cell on the tip. In operation, one electrode is held at normal sample-probe/ion-source voltage, while the other electrode can be continuously varied ±15 volts to create electrochemical potentials. Several chemical substances, known to be unresponsive to FAB MS, have been examined by EFAB MS. Resultant spectra generally show a dramatic increases in signal/chemical noise ratio of structurally significant ions when compared to normal FAB spectra

  15. Quantification of steroid conjugates using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry or liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry provides the capability for direct analysis of steroid conjugates (sulfates, glucuronides) without prior hydrolysis or derivatization. During the analysis of biologic extracts, limitations on the sensitivity of detection arise from the presence of co-extracted material which may suppress or obscure the analyte signal. A procedure is described for the quantitative determination of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum which achieved selective isolation of the analyte using immunoadsorption extraction and highly specific detection using tandem mass spectrometry. A stable isotope-labeled analog [( 2H2]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was used as internal standard. Fast atom bombardment of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate yielded abundant [M-H]- ions that fragmented following collisional activation to give HSO4-; m/z 97. During fast atom bombardment/tandem mass spectrometry of serum extracts, a scan of precursor ions fragmenting to give m/z 97 detected dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and the [2H2]-labeled analog with a selectivity markedly superior to that observed using conventional mass spectrometry detection. Satisfactory agreement was observed between quantitative data obtained in this way and data obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the heptafluorobutyrates of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and [2H2]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate obtained by direct derivatization. 21 refs

  16. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; L.Y. Foo; Richard W. Hemingway; E. Barofsky; D.F. Barofsky

    1989-01-01

    Condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) to assess the feasibility of using this technique for determining molecular weight and structural information about these compounds. Both positive- and negative-ion spectra provided useful data with regard to molecular weight, cation species present, and presence of...

  17. The mass-lifetime relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  18. Atom-probe field-ion-microscope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    The titled analyzer, called simply atom-probe, has been developed by combining a field ion microscope (FIM) and a mass spectrometer, and is divided into the time-of-flight type, magnetic sector type, and quadrupole type depending on the types of mass spectrometers. In this paper, the author first describes on the principle and construction of a high resolution, time-of-flight atom-probe developed and fabricated in his laboratory. The feature of the atom-probe lies in the analysis of atoms and molecules in hyper-fine structure region one by one utilizing the high resolution of FIM. It also has the advantages of directly determining the composition by a ratio of the numbers of respective ions because of a constant detection sensitivity regardless of mass numbers, of the resolution as high as single atom layer in depth direction, and of detecting the positional relationship among detected ions by the order of detection in a sample. To determine the composition in a hyperfine structure region, the limited small number of atoms and molecules in the region must be identified distinctly one by one. In the analyzed result of Ni-silicide formed by heating Si evaporated on a Ni tip at 1000 K for 5 minutes, each isotope was not only clearly separated, but also their abundance ratio was very close to the natural abundance ratio. The second half of the paper reports on the analysis of TiC promising for a cold cathode material, adsorption of CO and alcohol, and the composition and structure of silicides, as a few application examples. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  20. Calculation of atomic integrals using commutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamastil, J.; Vinette, F.; Simanek, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a numerically stable method of calculating atomic integrals is suggested. The commutation relations among the components of the angular momentum and the Runge-Lenz vector are used to deduce recurrence relations for the Sturmian radial functions. The radial part of the one- and two-electron integrals is evaluated by means of these recurrence relations. The product of two radial functions is written as a linear combination of the radial functions. This enables us to write the integrals over four radial functions as a linear combination of the integrals over two radial functions. The recurrence relations for the functions are used to derive the recursion relations for the coefficients of the linear combination and for the integrals over two functions

  1. Determination of hafnium at the 10−4% level (relative to zirconium content) using neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, Marek; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Hubicki, Zbigniew; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Danko, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We worked out ICP-MS method of Hf determination in Zr and Zr compounds. •We used NAA method as reference one. •We obtained pure zirconium matrix by ion exchange (Diphonix ® resin). •These permit to determine ≥1 × 10 −4 % Hf in Zr sample by ICP MS with good precision and accuracy. -- Abstract: Hafnium at the very low level of 1–8 ppm (in relation to zirconium) was determined in zirconium sulfate solutions (originating from investigations of the separation of ca. 44 ppm Hf from zirconium by means of the ion exchange method) by using three independent methods: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results of NAA and ICP MS determinations were consistent with each other across the entire investigated range (the RSD of both methods did not exceed 38%). The results of ICP-AES determination were more diverse, particularly at less than 5 ppm Hf (RSD was significantly higher: 29–253%). The ion exchange method exploiting Diphonix ® resin proved sufficient efficiency in Zr–Hf separation when the initial concentration ratio of the elements ([Zr] 0 /[Hf] 0 ) ranged from 1200 to ca. 143,000

  2. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  3. Italian Mass Media and the Atom in the 1960s: The Memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Peaceful Atom (1963-1967)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciglioni, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The chapter investigates the representations of both fears and hopes related to atomic issues in Italian mass media from 1963 to 1967, through the analysis of a selection of highly circulated mass-market magazines (representing a broad spectrum of political cultures) and of television programs broadcast by the two Italian public networks of the time. The fears of the “atomic age” are analyzed through the memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which represents one of the privileged venues for both molding representations of the atomic bomb and negotiating fears. “Atomic hopes” are investigated, instead, examining the emergent fascination for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, analyzed as the catalyst for a positive perception of the atom at a time when national energy policies were at a crucial turning point.

  4. New Isotope Analysis Method: Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young

    2011-01-01

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Some fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of artificially produced radioactive isotopes has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10 -10 . In general, radio-chemical method has been applied to detect ultra-trace radio isotopes. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The Accelerator Mass Spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and its selectivity is affected by isobars. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) has the advantage of isobar-effect free characteristics. But the system size is still huge for high isotope selective system. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis) has been successfully applied to detect ultra-trace isotope, Kr-81 and Kr-85. ATTA is the isobar-effect free detection with high isotope selectivity and the system size is small. However, it requires steady atomic beam source during detection, and is not allowed simultaneous detection of several isotopes. In this presentation, we introduce new isotope detection method which is a coupled method of Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry (ATMS). We expect that it can overcome the disadvantage of ATTA while it has both advantages of ATTA and mass spectrometer. The basic concept and the system design will be presented. In addition, the experimental status of ATMS will also be presented

  5. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to estimate the percentage of new feather mass grown for moult regression models? ... As an alternative, it is here tested if feather mass indices may be sufficient replacements for species-specific feather masses. Thirty-five species of birds with known primary ...

  6. Atomic mass prediction from the mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1982-08-01

    The mass-excess prediction of about 8000 nuclides was calculated from two types of the atomic mass formulas with empirical shell terms of Uno and Yamada. The theoretical errors to accompany the calculated mass excess are also presented. These errors have been obtained by a new statistical method. The mass-excess prediction includes the term of the gross feature of a nuclear mass surface, the shell terms and a small correction term for odd-odd nuclei. Two functional forms for the shell terms were used. The first is the constant form, and the sencond is the linear form. In determining the values of shell parameters, only the data of even-even and odd-A nuclei were used. A new statistical method was applied, in which the error inherent to the mass formula was taken account. The obtained shell parameters and the values of mass excess are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)

  7. New experiments in organic, fast-atom-bomdardment, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiDonato, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of research presented in this dissertation is the creative use of new ionization and instrumental techniques in mass spectrometry. This goal manifests itself in three areas of mass spectrometry. In the first portion, modern, state-of-the-art instrumentation and new experiments were used to re-examine the mass spectra of transition-metal acetates and acetylacetonates. High resolution, chemical ionization, negative chemical ionization, and extended-mass-range mass spectrometry uncovered a wealth of new gas-phase ionic species. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to the characterization of molecular and fragment ion first-row transition-metal acetylacetonates, and comprises the second portion of the thesis. Studies in fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry are the subject of the third portion of the dissertation. Since fast-atom bombardment samples a liquid matrix, absolute and relative abundances of sputtered secondary ions are influenced by solution chemistry. The design and construction of an imaging secondary-ion mass spectrometer is the subject of the final portion of the thesis. This instrument provides for direct mass-spectrometric analysis of thin-layer and paper chromatograms and electrophoretograms

  8. Estimation of atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masahiro [Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To estimate unknown atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements, three kinds of formula: FRDM (finite range droplet model by Moeller et al.), TUYY (an empirical formula by Tachibana et al.) and our KUTY are explained. KUTY estimates the crude shell energies of spherical nucleus from sum of single-particle energies. Then, the refined shell energies in due consideration of paring and deformation are obtained by mixing with the functions of the crude shell energies. Experimental values of U and Fm isotopes were compared with estimation mass of KUTY and FRDM. In the field with experimental values of U isotopes, the value of KUTY and FRDM separated the same difference from the experimental value. The behavior of KUTY and FRDM for Fm isotopes were same as that of U, but ETFSI deviated a little from the experimental values. (S.Y.)

  9. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Atomic mass determinations for 183W and 199Hg and the mercury problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillari, D.K.; Vaz, J.V.; Barber, R.C.; Sharma, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    Recent modifications to the 'Manitoba II' high resolution mass spectrometer are described. Mass differences among the members of the triplet 199 Hg - 183 W 16 O- 12 C 2 35 Cl 5 have been measured. These self-consistent mass differences give masses for 183 W and 199 Hg, as well as the mass difference across the W to Hg region of the mass table. These masses and the mass difference provide important constraints for the least squares atomic mass evaluation

  11. Enforcement agreement between the French atomic energy commission and the federal atomic energy agency for the implementation of the framework-agreement dispositions related to the environmental multilateral program in the nuclear domain in Russian Federations during the nuclear cooperation in the framework of the G8 world partnership against the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In order to give assistance to the Russian Federations, the G8 partners have agreed to carry on joint actions in the following domains: dismantling of out-of-service nuclear submarines of the Russian navy, management of the spent fuels and wastes generated by this dismantlement, rehabilitation of fuel storage and waste management facilities, management of nuclear materials and safety of facilities or sites with a potential radiological risk. This document defines the domain of cooperation between France (CEA) and the Russian federal atomic energy agency: creation of a coordination parity technical committee, financing conditions and conclusion of contracts for joint actions, access to sites, exchange of informations, intellectual property, nuclear safety and radioprotection, changes and amendments to the agreement, enforcement and duration. A protocol relative to the access of French representatives to Russian work sites is attached. (J.S.)

  12. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  13. Quantitation of stable isotopic tracers of calcium by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation and methodology developed for quantitation of stable isotopic traces in urine are described. Calcium is isolated from urine as the insoluble oxalate salt which is subsequently dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The isotopic content of the acid solution is determined by use of a conventional mass spectrometer equipped with a fast atom bombardment ion source. Calcium ions are desorbed from the sample surface by a beam of high-energy xenon atoms and detected with a high-resolution mass spectrometer. A data acquisition system has been developed to control the mass spectrometer and record the ion signals. Detailed analysis of potential sources of error indicates that the precision of the method is presently limited primarily by an isotope effect that occurs during ion desorption. Results presented here demonstrate that the relative abundances of calcium isotopes in urine can be determined with high precision (coefficient of variation < 0.2%) and that the method is a viable alternative to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The method is especially attractive because it uses a conventional high-resolution mass spectrometer which is routinely used for analysis of organic substances

  14. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  15. Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon ..... This photon build-up is a function of thickness and atomic number of the sample and also the incident photon energy, which combine to ...

  16. Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.

    1980-01-01

    From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed

  17. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, Anne; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Ponard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage

  18. Measuring and engineering the atomic mass density wave of a Gaussian mass-polariton pulse in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that only the energy of the field propagates inside the medium. Consequently, they neglect the transport of mass density by the medium atoms. We have recently presented foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a nondispersive medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces [Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017)]. In particular, we have shown that the mass is transferred by an atomic mass density wave (MDW), which gives rise to mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, i.e., covariant coupled states of the field and matter having a nonzero rest mass. Another key observation of the mass-polariton theory of light is that, in common semiconductors, most of the momentum of light is transferred by moving atoms, e.g., 92% in the case of silicon. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media and consider experimental measurement of the mass transferred by the MDW atoms when an intense light pulse propagates in a silicon fiber. In particular, we consider optimal intensity and time dependence of a Gaussian pulse and account for the breakdown threshold irradiance of the material. The optical shock wave property of the MDW, which propagates with the velocity of light instead of the velocity of sound, prompts for engineering of novel device concepts like very high frequency mechanical oscillators not limited by the acoustic cutoff frequency.

  19. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor γ; the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics. 19 refs

  1. Kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation of gas-atomized Sn-5 mass%Pb droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu; Wu Ping; Zhou Wei; Ando, Teiichi

    2008-01-01

    A method for predicting the nucleation kinetics of gas-atomized droplets has been developed by combining models predicting the nucleation temperature of cooling droplets with a model simulating the droplet motion and cooling in gas atomization. Application to a Sn-5 mass%Pb alloy has yielded continuous-cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for the heterogeneous droplet nucleation in helium gas atomization. Both internal nucleation caused by a catalyst present in the melt and surface nucleation caused by oxidation are considered. Droplets atomized at a high atomizing gas velocity get around surface oxidation and nucleate internally at high supercoolings. Low atomization gas velocities promote oxidation-catalyzed nucleation which leads to lower supercoolings. The developed method enables improved screening of atomized powders for critical applications where stringent control of powder microstructure is required

  2. Symposium on fast atom and ion induced mass spectrometry of nonvolatile organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of molecular and fragment ion production and the various parameters affecting ion yields were discussed by 6 invited speakers from Europe, Canada, and the US at this symposium. The work reported was almost equally divided between that using low-energy (keV) primary ion (or atom) beams, e.g. fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and that using high energy (MeV) particles, e.g. heavy ion induced mass spectrometry (HIIDMS) and 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry ( 252 Cf-PDMS). Both theoretical foundations and observed experimental results for both techniques are included

  3. Quantization of Differences Between Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses and Self-organization of Atoms and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-03-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: δδM =n1/n2 X 0.0076294 (in MeV/ c^2), ni=1,2,3,.... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms can explain how electron volt (atomic-) scale processes can induce and control nuclear MeV (nuclear-) scale processes and reactions., F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/ 0610002 2006.

  4. Definitions of mass in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, M.A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the textbook on special relativity by Taylor and Wheeler (Space-time Physics. San Francisco. W H Freeman) in which the concept of relativistic mass is not used but momentum and energy are defined as γm 0 ν and γm 0 c 2 . The two approaches are compared and the particular problem of inelastic collisions between two particles with zero coefficient of restitution is used to demonstrate that the Taylor Wheeler definition of the rest mass of a system may lead to lack of clarity of thought, and even error. Alternative definitions of the rest mass of a system are proposed. (U.K.)

  5. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1978-01-01

    Men atomic bomb survivors over the age of 40 years received a survey of lung cancer by questionnaire together with the general survey for atomic bomb survivors, and the following results were obtained. The survey by questionnaire was carried out on 29780 cases during one year 1977 to 1978, and 6 cases of lung cancer were discovered. The discovery rate was 20.1 persons against a hundred thousand persons. Lung cancer discovered during 2 years from April, 1976 was 14 cases, and the discovery rate was 23.9 persons against a hundred thousand persons. The discovery rate according to exposure conditions was higher in order of a group entering Hiroshima city after A-bomb explosion and other group (33.2 persons), a group directly exposed over 2 km from the center of explosion (20.0 persons), and a group directly exposed within 2 km (1.5 persons). Therefore, results that the discovery rate of lung cancer was higher in short-distance group could not be obtained. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. On mechanism of low-energy heavy ions scattering on a target surface with small atomic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umarov, F.F. E-mail: farid1945@yahoo.com; Bazarbaev, N.N.; Kudryashova, L.B.; Krylov, N.M

    2002-11-01

    In the present work, an experimental study of low-energy (E{sub 0}=20-500 eV) heavy Cs{sup +} ions scattering on target surfaces with small atomic masses (Al, Si, Ni) has been performed for more accurate definition of mechanism of scattering and evaluation of an opportunity for use of heavy ions scattering as a tool of surface layer analysis. It is shown that the dependence of the relative energies of scattered ions versus the initial energy E/E{sub 0} (E{sub 0}) for Si (E{sub b}=4.64 eV/atom) and Ni (E{sub b}=4.43 eV/atom) approximately coincide despite the fact that the mass of Ni atom is twice as large as that of the Si atom mass. At the same time their binding energies E{sub b} are approximately equal to each other. It is found that the scattering angles of Cs{sup +} ions considerably exceed a limiting scattering angle {theta}{sub lim} in a single collision. It has been established that the scattering of low-energy heavy ions by light targets is described by a non-binary mechanism of many-particle interactions (simultaneous ion interaction with several target atoms). It has been shown that during the many-particle interactions the structure of energy spectra disappears; high relative energy of scattering ions and their dependence on energy of bombardment is observed. It has been found that the energy of scattered ions depends on binding energy, melting temperature and packing density of target atoms.

  7. On mechanism of low-energy heavy ions scattering on a target surface with small atomic mass

    CERN Document Server

    Umarov, F F; Kudryashova, L B; Krylov, N M

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental study of low-energy (E sub 0 =20-500 eV) heavy Cs sup + ions scattering on target surfaces with small atomic masses (Al, Si, Ni) has been performed for more accurate definition of mechanism of scattering and evaluation of an opportunity for use of heavy ions scattering as a tool of surface layer analysis. It is shown that the dependence of the relative energies of scattered ions versus the initial energy E/E sub 0 (E sub 0) for Si (E sub b =4.64 eV/atom) and Ni (E sub b =4.43 eV/atom) approximately coincide despite the fact that the mass of Ni atom is twice as large as that of the Si atom mass. At the same time their binding energies E sub b are approximately equal to each other. It is found that the scattering angles of Cs sup + ions considerably exceed a limiting scattering angle theta sub l sub i sub m in a single collision. It has been established that the scattering of low-energy heavy ions by light targets is described by a non-binary mechanism of many-particle inter...

  8. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    literature on the measurement of mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite. The knowledge of photon ... pure) MgO and Fe2O3. The details of experimental ... and (4 4 0) planes belonging to cubic spinel structure. The XRD pattern ...

  9. A study of beta decay energies and atomic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, L.

    1988-04-01

    The q β energies of 123-131 In have been determined using the end points of β spectra recorded in β-γ coincidence experiments. A HPGe planar detector was used to detect the β-particles and a semi-empirical response function was used when unfolding the electron distribution. The mass excesses were deduced and when they were compared with the predictions of various mass formulae, the cadmium isotopes were found to be heavier than those predicted by most of the mass formulae. The excitation energy of the 1/2 - proton-hole state in the odd indium isotopes was shown to be constant for all the heavy isotopes. The Q EC energies of 148 Dy and 96 Pd were determined using the β + /EC intensity ratio method. The ratio of the intensity of the β+ branch to the total beta decay intensity was determined by means of γ-spectroscopic methods. The mass excesses were deduced. The two-proton binding energy for the N=82 isotones showed only a small step of approximately 0.5 MeV when the doubly-magic nucleus 146 Gd was encountered. A liquid drop type mass formula with deformation and shell energy corrections and with few free parameters is presented. The shell energy correction is a simple analytical expression for the equilibrium deformation of the nucleus. An analytical expression for the equilibrium nuclear deformation is also presented. The mass formula was applied to nuclei with Z and N greater than 50. The RMS deviation is 0.55 milli mass units. The reaction 98 Mo(p,n) 98 Tc was investigated through the counter ratio method, the ratio of the number of slow neutrons to the number of fast neutrons. The Q pn energy value of a low-spin state in 98 Tc was determined. The state at 90.9 keV excitation energy is proposed to be the 14.6 m u s isomer and have spin and parity 1 + . (author)

  10. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  11. Kaon mass by critical absorption of kaonic atom x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lum, G.K.

    1979-10-01

    The energy of the kaonic 6h → 5g transition has been determined using the calculated μ/rho curve. Because the detectors used could not resolve the noncircular transitions, the predictions from a calculated cascade program were used. According to the cascade results for potassium, the number of noncircular x-rays was about 10% of all the transitions between n = 6 to n = 5. Based on the available information, the mass of the kaon was measured to be 493.576/sub -0.069//sup +0.044/ MeV

  12. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.

    2002-01-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  13. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheier, P; Maerk, T [eds.

    2002-07-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  14. New discovery: quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences and self-organization of atoms and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; )

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schroedinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principles which are not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔM = n 1 /n 2 ·0.0076294 (in MeV/ ), n i =1,.2,3... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research field can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste

  15. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Ohmura, Toshio.

    1980-01-01

    Mass survey of lung cancer was performed only by questionnaire together with general health examinations of a-bomb survivors during 3 years between April 1976 and March 1979, and the following results were obtained. The number of men aged more than 40 years old who had questionnaire was 89,778, and those who were required to have detailed examinations because they had bloody sputum and paroxysmal cough + a history of smoking were 1,453. Out of them, 861 a-bomb survivors had detailed examinations. The performance rate of detailed examinations was 59.3%. Lung cancer was found in 23 a-bomb survivors. The discovery rate was 25.6 per 100,000 persons, and it was a little higher than discovery rates reported by many researchers. It was low in men aged more than 40 years old. There was a straight line relationship between logarithm values of the discovery rate of lung cancer and age, and the discovery rate increased markedly with aging. Cytodiagnosis of sputum by Saccomanno method showed a positive test which was 20% higher than that by 3 days serial smear method. To discover lung cancer at an early stage, it is advisable to perform the first screening by chest x-ray examination and questionnaire on men aged over 40 years old, and to perform cytodiagnosis by Saccomanno method on men who were required to have detailed examinations. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Recent progress in atomic mass formulas and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masami

    1988-01-01

    The first half of the report focuses on atomic mass formulas which have been developed by the author and his coworkers for accurate representation of the mass of various nuclides at their ground state. The one most frequently used by them is the Uno-Yamada Formula, which consists of two parts representing the gross behavior and the fluctuations due to each nuclide, or so called shell effect. The latter part is the sum of a proton shell term and a neutron shell term, and may be constant or linear depending on the form of the shell terms. Two new formulas have been derived by incorporating the effect of proton-neutron interaction into the above-mentioned constant-type formula. One of them is different from the constant-type Uno-Yamada Formula in that the shell effect part contains a proton-neutron interaction term. Modification is also made to take into account the coulombic energy. The second half of the report addresses the β-decay gross theory. A modified β-decay gross theory is presented, in which improvements are made to reflect the effect of the UV factor and to meet the sum rules related with the Fermi transition. The monoparticle intensity function is also improved by taking into account solutions of many-body problems related with the sum rules. (N.K.)

  17. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  18. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  19. Axion: Mass -- Dark Matter Abundance Relation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The axion is a hypothetical particle which would explain why QCD is approximately T-conserving, and is also an excellent Cold Dark Matter candidate. It should be possible to make a clean theoretical prediction relating the dark matter density in axions and the axion mass (under reasonable assumptions about inflation). But the axion's early-Universe dynamics, which establish its density as dark matter, are unexpectedly rich in a way which is only starting to yield to quantitative numerical study.

  20. Rotational Energy as Mass in H3 + and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Hamzeloui, S.; Fink, D. J.; Myers, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H3 +/HD+ and H3 +/ 3He+ and observe that different H3+ ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H3 + changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J , K rotational levels of H3+ have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H3+ ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  1. Rotational Energy as Mass in H_{3}^{+} and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and ^{3}He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Hamzeloui, S; Fink, D J; Myers, E G

    2018-04-06

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H_{3}^{+}/HD^{+} and H_{3}^{+}/^{3}He^{+} and observe that different H_{3}^{+} ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H_{3}^{+} changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J, K rotational levels of H_{3}^{+} have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H_{3}^{+} ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  2. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  3. Development of accelerator mass spectrometry in China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Jiang Shan; Dong Kejun; Qiu Jiuzi; Peng Bo; Guan Yongjing; Yin Xinyi; Wu Shaoyong; Li Shihong; Zhou Duo

    2005-01-01

    The measurement method for some radio isotope such as 99 Tc, 182 Hf, 151 Sm is developing in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system, and applications in the fields of nuclear physics, geosciences, life science and materials science is carried out. The brief introduction of these methods and applications are described in this paper. (authors)

  4. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  5. Atomic mass and characteristic constant of nuclear ground state (CENPL.MCC). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Ma Lizhen; Zhou Chunmei; Ge Zhigang

    1994-01-01

    Atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground states are basic data for nuclear physics, and necessary ones for basic researches, theoretical calculations, as well as many applied researches. The atomic mass of exotic nuclei quite far from the valley stability are also very important for astrophysics researches. The above-requirement is paid attention to in our setting up this file. The recent and as many as possible data (such as the half-lives of the new nuclides 202 Pt, 208 Hg and 185 Hf and the mass excess of 199 Ir, which were produced and distinguished by Chinese scientists) have been collected, and put into the computer-based data file in brief table format. (1 fig.)

  6. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru; Okada, Moritami

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Significancy in atomic mass measurements and the topography of the mass-surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is discussed how to explore new regions of the chart of the nuclides through masses, and what has to be understood under significant mass measurements. In the exploratory phase of a new region of the chart, a result with almost any accuracy is appropriate. The higher the accuracy is, the better the possibility is to see finer structures. (G.P.) 24 refs.; 10 figs

  8. Use of a discharge in an hollow cathode as neutral atom source for resonant ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, T.; Briand, A.; Khelifa, N.; Mauchien, P.

    1987-01-01

    The resonance ionization mass spectrometry in our laboratory is aimed at simplification of isotope measurements of elements present in mixtures and at measurement of very small isotopes. An atomization source which produces an atomic beam collimated from a discharge in a hollow cathode has been developed. First results of this spectrometry with an uranium atomic jet are presented [fr

  9. A practical relation between atomic numbers and alpha coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachance, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    A first approximation indicates that fundamental alpha coefficients for a given analyte vary as a function of the ratio of their respective atomic number raised to a power. This simple rule applies mainly at the limits (i.e., when the weight fraction of analyte i, Wsub(i) is of the order of 0.0 or 1.0) in cases of absorption and weak enhancement. The relation thus provides a means of generating coefficients for the system i-k from experimental data obtained on system i-j and a means of verifying experimental alphas, since arrays of coefficients must show a high degree of concordance. (author)

  10. Gas chromatography of organic microcontaminants using atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection combined in one instrument (GC-AED/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Hankemeier, T.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the coupling of an atomic-emission detector and mass-spectrometric detector to a single gas chromatograph. Splitting of the column effluent enables simultaneous detection by atomic-emission detection (AED) and mass spectrometry (MS) and yields a powerful system for the target

  11. The Ame2012 atomic mass evaluation. Pt. 1. Evaluation of input data, adjustment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G; Wang, M.; Wapstra, A.H.; Kondev, F.G.; MacCormick, M.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first of two articles (Part I and Part II) that presents the results of the new atomic mass evaluation, Ame2012. It includes complete information on the experimental input data (including not used and rejected ones), as well as details on the evaluation procedures used to derive the tables with recommended values given in the second part. This article describes the evaluation philosophy and procedures that were implemented in the selection of specific nuclear reaction, decay and mass-spectrometer results. These input values were entered in the least-squares adjustment procedure for determining the best values for the atomic masses and their uncertainties. Calculation procedures and particularities of the AME are then described. All accepted and rejected data, including outweighed ones, are presented in a tabular format and compared with the adjusted values (obtained using the adjustment procedure). Differences with the previous Ame2003 evaluation are also discussed and specific information is presented for several cases that may be of interest to various AME users. The second Ame2012 article, the last one in this issue, gives a table with recommended values of atomic masses, as well as tables and graphs of derived quantities, along with the list of references used in both this Ame2012 evaluation and the Nubase2012 one (the first paper in this issue). (authors)

  12. The AME2003 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data, adjustment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapstra, A.H.; Audi, G.; Thibault, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the first of two parts presenting the result of a new evaluation of atomic masses (AME2003). In this first part we give full information on the used and rejected input data and on the procedures used in deriving the tables in the second part. We first describe the philosophy and procedures used in selecting nuclear-reaction, decay, and mass spectrometric results as input values in a least-squares evaluation of best values for atomic masses. The calculation procedures and particularities of the AME are then described. All accepted data, and rejected ones with a reported precision still of interest, are presented in a table and compared there with the adjusted values. The differences with the earlier evaluation are briefly discussed and information is given of interest for the users of this AME. The second paper for the AME2003, last in this issue, gives a table of atomic masses, tables and graphs of derived quantities, and the list of references used in both this evaluation and the NUBASE2003 table (first paper in this issue). AMDC: http://csnwww.in2p3.fr/AMDC/

  13. Time-of-flight mass spectrographs—From ions to neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    After their introduction to space physics in the mid 1980s time-of-flight (TOF) spectrographs have become a main staple in spaceborne mass spectrometry. They have largely replaced magnetic spectrometers, except when extremely high mass resolution is required to identify complex molecules, for example, in the vicinity of comets or in planetary atmospheres. In combination with electrostatic analyzers and often solid state detectors, TOF spectrographs have become key instruments to diagnose space plasma velocity distributions, mass, and ionic charge composition. With a variety of implementation schemes that also include isochronous electric field configurations, TOF spectrographs can respond to diverse science requirements. This includes a wide range in mass resolution to allow the separation of medium heavy isotopes or to simply provide distributions of the major species, such as H, He, and O, to obtain information on source tracers or mass fluxes. With a top-hat analyzer at the front end, or in combination with deflectors for three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the distribution function of ions can be obtained with good time resolution. Most recently, the reach of TOF ion mass spectrographs has been extended to include energetic neutral atoms. After selecting the arrival direction with mechanical collimation, followed by conversion to ions, adapted TOF sensors form a new branch of the spectrograph family tree. We review the requirements, challenges, and implementation schemes for ion and neutral atom spectrographs, including potential directions for the future, while largely avoiding overlap with complementary contributions in this special issue.

  14. The relation of double peaks, observed in quartz hydride atomizers, to the fate of free analyte atoms in the determination of arsenic and selenium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Dedina, Jiri

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism at the origin of double peaks formation in quartz hydride atomizers were investigated by continuous flow hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic and selenium were used as model analytes. The effect of atomization mode (flame-in-gas-shield (FIGS), miniature diffusion flame and double flame (DF)) and some experimental parameters as oxygen supply rate for microflame and the distance from atomization to free atoms detection point, were investigated on the shape of both analytical signals and calibration graphs. Rollover of calibration graphs and double peak formation are strictly related each to the other and could be observed only in FIGS atomizer mode under some particular conditions. A mechanism based on incomplete atomization of hydrides cannot explain the collected experimental evidences because the microflame of FIGS is able to produce quantitative atomization of large amount of hydrides even at supply rate of oxygen close to extinction threshold of microflame. The heterogeneous gas-solid reactions between finely dispersed particles, formed by free atom recombination, and the free atoms in the gaseous phase are at the origin of double peak formation

  15. The Ame2012 atomic mass evaluation. Pt. 2. Tables, graphs and references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.; Kondev, F.G.; MacCormick, M.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second part of the new evaluation of atomic masses, Ame2012. From the results of a least-squares calculation, described in Part I, for all accepted experimental data, we derive here tables and graphs to replace those of Ame2003. The first table lists atomic masses. It is followed by a table of the influences of data on primary nuclides, a table of separation energies and reaction energies, and finally, a series of graphs of separation and decay energies. The last section in this paper lists all references to the input data used in Part I of this Ame2012 and also to the data included in the Nubase2012 evaluation (first paper in this issue). (authors)

  16. ENAM'04 Fourth International Conference on Exotic Nuclei and Atomic Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conference can trace its origins to the 1950s and 1960s with the Atomic Mass and Fundamental Constants (AMCO) and the Nuclei Far From Stability (NFFS) series of conferences. Held jointly in 1992, the conferences officially merged in 1995 and the fourth conference was held at Callaway Gardens in Pine Mountain, GA and was organized by the Physics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conference covered a broad list of topics consisting of a series of invited and contributed presentation highlighting recent research in the following fields: Atomic masses, nuclear moments, and nuclear radii; Forms of radioactivity; Nuclear structure, nuclei at the drip lines, cluster phenomena; Reactions with radioactive ion beams; Nuclear astrophysics; Fundamental symmetries and interactions; Heaviest elements and fission; Radioactive ion beam production and experimental developments; Applications of exotic nuclei

  17. A mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulation of liquid atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Kun; Shao, Changxiao [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Jianren, E-mail: fanjr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-10-01

    An improved mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulations of liquid atomization is developed to address the issue of mass loss in the existing level set method. This method introduces a mass remedy procedure based on the local curvature at the interface, and in principle, can ensure the absolute mass conservation of the liquid phase in the computational domain. Three benchmark cases, including Zalesak's disk, a drop deforming in a vortex field, and the binary drop head-on collision, are simulated to validate the present method, and the excellent agreement with exact solutions or experimental results is achieved. It is shown that the present method is able to capture the complex interface with second-order accuracy and negligible additional computational cost. The present method is then applied to study more complex flows, such as a drop impacting on a liquid film and the swirling liquid sheet atomization, which again, demonstrates the advantages of mass conservation and the capability to represent the interface accurately.

  18. Squark and slepton mass relations in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming universal scalar masses at large energies, there are four intragenerational relations between the masses of the squarks and sleptons for each light generation. In this paper we study the scalar mass relations which follow only from the assumption that at large energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle. Two new intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. In addition, a third mass relation is found which relates the Higgs boson masses, the masses of the third generation scalars, and the masses of the scalars of the lighter generations. Verification of a fourth mass relation, involving only the charged slepton masses, provides a signal for SO(10) unification

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Atomic mass excesses (Schatz+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, H.; Ong, W.-J.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray burst model predictions of light curves and the final composition of the nuclear ashes are affected by uncertain nuclear masses. However, not all of these masses are determined experimentally with sufficient accuracy. Here we identify the remaining nuclear mass uncertainties in X-ray burst models using a one-zone model that takes into account the changes in temperature and density evolution caused by changes in the nuclear physics. Two types of bursts are investigated-a typical mixed H/He burst with a limited rapid proton capture process (rp-process) and an extreme mixed H/He burst with an extended rp-process. When allowing for a 3σ variation, only three remaining nuclear mass uncertainties affect the light-curve predictions of a typical H/He burst (27P, 61Ga, and 65As), and only three additional masses affect the composition strongly (80Zr, 81Zr, and 82Nb). A larger number of mass uncertainties remain to be addressed for the extreme H/He burst, with the most important being 58Zn, 61Ga, 62Ge, 65As, 66Se, 78Y, 79Y, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 82Nb, 83Nb, 86Tc, 91Rh, 95Ag, 98Cd, 99In, 100In, and 101In. The smallest mass uncertainty that still impacts composition significantly when varied by 3σ is 85Mo with 16keV uncertainty. For one of the identified masses, 27P, we use the isobaric mass multiplet equation to improve the mass uncertainty, obtaining an atomic mass excess of -716(7)keV. The results provide a roadmap for future experiments at advanced rare isotope beam facilities, where all the identified nuclides are expected to be within reach for precision mass measurements. (1 data file).

  20. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  1. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Shchepunov, V. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Gulbekyan, G. G.; Khabarov, M. V.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Efremov, A. A.; Pashenko, S. V.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Yeremin, A. V.; Yavor, M. I.; Kalimov, A. G.

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A≈20 to A≈500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90° electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  2. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, Yu T; Dmitriev, S N; Itkis, M G; Gulbekyan, G G; Khabarov, M V; Bekhterev, V V; Bogomolov, S L; Efremov, A A; Pashenko, S V; Stepantsov, S V; Yeremin, A V; Yavor, M I; Kalimov, A G

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 sup - sup 3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A approx 20 to A approx 500, its mass acceptance is as large as +-2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considere...

  3. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . The set up can work in the wide mass range from A∼20 to A∼500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given

  4. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A. E-mail: shchepun@sunhe.jinr.rushchepun@cv.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10{sup -3}. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A{approx}20 to A{approx}500, its mass acceptance is as large as {+-}2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  5. Dirac equation in very special relativity for hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Silva, J.E.G., E-mail: euclides@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-000 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2014-11-10

    In this work, we study the modified Dirac equation in the framework of very special relativity (VSR). The low-energy regime is accessed and the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is obtained. It turns out that this Hamiltonian is similar to that achieved from the Standard Model Extension (SME) via coupling of the spinor field to a Lorentz-violating term, but new features arise inherited from the non-local character of the VSR. In addition, the implications of the VSR-modified Lorentz symmetry on the spectrum of a hydrogen atom are determined by calculating the first-order energy corrections in the context of standard quantum mechanics. Among the results, we highlight that the modified Hamiltonian provides non-vanishing corrections which lift the degeneracy of the energy levels and allow us to find an upper bound upon the VSR-parameter.

  6. Quadrupole type mass spectrometric study of the abstraction reaction between hydrogen atoms and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat

    2008-02-01

    The reactions of photochemically generated deuterium atoms of selected initial translational energy with ethane have been investigated. At each initial energy the relative probability of the atoms undergoing reaction or energy loss on collision with ethane was investigated, and the phenomenological threshold energy was measured as 30+/-5kJmol(-1) for the abstraction from the secondary C-H bonds. The ratio of relative yields per bond, secondary:primary was approximately 3 at the higher energies studied. The correlation of threshold energies with bond dissociation energies, heats of reaction and activation energies is discussed for abstraction reactions with several hydrocarbons.

  7. Blind deconvolution of time-of-flight mass spectra from atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.J.S.; Thuvander, M.; Stiller, K.; Odén, M.; Hultman, L.

    2013-01-01

    A major source of uncertainty in compositional measurements in atom probe tomography stems from the uncertainties of assigning peaks or parts of peaks in the mass spectrum to their correct identities. In particular, peak overlap is a limiting factor, whereas an ideal mass spectrum would have peaks at their correct positions with zero broadening. Here, we report a method to deconvolute the experimental mass spectrum into such an ideal spectrum and a system function describing the peak broadening introduced by the field evaporation and detection of each ion. By making the assumption of a linear and time-invariant behavior, a system of equations is derived that describes the peak shape and peak intensities. The model is fitted to the observed spectrum by minimizing the squared residuals, regularized by the maximum entropy method. For synthetic data perfectly obeying the assumptions, the method recovered peak intensities to within ±0.33at%. The application of this model to experimental APT data is exemplified with Fe–Cr data. Knowledge of the peak shape opens up several new possibilities, not just for better overall compositional determination, but, e.g., for the estimation of errors of ranging due to peak overlap or peak separation constrained by isotope abundances. - Highlights: • A method for the deconvolution of atom probe mass spectra is proposed. • Applied to synthetic randomly generated spectra the accuracy was ±0.33 at. • Application of the method to an experimental Fe–Cr spectrum is demonstrated

  8. Atomic Mass Dependence of $\\Xi^{-}$ Baryon and $\\bar \\Xi^+$ Baryon Production in Central 250-GeV/c $\\pi^-$ - Nucleon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagenhart, William David [Tufts U.

    2000-02-01

    We present the first measurement of the atomic mass dependence of central $\\Xi^-$ and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$ production. It is measured using a sample of 22,459 $\\Xi^-$'s and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$'s produced in collisions between a 250 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam and targets of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and tungsten. The relative cross sections are fit to the two parameter function $\\sigma_0 A^{\\alpha}$, where A is the atomic mass. We measure $\\alpha$ = 0:924 $\\pm$ 0:020 $\\pm$ 0:025, for Feynman-x in the range $\\pm$ 0:09 < $x_F$ < 0:15.

  9. Effective mass of 4He atom in superfluid and normal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, Yi.O.; Grigorchak, O.Yi.; Pastukhov, V.S.; Pritula, R.O.

    2016-01-01

    The formula for the temperature dependence of the effective mass of a 4 He atom in the superfluid and normal phases is obtained. This expression for the effective mass allows one to eliminate infra-red divergences, being applicable at all temperatures, except for a narrow fluctuation region 0.97< < approx T/T c <=1. In the high and low temperature limits, as well as in the interactionless limit, the obtained expression reproduces the well known results. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the phase transition temperature T c ∼2.18 K are calculated, by using the formula obtained for the effective mass. In the framework of the approach proposed in this work, the small critical index η is determined in the random phase approximation. The obtained value corresponds to the well known result

  10. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  11. Rings Related to Special Atoms | France-Jackson | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract unavailable at this time... Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 16A21, 16A12 Keywords: ring, special atoms, atoms, *k-ring, prime ring, *-ring, Jacobson, artinia, essential extension, homomorphic image, ideals. Quaestiones Mathematicae 24(1) 2001, 105–109 ...

  12. How can we probe the atom mass currents induced by synthetic gauge fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramekanti, Arun; Killi, Matthew; Trotzky, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Ultracold atomic fermions and bosons in an optical lattice can have quantum ground states which support equilibrium currents in the presence of synthetic magnetic fields or spin orbit coupling. As a tool to uncover these mass currents, we propose using an anisotropic quantum quench of the optical lattice which dynamically converts the current patterns into measurable density patterns. Using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we show that this scheme can probe diverse equilibrium bulk current patterns in Bose superfluids and Fermi fluids induced by synthetic magnetic fields, as well as detect the chiral edge currents in topological states of atomic matter such as quantum Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators. This work is supported by NSERC of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  13. Spring meeting of the scientific associations for atomic physics, high speed physics, mass spectrometry, molecular physics, plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting in Rostock with aspects of atomic physics, molecular physics, high speed physics, plasma physics and mass spectrometry. (MM)

  14. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory

  15. Atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge: A versatile ion source for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Andrew J. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405 (United States); Williams, Kelsey L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242 (United States); Hieftje, Gary M. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405 (United States); Shelley, Jacob T., E-mail: shellj@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge (SCGD) has been evaluated as an ion source for atomic, molecular, and ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The SCGD consists of a direct-current plasma, supported in the ambient air in the absence of gas flows, and sustained upon the surface of a flowing liquid cathode. Analytes introduced in the flowing liquid, as an ambient gas, or as a solid held near the plasma are vaporized and ionized by interactions within or near the discharge. Introduction of acidic solutions containing metal salts produced bare elemental ions as well as H{sub 2}O, OH{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} adducts. Detection limits for these elemental species ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppb, working curves spanned more than 4 orders of linear dynamic range, and precision varied between 5 and 16% relative standard deviation. Small organic molecules were also efficiently ionized from solution, and both the intact molecular ion and fragments were observed in the resulting SCGD mass spectra. Fragmentation of molecular species was found to be tunable; high discharge currents led to harder ionization, while low discharge currents produced stronger molecular-ion signals. Ambient gases and solids, desorbed by the plasma from a glass probe, were also readily ionized by the SCGD. Indeed, strong analyte signals were obtained from solid samples placed at least 2 cm from the plasma. These findings indicate that the SCGD might be useful also for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Combined with earlier results that showed the SCGD is useful for ionization of labile biomolecules, the results here indicate that the SCGD is a highly versatile ion source capable of providing both elemental and molecular mass-spectral information. - Highlights: • Solution-cathode glow discharge used as an ionization source for mass spectrometry. • SCGD-MS can provide atomic as well as intact molecular mass spectra. • Atomic limits of detection range

  16. Small sample analysis using sputter atomization/resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.H.; Goeringer, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to investigate the emission of ions via argon sputtering from U metal, UO 2 , and U 3 O 8 samples. We have also used laser resonance ionization techniques to study argon-sputtered neutral atoms and molecules emitted from these same samples. For the case of U metal, a significant enhancement in detection sensitivity for U is obtained via SA/RIMS. For U in the fully oxidized form (U 3 O 8 ), SA/RIMS offers no improvement in U detection sensitivity over conventional SIMS when sputtering with argon. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Leptoquarks: Neutrino masses and related accelerator signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kovalenko, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Leptoquark-Higgs interactions induce mixing between leptoquark (LQ) states with different chiralities once the electroweak symmetry is broken. In such LQ models Majorana neutrino masses are generated at 1-loop order. Here we calculate the neutrino mass matrix and explore the constraints on the parameter space enforced by the assumption that LQ-loops explain current neutrino oscillation data. LQs will be produced at the CERN LHC, if their masses are at or below the TeV scale. Since the fermionic decays of LQs are governed by the same Yukawa couplings, which are responsible for the nontrivial neutrino mass matrix, several decay branching ratios of LQ states can be predicted from measured neutrino data. Especially interesting is that large lepton flavor violating rates in muon and tau final states are expected. In addition, the model predicts that, if kinematically possible, heavier LQs decay into lighter ones plus either a standard model Higgs boson or a Z 0 /W ± gauge boson. Thus, experiments at the LHC might be able to exclude the LQ mechanism as an explanation of neutrino data.

  18. Light-induced atomic desorption and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchianti, A; Bogi, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Moi, L [CNISM and Physics Department, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: burchianti@unisi.it

    2009-07-15

    We review some recent studies on light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) from dielectric surfaces. Alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either on organic films or on porous glass are released into the vapor phase under illumination. The measurements were performed in Pyrex resonance cells either coated with siloxane films or containing a porous glass sample. In both cases, the experimental results show that LIAD can be used to produce atomic densities suitable for most atomic physics experiments. Moreover, we find that photoinduced effects, correlated with LIAD, produce reversible formation and evaporation of alkali-metal clusters in porous glass. These processes depend on the light frequency, making the porous glass transmittance controllable by light.

  19. The relation between the (N) and (N-1) electrons atomic ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briet, P.

    1984-05-01

    The relation between the ground state of an N and (N-1) electrons atomic system are studied. We show that in some directions of the configuration space, the ratio of the N electrons atomic ground state to the one particle density is asymptotically equivalent to the (N-1) electrons atomic ground state

  20. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaser, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this research, new high-temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. During the period January 1993--December 1993, emphasis was placed on (a) analytical investigations of atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasma (He ICP) that are suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements possessing high excitation and ionization energies; (b) simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources to predict their structure and fundamental and analytical properties without incurring the enormous cost of experimental studies; (c) spectrosopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high-temperature plasmas; (d) fundamental studies of He ICP discharges and argon-nitrogen plasma by high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry; and (e) fundamental and analytical investigation of new, low-cost devices as sample introduction systems for atomic spectrometry and examination of new diagnostic techniques for probing aerosols. Only the most important achievements are included in this report to illustrate progress and obstacles. Detailed descriptions of the authors' investigations are outlined in the reprints and preprints that accompany this report. The technical progress expected next year is briefly described at the end of this report

  1. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution: the origin of the mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Silverman, John D.; Kashino, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mass-metallicity relation for z ≲ 1.6. The mass-metallicity relation follows a steep slope with a turnover, or 'knee', at stellar masses around 10 10 M ☉ . At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass. The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas-phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity. Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. We derive an equation for estimating the hydrogen gas mass from measurements of stellar mass and metallicity valid for z ≲ 1.6 and predict the cosmological evolution of galactic gas masses.

  2. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  3. On the Mass of Atoms in Molecules: Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Arne; Agostini, Federica; Sebastiani, Daniel; Gross, E. K. U.; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2017-07-01

    Describing the dynamics of nuclei in molecules requires a potential energy surface, which is traditionally provided by the Born-Oppenheimer or adiabatic approximation. However, we also need to assign masses to the nuclei. There, the Born-Oppenheimer picture does not account for the inertia of the electrons, and only bare nuclear masses are considered. Nowadays, experimental accuracy challenges the theoretical predictions of rotational and vibrational spectra and requires the participation of electrons in the internal motion of the molecule. More than 80 years after the original work of Born and Oppenheimer, this issue has still not been solved, in general. Here, we present a theoretical and numerical framework to address this problem in a general and rigorous way. Starting from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we include electronic effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer regime in a perturbative way via position-dependent corrections to the bare nuclear masses. This maintains an adiabaticlike point of view: The nuclear degrees of freedom feel the presence of the electrons via a single potential energy surface, whereas the inertia of electrons is accounted for and the total mass of the system is recovered. This constitutes a general framework for describing the mass acquired by slow degrees of freedom due to the inertia of light, bounded particles; thus, it is applicable not only in electron-nuclear systems but in light-heavy nuclei or ions as well. We illustrate this idea with a model of proton transfer, where the light particle is the proton and the heavy particles are the oxygen atoms to which the proton is bounded. Inclusion of the light-particle inertia allows us to gain orders of magnitude in accuracy. The electron-nuclear perspective is adopted, instead, to calculate position-dependent mass corrections using density functional theory for a few polyatomic molecules at their equilibrium geometry. These data can serve as input for the

  4. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  5. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Prediction of mass excess, β-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and β-decay energies (β-decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV

  7. Prediction of mass excess, #betta#-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and #betta#-decay energies (#betta# - -decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV. (author)

  8. Optimisation of mass ranging for atom probe microanalysis and application to the corrosion processes in Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.; Smith, G.D.W.; Gault, B.

    2011-01-01

    Atom probe tomography uses time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the chemical nature of atoms from their mass-to-charge-state ratios. Within a mass spectrum, ranges are defined so as to attribute a chemical identity to each peak. The accuracy of atom probe microanalysis relies on the definition of these ranges. Here we propose and compare several automated ranging techniques, tested against simulated mass spectra. The performance of these metrics compare favourably with a trial of users asked to manually range a simplified simulated dataset. The optimised automated ranging procedure was then used to precisely evaluate the very low iron concentration (0.003-0.018 at%) in a zirconium alloy to reveal its behaviour in the matrix during corrosion; oxygen is injected into solution and has the effect of increasing the local iron concentration near the oxide-metal interface, which in turn affects the corrosion properties of the metal substrate. -- Research Highlights: → Realistic simulated mass spectra were generated so as to reproduce experimental data with a perfectly determined composition. → Several metrics were tested against these simulated mass spectra to determine an optimal methodology for ranging mass peaks in atom probe tomography. Systematic automated ranging provides a significant reduction in the deviation between true and measured concentrations compared to manual ranging by multiple users on the same data. → Experimental datasets were subsequently investigated, and Fe has been shown to be distributed as a random solid solution within the matrix of 'as-received' recrystallised ZIRLO, a zirconium alloy.

  9. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  10. Quark mass relations to four-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present results for the relation between a heavy quark mass defined in the on-shell and MS scheme to four-loop order. The method to compute the four-loop on-shell integral is briefly described and the new results are used to establish relations between various short-distance masses and the MS quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. These relations play an important role in the accurate determination of the MS heavy quark masses.

  11. Simple relation among the charged lepton masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi; Yasue, Masaki.

    1992-10-01

    It is suggested that the first and second generations of quarks and leptons can be taken as almost and quasi Nambu-Goldstone fermions, respectively. As a result, derived are simple relations such as m τ ≅(m μ 3 /m e ) 1/2 , which are well satisfied experimentally. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional molecular imaging using mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wucher, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.wucher@uni-due.de; Cheng Juan; Zheng Leiliang; Willingham, David; Winograd, Nicholas [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We combine imaging ToF-SIMS depth profiling and wide area atomic force microscopy to analyze a test structure consisting of a 300 nm trehalose film deposited on a Si substrate and pre-structured by means of a focused 15-keV Ga{sup +} ion beam. Depth profiling is performed using a 40-keV C{sub 60}{sup +} cluster ion beam for erosion and mass spectral data acquisition. A generic protocol for depth axis calibration is described which takes into account both lateral and in-depth variations of the erosion rate. By extrapolation towards zero analyzed lateral area, an 'intrinsic' depth resolution of about 8 nm is found which appears to be characteristic of the cluster-surface interaction process.

  13. E parallel B energy-mass spectrograph for measurement of ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma composition and energy is an important diagnostic in fusion experiments. The Thomson parabola spectrograph described here utilizes an electric field parallel to a magnetic field (E parallel B) and a two-dimensional imaging detector to uniquely identify the energy-per-charge and mass-per-charge distributions of plasma ions. An ultrathin foil can be inserted in front of the E parallel B filter to convert neutral atoms to ions, which are subsequently analyzed using the E parallel B filter. Since helium exiting an ultrathin foil does not form a negative ion and hydrogen isotopes do, this spectrograph allows unique identification of tritium ions and neutrals even in the presence of a large background of 3 He. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. The atomic and molecular content of disks around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Herczeg, G. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Carr, J. S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Bruderer, S., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    There is growing observational evidence that disk evolution is stellar-mass-dependent. Here, we show that these dependencies extend to the atomic and molecular content of disk atmospheres. We analyze a unique dataset of high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra from eight very low mass star and brown dwarf disks. We report the first detections of Ne{sup +}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and tentative detections of H{sub 2}O toward these faint and low-mass disks. Two of our [Ne II] 12.81 μm emission lines likely trace the hot (≥5000 K) disk surface irradiated by X-ray photons from the central stellar/sub-stellar object. The H{sub 2} S(2) and S(1) fluxes are consistent with arising below the fully or partially ionized surface traced by the [Ne II] emission in gas at ∼600 K. We confirm the higher C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/HCN flux and column density ratio in brown dwarf disks previously noted from low-resolution IRS spectra. Our high-resolution spectra also show that the HCN/H{sub 2}O fluxes of brown dwarf disks are on average higher than those of T Tauri disks. Our LTE modeling hints that this difference extends to column density ratios if H{sub 2}O lines trace warm ≥600 K disk gas. These trends suggest that the inner regions of brown dwarf disks have a lower O/C ratio than those of T Tauri disks, which may result from a more efficient formation of non-migrating icy planetesimals. An O/C = 1, as inferred from our analysis, would have profound implications on the bulk composition of rocky planets that can form around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  15. Estimation of unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the estimations of the unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations is presented. One discusses the new hypotheses supplementing the original general Garvey-Kelson scheme, reviewing the generalized mass relations and formulae, according to the present status of this new formalism. A critical discussions is given of the reliability of these new Garvey-Kelson type extrapolation procedures. (author)

  16. Mechanics of extended masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harte, Abraham I

    2012-01-01

    The 'external' or 'Right' motion of extended bodies is studied in general relativity. Compact material objects of essentially arbitrary shape, spin, internal composition and velocity are allowed as long as there is no direct (non-gravitational) contact with other sources of stress-energy. Physically reasonable linear and angular momenta are proposed for such bodies and exact equations describing their evolution are derived. Changes in the momenta depend on a certain 'effective metric' that is closely related to a non-perturbative generalization of the Detweiler-Whiting R-field originally introduced in the self-force literature. If the effective metric inside a self-gravitating body can be adequately approximated by an appropriate power series, the instantaneous gravitational force and torque exerted on it is shown to be identical to the force and torque exerted on an appropriate test body moving in the effective metric. This result holds to all multipole orders. The only instantaneous effect of a body's self-field is to finitely renormalize the 'bare' multipole moments of its stress-energy tensor. The MiSaTaQuWa expression for the gravitational self-force is recovered as a simple application. A gravitational self-torque is obtained as well. Lastly, it is shown that the effective metric in which objects appear to move is approximately a solution to the vacuum Einstein equation if the physical metric is an approximate solution to Einstein's equation linearized about a vacuum background. (paper)

  17. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1982-04-01

    The law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances in the United Kingdom is summarized under the following headings: the Common Law; legislation (Atomic Energy Act 1946; Radioactive Substances Acts 1948 and 1960; Electricity (Amendment) Act 1961; Nuclear Installations Act 1965 and 1969 (and subordinate legislation); Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Order 1970; Radiological Protection Act 1970 (as amended); Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying)(Atomic Energy Establishments) Regulations 1981; Nuclear Safeguards and Electricity (Finance) Act 1978; legislation relating to the UK Atomic Energy Authority); Regulations under the Factories Act 1961; Regulations relating to educational establishments; Regulations and Orders relating to food and medicines; Regulations, etc., affecting the transport of radioactive materials; Regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory Codes of Practice, etc.; international conventions, etc., relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  18. On the Mass of Atoms in Molecules: Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Scherrer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Describing the dynamics of nuclei in molecules requires a potential energy surface, which is traditionally provided by the Born-Oppenheimer or adiabatic approximation. However, we also need to assign masses to the nuclei. There, the Born-Oppenheimer picture does not account for the inertia of the electrons, and only bare nuclear masses are considered. Nowadays, experimental accuracy challenges the theoretical predictions of rotational and vibrational spectra and requires the participation of electrons in the internal motion of the molecule. More than 80 years after the original work of Born and Oppenheimer, this issue has still not been solved, in general. Here, we present a theoretical and numerical framework to address this problem in a general and rigorous way. Starting from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we include electronic effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer regime in a perturbative way via position-dependent corrections to the bare nuclear masses. This maintains an adiabaticlike point of view: The nuclear degrees of freedom feel the presence of the electrons via a single potential energy surface, whereas the inertia of electrons is accounted for and the total mass of the system is recovered. This constitutes a general framework for describing the mass acquired by slow degrees of freedom due to the inertia of light, bounded particles; thus, it is applicable not only in electron-nuclear systems but in light-heavy nuclei or ions as well. We illustrate this idea with a model of proton transfer, where the light particle is the proton and the heavy particles are the oxygen atoms to which the proton is bounded. Inclusion of the light-particle inertia allows us to gain orders of magnitude in accuracy. The electron-nuclear perspective is adopted, instead, to calculate position-dependent mass corrections using density functional theory for a few polyatomic molecules at their equilibrium geometry. These data can

  19. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  20. Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ta-Pei

    2013-01-01

    Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri

  1. Garvey-Kelson mass relations and n-p interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zaochun; Meng Jie; Chen Yongshou

    2001-01-01

    Two Garvey-Kelson mass relations are found to be directly related to the n-p interaction. In the case of the same nuclear core, the neutron-proton interaction energy between two neutrons and one proton ε 2n-1p is experimentally found to be close to that between one neutron and two protons ε 1n-2p , which is equivalent to the first Garvey-Kelson mass relation. The sum of ε 2n-1p and ε 1n-2p is close to the n-p interaction energy between two neutrons and two protons ε 2n-2p , which leads to the second Garvey-Kelson mass relation. An explanation of these two n-p interaction relations is presented. It is shown that both of these mass relations hold more accurately when the core is an even-even core

  2. The management-retrieval code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Ma Lizhen

    1994-01-01

    The management code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state (MCC) is used for displaying the basic information on the MCC sub-library on the screen, and retrieving the required data. The MCC data file contains the data of 4800 nuclides ranging from Z 0, A = 1 to Z = 122, A = 318. The MCC sub-library has been set up at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC), and has been used to provide the atomic masses and characteristic constants of nuclear ground states for the nuclear model calculation, nuclear data evaluations and other fields

  3. The dispersion relation for the forward elastic electron-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical properties of forward elastic electron-atom scattering amplitude are discussed. It is noted that the occurrence of exchange between the incoming and atomic electrons leads to the appearance of a number of singularities on the negative real axis in the complex energy plane. The conclusion is drawn that the dispersion relation for the forward electron-atom scattering amplitude should also include an integration over the negative energy from - I to - infinity, where I is the ionization potential. (author)

  4. Mass relations for two-dimensional classical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataru-Mihai, P.

    1980-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional sigma-nonlinear models as a framework mass relations for classical configurations of instanton/soliton type are derived. Our results suggest an interesting differential-geometric interpretation of the mass of a classical configuration in terms of the topological characteristics of an associated manifold. (orig.)

  5. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  6. Atomization Performance Predictions of Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lightfoot, Malissa D; Danczyk, Stephen A; Talley, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    .... The theory relates the mass of film lost via atomization to the mass of liquid introduced into the atomizer to predict atomization efficiency and offers some estimations of primary droplet diameter...

  7. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg -1 ; ICP-MS, 437ngg -1 ) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet: A New Tool for Mass Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Internet as a tool for mass communication and public relations is emphasized and the use of Internet for such purposes in librarianship and infor­mation studies is explained.

  9. The Atomic Mass Dependence of Massive Muon Pair Production in 225 GeV/c $\\pi$ - Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Morris L. [Chicago U.

    1984-03-01

    The production of massive muon pairs in 225 GeV/c $\\pi^-$-nucleus interactions has been studied for four nuclear targets. The dependence of the integrated cross section on atomic mass A was measured by comparing the relative cross sections for the targets. If one assumes that the cross section is proportional to $A^{\\alpha}$, a value of a= 1.00±0.06 for muon pair masses between 4.0 GeV/$c^2$ and 8.5 GeV/$c^2$ was obtained. The Drell-Yan model predicts an additional dependence of the cross section on the proton fraction Z/A. If one parametizes the integrated cross I section as a(Z/A)$A^{\\alpha}$ where $\\sigma$(Z/A) is a function of the proton fraction that includes the effects of the Drell-Yan model, Fermi Motion, and secondary pion production, a value of $\\alpha$ = 0.97±0.06 was obtained. The dependence of the muon pair transverse momentum distribution on nuclear size was also investigated. The second moment of the distribution <$P^2_T$> was found to be consistent with being independent of nuclear size. If the dependence of <$P^2_T$> on nuclear size is parametized as <$P^2_T$> = a + b $A^{1/3}$ the coefficient b was found to be less than 0.015 $GeV^2$/$c^2$ with 90% confidence.

  10. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  11. The Image of Public Relations in Mass Comm Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Carolyn

    1982-01-01

    Compared public relations sections in 12 introductory mass communication texts and found a confusion about the relationship of advertising and public relations, a lack of historical background, and an antipublic relations stance. Journal available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500, College Park, MD 20740; sc…

  12. Performance of a liquid-junction interface for capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoud, N.J.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Tjaden, U.R.; Gramberg, L.G.; Verheij, E.R.; Greef, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    The on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry using a continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment system in combination with a liquid-junction interface is described. The influence of the liquid-junction coupling on the efficiency and the resolution is investigated. Qualitative

  13. Assessment of air mass ventilation potential in and around Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, R.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study is quantification of airborne pollutant dispersion potential in and around Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, a coastal belt of Arabian sea. Apart from synoptic atmospheric circulation, there is local land-sea interactive breezes diurnally in the area for which air mass ventilation potential is assessed here. For this purpose, a micro-meteorological station was established at Mandala hill top representing Trombay area to measure 3 dimensional wind components, i.e. Zonal: u, meridional: v and vertical: w, using ultrasonic anemometer. Hourly wind speed and wind direction are derived in this study for a period of 1 year, January-December 2013. Accuracy of wind components measurement is 0.1 m/s. This covers low wind condition too, i.e. wind speed below 1 m/s. Hourly statistics of year-long as well as seasonal period of wind field and associated parameters reveals the uniqueness of wind field phenomenon at the site being situated in west coast. Seasonal Wind Roses captures various frequencies of wind speed and wind direction for the respective periods

  14. Relative scale and the strength and deformability of rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.

    1996-09-01

    The strength and deformation of rocks depend strongly on the degree of fracturing, which can be assessed in the field and related systematically to these properties. Appropriate Mohr envelopes obtained from the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system and the Hoek-Brown criterion for outcrops and other large-scale exposures of fractured rocks show that rock-mass cohesive strength, tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength can be reduced by as much as a factor often relative to values for the unfractured material. The rock-mass deformation modulus is also reduced relative to Young's modulus. A "cook-book" example illustrates the use of RMR in field applications. The smaller values of rock-mass strength and deformability imply that there is a particular scale of observation whose identification is critical to applying laboratory measurements and associated failure criteria to geologic structures.

  15. Relativistic gravitational potential and its relation to mass-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    From the general theory of relativity a relation is deduced between the mass of a particle and the gravitational field at the position of the particle. For this purpose the fall of a particle of negligible mass in the gravitational field of a massive body is used. After establishing the relativistic potential and its relationship to the rest mass of the particle, we show, assuming conservation of mass-energy, that the difference between two potential-levels depends upon the value of the radial metric coefficient at the position of an observer. Further, it is proved that the relativistic potential is compatible with the general concept of the potential also from the standpoint of kinematics. In the third section it is shown that, although the mass-energy of a body is a function of the distance from it, this does not influence the relativistic potential of the body itself. From this conclusion it follows that the mass-energy of a particle in a gravitational field is anisotropic; isotropic is the mass only. Further, the possibility of an incidental feed-back between two masses is ruled out, and the law of the composition of the relativistic gravitational potentials is deduced. Finally, it is shown, by means of a simple model, that local inhomogeneities in the ideal fluid filling the Universe have negligible influence on the total potential in large regions. (orig.)

  16. Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1996-01-01

    Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Relative-velocity distributions for two effusive atomic beams in counterpropagating and crossed-beam geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Formulas are presented for calculating the relative velocity distributions in effusive, orthogonal crossed beams and in effusive, counterpropagating beams experiments, which are two important geometries for the study of collision processes between atoms. In addition formulas for the distributions...

  18. Relative mobility of 1-H atoms of carbohydrates in heterogeneous isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.; Snetkova, E.V.; Kayumov, V.G.; Kaminskii, Yu.L.

    1988-01-01

    The method of competitive reactions was used to determine the relative mobilities of the 1-H atoms of carbohydrates in reactions of heterogeneous isotope exchange, using various reference standards, catalysts, and buffer systems. On the basis of the results obtained, the investigated carbohydrates are ranged in a series of decreasing mobility of the hydrogen atoms exchanged in heterogeneous isotope exchange reactions. It was demonstrated that the mobility of the 1-H atoms is related to the concentration of the acyclic forms of the carbohydrates

  19. Testing general relativity and alternative theories of gravity with space-based atomic clocks and atom interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarescu Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft’s reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth’s gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of Δ f / f ∼ 10−16 in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters |β − 1|, |γ − 1| ≲ 10−6. We also briefly review potential constraints by atom interferometers on scalar tensor theories and in particular on Chameleon and dilaton models.

  20. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  1. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  2. Job-Related Stress among Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.; Wearden, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Questions 600 full-time faculty members teaching journalism and/or mass communication about job-related stress. Finds faculty members suffer from job-related stress; differences exist in the way men and women view, experience, and cope with stress; anxiety and stress are shared by teachers at all grade levels; and times when faculty and students…

  3. Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model are derived. For this purpose the space- time picture of hadron interactions at high energies corresponding to planar diagrams of topological expansion is considered. Simple relations between intercepts and slopes of Regge trajectories based on the topological expansion and q anti q-string picture of hadrons are obtained [ru

  4. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  5. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application.

  6. Public relation to possibility of atomic energetics development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of sociological studies on the relation of various groups of population in Belarus to the problems of nuclear power development in the republic are given. The study showed that the the number of opponents and adherents of NPPs construction is practically equal. It is noted that the population is insufficiently informed on the nuclear power problem

  7. THE METALLICITIES OF LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES AND THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Bresolin, F.; Kewley, L. J.; Coil, A. L.; Davé, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, we quantify the metallicities of low-mass galaxies by constructing the most comprehensive census to date. We use galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey and estimate metallicities from their optical emission lines. We also use two smaller samples from the literature that have metallicities determined by the direct method using the temperature sensitive [O III]λ4363 line. We examine the scatter in the local mass-metallicity (MZ) relation determined from ∼20,000 star-forming galaxies in the SDSS and show that it is larger at lower stellar masses, consistent with the theoretical scatter in the MZ relation determined from hydrodynamical simulations. We determine a lower limit for the scatter in metallicities of galaxies down to stellar masses of ∼10 7 M ☉ which is only slightly smaller than the expected scatter inferred from the SDSS MZ relation and significantly larger than what has been previously established in the literature. The average metallicity of star-forming galaxies increases with stellar mass. By examining the scatter in the SDSS MZ relation, we show that this is mostly due to the lowest metallicity galaxies. The population of low-mass, metal-rich galaxies have properties that are consistent with previously identified galaxies that may be transitional objects between gas-rich dwarf irregulars and gas-poor dwarf spheroidals and ellipticals.

  8. xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, Barbara; Saintonge, Amélie; Janowiecki, Steven; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Lemonias, Jenna J.; Cooper, Andrew P.; Schiminovich, David; Hummels, Cameron B.; Fabello, Silvia; Geréb, Katinka; Kilborn, Virginia; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    We present the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (xGASS), a gas fraction-limited census of the atomic hydrogen (H I) gas content of 1179 galaxies selected only by stellar mass (M⋆ = 109-1011.5 M⊙) and redshift (0.01 new Arecibo observations of 208 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H I spectra. In addition to extending the GASS H I scaling relations by one decade in stellar mass, we quantify total (atomic+molecular) cold gas fractions and molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios, Rmol, for the subset of 477 galaxies observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that atomic gas fractions keep increasing with decreasing stellar mass, with no sign of a plateau down to log M⋆/M⊙ = 9. Total gas reservoirs remain H I-dominated across our full stellar mass range, hence total gas fraction scaling relations closely resemble atomic ones, but with a scatter that strongly correlates with Rmol, especially at fixed specific star formation rate. On average, Rmol weakly increases with stellar mass and stellar surface density μ⋆, but individual values vary by almost two orders of magnitude at fixed M⋆ or μ⋆. We show that, for galaxies on the star-forming sequence, variations of Rmol are mostly driven by changes of the H I reservoirs, with a clear dependence on μ⋆. Establishing if galaxy mass or structure plays the most important role in regulating the cold gas content of galaxies requires an accurate separation of bulge and disc components for the study of gas scaling relations.

  9. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  10. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  11. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global tempe...... redshift, the relation represents a new tool for determination of cosmological parameters, notably the cosmological constant Lambda....

  12. Atomic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation λ = h/(mv), where λ is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  13. Performance evaluation of indigenous thermal ionization mass spectrometer for determination of 235U/238U atom ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Parab, A.R.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Shah, Raju V.; Jagdish Kumar, S.; Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Bhatia, R.K.; Yadav, V.K.; Sharma, Madhavi P.; Tulsyan, Puneet; Chavda, Pradip; Sriniwasan, P.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) designed and developed at Technical Physics Division, B.A.R.C., was evaluated for its performance for the determination of 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in uranium samples. This consisted of evaluating the precision and accuracy on the 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in various isotopic reference materials as well as indigenously generated uranium samples. The results obtained by the indigenous TIMS were also compared with those obtained using a commercially available TIMS system. The internal and external precision were found to be around 0.1% for determining 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios close to those of natural uranium ( i.e. 0.00730). (author)

  14. Implications of the dwarfs spheroidal galaxy mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the mass-metallicity relation among dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in terms of a model which assumes that the internal chemical evolution of the dwarf spheroidals was promoted by supernova activity. The model can be used to explain the observed dwarf spheroidal mass-metallicity relation assuming the present mass of these systems M sub s is proportional to their initial masses M as M sub s varies according to a power-law index of exp 7/4. It is inferred from the power-law dependence of M on the proto-cloud radius that the most massive dwarf spheroids were formed from the densest clouds. The observed slope of the mass-metallicity relation for dwarf spheroidal galaxies is found to be significantly different from theoretical estimates of this slope for elliptical galaxies. It is suggested that the difference may imply that spheroidal dwarfs and elliptical galaxies had different formation histories, confirming Kormendy's (1985) observations of differences in the brightness and luminosity trends. 54 references

  15. Topics relating to atomic collisions in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, David C.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate various aspects of applications and limitations arising from atomic collisions in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates. First, we investigate the relative particle number squeezing produced in the excited states of a dilute condensate at zero temperature using stimulated light scattering. We show that a modest number of relative number squeezed particles can be achieved when atoms, produced in pairs through collisions in the condensate, are scattered out by their interaction with the lasers. This squeezing is optimal when the momentum is larger than the inverse healing length. This modest number of relative number squeezed particles has the potential to be amplified in four-wave-mixing experiments. We study the limitations on the relative number squeezing between photons and atoms coupled out from a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider the coupling between the translational atomic states by two photon Bragg processes, one of the photon modes involved in the Bragg process being in a coherent state, and the other initially unpopulated. We start with an interacting condensate at zero temperature and compute the time evolution for the system. We discuss how collisions between the atoms and photon rescattering affect the degree of squeezing which may be reached in such experiments. We investigate the limitations arising from atomic collisions on the storage and delay times of probe pulses in EIT experiments. We find that the atomic collisions can be described by an effective decay rate that limits storage and delay times. We calculate the momentum and temperature dependence of the decay rate and find that it is necessary to excite atoms to a particular momentum depending on temperature and spacing of the energy levels involved in order to minimize the decoherence effects of atomic collisions. Finally, we propose a method to probe states in the Mott insulator regime produced from a condensate in an optical lattice. We consider a

  16. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6. Gastric mass survey in atomic bomb survivors (1982 - 1984)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako

    1986-11-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at less than or equal to 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1% in Group 1, 5.4% in Group 2, and 4.9% in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7% vs 2.0%), followed by gastric polyp (0.9% vs 0.5%) and gastric cancer (0.6% vs 0.2%). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. Fundamental plan of atomic energy development and utilization in fiscal year 1986 related to atomic energy safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission decided to report to the Prime Minister after having determined this matter by assuming the passage of the budget draft for fiscal year 1986 as the prerequisite. As the fundamental policy, in order to cope with the advance of atomic energy development and utilization, such as the promotion of nuclear power generation and the construction of a prototype FBR, a demonstration ATR, a reprocessing plant and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, it is required to perfect the measures for ensuring the safety of atomic energy. For this purpose, the perfecting of the function of Nuclear Safety Commission and the system for safety examination, inspection and operation management and supervision in Government organs, the improvement of the quality of operators, the safety regulation of radioactive waste treatment and disposal, and the perfecting of the laws related to the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel and nuclear reacters are carried out. The research on the engineering safety of LWRs, the reactors of new types and reprocessing facilities, the research on the prevention of radiation injuries and the research on the safety of radioactive wastes are advanced. The establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, and the research on reactor decommissioning, the development of new type reactors and nuclear fusion are promoted from the viewpoint of safety. (Kako, I.)

  18. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  19. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  20. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bings, N.H., E-mail: bings@uni-mainz.de; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  1. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bings, N.H.; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  2. REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1969-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel

  3. Local energy equation for two-electron atoms and relation between kinetic energy and electron densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2002-08-01

    In early work, Dawson and March [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5850 (1984)] proposed a local energy method for treating both Hartree-Fock and correlated electron theory. Here, an exactly solvable model two-electron atom with pure harmonic interactions is treated in its ground state in the above context. A functional relation between the kinetic energy density t(r) at the origin r=0 and the electron density p(r) at the same point then emerges. The same approach is applied to the Hookean atom; in which the two electrons repel with Coulombic energy e 2 /r 12 , with r 12 the interelectronic separation, but are still harmonically confined. Again the kinetic energy density t(r) is the focal point, but now generalization away from r=0 is also effected. Finally, brief comments are added about He-like atomic ions in the limit of large atomic number. (author)

  4. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  5. The influence of nuclear risk sense to atomic industry's public relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukova, P.; Kazakevich, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this report is estimation of the influence of sensing of nuclear risk to atomic industry's public relation. In this report the reasons of the negative relation to nuclear energetic owing to inadequate sensing of the risk dealing with this fields have been represented. (authors)

  6. Quark-lepton complementarity relation and neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2005-01-01

    Latest measurements have revealed that the deviation from a maximal solar mixing angle is approximately the Cabibbo angle [i.e., quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) relation]. We argue that it is not plausible that this deviation from maximality, be it a coincidence or not, comes from the charged lepton mixing. Consequently we have calculated the required corrections to the exactly bimaximal neutrino mass matrix ansatz necessary to account for the solar mass difference and the solar mixing angle. We point out that the relative size of these two corrections depends strongly on the hierarchy case under consideration. We find that the inverted hierarchy case with opposite CP parities, which is known to guarantee the renormalization group equations stability of the solar mixing angle, offers the most plausible scenario for a high-energy origin of a QLC-corrected bimaximal neutrino mass matrix. This possibility may allow us to explain the QLC relation in connection with the origin of the charged fermion mass matrices

  7. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  8. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J L; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M; Gu, Genda; Davis, J C Séamus

    2015-02-03

    To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a "Dirac-mass gap" in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship [Formula: see text] is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm(2). These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.

  9. The different baryonic Tully-Fisher relations at low masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B; Santos-Santos, Isabel; Stinson, Greg

    2016-06-11

    We compare the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) of simulations and observations of galaxies ranging from dwarfs to spirals, using various measures of rotational velocity V rot . We explore the BTFR when measuring V rot at the flat part of the rotation curve, V flat , at the extent of H i gas, V last , and using 20 per cent ( W 20 ) and 50 per cent ( W 50 ) of the width of H i line profiles. We also compare with the maximum circular velocity of the parent halo, [Formula: see text], within dark matter only simulations. The different BTFRs increasingly diverge as galaxy mass decreases. Using V last  one obtains a power law over four orders of magnitude in baryonic mass, with slope similar to the observed BTFR. Measuring V flat gives similar results as V last when galaxies with rising rotation curves are excluded. However, higher rotation velocities would be found for low-mass galaxies if the cold gas extended far enough for V rot to reach a maximum. W 20 gives a similar slope as V last but with slightly lower values of V rot for low-mass galaxies, although this may depend on the extent of the gas in your galaxy sample. W 50 bends away from these other relations towards low velocities at low masses. By contrast, [Formula: see text] bends towards high velocities for low-mass galaxies, as cold gas does not extend out to the radius at which haloes reach [Formula: see text]. Our study highlights the need for careful comparisons between observations and models: one needs to be consistent about the particular method of measuring V rot , and precise about the radius at which velocities are measured.

  10. High Fidelity Preparation of a Single Atom in Its 2D Center of Mass Ground State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Schwartz, Eyal; Hunter, Matthew D. J.; Phrompao, Jindaratsamee; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2017-04-01

    Complete control over quantum states of individual atoms is important for the study of the microscopic world. Here, we present a push button method for high fidelity preparation of a single 85Rb atom in the vibrational ground state of tightly focused optical tweezers. The method combines near-deterministic preparation of a single atom with magnetically-insensitive Raman sideband cooling. We achieve 2D cooling in the radial plane with a ground state population of 0.85, which provides a fidelity of 0.7 for the entire procedure (loading and cooling). The Raman beams couple two sublevels (| F = 3 , m = 0 〉 and | F = 2 , m = 0 〉) that are indifferent to magnetic noise to first order. This leads to long atomic coherence times, and allows us to implement the cooling in an environment where magnetic field fluctuations prohibit previously demonstrated variations. Additionally, we implement the trapping and manipulation of two atoms confined in separate dynamically reconfigurable optical tweezers, to study few-body dynamics.

  11. Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry-isotope measurements at the level of the atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J; Garner, R C

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a nuclear physics technique developed about twenty years ago, that uses the high energy (several MeV) of a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to measure very small quantities of rare and long-lived isotopes. Elements that are of interest in biomedicine and environmental sciences can be measured, often to parts per quadrillion sensitivity, i.e. zeptomole to attomole levels (10(-21)-10(-18) mole) from milligram samples. This is several orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by conventional decay counting techniques, such as liquid scintillation counting (LSC). AMS was first applied to geochemical, climatological and archaeological areas, such as for radiocarbon dating (Shroud of Turin), but more recently this technology has been used for bioanalytical applications. In this sphere, most work has been conducted using aluminium, calcium and carbon isotopes. The latter is of special interest in drug metabolism studies, where a Phase 1 adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) study can be conducted using only 10 nanoCurie (37 Bq or ca. 0.9 microSv) amounts or less of 14C-labelled drugs. In the UK, these amounts of radioactivity are below those necessary to request specific regulatory approval from the Department of Health's Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC), thus saving on valuable development time and resources. In addition, the disposal of these amounts is much less an environmental issue than that associated with microCurie quantities, which are currently used. Also, AMS should bring an opportunity to conduct "first into man" studies without the need for widespread use of animals. Centre for Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CBAMS) Ltd. is the first fully commercial company in the world to offer analytical services using AMS. With its high throughput and relatively low costs per sample analysis, AMS should be of great benefit to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology

  12. Negative-Mass Instability of the Spin and Motion of an Atomic Gas Driven by Optical Cavity Backaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jonathan; Gerber, Justin A.; Dowd, Emma; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2018-01-01

    We realize a spin-orbit interaction between the collective spin precession and center-of-mass motion of a trapped ultracold atomic gas, mediated by spin- and position-dependent dispersive coupling to a driven optical cavity. The collective spin, precessing near its highest-energy state in an applied magnetic field, can be approximated as a negative-mass harmonic oscillator. When the Larmor precession and mechanical motion are nearly resonant, cavity mediated coupling leads to a negative-mass instability, driving exponential growth of a correlated mode of the hybrid system. We observe this growth imprinted on modulations of the cavity field and estimate the full covariance of the resulting two-mode state by observing its transient decay during subsequent free evolution.

  13. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  14. Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont landslide is a well-known, reservoir-induced slope failure that occurred on 9 October 1963 and was characterized by an 'en masse' sliding motion that triggered various large waves, determining catastrophic consequences for the nearby territory and adjacent villages. During the Vajont dam construction, and especially after the disaster, some researchers identified widespread field evidence of heavy rock mass damage involving the presumed prehistoric rockslide and/or the 1963 failed mass. This paper describes evidence of heavy gravitational damage, including (i) folding, (ii) fracturing, (iii) faulting, and (iv) intact rock disintegration. The gravity-induced rock mass damage (GRMD) characterizes the remnants of the basal shear zone, still resting on the large detachment surface, and the 1963 failed rock mass. The comprehensive geological study of the 1963 Vajont landslide, based on the recently performed geomechanical survey (2006-present) and on the critical analysis of the past photographic documentation (1959-1964), allows us to recognize that most GRMD evidence is related to the prehistoric multistage Mt. Toc rockslide. The 1963 catastrophic en masse remobilization induced an increase to the prehistoric damage, reworking preexisting structures and creating additional gravity-driven features (folds, fractures, faults, and rock fragmentation). The gravity-induced damage was formed during the slope instability phases that preceded the collapse (static or quasi-static GRMD) and also as a consequence of the sliding motion and of the devastating impact between the failed blocks (dynamic GRMD). Gravitational damage originated various types of small drag folds such as flexures, concentric folds, chevron, and kink-box folds, all having a radius of 1-5 m. Large buckle folds (radius of 10-50 m) are related to the dynamic damage and were formed during the en masse motion as a consequence of deceleration and impact processes that involved the sliding mass. Prior

  15. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The general goals of the DOE research concerned the use of molecular beams techniques in the study of atomic and molecular polarizabilities and the study of the interactions between electrons and highly polar molecules. Both of these goals are directly relevant to the general problem of the role played by long-range forces in atomic and molecular physics. Details related to this motivation can be found in the published literature. Here we will describe in general terms the work performed under DOE sponsorship in the atomic beams laboratory at NYU. Our original intent was to exploit techniques developed at NYU, mainly in the study of simple atomic systems, to the more complex atomic and molecular systems that are related to DOE interests. These included the developing understanding of the structure of molecular systems, particularly of alkali halide molecules, and the study of the interactions of electrons with such molecules. The structure experiments would serve as critical experimental benchmarks for computational techniques on molecular properties, including both molecular wave functions and derivative properties of them, such as vibrational and rotational constants, but in particular of molecular electric dipole polarizabilities. We believe that we have at least to some extent fulfilled these goals. 16 refs., 1 fig

  16. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew

    2015-01-01

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10 9 to 6 × 10 10 M ☉ . This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established

  17. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew, E-mail: harwit@verizon.net [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10{sup 9} to 6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established.

  18. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Predicting scattering properties of ultracold atoms : Adiabatic accumulated phase method and mass scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, B.J.; Kempen, van E.G.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Ultracold atoms are increasingly used for high-precision experiments that can be utilized to extract accurate scattering properties. This results in a stronger need to improve on the accuracy of interatomic potentials, and in particular the usually rather inaccurate inner-range potentials. A

  20. THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Rowe, Jason F.; Howell, Steve B.; Howard, Andrew W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Miller, Neil; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Fischer, Debra A.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Johnson, John Asher; Horch, Elliott P.; Everett, Mark E.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the mass of a modestly irradiated giant planet, KOI-94d. We wish to determine whether this planet, which is in a 22 day orbit and receives 2700 times as much incident flux as Jupiter, is as dense as Jupiter or rarefied like inflated hot Jupiters. KOI-94 also hosts at least three smaller transiting planets, all of which were detected by the Kepler mission. With 26 radial velocities of KOI-94 from the W. M. Keck Observatory and a simultaneous fit to the Kepler light curve, we measure the mass of the giant planet and determine that it is not inflated. Support for the planetary interpretation of the other three candidates comes from gravitational interactions through transit timing variations, the statistical robustness of multi-planet systems against false positives, and several lines of evidence that no other star resides within the photometric aperture. We report the properties of KOI-94b (M P = 10.5 ± 4.6 M ⊕ , R P = 1.71 ± 0.16 R ⊕ , P = 3.74 days), KOI-94c (M P = 15.6 +5.7 -15.6 M ⊕ , R P = 4.32 ± 0.41 R ⊕ , P = 10.4 days), KOI-94d (M P = 106 ± 11 M ⊕ , R P = 11.27 ± 1.06 R ⊕ , P = 22.3 days), and KOI-94e (M P = 35 +18 -28 M ⊕ , R P = 6.56 ± 0.62 R ⊕ , P = 54.3 days). The radial velocity analyses of KOI-94b and KOI-94e offer marginal (>2σ) mass detections, whereas the observations of KOI-94c offer only an upper limit to its mass. Using the KOI-94 system and other planets with published values for both mass and radius (138 exoplanets total, including 35 with M P ⊕ ), we establish two fundamental planes for exoplanets that relate their mass, incident flux, and radius from a few Earth masses up to 13 Jupiter masses: (R P /R ⊕ ) = 1.78(M P /M ⊕ ) 0.53 (F/erg s –1 cm –2 ) –0.03 for M P ⊕ , and R P /R ⊕ = 2.45(M P /M ⊕ ) –0.039 (F/erg s –1 cm –2 ) 0.094 for M P > 150 M ⊕ . These equations can be used to predict the radius or mass of a planet.

  1. Uncertainty of relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.

  2. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances as at March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1979-01-01

    This summary is intended to be a 'signpost' to the relevant law in the United Kingdom, but does not cover any aspect in detail. It falls under the following headings: common law; legislation (Atomic Energy Act 1946 and subordinate legislation; Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and subordinate legislation; Radioactive Substances Act 1960; Electricity (Amendment) Act 1961; Nuclear Installations Acts 1965 and 1969 and subordinate legislation; the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Order 1970; Radiological Protection Act 1970 as amended by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974; Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying)(Atomic Energy Establishments) Regulations 1976; Nuclear Safeguards and Electricity (Finance) Act 1978; legislation relating to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority); regulations under the Factories Act 1961; regulations relating to educational establishments; regulations and orders relating to food and medicines; regulations, rules etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials; regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory codes of practice etc.; international conventions, regulations etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  3. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  4. Investigation of graphite composite anodes surfaces by atomic force microscopy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, Karen Akemi; Nishioka, Keiko; Sato, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The surface of a synthetic graphite (KS-44) and polyvinylidene difluoride binder (PVDF) anode for lithium-ion secondary batteries is imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several related scanning probe microscope (SPM) instruments including: dynamic force microscopy (DFM), friction force microscopy (FFM), laterally-modulated friction force microscopy (LM-FFM), visco-elasticity atomic force microscopy (VE-AFM), and AFM/simultaneous current measurement mode (SCM). DFM is found to be an exceptional mode for topographic imaging while FFM results in the clearest contrast distinction between PVDF binder and KS-44 graphite regions. (orig.)

  5. Data correlation in on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-atomic emission/mass spectrometric detection of unknown microcontaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Rozenbrand, J.; Abhadur, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is described for the (non-target) screening of hetero-atom-containing compounds in tap and waste water by correlating data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) using atomic emission (AED) and mass selective (MS) detection. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to both GC

  6. The relation of double peaks, observed in quartz hydride atomizers, to the fate of free atoms in the determination of arsenic and selenium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ulivo, A.; Dědina, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2002), s. 2069-2079 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : hydride atomization * hydride generation * atomic absortion spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2002

  7. Mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, A Perez; Paret, D Manreza

    2010-01-01

    We review the stability of magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the relevant input parameters, namely, the strange quark mass, baryon density, magnetic field and bag parameter. A comparison with magnetized asymmetric quark matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium as well as with strange quark matter (SQM) is presented. We obtain that the energy per baryon for MSQM decreases as the magnetic field increases, and its minimum value at vanishing pressure is lower than the value found for SQM, which implies that MSQM is more stable than non-magnetized SQM. The mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars is also obtained in this framework.

  8. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1981-04-01

    A summary is given of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances revised as at 31 March 1981 under the following headings: (1) The common law. (2) The legislation. (3) Regulations under the factories act 1961. (4) Regulations relating to educational establishments. (5) Regulations and orders relating to food and medicines. (6) Regulations, rules, etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials. (7) Regulations under the social security act 1975. (8) Control of import and export. (9) The Euratom treaty. (10) Important nonstatutory codes of practice, etc.. (11) International conventions, regulations, etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested. (12) Foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  9. Study of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-01-01

    Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi_2O_3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μ_m) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.

  10. Influence of the atomic mass of the background gas on laser ablation plume propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of time-of-flight ion probe measurements and gas dynamical modeling has been used to investigate the propagation of a laser ablation plume in gases of different atomic/molecular weight. The pressure variation of the ion time-of-flight was found to be well described by the gas...... dynamical model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (Appl. Supercond. 1:2011, 1993). In particular, the model describes how the pressure required to stop the plume in a given distance depends on the atomic/molecular weight of the gas, which is a feature that cannot be explained by standard point......-blast-wave descriptions of laser ablation plume expansion in gas....

  11. MISTRAL: a new program for precise atomic mass determinations of nuclides far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, M.D.; Audi, G.; Borcea, C.; Dedieu, M.; Doubre, H.; Duma, M.; Jacotin, M.; Kepinski, J.F.; Le Scornet, G.; De Saint Simon, M.; Thibault, C.

    1996-01-01

    The MISTRAL project (Mass measurements at ISolde using a Transmission RAdiofrequency spectrometer on-Line) is scheduled to begin experiments towards the end of 1996. With high resolution (10 5 ), potentially high accuracy (5.10 -7 ) and excellent sensitivity (10 s -1 ), the MISTRAL spectrometer promises to provide needed mass measurements in regions of very-short lived nuclei. The spectrometer operation principles are described and a discussion concerning the interest in using highly charged ions is presented. (orig.)

  12. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  13. The Search for High Spin State Isomers in the Atomic Mass Region 178-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellahrah, M.S.; Arfa, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Isomers for elements far a way from line of stability are a new field for research to produce artificial isomers that can store considerable amount of energy in small amount of mass without the dangerous hazards on life and environment. These isomers could have very short life time or very long one 10th and 100th of years. It will be possible to get the stored energy by stimulated emission . The purpose of this work to use a theorical model based on Bcs method to find out the possible isomers in the mass reg on 178-192 even -even isotopes so that experimentalists can concentrate their research on these predicted isomers.

  14. Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.

  15. A new mass relation among the hadron vector resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the hadron vector resonances are described by fields transforming according to different inequivalent representations of the Lorentz group: (1/2,1/2) and (1,0)+(0,1). The vector representation (1/2,1/2) is well studied and corresponds to the gauge fields. On the other hand, the chiral representations (1,0) and (0,1) are described by the second rank antisymmetric tensor fields, for which interaction theory has not yet been constructed. In the framework of the phenomenological Nambu - Jona-Lasinio approach we have introduced and used all these fields for a description of the vector resonances. A new mass relation between low-lying hadron vector and axial-vector resonances is obtained. This relation is in agreement with the present experimental data.

  16. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weber

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity.Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2 and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2. Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score 0.50; p<0.001 within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001. There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534. Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01; however, the ALMI Z-Score did not.Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a practical tool for investigators and clinicians based on population-based reference data.

  17. Rough estimate demand of atomic energy-related budget for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Tatsuro

    1996-01-01

    The rough estimate demand of the budget for fiscal year 1996 of eight atomic energy-related ministries and agencies was determined at about 494,879 million yen, which is 2.4% growth as compared with that for the previous year. Concretely, the general account is 204,594 million yen, 2.2% growth, and the special account is 290,285 million yen, 2.6% growth. The budget is 357,060 million yen and 3.7% growth for Science and Technology Agency, 130, 787 million yen and 2% decrease for Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and 7,032 million yen and 29.2% increase for other six ministries and agencies. Emphasis is placed on the research of upgrading LWRs including the disassembling of reactors, the performance test for fuel, the improvement of reactor technology and the verifying test of practical reactor decommissioning facilities, and the research and development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. Also the technical development of waste treatment and disposal including high level radioactive waste is carried out with 40.3 billion yen. Atomic Energy Commission exerts efforts for the development of atomic energy policy for the peaceful utilization, the establishment of coordinative LWR power generation system, the development of nuclear fuel recycling and the strengthening of the basic research on atomic energy. (K.I.)

  18. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  19. Sim and Ritchie's summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazebrook, D.; Turner, M.

    1984-12-01

    The law is summarised under the headings: the Common Law; the Legislation; Regulations under the Factories Act 1961; Regulations relating to educational establishments; Regulations and Orders relating to food and medicines; Regulations, Rules, etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials; Regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory Codes of Practice, etc.; international Conventions, Regulations, etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  20. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications

  1. A new atomic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-01-01

    The movement of an electron around the atomic nucleus has today a great importance in many engineering fields. Electronics, aeronautics, micro and nanotechnology, electrical engineering, optics, lasers, nuclear power, computing, equipment and automation, telecommunications, genetic engineering, bioengineering, special processing, modern welding, robotics, energy and electromagnetic wave field is today only a few of the many applications of electronic engineering. This book presents, shortly, a new and original relation (20 and 20') who determines the radius with that, the electron is running around the nucleus of an atom. One utilizes, two times the Lorenz relation, the Niels Bohr generalized equation, and a mass relation, which was deduced from the kinematics energy relation written in two modes: classical and Coulombian. Equalizing the mass relation with Lorenz relation one obtains a form which is a relation between the squared electron speed (v 2 ) and the radius (r). The second relation between v 2 and r was obtained by equalizing the mass of Bohr equation and the mass of Lorenz relation. For a Bohr energetically level (n=a constant value), one determines now two energetically below levels, which form an electronic layer. The author realizes by this a new atomic model, or a new quantum theory, which explains the existence of electron-clouds without spin.Writing the kinematics energy relation in two modes, classical and Coulombian one determines a relation, from which explicitely the mass of the electron is determined.

  2. A new atomic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    The movement of an electron around the atomic nucleus has today a great importance in many engineering fields. Electronics, aeronautics, micro and nanotechnology, electrical engineering, optics, lasers, nuclear power, computing, equipment and automation, telecommunications, genetic engineering, bioengineering, special processing, modern welding, robotics, energy and electromagnetic wave field is today only a few of the many applications of electronic engineering. This book presents, shortly, a new and original relation (20 and 20') who determines the radius with that, the electron is running around the nucleus of an atom. One utilizes, two times the Lorenz relation, the Niels Bohr generalized equation, and a mass relation, which was deduced from the kinematics energy relation written in two modes: classical and Coulombian. Equalizing the mass relation with Lorenz relation one obtains a form which is a relation between the squared electron speed (v{sup 2}) and the radius (r). The second relation between v{sup 2} and r was obtained by equalizing the mass of Bohr equation and the mass of Lorenz relation. For a Bohr energetically level (n=a constant value), one determines now two energetically below levels, which form an electronic layer. The author realizes by this a new atomic model, or a new quantum theory, which explains the existence of electron-clouds without spin.Writing the kinematics energy relation in two modes, classical and Coulombian one determines a relation, from which explicitely the mass of the electron is determined.

  3. Measurement of the charged pion mass using a low-density target of light atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trassinelli M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the negatively charged pion mass based on the simultaneous spectroscopy of pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen transitions using a gaseous target composed by a N2/O2 mixture at 1.4 bar. We present the experimental set-up and the methods for deriving the pion mass value from the spatial separation from the 5g − 4f πN transition line and the 5g − 4f μO transition line used as reference. Moreover, we discuss the importance to use dilute targets in order to minimize the influence of additional spectral lines from the presence of remaining electrons during the radiative emission. The occurrence of possible satellite lines is investigated via hypothesis testing methods using the Bayes factor.

  4. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Nuijten, Elina; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu; Knekt, Paul; Rissanen, Harri; Aromaa, Arpo; Heliövaara, Markku

    2009-12-04

    The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM) can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5%) were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. The mean FFM varied by education in older (>or= 65 y.) men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y.), highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93) compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN EIT WAVES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    More and more evidence indicates that 'EIT waves' are strongly related to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it is still not clear how the two phenomena are related to each other. We investigate a CME event on 1997 September 9, which was well observed by both the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the high-cadence Mark-III K-Coronameter at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, and compare the spatial relation between the 'EIT wave' fronts and the CME leading loops. It is found that 'EIT wave' fronts are cospatial with the CME leading loops, and the expanding EUV dimmings are cospatial with the CME cavity. It is also found that the CME stopped near the boundary of a coronal hole, a feature common to observations of 'EIT waves'. It is suggested that 'EIT waves'/dimmings are the EUV counterparts of the CME leading loop/cavity, based on which we propose that, as in the case of 'EIT waves', CME leading loops are apparently moving density enhancements that are generated by successive stretching (or opening-up) of magnetic loops.

  6. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  7. Pion correlations as a function of atomic mass in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The method of two pion interferometry was used to obtain source-size and lifetime parameters for the pions produced in heavy ion collisions. The systems used were 1.70 · A GeV 56 Fe + Fe, 1.82 · A GeV 40 Ar + KCl and 1.54 · A GeV 93 Nb + Nb, allowing for a search for dependences on the atomic number. Two acceptances (centered, in the lab., at ∼ 0 degrees and 45 degrees) were used for each system, allowing a search for dependences on the viewing angle. The correlation functions were calculated by comparing the data samples to background (or reference) samples made using the method of event mixing, where pions from different events are combined to produce a data sample in which the Bose-Einstein correlation effect is absent. The effect of the correlation function on the background samples is calculated, and a method for weighting the events to remove the residual correlation effect is presented. The effect of the spectrometer design on the measured correlation functions is discussed, as are methods for correcting for these effects during the data analysis. 58 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Paleodiet characterisation of an Etrurian population of Pontecagnano (Italy) by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)(#).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabino, Carla; Lubritto, Carmine; Proto, Antonio; Rubino, Mauro; Fiengo, Gilda; Marzaioli, Fabio; Passariello, Isabella; Busiello, Gaetano; Fortunato, Antonietta; Alfano, Davide; Sabbarese, Carlo; Rogalla, Detlef; De Cesare, Nicola; d'Onofrio, Antonio; Terrasi, Filippo

    2006-06-01

    Human bones recovered from the archaeological site of Pontecagnano (Salerno, Italy) have been studied to reconstruct the diet of an Etrurian population. Two different areas were investigated, named Library and Sant' Antonio, with a total of 44 tombs containing human skeletal remains, ranging in age from the 8th to the 3rd century B.C. This time span was confirmed by 14C dating obtained using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) on one bone sample from each site. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to extract information about the concentration of Sr, Zn, Ca elements in the bone inorganic fraction, whilst stable isotope ratio measurements (IRMS) were carried out on bone collagen to obtain the delta13C and delta15N. A reliable technique has been used to extract and separate the inorganic and organic fractions of the bone remains. Both IRMS and AAS results suggest a mixed diet including C3 plant food and herbivore animals, consistent with archaeological indications.

  9. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of moderate-to-high atomic-number elements at low photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajuddin, A.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients for 12 selected moderate-to-high atomic-number elements have been obtained from good-geometry measurements made at five 241 Am photon energies of significant emission intensity. Particular interest focuses on measured values for photon energies close to absorption edges. Comparisons with renormalized cross-section predictions indicate agreement to within stated error limits for the majority of cases. Significant discrepancies (> 10%) are noted for Ta at 17.8 and 26.3 keV and W at 59.5 keV. Some support for a discrepancy between measurement and theory for W in the region of 60 keV is found in the reported measurements of others. (author)

  10. Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers of stainless steel and carbon steels with different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fakarudin Abdul Rahman; Mohd Iqbal Saripan; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Ismail Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ ρ) of stainless steel (SS316L) and carbon steel (A516) that are widely used as petrochemical plant components, such as distillation column, heat exchanger, boiler and storage tank were measured at 662, 1073 and 1332 keV of photon energies. Measurements of radiation intensity for various thicknesses of steel were made by using transmission method. The γ-ray intensity were counted by using a Gamma spectrometer that contains a Hyper-pure Germanium (HPGe) detector connected with Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The effective numbers of atomic (Z eff ) and electron (N eff ) obtained experimentally were compared by those obtained through theoretical calculation. Both experimental and calculated values of Z eff and N eff were in good agreement. (author)

  11. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  12. Critical evaluation of analytical performance of atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for mercury determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krata, A.; Bulska, E.

    2005-01-01

    The analytical performance of cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for mercury determination have been investigated with the use of two reference materials SRM 2710 Montana I Soil and BCR-144R (sewage sludge from domestic origin). The digestion conditions and their influence on determination of mercury have been studied. Samples were decomposed by microwave digestion in closed vessels with the use of HCl alone or mixture of HCl+HNO 3 +HF. The digestion solutions were analyzed by CV AAS using NaBH 4 as a reducing agent, by GF AAS with Pd or mixture of Pd/Rh as modifiers and by ICP-MS with Rh as internal standard. In the case of CV AAS, results were not dependent on digestion conditions. In the case of GF AAS and ICP-MS, results depended significantly on digestion conditions; in both cases, the use of the mixture of acids as defined above suppressed the signal of mercury. Therefore, in those cases, the microwave digestion with HCl is recommended. Detection limits of 0.003, 0.01 and 0.2 μg g -1 were achieved by ICP-MS, CV AAS and GF AAS, respectively

  13. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  14. Clinical study of mass survey for lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1988-01-01

    In mass screening for lung cancer, chest roentgenography was performed in A-bomb survivors over the age of 50 years. Out of 47,960 A-bomb survivors examined during seven years from 1979 through 1986, 58 were found to have lung cancer. The prevalence of lung cancer was 120.9/100,000, which was extremely higher than previously reported. A-bomb survivors, as well as persons exposed to environmental pollution and occupational hazards, are considered to belong to the high risk group for lung cancer. Asymptomatic lung cancer was of earlier stage than symptomatic lung cancer. It was also associated with higher surgical rate and faborable prognosis. Primary screening failed to detect lung cancer in 20 %, requiring double checking by pulmonary disease specialists. The role of health care workers is stressed in view of the necessity of detailed examination and surgery for lung cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Atom localization and center-of-mass wave-function determination via multiple simultaneous quadrature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, Joerg; Qamar, Shahid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    We discuss localization and center-of-mass wave-function measurement of a quantum particle using multiple simultaneous dispersive interactions of the particle with different standing-wave fields. In particular, we consider objects with an internal structure consisting of a single ground state and several excited states. The transitions between ground and the corresponding excited states are coupled to the light fields in the dispersive limit, thus giving rise to a phase shift of the light field during the interaction. We show that multiple simultaneous measurements allow both an increase in the measurement or localization precision in a single direction and the performance of multidimensional measurements or localization. Further, we show that multiple measurements may relax the experimental requirements for each individual measurement

  16. Exact correlated kinetic energy related to the electron density for two-electron model atoms with harmonic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, Norman H.; Akbari, Ali; Rubio, Angel

    2007-01-01

    For arbitrary interparticle interaction u(r 12 ), the model two-electron atom in the title is shown to be such that the ground-state electron density ρ(r) is determined uniquely by the correlated kinetic energy density t R (r) of the relative motion. Explicit results for t R (r) are presented for the Hookean atom with force constant k=1/4, and also for u(r 12 )=(λ)/(r 12 2 ) . Possible relevance of the Hookean atom treatment to the ground state of the helium atom itself is briefly discussed

  17. Field ion microscopy and imaging atom-probe mass spectroscopy of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7/sub -//sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Brenner, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and composition of the superconducting oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/ have been examined in atomic detail by field ion microscopy and imaging atom-probe mass spectroscopy. The field ion samples were prepared from hot-pressed disks of the oxide powders. Atomic resolution images were obtained with either argon or hydrogen as the imaging gas. Individual layers of atoms were observed which could be field evaporated in a uniform, layer-by-layer manner. Imaging atom-probe analysis of the field ion tips indicated a metal composition which varied noticeably from sample to sample and an oxygen concentration which was consistently much too low

  18. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  19. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  20. Mass the quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Everything around us is made of 'stuff', from planets, to books, to our own bodies. Whatever it is, we call it matter or material substance. It is solid; it has mass. But what is matter, exactly? We are taught in school that matter is not continuous, but discrete. As a few of the philosophers of ancient Greece once speculated, nearly two and a half thousand years ago, matter comes in 'lumps', and science has relentlessly peeled away successive layers of matter to reveal its ultimate constituents. Surely, we can't keep doing this indefinitely. We imagine that we should eventually run up against some kind of ultimately fundamental, indivisible type of stuff, the building blocks from which everything in the Universe is made. The English physicist Paul Dirac called this 'the dream of philosophers'. But science has discovered that the foundations of our Universe are not as solid or as certain and dependable as we might have once imagined. They are instead built from ghosts and phantoms, of a peculiar quantum kind....

  1. 8. International conference on atomic masses and fundamental constants (AMCO-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Barber, R.C.; Cohen, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    The current recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are base on an adjustment carried out in 1986. Physics, however, has not stood still. New measurements have been reported for the Rydberg constant and the gas constant. Improved calculations and measurements of the electron magnetic moment anomaly, a e have provided an improved value for the fine structure constant α = μ 0 ce 2 /2h. The decision to establish uniform international representation of the volts and ohms in terms of the Josephson effect and the quantized Hall resistance, respectively, stimulated new measurements of 2e/h and e/h 2 . These new data have significantly changed the error-space of the adjustment of the physical constants. In the 1986 adjustments, the one-standard deviation uncertainty in α was 0.045 ppm; the university of Washington measurements of a e and the final results of Kinoshita's 20-year program of numerical evaluation of the eight order QED diagrams yield a new value with an uncertainty of 0.0069 ppm. Combined with the Rydberg constant and the proton-electron mass ratio this means that N Λ h = M p α 2 c/(2(m p /m e )R ∞ ) is defined with an uncertainty of 0.025 ppm

  2. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  3. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    1994-10-01

    This bibliography, covering the period 1993, includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field emission (FE), and field ion microscopy (FIM). Technique-oriented studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references are listed alphabetically by authors, an Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  4. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    1994-10-01

    This bibliography, covering the period 1993, includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field emission (FE), and field ion microscopy (FIM). Technique-oriented studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references are listed alphabetically by authors, an Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included

  5. Alteration of the magnitude of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons in connection with the changes in the atomic mass values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Aruev, N.N.; Alekseenko, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    In connection with the revision of the table values of the atomic masses and the forthcoming coordination of the values of the fundamental physical constants, the result of measurement of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear Magnetons obtained in 1971 is re-examined by taking into account recent data. With the atomic masses recognized in 1982 the proton magnetic moment expressed in nuclear magnetons without a correction for diamagnetic screening of the proton in a water molecule is found to be ..mu..sub(p)'/..mu..sub(n)=2.7927729+-0.0000012 (4.3x10/sup -5/%).

  6. Atom-atom collision cascades localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsanov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an impurity and thermal vibration influence on the atom-atom collision cascade development is analysed by the computer simulation method (the modificated dynamic model). It is discovered that the relatively low energetic cascades are localized with the temperature increase of an irradiated crystal. On the basis of the given effect the mechanism of splitting of the high energetic cascades into subcascades is proposed. It accounts for two factors: the primary knocked atom energy and the irradiated crystal temperature. Introduction of an impurity also localizes the cascades independently from the impurity atom mass. The cascades localization leads to intensification of the process of annealing in the cascades and reduction of the post-cascade vacancy cluster sizes. (author)

  7. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  8. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  9. Report of workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the fourth workshop on the vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field of Yayoi research group. This time, two topics were taken up. One is edgetone phenomena and the liquid surface vibration phenomena due to flow. Another is the introduction of the experience in light water reactors. The workshop was held on August 30 and 31, 1993 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. At the workshop, lectures were given on the mechanism of occurrence of edgetone, the theoretical analysis of edgetone and edgenoise, the self-excited vibration of free liquid surface due to vertical plane jet and vertical cylindrical jet, the research on flow instability phenomena in parallel loop system, the irregular vibration behavior of U-shaped tubes excited by flow, the research on the vibration of cyclindrical weir due to fluid discharge, the examples of the vibration related to fluid in LWRs, the estimation of fatigue phenomena in bearing rings, the vibration of rotary vanes and verifying test, the analysis of flow in isolated phase bus plate vane and the measurement of velocity distribution, flow in piping and the behavior of valve vibration, the condition for the occurrence of flow vibration in the main steam separation valve of BWR, the vibration of piping due to orifice, the analysis of flow in two-dimensional vibrating cascade, and the subjects of fluid vibration assessment in atomic energy. (K.I.)

  10. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1983-04-01

    Intended as a signpost to the relevant law no aspect is covered in detail but a full summary is given. For further details reference has to be made to Acts or regulations themselves. The summary covers the Common Law, the laws in force, regulations under the Factories Act 1961, regulations and orders relating to food and medicines, those concerned with the transport of radioactive materials, regulations under the Social Security Act 1975, Control of Import and Export, the Euratom treaty, important non-statutory codes of practice etc., international conventions, regulations etc. relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances in which the UK is interested and finally, foreign legislation. The details have been revised as at 31 March 1983. (U.K.)

  11. Resistance–temperature relation and atom cluster estimation of In–Bi system melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Haoran; Wang Zhiming; Zhou Yongzhi; Li Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A testing device was adopted to measure the electrical resistivity of In–Bi system melts. ► A basically linear relation exists between the resistivity and temperature of In x Bi 100−x melts in measured temperature range. ► Based on Novakovic's assumption, the content of InBi atomic cluster in In x Bi 100−x melt is estimated with ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ) equation. - Abstract: A testing device for the resistivity of high-temperature melt was adopted to measure the l resistivity of In–Bi system melts at different temperatures. It can be concluded from the analysis and calculation of the experimental results that the resistivity of In x Bi 100−x (x = 0–100) melt is in linear relationship with temperature within the experiment temperature range. The resistivity of the melt decreases with the increasing content of In. The fair consistency of resistivity of In–Bi system melt is found in the heating and cooling processes. On the basis of Novakovic's assumption, we approximately estimated the content of InBi atom clusters in In x Bi 100−x melts with the resistivity data by equation ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ). In the whole components interval, the content corresponds well with the mole fraction of InBi clusters calculated by Novakovic in the thermodynamic approach. The mole fraction of InBi type atom clusters in the melts reaches the maximum at the point of stoichiometric composition In 50 Bi 50 .

  12. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul

    2009-01-01

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents that take place on

  13. Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Quinta, Goncalo [Universidade de Lisboa, UL, Departamento de Fisica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one finds that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme, valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive, aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse. (orig.)

  14. Combination of atomic force microscopy and mass spectrometry for the detection of target protein in the serum samples of children with autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, A. L.; Pleshakova, T. O.; Kopylov, A. T.; Shumov, I. D.; Iourov, I. Y.; Vorsanova, S. G.; Yurov, Y. B.; Ziborov, V. S.; Archakov, A. I.; Ivanov, Y. D.

    2017-10-01

    Possibility of detection of target proteins associated with development of autistic disorders in children with use of combined atomic force microscopy and mass spectrometry (AFM/MS) method is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on the combination of affine enrichment of proteins from biological samples and visualization of these proteins by AFM and MS analysis with quantitative detection of target proteins.

  15. A brief history of people and events related to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L

    1997-07-01

    The events related to nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands began at the end of WWII when the U.S. began an initiative to determine the effect of nuclear weapons on naval vessels and on the performance of military personnel. The first tests took place in 1946 even though the area known as Micronesia was not entrusted to the U.S. by the United Nations until 1947. Beginning with the first relocation of the Bikini people to Rongerik Atoll in 1946, the saga of the Marshall Islands involvement in the atomic age began. Although the testing program was limited to the years 1946 through 1958, many of the consequences and events related to the testing program continued over the decades since. That story is still ongoing with programs currently underway to attempt to resettle previously displaced communities, remediate contaminated islands, and to settle claims of damages to individuals and communities. The history of the years subsequent to 1958 are a mixed chronicle of a few original scientific investigations aimed at understanding the coral atoll environment, continued surveillance of the acutely exposed Marshallese, some efforts at cleanup and remediation, numerous monitoring programs and many studies repeated either for credibility purposes, to satisfy international demands or because the changing state of knowledge of radiation protection has necessitated us to rethink earlier beliefs and conclusions about late health effects and social consequences. The objective of this paper is to briefly note many of the historical and political events, scientific studies, persons and publications from 1946 to the present that relate to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  16. Four-loop relation between the MS and on-shell quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the four-loop relation between the on-shell and MS definition of heavy quark masses which is applied to the top, bottom and charm case. We also present relations between the MS quark mass and various threshold mass definitions and discuss the uncertainty at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order.

  17. Synthesis of a cyclic fibrin-like peptide and its analysis by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.D.; Costello, C.E.; Langenhove, A. van; Haber, E.; Matsueda, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    For immunochemical purposes, a cyclic 12 peptide was synthesized to model the γ-γ-chain cross-link site in human fibrin. The model was based upon the structure proposed by Chen and Doolittle which is characterized by two reciprocating epsilon-(γ-Glu)Lys bonds between adjacent fibrin γ-chains oriented in an antiparallel manner. To achieve the antiparallel orientation of the peptide backbone, Pro and Gly were inserted at positions 6 and 7 of the linear 12-peptide: acetyl-Gly-Glu-Gln-His-His-Pro-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gly-amide. The insertions were made to facilitate a reverse turn of the peptide during the last synthetic step, which was formation of the epsilon-(γ-Glu)Lys bond between Glu at position 2 and Lys at position 11 with diphenylphosphorylazide. The resulting cyclic peptide represented half of the symmetrical cross-linked region in clotted fibrin. Following purification by HPLC, both linear and cyclic 12-peptides were analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Abundant molecular protonated ions were observed for both peptides. In addition, the amino acid sequence of the linear peptide and the location of the epsilon-(γ-Glu)Lys bond in the cyclized peptide could be verified. (author)

  18. Mass generation and related issues from exotic higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colatto, Luiz Paulo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, Marco Antonio de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Assis, Leonardo Paulo Guimaraes de; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas(LAFEX/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias; Matheus-Valle, Jose Luiz [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Rojas, Moises [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: he main purpose of this work is to show that massless Dirac equation formulated for non-interacting Majorana-Weyl spinors in higher dimensions, particularly in D = 1 + 9 and D = 5 + 5, may yield to an interpretation of massive Majorana and Dirac spinors in D = 1 + 3 dimensions. The particular case of a dimensional reduction from D = 4 + 4 to D = 1 + 3 has already been fairly-well discussed in the literature. By adopting suitable representations of the Dirac matrices in higher dimensions, we pursue the investigation of which higher dimensional space-times and which metric signatures concerning massless Dirac equations in highermay induce massive spinors in D = 1+3 dimensions. The mixing of the chiral fermions in higher dimensions may induce a mechanism such that four massive Majorana fermions may show up and, at an appropriate limit an almost zero and a huge mass show up with corresponding left-handed and right-handed eigenstates. This mechanism could reassess a peculiar connection with the See-Saw scheme associated to neutrino with Majorana-type masses. The masses of the particle are fixed by the dimensional reduction scheme, which the decoupled dimensions contribute coordinates and depend on the mass invariants in lower dimensions. This proposal should allow us to understand the generation of hierarchies for the fermionic masses in D = 1 + 3, or in lower dimensions in general, starting from the constraints between the energy and the momentum in (n; n) dimensions. For the initial D = 5 + 5 Majorana-Weyl spinors framework using the Weyl representation to the Dirac matrices we observe an intriguing decomposition of space-time that result in two equivalent D = 1 + 4 massive spinors which mass term, in D = 1 + 3 included, is originated from the remained component and that could induce a Brane-World mechanism. (author)

  19. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  20. The relative efficiency of three methods of estimating herbage mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods involved were randomly placed circular quadrats; randomly placed narrow strips; and disc meter sampling. Disc meter and quadrat sampling appear to be more efficient than strip sampling. In a subsequent small plot grazing trial the estimates of herbage mass, using the disc meter, had a consistent precision ...

  1. On the theory of electroproduction of small relative momentum nucleon pairs on atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagornyj, S.I.; Inopin, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Problems concerning knocking-out of nucleon pairs from atomic nuclei by high-energy electrons are studied. Dependences of cross sections of different processes of the knocking-out on the nucleon relative momentum in a pair are considered. Probabilities of different processes of the knocking-out are compared. A comparison of probabilities of total and three-particle splittings of a 4 He nucleus is performed. On total splitting in the formation of the cross section energy dependence the levels of observable and non-observable subsystems shown to take place. It has been stated that the cross section cannot be increased at the expense of levels of both subsystems simultaneously

  2. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  3. On the mass-spectrum relation for the main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svechnikov, M.A.; Tajdakova, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    From 240 main-sequence stars with well-determined masses, a new mass-spectrum relation is obtained, which differs appreciably in certain intervals of spectral types from the mass-spectrum relations of Allen and Trimble. The accuracy of mass determination for the components of eclipsing binary systems of different types from their spectra given in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (3rd edition) and in its supplements is evaluated

  4. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  5. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  6. The use of fast atom bombardment and laser desorption mass spectrometry in the analysis of complex carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, H.; Peter-Katalinic, J.; Karas, M.; Stahl, B.

    1991-01-01

    Oligosaccharides occurring free in secretions or bound to lipid or protein, are known to modulate the biological response in many living systems. The structural characterization of these highly diverse oligosaccharides, that may be further complicated by the occurrence of non-carbohydrate substituents such as alkyl, acyl, sulfate, or phosphate groups, for example, represents the first step towards a rational approach that is able to relate structure to function. The structural delineation of carbohydrate residues at defined sites of attachment is especially important in recombinant glycoproteins because the type and extent of glycosylation affect their biological properties. In recent years the development of soft ionization procedures and the increase in mass range above 10,000 mass units at full acceleration, together with the development of highly sensitive detectors, has allowed the analysis of glycans containing more than 30 sugar units in the nano-and subnanomolar range. (author)

  7. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  8. An embedding for general relativity with variable rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest currently in theories of gravity where rest masses vary slowly with time. A new theory of this type is proposed which is believed to be superior to others, and which contains Einstein's theory embedded within it. The theory is five dimensional, where the extra coordinate is x 4 is equivalent to Gm/c 2 (G is the Newtonian gravitational parameter, c the velocity of light, and m the mass). The theory reduces to Einstein's if w is equivalent to (G/c 3 ) dm/dt = O and the fifth dimension is absent. The theory agrees with observation provided w << 1, but the size of w in the real world can only be determined by experiment. (author)

  9. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  10. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  11. Mass-Dependent and -Independent Fractionation of Mercury Isotope during Gas-Phase Oxidation of Elemental Mercury Vapor by Atomic Cl and Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang; Yin, Runsheng; Fu, Xuewu; Shang, Lihai

    2016-09-06

    This study presents the first measurement of Hg stable isotope fractionation during gas-phase oxidation of Hg(0) vapor by halogen atoms (Cl(•), Br(•)) in the laboratory at 750 ± 1 Torr and 298 ± 3 K. Using a relative rate technique, the rate coefficients for Hg(0)+Cl(•) and Hg(0)+Br(•) reactions are determined to be (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10(-11) and (1.6 ± 0.8) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. Results show that heavier isotopes are preferentially enriched in the remaining Hg(0) during Cl(•) initiated oxidation, whereas being enriched in the product during oxidation by Br(•). The fractionation factors for (202)Hg/(198)Hg during the Cl(•) and Br(•) initiated oxidations are α(202/198) = 0.99941 ± 0.00006 (2σ) and 1.00074 ± 0.00014 (2σ), respectively. A Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg ratio of 1.64 ± 0.30 (2σ) during oxidation of Hg(0) by Br atoms suggests that Hg-MIF is introduced by the nuclear volume effect (NVE). In contrast, the Hg(0) + Cl(•) reaction produces a Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg-slope of 1.89 ± 0.18 (2σ), which in addition to a high degree of odd-mass-number isotope MIF suggests impacts from MIF effects other than NVE. This reaction also exhibits significant MIF of (200)Hg (Δ(200)Hg, up to -0.17‰ in the reactant) and is the first physicochemical process identified to trigger (200)Hg anomalies that are frequently detected in atmospheric samples.

  12. Universal scaling relations for the energies of many-electron Hooke atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriazola, A.; Solanpää, J.; Kylänpää, I.; González, A.; Räsänen, E.

    2017-04-01

    A three-dimensional harmonic oscillator consisting of N ≥2 Coulomb-interacting charged particles, often called a (many-electron) Hooke atom, is a popular model in computational physics for, e.g., semiconductor quantum dots and ultracold ions. Starting from Thomas-Fermi theory, we show that the ground-state energy of such a system satisfies a nontrivial relation: Eg s=ω N4 /3fg s(β N1 /2) , where ω is the oscillator strength, β is the ratio between Coulomb and oscillator characteristic energies, and fg s is a universal function. We perform extensive numerical calculations to verify the applicability of the relation. In addition, we show that the chemical potentials and addition energies also satisfy approximate scaling relations. In all cases, analytic expressions for the universal functions are provided. The results have predictive power in estimating the key ground-state properties of the system in the large-N limit, and can be used in the development of approximative methods in electronic structure theory.

  13. Report of workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Because of the nonlinearity of the equation that governs flow, sometimes vibration occurs in an unexpected system, and it causes trouble. This 7th workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field was held at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo on August 25 and 26, 1997. Two themes were ``Vibration of liquid surface by flow`` and ``Numerical analysis of coupled vibration of fluid-structures``. The former is related to the problem in the development of a demonstration FBR, and the latter is related to the numerical analysis technology such as the handling of boundary conditions and the method of taking position, moving velocity and acceleration into account. This workshop aims at thoroughly discussing a small number of themes, and deepening the understanding. In this report, the summaries of 17 papers are collected, of which the titles are as follows. Liquid surface self-exciting vibration by flow, vibration of upper plenum liquid surface of fast reactor, stability analysis of multiple liquid surfaces, flow instability phenomena of multi-loop system, sloshing in a vessel in which fluid flows, the mechanism of occurrence of self-exciting sloshing in a vessel elucidated by numerical analysis, numerical analysis of manometer vibration excited by flow, numerical analysis of flutter phenomena of aircraft, numerical analysis of aerodynamic elastic problem, mechanism of in-line excitation, numerical analysis of hydrodynamic elastic vibration of tube nest and so on. (K.I.)

  14. Syntheses of deuterated leu-enkephalins and their use as internal standards for the quantification of leu-enkephalin by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy) Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy)); Icardi, G.; Chen, S. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy)); Fanelli, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy))

    1990-04-01

    We have developed a synthetic method for the preparation of di- and pentadeuterated leu-enkephalin (LE), Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by proton-deuterium exchange using CF[sub 3]COOO[sup 2]H. Four to six deuterium atoms are introduced using a reaction temperature of 120[sup o]C and if 5% of [sup 2]H[sub 2]O is added the di-deuterated LE is obtained. These deuterated compounds are used as internal standards to plot calibration curves of LE using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. (author).

  15. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.

  16. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  17. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.

    1986-12-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references.

  18. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.; CNR, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati; Roma, Osservatorio Astronomico, Rome, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references

  19. Morality of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Case Study of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    34 Paul C. Szasz , “The International Law Concerning Weapons of Mass...downloaded 18 October 2009. Szasz , Paul C., “The International Law Concerning Weapons of Mass Destruction.” In Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction

  20. Mass Taxation and State-Society Relations in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Therkildsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Poll (‘head'''') tax has been the most common form of direct mass taxation in many sub-Saharan African countries since colonial times. Until very recently it was a dominant source of revenue for local governments. It has been a source of tension and conflict between state authorities and rural people from the colonial period until today, and a major catalyst for many rural rebellions. By tracing the history of poll taxes in Tanzania and Uganda, the chapter examines how these taxes have impact...

  1. Filtering overpopulated isoscalar tensor states with mass relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    Schwinger-type mass formulas are used to analyze glueball-meson mixing for isoscalar tensor mesons. In one solution, the f J (2220) is the physical glueball, and in the other the glueball is distributed over various states, with f 2 (1810) having the largest glueball component. Neither the f 2 (1565) nor the f J (1710) are among the physical states without assuming significant coupling to decay channels. The decay f 2 (1525)→ππ is consistent with experiment, and f J (2220) is neither narrow nor decays flavor democratically. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents

  3. Planck intermediate results: III. the relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal DA2 Y500 for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM-N...

  4. Leading relativistic corrections for atomic P states calculated with a finite-nuclear-mass approach and all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Monika; Bralin, Amir; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report progress in the development and implementation of quantum-mechanical methods for calculating bound ground and excited states of small atomic systems. The work concerns singlet states with the L =1 total orbital angular momentum (P states). The method is based on the finite-nuclear-mass (non-Born-Oppenheimer; non-BO) approach and the use of all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions for expanding the nonrelativistic wave function of the system. The development presented here includes derivation and implementation of algorithms for calculating the leading relativistic corrections for singlet states. The corrections are determined in the framework of the perturbation theory as expectation values of the corresponding effective operators using the non-BO wave functions. The method is tested in the calculations of the ten lowest 1P states of the helium atom and the four lowest 1P states of the beryllium atom.

  5. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46

  6. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2009-08-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the mass density, the specific surface area, and the particle size are quantified. As derived theoretically, molecular mass and mass density of nanoparticles will depend on the types of surface groups and the corresponding site densities and will vary with particle size and surface area because of a relatively large contribution of the surface groups in comparison to the mineral core of nanoparticles. The nano-sized (˜2.6 nm) particles of freshly prepared 2-line Fh as a whole have an increased molar mass of M ˜ 101 ± 2 g/mol Fe, a reduced mass density of ˜3.5 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, both relatively to the mineral core. The specific surface area is ˜650 m 2/g. Six-line Fh (5-6 nm) has a molar mass of M ˜ 94 ± 2 g/mol, a mass density of ˜3.9 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, and a surface area of ˜280 ± 30 m 2/g. Data analysis shows that the mineral core of Fh has an average chemical composition very close to FeOOH with M ˜ 89 g/mol. The mineral core has a mass density around ˜4.15 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, which is between that of feroxyhyte, goethite, and lepidocrocite. These results can be used to constrain structural models for Fh. Singly-coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite (˜6.0 ± 0.5 nm -2). These groups can be present in two structural configurations. In pairs, the groups either form the edge of a single Fe-octahedron (˜2.5 nm -2) or are present at a single corner (˜3.5 nm -2) of two adjacent Fe octahedra. These configurations can form bidentate surface complexes by edge- and double-corner sharing, respectively, and may therefore respond differently to the binding of ions such as uranyl, carbonate, arsenite, phosphate, and others. The relatively low PZC of

  7. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  8. Quark mass relations to four-loop order in perturbative QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-04-10

    We present results for the relation between a heavy quark mass defined in the on-shell and minimal subtraction (MS[over ¯]) scheme to four-loop order. The method to compute the four-loop on-shell integral is briefly described and the new results are used to establish relations between various short-distance masses and the MS[over ¯] quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. These relations play an important role in the accurate determination of the MS[over ¯] heavy quark masses.

  9. A study on how to divide and recodify the atomic energy act and its related regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hui; Chung, Sang Ki; Lee, Sang Soo [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Jae Jin [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    As a part of big project named 'streamlining and optimization of nuclear safety regulatory system', this report focuses on how to divide and recodify the Atomic Energy Act and its related regulations. Follow the first chapter of preface, the second chapter shows the systemic problems of regulation of current AEA and out strategy to reform and re-systematize it. This report concludes that the regulations of the current AEA need to be divided in three parts, i.e. the presidential regulations of FWAAE, NNA and RPA and the ministerial regulation of AEA in two part, i.e. that of NNA and RPA. Then the problems of current regulations of AEA are pointed out and the alternative regulations of FWAAE and NNA are persented in the third and forth chapter respectively. In the fifth chapter RPA is persented. And finally the legal character of several nuclear safety standards is estimated. Concerning nuclear safety or technology standards, those issued by Minister of Science and Technology (MST) empowered by law or its regulation is obviously forceful as a law. But the standards made by KINS to meet the tasks entrusted to KINS by MST is only conditionally forceful as a law, that is, on the condition that law or regulation empowered the chief of KINS to make nuclear safety and/or technology standards.

  10. Hexagon's atom. History of the relation between France and the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leridon, A.

    2009-01-01

    As soon as the end of the second World war, France, with the creation of the atomic energy commission (CEA), started a research program for the development of civil applications of nuclear energy, but also for the development of weapons. The come back of C. De Gaulle at the head of the country fostered the research efforts in both domains. Then, the election of G. Pompidou contributed to separate the military and civilian applications and led to the launching of the big French nuclear power program in March 1974. Nuclear contestation has shown a progressive development too, encouraged by the main accidents of Three Mile Island and more recently Tchernobyl. The debate has progressively moved with time from the safety of power plants towards the management of spent fuels. In this book, the author presents some particularities which are characteristic of France: the remnants of some kind of a 'scientism' inherited of the first half of the 20. century, the particular relations between 'scientists' and the republic, the policy of secret, the power of the senior officials corps and technocrats, the French taste for big works, the republican Jacobinism, the liabilities more easily given to State corps than to industrialists, and finally, on the opponents side, the search for the spectacular action to the detriment of efficiency. In this big fight, the know-how of nationalized companies, EdF and CEA, has been undeniable. The political power has very often taken refuge behind their competence but sometimes with a lack of democracy

  11. Atomic Energy Control Regulations: interpretation of revisions relating to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to those affected by section 18 to 18.23 of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Regulations. Words, phrases, and concepts that are specific to these Regulations are explained herein. However, the corresponding sections of the Regulations should be examined to obtain the exact wording. Although sections 18 to 18.23 of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Regulations apply to both neutron and gamma radiography, this guide has been written for only the latter. Persons engaged in neutron radiography should consult the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB)

  12. Comparison of electron ionization and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry for the determination of nickel, vanadyl and free-base porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.J.; Van Berkel, G.J.; Doolittle, F.G.; Filby, R.H. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Fast Atom Bombardment-Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS) and Electron Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (EI-MS) at 12 and 70 eV, were used to obtain mass spectra of mesoporphyrin IX dimethylester (DME), tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), octaethylporphyrin (OEP), and the metal-loporphyrins, Ni(DME), Ni(TPP), Ni(OEP), VO(TPP), VO(OEP), as well as a VO(II) porphyrin concentrate obtained from the New Albany oil shale bitumen (Mississippian-Devonian). A mixture of dithiothreitol/dithioerythritol (Magic Bullet) was used as the FAB matrix. Greater fragmentation of free-base and metalloporphyrins was observed in FAB mass spectra compared to the EI mass spectra. Adduct ions formed by addition of sulfur and a matrix molecule to the porphyrins were observed. In FAB spectra of the VO(II) complexes, loss of oxygen was noted. The FAB mass spectra of mixtures of VO(II) geoporphyrins are much more complex than corresponding EI mass spectra because of the greater fragmentation and the multiplicity of ions (M{sup +}, M + H, M + 2H, etc.) observed in the FAB mode. Using the matrices investigated, FAB is less suitable for EI for the mass spectrometric analysis of the geoporphyrins.

  13. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederson, B.

    1981-02-01

    The basic goals of this program concern the experimental determination of properties of atoms and molecules and molecular clusters that are important in a wide range of energy-related processes, in particular, measurements of polarizabilities of highly polar molecules and their polymers, and of a number of important atomic elements distributed through the periodic table, as well as of the scattering of low-energy electrons by these same systems. The most significant scientific accomplishment of the program during the past year has been the completion of measurements of the dc electric dipole polarizabilities of a number of alkali halide dimers [(KCl) 2 , (RbCl) 2 , (CsCl) 2 , (KF) 2 , and (CsF) 2 ]. An experiment was completed to measure the total cross sections for the scattering of low-energy electrons by atomic lithium, a very significant experimental test of a relatively simple, many-body system, which is amenable to elaborate computational determination

  14. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma risk in relation to atomic-bomb radiation and hepatitis virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.B.; Hattori, N.; Suzuki, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are related to chronic hepatitis C (HCV) or B (HBV) virus infections. Increased liver cancer risk among atomic-bomb survivors has been reported based on mortality studies or tumor registries, but virus infection status-particularly B, which is associated with radiation dose-was not taken account. The objectives of this study were to determine HCC risk in relation to radiation exposure, after adjusting for virus infection in a cohort follow-up study. The study subjects were 6,121 Adult Health Study participants who received tests for hepatitis C and B virus antigen or antibody in 1993-5. A total of 58 HCC cases were newly diagnosed during 1993-2002. As of August 2002, 8% of individuals positive for HCV antibody subsequently developed HCC, compared with less than 1% of individuals who were negative for HCV antibody. Cox regression analysis revealed that the incidence of HCC was 27 times higher among HCV antibody positive individuals and 7 times higher among HBV surface antigen positive individuals. Men had 1.6 times higher risk than women. The risk of HCC increased with age at exam overall but declined with age at exam among the HCV-infected persons. Risk of HCC was 1.3 times higher on average among individuals exposed to radiation, but persons who were younger at the time of bombing had a higher risk of HCC for radiation. There was no evidence of interaction between HCV and radiation exposure. In conclusion, hepatocellular carcinoma risk increased with radiation exposure among persons exposed at young ages, even after adjusting for hepatitis virus infection. There was no evidence of synergy between radiation and HCV infection in this late follow-up. Further study including earlier diagnosed cases is needed to clarify this issue

  16. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    This summary is an updated version of a previous revision of the summary of the United Kingdom's legislation on atomic energy and reviews the main texts in that field. Reference is made to the regulations on atomic energy, nuclear installations, radioactive substances, transport of such substances, radiation protection etc. The Energy Act 1983 amends the third party liability provisions of the nuclear installations Act 1965 in particular by raising the limits of compensation for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  17. The white dwarf mass-radius relation with Gaia, Hubble and FUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Simon R. G.; Barstow, Martin A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Holberg, Jay B.; Bond, Howard E.

    2018-04-01

    White dwarfs are becoming useful tools for many areas of astronomy. They can be used as accurate chronometers over Gyr timescales. They are also clues to the history of star formation in our galaxy. Many of these studies require accurate estimates of the mass of the white dwarf. The theoretical mass-radius relation is often invoked to provide these mass estimates. While the theoretical mass-radius relation is well developed, observational tests of this relation show a much larger scatter in the results than expected. High precision observational tests to confirm this relation are required. Gaia is providing distance measurements which will remove one of the main source of uncertainty affecting most previous observations. We combine Gaia distances with spectra from the Hubble and FUSE satelites to make precise tests of the white dwarf mass-radius relation.

  18. Left-cut contribution to the dispersion relation for the elastic electron - atomic-hydrogen scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kuchiev, M.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The jump in the electron - atomic-hydrogen forward scattering amplitude at the cut extending to the left from E = -0.5 au is calculated as a function of the incident electron energy, E, by using the second Born approximation. The contribution from this singularity to the dispersion relation is determined. (Auth.)

  19. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  20. Amendment of the atomic energy basic law and other related laws and establishment of the nuclear safety commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Kenji

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Law and related several laws were amended in the recent diet session. The amendment of the laws was requested after the radiation leakage from nuclear-powered ship ''Mutsu''. The reform of administrative system of atomic energy development and utilization are consisted of two important points: one is to establish the Nuclear Safety Commission for strengthening nuclear safety administration, and the other is to give an authority to each ministry or agency to regulate nuclear power reactor from the establishment to operation according to its original mission. (author)

  1. Complementary Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, and Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yun Jung; Lee, Jihye; Jeong, Jeung-Hyun; Lee, Kang-Bong; Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Yeonhee

    2018-05-01

    To enhance the conversion performance of solar cells, a quantitative and depth-resolved elemental analysis of photovoltaic thin films is required. In this study, we determined the average concentration of the major elements (Cu, In, Ga, and Se) in fabricated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and wavelengthdispersive electron probe microanalysis. Depth profiling results for CIGS thin films with different cell efficiencies were obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy to compare the atomic concentrations. Atom probe tomography, a characterization technique with sub-nanometer resolution, was used to obtain three-dimensional elemental mapping and the compositional distribution at the grain boundaries (GBs). GBs are identified by Na increment accompanied by Cu depletion and In enrichment. Segregation of Na atoms along the GB had a beneficial effect on cell performance. Comparative analyses of different CIGS absorber layers using various analytical techniques provide us with understanding of the compositional distributions and structures of high efficiency CIGS thin films in solar cells.

  2. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This Summary is an updated version of a previous revision of the Summary of the United Kingdom's legislation on atomic energy and reviews the main texts in that field. Reference is made to the regulations on atomic energy, nuclear installations, radioactive substances, transport of such substances, radiation protection etc. It is intended to be a signpost to the relevant law, but does not cover any aspect in detail. The Summary also refers to international agreements in the nuclear field: conventions and regulations on the transport of radioactive substances and nuclear material, nuclear third party liability, radiation protection and environmental protection. (NEA) [fr

  3. The V Band Empirical Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, F.; Fu, Y. N.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determination of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass-luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙. Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger mass, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weight to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. Compared with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in studies of statistical nature, but also in studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  4. The V-band Empirical Mass-luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Fu, Yan-Ning

    2010-07-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determinations of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙ Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger masses, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weights to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. In comparison with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in the studies of statistical nature, but also in the studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  5. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  6. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  7. Color-size Relations of Disc Galaxies with Similar Stellar Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, W.; Chang, R. X.; Shen, S. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between colors and sizes of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses, a sample of 7959 local face-on disc galaxies is collected from the main galaxy sample of the Seventh Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Our results show that, under the condition that the stellar masses of disc galaxies are similar, the relation between u-r and size is weak, while g-r, r-i and r-z colors decrease with disk size. This means that the color-size relations of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses do exist, i.e., the more extended disc galaxies with similar stellar masses tend to have bluer colors. An artificial sample is constructed to confirm that this correlation is not driven by the color-stellar mass relations and size-stellar mass relation of disc galaxies. Our results suggest that the mass distribution of disk galaxies may have an important influence on their stellar formation history, i.e., the galaxies with more extended mass distribution evolve more slowly.

  8. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  9. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  10. Fusion related atomic physics. Progress report, June 1, 1975--February 28, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Summaries of research progress on ion--atom collisions are given. Electron capture by high velocity point charges (bare nuclei with Z less than or equal to 9) was studied in several ways. Studies on the nuclear reactions induced by 13 C and 9 Be ions near the Coulomb barrier have continued

  11. Cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons by atoms: selected topics related to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.; Manson, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    We begin with a resume of the Bethe theory, which provides a general framework for discussing the inelastic scattering of fast electrons and leads to powerful criteria for judging the reliability of cross-section data. The central notion of the theory is the generalized oscillator strength as a function of both the energy transfer and the momentum transfer, and is the only non-trivial factor in the inelastic-scattering cross section. Although the Bethe theory was initially conceived for free atoms, its basic ideas apply to solids, with suitable generalizations; in this respect, the notion of the dielectric response function is the most fundamental. Topics selected for discussion include the generalized oscillator strengths for the K-shell and L-shell ionization for all atoms with Z less than or equal to 30, evaluated by use of the Hartree-Slater potential. As a function of the energy transfer, the generalized oscillator strength most often shows a non-monotonic structure near the K-shell and L-shell thresholds, which has been interpreted as manifestations of electron-wave propagation through atomic fields. For molecules and solids, there are additional structures due to the scattering of ejected electrons by the fields of other atoms

  12. The 2MASS Tully-Fisher Relation and Local Peculiar Velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assesses the utility of applying the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometric data from the 2MASS project. This is achieved by performing a preliminary analysis using 2MASS extended source data with the SCI sample of Giovanelli et al. (1997). Distances and peculiar velocities are measured for 11 clusters out to approx. 75/h Mpc. Statistics are found to be limited by the 47% coverage of the current 2MASS second incremental release. However, the 2MASS J, H and K-band photometry p...

  13. Safety philiosophies in technology-related law discussed for the example of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1993-01-01

    In practice, legal ruling and its technical implementation stand isolated side by side. Taking the example of atomic energy law, the reasons for this situation and the significance of the deficit in the legal control of technology are examined. It is discussed how the controlling capacity of the law can be increased through the legal implementation of safety philosophies for technology. The paper deals with the problematic realtionship between technical and legal norms, with safety philosophies in the sense of mental approaches, safety concepts or safety postulates and their legal significance, and with the safety philosophy adhered to by the authorities and courts. The following learning processes in safety philosophy are described: new concepts of protection within the field of determinism, probabilistic safety concepts as well as concepts for the reduction of damage potential. Altogether it can be stated that the safety philosophy currently adhered to in Federal German licensing practice is not the only possible one; rather, that there are many different ways of conceptualizing, stipulating and checking technical safety. At least in the field of atomic energy law, this insight has a twofold significance: de lege lata there are several ways of operationalizing the licence requirements laid down in Article 7 of the Atomic Energy Law and the legally defined requirements for a licence withdrawal with the aid of technical licensing criteria. In all cases the legal wording is indeterminate and does not prescribe any specific safety philosophy. De lege ferenda it must be noted that amendments to the Atomic Energy Law entail a regularization of safety philosophy. This is a political necessity if the Atomic Energy Law is to be developed further and thus maintained as a modern security law. (orig.) [de

  14. Report of workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The accident of the fast breeder prototype reactor, 'Monju' on sodium leakage in its second cooling system occurred on December 8, 1995 was broadcast widely through mass-communication such as newspaper, television and others. Because of suspicion of whether concealment of videotape taken the accident state was intended to not, a method of information opening was an argument point. In spite of this, technical details of the accident was not transferred to researchers of each specified field by formal state still yet. Informations expected by the specialists of flow relating vibration are, for example, objective data such as accurate shape, eigenfrequency, attenuation, and others of the thermometer well, flow conditions and so forth, by knowing which they could judge reason of occurring the accident. It seems to be meaningful to conduct the information exchange on even a scale of the 'Yayoi Research Group'. Therefore, the Research Group was received all of objective facts on eddy excitation vibration of Monju's secondary system thermometer well accurately from its interested persons, reviewed on the eddy excitation vibration at this accident once more, and argued with a method of future research. In this book, the following 14 reports are described; 1) Outline of the Monju secondary system sodium leakage accident, 2) Karman vortex, 3) Flow at circumference of vibrates, 4) Flowing power analysis of the thermometer, 5) Flowing power vibration water flow test of the thermometer well, 6) Water flow test on the flow excitation vibration of the Monju's thermometer well, and others. (G.K.)

  15. An application of a relational database system for high-throughput prediction of elemental compositions from accurate mass values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nozomu; Ara, Takeshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Yukiko; Iijima, Yoko; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Motegi, Takeshi; Aoki, Koh; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-01-15

    High-accuracy mass values detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis enable prediction of elemental compositions, and thus are used for metabolite annotations in metabolomic studies. Here, we report an application of a relational database to significantly improve the rate of elemental composition predictions. By searching a database of pre-calculated elemental compositions with fixed kinds and numbers of atoms, the approach eliminates redundant evaluations of the same formula that occur in repeated calculations with other tools. When our approach is compared with HR2, which is one of the fastest tools available, our database search times were at least 109 times shorter than those of HR2. When a solid-state drive (SSD) was applied, the search time was 488 times shorter at 5 ppm mass tolerance and 1833 times at 0.1 ppm. Even if the search by HR2 was performed with 8 threads in a high-spec Windows 7 PC, the database search times were at least 26 and 115 times shorter without and with the SSD. These improvements were enhanced in a low spec Windows XP PC. We constructed a web service 'MFSearcher' to query the database in a RESTful manner. Available for free at http://webs2.kazusa.or.jp/mfsearcher. The web service is implemented in Java, MySQL, Apache and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. sakurai@kazusa.or.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  17. THE INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATION AMONG WHITE DWARFS IN WIDE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Oswalt, T. D.; Willson, L. A.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the initial-final mass relation derived from 10 white dwarfs in wide binaries that consist of a main-sequence star and a white dwarf. The temperature and gravity of each white dwarf were measured by fitting theoretical model atmospheres to the observed spectrum using a χ 2 fitting algorithm. The cooling time and mass were obtained using theoretical cooling tracks. The total age of each binary was estimated from the chromospheric activity of its main-sequence component to an uncertainty of about 0.17 dex in log t. The difference between the total age and white dwarf cooling time is taken as the main-sequence lifetime of each white dwarf. The initial mass of each white dwarf was then determined using stellar evolution tracks with a corresponding metallicity derived from spectra of their main-sequence companions, thus yielding the initial-final mass relation. Most of the initial masses of the white dwarf components are between 1 and 2 M ☉ . Our results suggest a correlation between the metallicity of a white dwarf's progenitor and the amount of post-main-sequence mass loss it experiences—at least among progenitors with masses in the range of 1-2 M ☉ . A comparison of our observations to theoretical models suggests that low-mass stars preferentially lose mass on the red giant branch.

  18. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  19. The origin of the mass, disk-to-halo mass ratio, and L-V relation of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented in which spiral galaxies only form when t(c) is roughly equal to t(f) in a hot component of the protogalactic gas. This assumption, along with a disk stability criterion, predicts a range of spiral galaxy masses roughly consistent with observation. The nature of the cooling function for a primordial plasma implies that in less massive galaxies, more gas must fragment in the halo to preserve t(c) roughly equal to t(f). Consequently, less gas survives to form the disk, so that the disk-to-halo mass ratio increases with disk mass and hence galaxy luminosity. The canonical L proportional to V exp 4 relation can be reproduced by the model, and the apparent change in the slope of this relation also arises naturally. In the hierarchical clustering scenario, the model requires that all spirals formed at about the same epoch. These results support earlier claims that much of the dark matter observed in the universe is baryonic and probably formed during protogalactic collapse. 38 refs

  20. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei-Bin; Zhao Gang; Ruan Gui-Ping; Zhou Li; Liang Yan-Chun; Shao Xu; Liu Xiao-Wei; Hammer Francois; Flores Hector; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t 2 , the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t 3 , that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t 2 – t 3 . These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t 3 , t 2 , O ++ /H + and O + /H + derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O ++ /H + are higher than O + /H + for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from T e and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R 23 . The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews and Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 10 6 M ⊙ to 10 11 M ⊙ . (research papers)

  1. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  2. On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Ito, Katsushi [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Satoh, Yuji [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tóth, Gábor Zsolt [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2016-06-13

    We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the Θ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.

  3. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  4. CP violation, flavour violation and fermion mass relations in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1981-01-01

    Six quark horizontal gauge models incorporating a natural suppression mechanism for diagonal flavour-changing currents are considered. Some interesting possibilities for CP violation, flavour violation, fermion mass and mixing angle relation in these models are studied. (author)

  5. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: kayhan@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  6. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: I Subluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available Much of the formalism in special relativity is intimately bound up with Einstein’s formula for the variation of mass m with its velocity v, namely m(v=m0∗[1-(v/c2]-1/2, where m is the mass, v the velocity, c denotes the speed of light and m0∗ denotes the rest mass, noting that in these papers, we employ an asterisk to designate the rest mass. Einstein’s formula together with the Lorentz transformations and their consequences are fundamental to the development of special relativity. Here we introduce the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for vmass m(v; namely the residual mass is the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed. We emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v, and that this formal device merely facilitates the analysis. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae, assuming only the Lorentz transformations and two invariants known to apply in special relativity. One is force invariance in the direction of relative motion applying to two non-accelerating frames, while the other is not so well known, but applies in special relativity. Together the two assumed invariances imply that the energy–mass transfer rates are frame invariant but not necessarily constant as in special relativity. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and an illustrative example is provided for which this is the case, and from which a new comparison formula is derived that is singular at the speed of light. This new expression may be contrasted with the Einstein expression, and roughly speaking, the new formula predicts more mass than that given by the Einstein formula, since the singularity at the speed of light is steeper. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  7. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D.~A.

    2018-01-01

    -metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high...

  8. Use of positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for rapid identification of a bile alcohol glucuronide isolated from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, B.; Salen, G.; Tint, G.S.; Shefer, S.; Benz, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of a major biliary and plasma bile alcohol glucuronide, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 25-tetrol-3-0-beta-D-glucuronide, present in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) patients, was investigated by positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The spectrum was characterized by abundant ions formed by attachment of a proton, [M + H]+, or of alkali ions, [M + Na]+ and [M + 39K]+, to the glucuronide salt. These ions allowed an unambiguous deduction of the molecular weight of the sample. It is suggested that FAB-MS could be used in the rapid diagnosis of CTX

  9. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    , drying, milling and sieving to collect the fraction of particles less than 150 mu m in sizer In this fraction the trace elements were homogeneously distributed using a 400 mg sample intake for analysis, The total track element concentrations were determined by graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic...... mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for qualitative verification, Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the analytical data using the DANREF software, it was decided to assign certified values for mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the NFA Shrimp, and mercury, selenium and arsenic in the NFA Plaice...

  10. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: (1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, (2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field, (3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, (4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and (5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as (a) wind and solar energy, (b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, (c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, (d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland.

  11. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  12. THE STELLAR MASS–HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS X-RAY GROUPS AT 0.5< z< 1 IN THE CDFS WITH CSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Since z∼1, the stellar mass density locked in low-mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ∼8. Here, we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low-mass X-ray groups at 0.5mass scales for wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South. These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low-mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ∼3%–4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10 12.8 mass of Fornax and one-fiftieth the mass of Virgo). Complementing our sample with higher mass halos at these redshifts, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass ratio decreases toward higher halo masses, consistent with other work in the local and high redshift universe. The observed scatter about the stellar–halo mass relation is σ∼0.25 dex, which is relatively small and suggests that total group stellar mass can serve as a rough proxy for halo mass. We find no evidence for any significant evolution in the stellar–halo mass relation since z≲1. Quantifying the stellar content in groups since this epoch is critical given that hierarchical assembly leads to such halos growing in number density and hosting increasing shares of quiescent galaxies

  13. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI ( p 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI ( p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  14. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  15. A low Fermi scale from a simple gaugino-scalar mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F. [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the Fermi scale of electroweak symmetry breaking is determined by the pattern of supersymmetry breaking. We present an example, motivated by a higher-dimensional GUT model, where a particular mass relation between the gauginos, third-generation squarks and Higgs fields of the MSSM leads to a Fermi scale smaller than the soft mass scale. This is in agreement with the measured Higgs boson mass. The {mu} parameter is generated independently of supersymmetry breaking, however the {mu} problem becomes less acute due to the little hierarchy between the soft mass scale and the Fermi scale as we argue. The resulting superparticle mass spectra depend on the localization of quark and lepton fields in higher dimensions. In one case, the squarks of the first two generations as well as the gauginos and higgsinos can be in the range of the LHC. Alternatively, only the higgsinos may be accessible at colliders. The lightest superparticle is the gravitino.

  16. Summary of the Law relating to Atomic Energy and Radioactive Subtances as at March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1979-01-01

    This Note contains summaries of new laws and regulations on atomic energy and radioactive substances and amendments made to previous ones in the United Kingdom as at March 1979, including international regulations and agreements. New materials referred to includes the Nuclear Installations (Excepted Matter) Regulations 1978, the Medicines (Radioactive Substances) Order 1978, the Medicines (Committee on Radiation from Radioactive Medicinal Products) Order 1978 and the Medicines (Administration of Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1978. The Note also reproduces other amendments in nuclear legislation, already referred to in a previous Note dated March 1978. (NEA) [fr

  17. Effect of a new matrix system for low-polar organic compounds in fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Fukai, Toshio; Nomura, Taro

    1988-01-01

    A new matrix system m-NBA-DTDE (1:1) for FABMS of low-polar compounds, such as cholesterol and stearic acid methyl ester, was prepared. The system, i.e., a 1:1 mixture of m-NBA (m-nitrobenzyl alcohol) to DTDE (2,2-dithiodiethanol or 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide), contributed to measuring the positive ion FAB mass spectra of above compounds and morusin permethyl ether, and it brought an effective result on the ion current lifetime and the reproducibility of their spectra. The positive ion FAB mass spectra of these low-polar compounds were compared with the corresponding positive ion EI and CI mass spectra. (author)

  18. Merger of binary neutron stars of unequal mass in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Uryu-bar, Ko-barji

    2003-01-01

    We present results of three dimensional numerical simulations of the merger of unequal-mass binary neutron stars in full general relativity. A Γ-law equation of state P=(Γ-1)ρε is adopted, where P, ρ, ε, and Γ are the pressure, rest mass density, specific internal energy, and the adiabatic constant, respectively. We take Γ=2 and the baryon rest-mass ratio Q M to be in the range 0.85-1. The typical grid size is (633,633,317) for (x,y,z). We improve several implementations since the latest work. In the present code, the radiation reaction of gravitational waves is taken into account with a good accuracy. This fact enables us to follow the coalescence all the way from the late inspiral phase through the merger phase for which the transition is triggered by the radiation reaction. It is found that if the total rest mass of the system is more than ∼1.7 times of the maximum allowed rest mass of spherical neutron stars, a black hole is formed after the merger, irrespective of the mass ratios. The gravitational waveforms and outcomes in the merger of unequal-mass binaries are compared with those in equal-mass binaries. It is found that the disk mass around the so formed black holes increases with decreasing rest-mass ratios and decreases with increasing compactness of neutron stars. The merger process and the gravitational waveforms also depend strongly on the rest-mass ratios even for the range Q M =0.85-1

  19. Annual progress report for atomic and nuclear research with accelerators and fusion related atomic physics. Reporting period, October 1, 1974--September 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Topics covered include: laboratory operation and development; atomic collision cross sections in gases; ionization cross sections in thin solid materials; experimental impact-parameter dependent probabilities for k-shell vacancy production by fast heavy-ion projectiles; x-ray spectroscopy with high energy ions; atomic lifetime measurements; polarization studies of ion-induced x rays; theoretical spectra in ion-induced reactions; theoretical atomic cross section calculations; search for heavy-ion resonances; lifetimes of low energy states in 21 Ne; nuclear scattering and reactions; and trace element analysis

  20. The Impact Of Integrated Parameters In The Manga Local Mass-Metallicity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.

    2016-09-01

    We present the surface mass density - gas metallicity (Σ_*-Z) relation for more than 500,000 spatially-resolved star-forming regions from a sample of 617 disk galaxies included in the MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties with higher metallicities as the surface density increases, resembling a scaled-down version of the relation found previously for their integrated counterparts. This relation expands over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass and a factor of 8 in metallicity. Our large sample allows us to study the impact of global properties in this local relation. In particular, we find that for most disk galaxies the Σ_*-Z relation does not depend on the total stellar mass. Even more, for a large fraction of our sample (log(M_*/M_{⊙}) > 9.2) the observed metallicity gradients are well reproduced by the mass density gradients and the Σ_*-Z relation. We also find that this relation does not change significantly within the range of redshifts span by our sample. Our results suggest as the predominant scenario for metal enrichment as gas been recycled locally at shorter timescales in comparison to other global processes such as gas accretion or outflows.

  1. The three-loop relation between the {ovr MS} and the pole quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, K.

    2000-01-06

    The analytic relation between the {ovr MS} and the pole quark masses is computed to O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) in QCD. Using this exact result, the accuracy of the large {beta}{sub 0} approximation is critically examined and the implications of the obtained relation for semileptonic B decays are discussed.

  2. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerstrass, D W; Ocké, M C; Bueno De Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, P.H.; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differential underreporting of dietary intake by subgroups of body mass index (BMI) will confound associations between dietary intake and BMI-related diseases. We estimated the magnitude of BMI-related underreporting for energy, protein, and potassium intake for the Dutch cohorts of the

  3. Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.

  4. Hydrogen atom scrambling in selectively labeled anionic peptides upon collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Nicolai; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Roepstorff, Peter

    2008-01-01

    have now measured the level of hydrogen scrambling in a deprotonated, selectively labeled peptide using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results conclusively show that hydrogen scrambling is prevalent in the deprotonated peptide upon collisional activation. The amide hydrogens ((1)H....../(2)H) have migrated extensively in the anionic peptide, thereby erasing the original regioselective deuteration pattern obtained in solution....

  5. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  6. Kinematic scaling relations of CALIFA galaxies: A dynamical mass proxy for galaxies across the Hubble sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Ortíz, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Sánchez, S. F.; Hernández-Toledo, H.; Ávila-Reese, V.; van de Ven, G.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Zhu, L.; Mancillas, B.; Cano-Díaz, M.; García-Benito, R.

    2018-06-01

    We used ionized gas and stellar kinematics for 667 spatially resolved galaxies publicly available from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) 3rd Data Release with the aim of studying kinematic scaling relations as the Tully & Fisher (TF) relation using rotation velocity, Vrot, the Faber & Jackson (FJ) relation using velocity dispersion, σ, and also a combination of Vrot and σ through the SK parameter defined as SK^2 = KV_{rot}^2 + σ ^2 with constant K. Late-type and early-type galaxies reproduce the TF and FJ relations. Some early-type galaxies also follow the TF relation and some late-type galaxies the FJ relation, but always with larger scatter. On the contrary, when we use the SK parameter, all galaxies, regardless of the morphological type, lie on the same scaling relation, showing a tight correlation with the total stellar mass, M⋆. Indeed, we find that the scatter in this relation is smaller or equal to that of the TF and FJ relations. We explore different values of the K parameter without significant differences (slope and scatter) in our final results with respect the case K = 0.5 besides than a small change in the zero point. We calibrate the kinematic SK^2 dynamical mass proxy in order to make it consistent with sophisticated published dynamical models within 0.15 dex. We show that the SK proxy is able to reproduce the relation between the dynamical mass and the stellar mass in the inner regions of galaxies. Our result may be useful in order to produce fast estimations of the central dynamical mass in galaxies and to study correlations in large galaxy surveys.

  7. Standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations for low-level and environmental radionuclide mass spectrometry and atom counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; McCurdy, D.; Bell III, T.; Loesch, R.; Barss, N.M.; Morton, J.S.; Povinec, P.; Burns, K.; Henry, R.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the demand for higher sensitivity radionuclide measurements, atom counting technology will become an increasingly used modality in geo-and bio-studies, and process control operations. It is anticipated that requests, intercomparisons and performance evaluations services will surge in near future. In anticipation of such requests, the state-of-the-art needed to be assessed for proactive planning purposes. The results of a workshop focused on these issues indicated that there are several ongoing standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations thrusts which are expected to expand in the future. Furthermore, new projects were planned and the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (Public and Environmental Radiation Protection subcommittee) ws proposed as an information coordinator. (author)

  8. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  9. Influence of the relative optical air mass on ultraviolet erythemal irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.; García, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The main objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between the transmissivity for ultraviolet erythemal irradiance (UVER) and the relative optical air mass at Badajoz (Southwestern Spain). Thus, a power expression between both variables is developed, which analyses in detail how atmospheric transmission is influenced by the total ozone column (TOC) and the atmospheric clearness. The period of analysis extends from 2001 to 2005. The experimental results indicate that clearness conditions play an important role in the relationship between UVER transmissivity and the relative optical air mass, while the effect of TOC is much smaller for this data set. In addition, the results show that UVER transmissivity is more sensitive to changes in atmospheric clearness than to TOC variability. Changes in TOC values higher than 15% cause UVER trasnmissivity to vary between 14% and 22%, while changes between cloud-free and overcast conditions produce variations in UVER transmissivity between 68% and 74% depending on the relative optical air mass.

  10. Direct atomic spectrometric analysis by slurry atomisation: Pt. 7. Analysis of coal using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebdon, Les; Foulkes, M E; Parry, H G.M.; Tye, C T

    1988-09-01

    The application of slurry atomisation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to major, minor and trace element determination in coals has been investigated. Eight certified reference material (CRM) coals have been ground by the bottle and bead method and analysed using both rapid scan semi-quantitative analysis, employing a single rhodium internal standard, and full quantitative analysis using simple aqueous standards for calibration. The semi-quantitative mode, which determines the concentration using the mass-response curve for 68 elements against the single internal standard, produced values which were within a factor of two of the certified reference value, in most instances. The full quantitative determination gave excellent agreement with the certified reference material coals for a large number of elemental constituents. The results from the determination of 16 elements of interest are discussed including the effects of polyatomic interferents and isotope sensitivity.

  11. Preliminary description of a dedicated commercial ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer for direct atom counting of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purser, K.H.; Schneider, R.J.; Post, R.; Dobbs, J.McG.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of a commercial, tandem-accelerator centered secondary ion double mass spectrometer dedicated to 14 C/ 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements. Some design philosophy of the instrument is presented and the performance is described. A scanning cesium ion source with primary beam diameters between 100 to 200 micrometers is used to produce C - beam intensities of 10 to 20μA with the intensities remaining constant to better than 0.1% per minute after the source stabilizes. For recent carbon, these currents correspond to 14 C count rates from the ion source of 60 to 120 particles per second. Resolution of the first mass defining system, M/ΔM, is greater than 120 with the capability of rapid mass switching between isotopes. The measured isotopic ratios at the ion source for carbon are constant to better than 0.25%. The virtues of the 3MV parallel-fed Cockroft-Walton accelerator supply are presented. At the operating voltage of 2.5MV, the stability is better than 1:4000 with a terminal ripple 13 C 3+ and 12 C 3+ ions which originate from mass-14 molecular ions are measured to be 3.6mm away from the beam axis and so can be completely eliminated by the slits. Isotopic ratios have been measured beyond these slits, and it is shown that these ratios are constant to better than half a percent using recent samples. The final strong focusing magnet has a rejection ratio for unwanted carbon ions greater than 10 7

  12. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  13. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, and fat-free mass index (FFMI. Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03 after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003, but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09, while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03. Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  14. Highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Littman, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Highly excited atoms are often called Rydberg atoms. These atoms have a wealth of exotic properties which are discussed. Of special interest, are the effects of electric and magnetic fields on Rydberg atoms. Ordinary atoms are scarcely affected by an applied electric or magnetic field; Rydberg atoms can be strongly distorted and even pulled apart by a relatively weak electric field, and they can be squeezed into unexpected shapes by a magnetic field. Studies of the structure of Rydberg atoms in electric and magnetic fields have revealed dramatic atomic phenomena that had not been observed before

  15. SPREADING THE IDEAL OF MASS SHAREOWNERSHIP: PUBLIC RELATIONS AND THE NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet (ed.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, the New York Stock Exchange, led by President Keith Funston, embarked on an ambitious public relations campaign christened “Own Your Share of American Business.” This paper justaposes the “Own Your Share”campaign with earlier NYSE image-making efforts. Tracing the evolution in Exchange public relations sheds lights on how the Big Board gradually embraced mass shareownership as a worthy goal and endorsed mass merchandising as a legitimate way to achieve it.

  16. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhardt, Brett H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

  17. The Pauli potential in relation to the differential virial theorem with application to experiments on ultracold atomic gases of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2008-08-01

    In early work by the writer introducing the Pauli potential VP (r) into density functional theory, the relation of VP (r) to the, as yet unknown, single-particle kinetic energy density functional was emphasized. Here, because of ongoing experiments on ultracold atomic gases of fermions, an explicit expression for the first derivative of VP (r) for an arbitrary number of closed shells generated by harmonic confinement is derived in terms of the spherically symmetric particle density n(r) and the confining potential. (author)

  18. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  19. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  20. The mass-metallicity-star formation rate relation under the STARLIGHT microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickmann, M.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between stellar mass and gas-phase oxygen abundance (M-Z relation) has been known for decades. The slope and scatter of this trend is strongly dependent on galaxy evolution: Chemical enrichment in a galaxy is driven by its star formation history, which in turn depends on its secular evolution and interaction with other galaxies and intergalactic gas. In last couple of years, the M-Z relation has been studied as a function of a third parameter: the recent star formation rate (SFR) as calibrated by the Hα luminosity, which traces stars formed in the last 10 Myr. This mass-metallicity-SFR relation has been reported to be very tight. This result puts strong constraints on galaxy evolution models in low and high redshifts, informing which models of infall and outflow of gas are acceptable. We explore the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in light of the SDSS-STARLIGHT database put together by our group. We find that we recover similar results as the ones reported by authors who use the MPA/JHU catalogue. We also present some preliminary results exploring the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in a more detailed fashion: starlight recovers a galaxy's full star formation history, and not only its recent SFR.

  1. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 on crystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Song, Hee Eun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al 2 O 3 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al 2 O 3 passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al 2 O 3 growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al 2 O 3 shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al 2 O 3 surface passivation

  2. Enforcement agreement between the French atomic energy commission and the federal atomic energy agency for the implementation of the framework-agreement dispositions related to the environmental multilateral program in the nuclear domain in Russian Federations during the nuclear cooperation in the framework of the G8 world partnership against the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their related materials; Accord d'application entre le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et l'Agence Federale de l'Energie Atomique pour la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de l'accord-cadre relatif au programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie lors de la cooperation nucleaire dans le cadre du partenariat mondial du G8 contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des matieres connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In order to give assistance to the Russian Federations, the G8 partners have agreed to carry on joint actions in the following domains: dismantling of out-of-service nuclear submarines of the Russian navy, management of the spent fuels and wastes generated by this dismantlement, rehabilitation of fuel storage and waste management facilities, management of nuclear materials and safety of facilities or sites with a potential radiological risk. This document defines the domain of cooperation between France (CEA) and the Russian federal atomic energy agency: creation of a coordination parity technical committee, financing conditions and conclusion of contracts for joint actions, access to sites, exchange of informations, intellectual property, nuclear safety and radioprotection, changes and amendments to the agreement, enforcement and duration. A protocol relative to the access of French representatives to Russian work sites is attached. (J.S.)

  3. EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE MBH-σ* RELATION WITH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Ting; Barth, Aaron J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Ho, Luis C.; Bentz, Misty C.; Jiang Yanfei

    2011-01-01

    We present new measurements of stellar velocity dispersions, using spectra obtained with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) and the Magellan Echellette (MagE), for 76 Seyfert 1 galaxies from the recent catalog of Greene and Ho. These objects were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to have estimated black hole (BH) masses below 2 x 10 6 M sun . Combining our results with previous ESI observations of similar objects, we obtain an expanded sample of 93 galaxies and examine the relation between BH mass and velocity dispersion (the M BH -σ * relation) for active galaxies with low BH masses. The low-mass active galaxies tend to follow the extrapolation of the M BH -σ * relation of inactive galaxies. Including results for active galaxies of higher BH mass from the literature, we find a zero point α = 7.68 ± 0.08 and slope of β = 3.32 ± 0.22 for the M BH -σ * relation (in the form log M BH = α + βlog (σ * /200 km s -1 )), with intrinsic scatter of 0.46 ± 0.03 dex. This result is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the slope of the M BH -σ * relation for reverberation-mapped active galaxies with BH masses from 10 6 to 10 9 M sun . For the subset of our sample having morphological information from Hubble Space Telescope images, we examine the slope of the M BH -σ * relation separately for subsamples of barred and unbarred host galaxies, and find no significant evidence for a difference in slope. We do find a mild offset between low-inclination and high-inclination disk galaxies, such that more highly inclined galaxies tend to have larger σ * at a given value of BH mass, presumably due to the contribution of disk rotation within the spectroscopic aperture. We also find that the velocity dispersion of the ionized gas, measured from narrow emission lines including [N II] λ6583, [S II] λλ6716, 6731, and the core of [O III] λ5007 (with the blueshifted wing removed), trace the stellar velocity dispersion well for this large

  4. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  5. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  6. Centre-of-mass frames in six-dimensional special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Centre-of-mass frames are defined in six-dimensional special relativity. In particular, these frames are studied for various pairs of particles which can be any combination of bradyons, luxons and tachyons. These frames can be subluminal, superluminal or non-existent, depending on the angle between the particle time vectors. (author)

  7. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  8. The dark-baryonic matter mass relation for observational verification in Verlinde's emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2018-06-01

    Recently, a new interesting idea of origin of gravity has been developed by Verlinde. In this scheme of emergent gravity, where horizon entropy, microscopic de Sitter states and relevant contribution to gravity are involved, an entropy displacement resulting from matter behaves as a memory effect and can be exhibited at sub-Hubble scales, namely, the entropy displacement and its "elastic" response would lead to emergent gravity, which gives rise to an extra gravitational force. Then galactic dark matter effects may origin from such extra emergent gravity. We discuss some concepts in Verlinde's theory of emergent gravity and point out some possible problems or issues, e.g., the gravitational potential caused by Verlinde's emergent apparent dark matter may no longer be continuous in spatial distribution at ordinary matter boundary (such as a massive sphere surface). In order to avoid the unnatural discontinuity of the extra emergent gravity of Verlinde's apparent dark matter, we suggest a modified dark-baryonic mass relation (a formula relating Verlinde's apparent dark matter mass to ordinary baryonic matter mass) within this framework of emergent gravity. The modified mass relation is consistent with Verlinde's result at relatively small scales (e.g., R3h_{70}^{-1} Mpc), the modified dark-baryonic mass relation presented here might be in better agreement with the experimental curves of weak lensing analysis in the recent work of Brouwer et al. Galactic rotation curves are compared between Verlinde's emergent gravity and McGaugh's recent model of MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics established based on recent galaxy observations). It can be found that Verlinde rotational curves deviate far from those of McGaugh MOND model when the MOND effect (or emergent dark matter) dominates. Some applications of the modified dark-baryonic mass relation inspired by Verlinde's emergent gravity will be addressed for galactic and solar scales. Potential possibilities to test this dark

  9. On the Scatter of the Present-day Stellar Metallicity–Mass Relation of Cluster Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Christoph; Lisker, Thorsten; Pillepich, Annalisa

    2018-04-01

    We examine the scatter of the relation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity for cluster dwarf galaxies in the cosmological simulation Illustris. The mass-metallicity relation exhibits the smallest intrinsic scatter at the galaxies' times of peak stellar mass, suggesting stellar mass stripping to be the primary effect responsible for the rather broad relation at present. However, for about 40% of galaxies in the high-metallicity tail of the relation, we find mass stripping to coincide with an increased enrichment of stellar metallicity, possibly caused by the stripping of low-metallicity stars in the galaxy outskirts.

  10. Trace isotope analysis using resonance ionization mass spectrometry based on isotope selection with doppler shift of laser ablated atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    We have proposed a novel isotope selective Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) concept, which can avoid the Doppler broadening on solid sample direct measurement based on laser ablation technique. We have succeeded in experimentally demonstrating the principle of our RIMS concept. Through comparison between the simulated and experimental results, we have validated the simulation model. It would be concluded from these results that we could achieve the isotope selectivity defined as the ratio of 41 Ca to 40 Ca sensitivity to be 4.5x10 10 by adopting the multi-step excitation scheme in the present method. As future works, we will try to experimentally perform the multi-step excitation scheme and improve the detection efficiency by modifying the ion extraction configuration. (author)

  11. Outline of renovation for Mihama Public Relations (PR) Center on atomic power generation and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The Mihama PR Center of Kansai Electric Power Co. on atomic power generation and nuclear applications is now under entire renovation. It was constructed accompanying the construction of No. 1 unit in Mihama Nuclear Power Station, and opened in November, 1967, as the only PR facility of open house system. Since then, more than 1.9 million persons visited there in 15 years. Recently the space has become difficult to provide satisfactorily sophisticated exhibits because the importance of nuclear power generation has increased, and the diversified contents have been required. On the other hand, its building was cramped since many rooms were accommodated in the single round building of total area 815 m/sup 2/. In addition, the building has required drastic looking-over because of its deterioration and damages due to aging. The promotion of the understanding for the early securing of nuclear power plant location has been decided as the principal promotion item. The plan includes the modification of the existing building to the exhibition hall only as well as the completion and re-arrangement of the exhibits. It has been determined to construct a new building connected to the existing building, which accommodates a meeting hall, offices, utility machine room, etc., a total area being increased to 1457 m/sup 2/. The fund required is about 600 million yen. The construction work has started on December 1, 1982, aiming at the opening in July, 1983. The meeting hall is designed to seat about 120 persons and to employ multi-screen image techniques.

  12. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  13. Examination of Organic Vapor Adsorption onto Alkali Metal and Halide Atomic Ions by using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiβer, Anne; Hogan, Christopher J

    2017-11-03

    We utilize ion mobility mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure differential mobility analyzer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DMA-MS) to examine the formation of ion-vapor molecule complexes with seed ions of K + , Rb + , Cs + , Br - , and I - exposed to n-butanol and n-nonane vapor under subsaturated conditions. Ion-vapor molecule complex formation is indicated by a shift in the apparent mobility of each ion. Measurement results are compared to predicted mobility shifts based upon the Kelvin-Thomson equation, which is commonly used in predicting rates of ion-induced nucleation. We find that n-butanol at saturation ratios as low as 0.03 readily binds to all seed ions, leading to mobility shifts in excess of 35 %. Conversely, the binding of n-nonane is not detectable for any ion for saturation ratios in the 0-0.27 range. An inverse correlation between the ionic radius of the initial seed and the extent of n-butanol uptake is observed, such that at elevated n-butanol concentrations, the smallest ion (K + ) has the smallest apparent mobility and the largest (I - ) has the largest apparent mobility. Though the differences in behavior of the two vapor molecules types examined and the observed effect of ionic seed radius are not accounted for by the Kelvin-Thomson equation, its predictions are in good agreement with measured mobility shifts for Rb + , Cs + , and Br - in the presence of n-butanol (typically within 10 % of measurements). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Atomic structure and orientation relations of interfaces between Ag and ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, W.P.; Hosson, de J.Th.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of Ag-ZnO interfaces, produced by internal oxidation of an Ag-Zn alloy. ZnO precipitates with the wurtzite structure were found exhibiting mainly one orientation relation with the Ag matrix. However, closely related ORs were found, rotated by small

  15. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  16. Observation of $\\pi^- K^+$ and $\\pi^+ K^-$ atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; The PS212 collaboration; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Anania, A.; Aogaki, S.; Benelli, A.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Chliapnikov, P.; Doskarova, P.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dumitriu, D.; Fluerasu, D.; Gorin, A.; Gorchakov, O.; Gritsay, K.; Guaraldo, C.; Gugiu, M.; Hansroul, M.; Hons, Z.; Horikawa, S.; Iwashita, Y.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kulish, E.; Kuptsov, A.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lednicky, R.; Marinas, C.; Martincik, J.; Nikitin, M.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Plo, M.; Prusa, P.; Rappazzo, G.; Vidal, A.Romero; Ryazantsev, A.; Rykalin, V.; Saborido, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tauscher, L.; Trojek, T.; Trusov, S.; Urban, T.; Vrba, T.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhabitsky, M.; Zrelov, P.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of hydrogen-like $\\pi K$ atoms, consisting of $\\pi^- K^+$ or $\\pi^+ K^-$ mesons, is presented. The atoms have been produced by 24 GeV/$c$ protons from the CERN PS accelerator, interacting with platinum or nickel foil targets. The breakup (ionisation) of $\\pi K$ atoms in the same targets yields characteristic $\\pi K$ pairs, called ``atomic pairs'', with small relative momenta in the pair centre-of-mass system. The upgraded DIRAC experiment has observed $349\\pm62$ such atomic $\\pi K$ pairs, corresponding to a signal of 5.6 standard deviations.

  17. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogmar, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  18. A qualitative study of amlodipine and its related compounds by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John; Pugh, Jonathan; Dimopoulos-Italiano, Gina; Pike, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive structural analysis of amlodipine and certain related compounds was performed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Triple quadrupole and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments were used to provide collision-induced dissociation and accurate mass measurement for selected product and second-generation product ions. A unique ion rearrangement was observed, which was found to be characteristic of certain dihydropyridines. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the fragmentation of these compounds. The structural elucidation of an unknown impurity is presented as an example. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rykoff, Eli; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, Benjamin; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nord, Brian; /Michigan U.; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-03-27

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness - mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using SDSS data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely ({approx} 1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is {approx} 5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  20. EXTRINSIC SOURCES OF SCATTER IN THE RICHNESS-MASS RELATION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin; Rykoff, Eli; Nord, Brian; Evrard, August; Wu Haoyi; Wechsler, Risa

    2011-01-01

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness-mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low-mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely (∼1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is ∼5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  1. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  2. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  3. SUPERDENSE GALAXIES AND THE MASS-SIZE RELATION AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Fasano, G.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Gullieuszik, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Bindoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; De Lucia, G.

    2013-01-01

    We search for massive and compact galaxies (superdense galaxies, hereafter SDGs) at z = 0.03-0.11 in the Padova-Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue, a spectroscopically complete sample representative of the general field population of the local universe. We find that compact galaxies with radii and mass densities comparable to high-z massive and passive galaxies represent 4.4% of all galaxies with stellar masses above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ , yielding a number density of 4.3 × 10 –4 h 3 Mpc –3 . Most of them are S0s (70%) or ellipticals (23%), are red, and have intermediate-to-old stellar populations, with a median luminosity-weighted age of 5.4 Gyr and a median mass-weighted age of 9.2 Gyr. Their velocity dispersions and dynamical masses are consistent with the small radii and high stellar mass estimates. Comparing with the WINGS sample of cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, the fraction of SDGs is three times smaller in the field than in clusters, and cluster SDGs are on average 4 Gyr older than field SDGs. We confirm the existence of a universal trend of smaller radii for older luminosity-weighted ages at fixed galaxy mass. As a consequence, the median mass-size relation shifts toward smaller radii for galaxies with older stars, but the effect is much more pronounced in clusters than in the field. Our results show that, on top of the well-known dependence of stellar age on galaxy mass, the luminosity-weighted age of galaxies depends on galaxy compactness at fixed mass and, for a fixed mass and radius, on environment. This effect needs to be taken into account in order not to overestimate the evolution of galaxy sizes from high to low z. Our results and hierarchical simulations suggest that a significant fraction of the massive compact galaxies at high z have evolved into compact galaxies in galaxy clusters today. When stellar age and environmental effects are taken into account, the average amount of size evolution of individual galaxies between high and low

  4. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  5. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ; p for trend strength decreased progressively as Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  6. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  7. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Masanori; Schull, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The population prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referred to as the In Utero Clinical Sample, on whom Dosimetry System 1986 doses are available consists of 1566 individuals (1242 in Hiroshima and 324 in Nagasaki). Of these study subjects, 1473 had the circumference of their heads measured at least once between ages 9 to 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads - the circumference of the head was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific age-at-measurement mean. Twenty-six of the 30 cases with severe mental retardation described elsewhere are included among these subjects. Of these 26 severely mentally retarded cases, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy - 55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester or among individuals exposed at ≥ 16 weeks postovulation. The estimated threshold, based either on a linear or a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship, is zero or thereabouts. This apparent absence of a threshold and the somewhat different periods of vulnerability suggest an embryological difference in the development of both a small head and mental retardation. Mean IQ (using the Koga test) and its standard deviation are 63.8 and 8.5, respectively, for the

  8. Dispersion relation for elastic electron-hydrogen atom forward scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchiev, M.Yu.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic e+H forward scattering amplitude is an analytical function in the complex energy E plane and has two cuts on the real axis: 0 < E < infinity and -infinity < E < -B, B being the hydrogen ionization potential. The e+H dispersion relation contains two integrals over the right and left cuts. (Auth.)

  9. Analysis of rotation-vibration relative equilibria on the example of a tetrahedral four atom molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K; Sadovskii, DA; Zhilinskii, BI

    2004-01-01

    We study relative equilibria ( RE) of a nonrigid molecule, which vibrates about a well-defined equilibrium configuration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis unifies the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely on the detailed study of the symmetry group action on the initial and reduced

  10. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  11. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  12. Effect of minimal length uncertainty on the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2018-06-01

    Generalized uncertainty relation that carries the imprint of quantum gravity introduces a minimal length scale into the description of space-time. It effectively changes the invariant measure of the phase space through a factor (1 + βp2) - 3 so that the equation of state for an electron gas undergoes a significant modification from the ideal case. It has been shown in the literature (Rashidi 2016) that the ideal Chandrasekhar limit ceases to exist when the modified equation of state due to the generalized uncertainty is taken into account. To assess the situation in a more complete fashion, we analyze in detail the mass-radius relation of Newtonian white dwarfs whose hydrostatic equilibria are governed by the equation of state of the degenerate relativistic electron gas subjected to the generalized uncertainty principle. As the constraint of minimal length imposes a severe restriction on the availability of high momentum states, it is speculated that the central Fermi momentum cannot have values arbitrarily higher than pmax ∼β - 1 / 2. When this restriction is imposed, it is found that the system approaches limiting mass values higher than the Chandrasekhar mass upon decreasing the parameter β to a value given by a legitimate upper bound. Instead, when the more realistic restriction due to inverse β-decay is considered, it is found that the mass and radius approach the values 1.4518 M⊙ and 601.18 km near the legitimate upper bound for the parameter β.

  13. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  14. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Silva, Hector; Berti, Emanuele; Sotani, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Compact objects such as neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories to test our understanding of the fundamental interactions in the regime of supranuclear densities, unachievable by terrestrial experiments. Despite recent progress, the description of matter (i.e., the equation of state) at such densities is still debatable. This translates into uncertainties in the bulk properties of neutron stars, masses and radii for instance. Here we will consider low-mass neutron stars. Such stars are expected to carry important information on nuclear matter near the nuclear saturation point. It has recently been shown that the masses and surface redshifts of low-mass neutron stars smoothly depend on simple functions of the central density and of a characteristic parameter η associated with the choice of equation of state. Here we extend these results to slowly-rotating and tidally deformed stars and obtain empirical relations for various quantities, such as the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love numbers, and rotational apsidal constants. We discuss how these relations might be used to constrain the equation of state by future observations in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra.

  15. On the Origin of the Mass-Metallicity Relation for GRB Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U., Dept. Astron.

    2011-06-02

    We investigate the nature of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation for long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies. Recent studies suggest that the M-Z relation for local LGRB host galaxies may be systematically offset towards lower metallicities relative to the M-Z relation defined by the general star forming galaxy (SDSS) population. The nature of this offset is consistent with suggestions that low metallicity environments may be required to produce high mass progenitors, although the detection of several GRBs in high-mass, high-metallicity galaxies challenges the notion of a strict metallicity cut-off for host galaxies that are capable of producing GRBs. We show that the nature of this reported offset may be explained by a recently proposed anti-correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the metallicity of star forming galaxies. If low metallicity galaxies produce more stars than their equally massive, high-metallicity counterparts, then transient events that closely trace the SFR in a galaxy would be more likely to be found in these low metallicity, low mass galaxies. Therefore, the offset between the GRB and SDSS defined M-Z relations may be the result of the different methods used to select their respective galaxy populations, with GRBs being biased towards low metallicity, high SFR, galaxies. We predict that such an offset should not be expected of transient events that do not closely follow the star formation history of their host galaxies, such as short duration GRBs and SN Ia, but should be evident in core collapse SNe found through upcoming untargeted surveys.

  16. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies—1. Effect of Seed BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakata, Hikari [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Department of Economics, Management and Information Science, Onomichi City University, Onomichi (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Makiya, Ryu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Institute of Management and Information Technologies, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Matsuoka, Yoshiki [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro [Faculty of Education, Bunkyo University, Koshigaya (Japan); Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R., E-mail: shirakata@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Natural Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Kure College, Kure (Japan)

    2017-09-21

    We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and investigate how the mass of a seed black hole affect the scaling relation between black hole mass and bulge mass at z ~ 0. When the mass of the seed is set at 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙}, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the scaling relation for dwarf galaxies. On the other hand, when we set seed black hole mass as 10{sup 3}M{sub ⊙} or as randomly chosen value within a 10{sup 3-5}M{sub ⊙} range, we find the results are consistent with observational results including the dispersion. We also find that black hole mass—bulge mass relations for less massive bulges at z ~ 0 put stronger constraints on the seed BH mass than the relations at higher redshifts.

  17. Study on mass survey for cardiovascular diseases. An analysis of the electrocardiographic findings of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Noriko; Harada, Hisako; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Keiko; Ishida, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Gaku; Maeda, Ryo.

    1996-01-01

    Electrocardiographic findings obtained at authors' center in 1993 of 12,534 survivors (5,500 males and 7,034 females), aged 47-99 y, were analyzed in relation to irradiation conditions such as distance from the explosion site by Minnesota code to give the following results. The rate of survivors without abnormalities was higher in females than in males. In males and females, there was an increasing tendency with age of the appearance of QRS high potential, ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, bundle-branch block and arrhythmia. The frequency of appearance of ischemic abnormalities was correlated with sex and blood pressure but not with irradiation conditions. (H.O.)

  18. Calculation of the factor of the time's relativity in quantum area for different atoms based on the `Substantial motion' theory of Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.

  19. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  20. The Relative Hydrogen Bonding Strength of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms as a Proton Acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Nak Kyoon; Choi, Young Sang; Park, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Chang Ju

    1999-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters for the formation of the hydrogen bonding were widely used to understand the protein- ligand interaction. We have been interested in the hydrogen bonding strength of various proton acceptors toward the amide in a nonpolar solvent, This work is in the line of our interest. In drug design, the functional group is often replaced in order to enhance or reduce the binding affinity, which is usually determined by hydrogen bonding strength. Therefore, to understand this biochemical process the knowledge of relative hydrogen bonding strength is of importance.

  1. Further study of a new dispersion relation for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Temkin, A.

    1988-01-01

    A new recently proposed dispersion relation (DR) [Temkin, Bhatia, and Kim, J. Phys. B 19, L707 (1986)] is tested for e-He scattering; the results show that the new DR is not satisfied. Therefore we start to investigate the analytic structure of the difference amplitude, previously assumed to be nonsingular, on the negative scattering energy axis. Even under severe approximations we find that the difference amplitude contains both poles and branch points. This suggests, however, a useful approximation of these contributions to the DR which gives very satisfactory agreement in both e-H and e-He scattering. We conclude with some brief general remarks on this problem

  2. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S.; Goncalves Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z eff of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z eff using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  3. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczynska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g -1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g -1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g -1 in crude oil, -1 in gasoline, -1 in atmospheric oil, -1 in heavy vacuum oil and 140-300 ng g -1 in distillation residue

  4. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczyńska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-03-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system, (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system, (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus, (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g - 1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g - 1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g - 1 in crude oil, oil, oil and 140-300 ng g - 1 in distillation residue.

  5. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Bloom, E.T.; Makinodan, Takashi; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1988-01-01

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  6. The dwarfs beyond: The stellar-to-halo mass relation for a new sample of intermediate redshift low-mass galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Sarah H.; Ellis, Richard S.; Newman, Andrew B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benson, Andrew, E-mail: smiller@astro.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    A number of recent challenges to the standard ΛCDM paradigm relate to discrepancies that arise in comparing the abundance and kinematics of local dwarf galaxies with the predictions of numerical simulations. Such arguments rely heavily on the assumption that the Local Volume's dwarf and satellite galaxies form a representative distribution in terms of their stellar-to-halo mass ratios. To address this question, we present new, deep spectroscopy using DEIMOS on Keck for 82 low-mass (10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}), star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.2 < z < 1). For 50% of these we are able to determine resolved rotation curves using nebular emission lines and thereby construct the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to masses as low as 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. Using scaling relations determined from weak lensing data, we convert this to a stellar-to-halo mass relation for comparison with abundance matching predictions. We find a discrepancy between our observations and the predictions from abundance matching in the sense that we observe 3-12 times more stellar mass at a given halo mass. We suggest possible reasons for this discrepancy, as well as improved tests for the future.

  7. INSIGHTS ON THE STELLAR MASS-METALLICITY RELATION FROM THE CALIFA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López Fernández, R.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Cid Fernandes, R.; De Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Vale Asari, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Alves, J. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Galbany, L. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Gallazzi, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Husemann, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Bekeraite, S. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Jungwiert, B. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Bocni II 1401, 14131 Prague (Czech Republic); López-Sánchez, A. R. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Marino, R. A. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: CALIFA collaboration920; and others

    2014-08-10

    We use spatially and temporally resolved maps of stellar population properties of 300 galaxies from the CALIFA integral field survey to investigate how the stellar metallicity (Z {sub *}) relates to the total stellar mass (M {sub *}) and the local mass surface density (μ{sub *}) in both spheroidal- and disk-dominated galaxies. The galaxies are shown to follow a clear stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over the whole 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} range. This relation is steeper than the one derived from nebular abundances, which is similar to the flatter stellar MZR derived when we consider only young stars. We also find a strong relation between the local values of μ{sub *} and Z {sub *} (the μZR), betraying the influence of local factors in determining Z {sub *}. This shows that both local (μ{sub *}-driven) and global (M {sub *}-driven) processes are important in determining metallicity in galaxies. We find that the overall balance between local and global effects varies with the location within a galaxy. In disks, μ{sub *} regulates Z {sub *}, producing a strong μZR whose amplitude is modulated by M {sub *}. In spheroids it is M {sub *} that dominates the physics of star formation and chemical enrichment, with μ{sub *} playing a minor, secondary role. These findings agree with our previous analysis of the star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies, which showed that mean stellar ages are mainly governed by surface density in galaxy disks and by total mass in spheroids.

  8. Interim safety evaluation report related to operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, Detroit Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the scope and results of the radiological safety review performed to date by the NRC staff with respect to the operating license phase for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2. The major effort was the review of the facility design and proposed operating procedures described in applicant's Final Safety Analysis Report. In the course of the review, several meetings were held with representatives of the applicant to discuss plant design, construction and proposed operation. Additional information was requested, which the applicant provided through Amendment 7 to the Final Safety Analysis Report. A chronology of the principal actions relating to the review of the application is attached as Appendix A to the report. The Final Safety Analysis Report and amendments thereto are available for public inspection at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room, 1717 H Street, N. W., Washington, D.C. and at Monroe County Library System, 3700 South Custer Road, Monroe, Michigan 48161

  9. The role of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in relation to medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1955, growing global concerns about ionizing radiation led the General Assembly of the United Nations to establish the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The mandate of this committee, which presently includes 21 Member States, is to assess and report on the levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, UNSCEAR applies scientific judgement in undertaking comprehensive reviews and evaluations concerning radiation and maintains an independent and neutral position in drawing its conclusions. These are published in authoritative reports to the UN General Assembly, with there having been 14 such substantive reports, with technical annexes, since 1958. The information provided by UNSCEAR assists the General Assembly in making recommendations in relation, for example, to international collaboration in the field of health. Governments and organizations all over the world rely on the committee's evaluations as the scientific basis for estimating radiation risk, establishing radiation protection and safety standards, and regulating radiation sources

  10. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies. Annual report, June 1, 1985-May 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederson, B.

    1986-01-01

    This is the Annual Report for the period June 1, 1985 to May 31, 1986 for ''Energy-Related Atomic and Molecular Structure and Scattering Studies''. During the past year our efforts were concentrated on two specific experiments. These were (1) an attempt to measure the polarizability of the optically pumped excited state of thallium 6s6p 2 P/sub 3/2/, including its tensor components, and (2) a study of the differential scattering at small angles of electrons at low energies by several alkali halide molecules. In the thallium experiment we have performed some preliminary measurements, although we have temporarily discontinued these in order to update the beams machine upon which this experiment is being performed. 13 refs., 16 figs

  11. Into the atom and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    Magnifying an atom to football pitch size. The dense nucleus, carrying almost all the atomic mass, is much smaller than the ball. The players (the electrons) would see something about the size of a marble!

  12. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  13. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rasia, E. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F. [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Merten, J.; Ettori, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, M.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Balestra, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benítez, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Biviano, A. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Bradley, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); De Petris, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  14. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Merten, J.; Ettori, S.; Postman, M.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; De Petris, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  15. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TRAPPED, ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS: THE ORIGIN OF THE OBSERVED MASS-PERIOD RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    The large number of observed exoplanets (∼>700) provides important constraints on their origin as deduced from the mass-period diagram of planets. The most surprising features in the diagram are (1) the (apparent) pileup of gas giants at a period of ∼500 days (∼1 AU) and (2) the so-called mass-period relation, which indicates that planetary mass is an increasing function of orbital period. We construct the evolutionary tracks of growing planets at planet traps in evolving protoplanetary disks and show that they provide a good physical understanding of how these observational properties arise. The fundamental feature of our model is that inhomogeneities in protoplanetary disks give rise to multiple (up to 3) trapping sites for rapid (type I) planetary migration of planetary cores. The viscous evolution of disks results in the slow radial movement of the traps and their cores from large to small orbital periods. In our model, the slow inward motion of planet traps is coupled with the standard core accretion scenario for planetary growth. As planets grow, type II migration takes over. Planet growth and radial movement are ultimately stalled by the dispersal of gas disks via photoevaporation. Our model makes a number of important predictions: that distinct sub-populations of planets that reflect the properties of planet traps where they have grown result in the mass-period relation, that the presence of these sub-populations naturally explains a pileup of planets at ∼1 AU, and that evolutionary tracks from the ice line do put planets at short periods and fill an earlier claimed p lanet desert — a sparse population of planets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram.

  16. The MUSIC of CLASH: Predictions on the Concentration-Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Merten, J.; Postman, M.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Donahue, M.; Ettori, S.; Umetsu, K.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Czakon, N.; De Petris, M.; Ford, H.; Giocoli, C.; Gottlöber, S.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jouvel, S.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Medezinski, E.; Melchior, P.; Mercurio, A.; Molino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Monna, A.; Moustakas, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Sayers, J.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ~11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  17. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  18. The angular momentum-mass relation: a fundamental law from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; Pezzulli, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    In a Λ CDM Universe, the specific stellar angular momentum (j*) and stellar mass (M*) of a galaxy are correlated as a consequence of the scaling existing for dark matter haloes (jh ∝2/3). The shape of this law is crucial to test galaxy formation models, which are currently discrepant especially at the lowest masses, allowing to constrain fundamental parameters, such as, for example, the retained fraction of angular momentum. In this study, we accurately determine the empirical j*-M* relation (Fall relation) for 92 nearby spiral galaxies (from S0 to Irr) selected from the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves (SPARC) sample in the unprecedented mass range 7 ≲ log M*/M⊙≲ 11.5. We significantly improve all previous estimates of the Fall relation by determining j* profiles homogeneously for all galaxies, using extended HI rotation curves, and selecting only galaxies for which a robust j* could be measured (converged j*(http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L6

  19. Reaction of hydrogen atoms with acrylaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, Seiichiro; Nakamura, Kazumoto; Hoshino, Takashi; Hikita, Tsutomu

    1978-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen atoms with acrylaldehyde was investigated in a fast flow reactor equipped with a time-of-flight type mass spectrometer under reduced pressure. Main reaction products were carbon monoxide, ethylene, ethane, methane, and propanal. Consideration of the distributions of the reaction products under various reaction conditions showed that hydrogen atoms attacked the C=C double bond, especially its inner carbon side under reduced pressure. Resulting hot radicals caused subsequent reactions. The relative value of the apparent bimolecular rate constant of the reaction against that of trans-2-butene with hydrogen atoms was 1.6+-0.2, which supported the above-mentioned initial reaction. (auth.)

  20. A simple theoretical approach to determine relative ion yield (RIY) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, Sabine [Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany); Matsunami, Noriaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tawara, Hiroyuki [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Direct current glow discharge mass spectrometry (dc-GDMS) has been applied to detect impurities in metals. The aim of this study is to understand quantitatively the processes taking place in GDMS and establish a model to calculate the relative ion yield (RIY), which is inversely proportional to the relative sensitivity factor (RSF), in order to achieve better agreement between the calculated and the experimental RIYs. A comparison is made between the calculated RIY of the present model and the experimental RIY, and also with other models. (author)

  1. The relation between mass-gap amplitudes and critical exponents in the Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, F.C.; Felicio, J.R.D. de

    1985-01-01

    A recent result concerning the universality of the ratio of mass-gap amplitudes using the well known 1-D Heisenberg model which is the quantum version of the two-dimensional eight-vertex model is discussed. The believed extended scaling relation (x sub(p) = x sub(is an element of)/4) relating the polarization and energy anomalous dimensions is confirmed. The exponent, α, ν, γ sub(m) and γ sub(p) is also obtained by usual phenomenological renormalization group methods. (Author) [pt

  2. Thoracic Paravertebral Mass as an Infrequent Manifestation of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzumura Kuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 50-year-old African American male presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss. On physical examination, he had parotid and submandibular gland enlargement associated with right eye proptosis. Computed tomography showed a thoracic paravertebral soft tissue mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and ascending aortic aneurysm. Laboratory results were remarkable for elevated total IgG and IgG4 subclass. The submandibular gland pathology revealed chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, with a large subset of inflammatory cells positively staining for IgG4. The histology of the paravertebral mass demonstrated fibrosclerosis with increased lymphocytic infiltrate, associated with increased IgG4 plasma cells. He was diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy initially yielded improvement; however, after steroids were stopped, there was disease recurrence. Prednisone was restarted, and the plan was to start him on rituximab. Interestingly, the patient’s brother also had IgG4-RD. Conclusion. IgG4-RD can present as a paravertebral mass which is usually responsive to steroids; however, recurrent and resistant disease can be seen for which steroid-sparing agents such as rituximab should be considered. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IgG4-RD in two family members presenting as a paravertebral mass, highlighting an exciting area for more research in the future.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  4. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Diaz, A. I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Mast, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Camino Bajo de Huetor s/n, Aptdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Husemann, B., E-mail: frosales@cantab.net [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution-the local mass-metallicity relation-extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce-with a noticeable agreement-the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  5. Similarity of High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra of Structurally Related Micropollutants and Transformation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Stravs, Michael A.; Gulde, Rebekka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS2) with electrospray ionization is frequently applied to study polar organic molecules such as micropollutants. Fragmentation provides structural information to confirm structures of known compounds or propose structures of unknown compounds. Similarity of HRMS2 spectra between structurally related compounds has been suggested to facilitate identification of unknown compounds. To test this hypothesis, the similarity of reference standard HRMS2 spectra was calculated for 243 pairs of micropollutants and their structurally related transformation products (TPs); for comparison, spectral similarity was also calculated for 219 pairs of unrelated compounds. Spectra were measured on Orbitrap and QTOF mass spectrometers and similarity was calculated with the dot product. The influence of different factors on spectral similarity [e.g., normalized collision energy (NCE), merging fragments from all NCEs, and shifting fragments by the mass difference of the pair] was considered. Spectral similarity increased at higher NCEs and highest similarity scores for related pairs were obtained with merged spectra including measured fragments and shifted fragments. Removal of the monoisotopic peak was critical to reduce false positives. Using a spectral similarity score threshold of 0.52, 40% of related pairs and 0% of unrelated pairs were above this value. Structural similarity was estimated with the Tanimoto coefficient and pairs with higher structural similarity generally had higher spectral similarity. Pairs where one or both compounds contained heteroatoms such as sulfur often resulted in dissimilar spectra. This work demonstrates that HRMS2 spectral similarity may indicate structural similarity and that spectral similarity can be used in the future to screen complex samples for related compounds such as micropollutants and TPs, assisting in the prioritization of non-target compounds. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  7. Logarithmic contributions in the particle-mass ratio to the fine shift of S energy levels of hydrogen-like atoms in the fifth order in the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boikova, N.A.; Kleshchevskaya, S.V.; Tyukhtyaev, Yu.N.; Faustov, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    A high-precision investigation of a logarithmic contribution in the particle-mass ratio to the fine shift of the S energy levels of hydrogen-like atoms from the exchange of a Coulomb photon is performed. It is shown that diagrams describing the exchange of one transverse photon and two Coulomb photons do not make such contributions

  8. Dependence of the relative stability between austenite and martensite phases on the atomic order in a Ni–Mn–In Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze the influence of the atomic order on the transformations in Ni-Mn-In MSMA. ► Ordering decreases the martensitic transformation and increases the Curie temperature. ► The transformation entropy change depends on the atomic order. ► The shift of the transformation with the magnetic field depends on the atomic order. - Abstract: The influence of the atomic order on the magnetic properties and the relative stability between phases in a Ni–Mn–In Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy has been studied through the analysis of the effect of the different quenching treatments on the magnetic and structural transformation temperatures. As a consequence of the variation on the degree of long-range atomic order, the martensitic transformation temperature highly increases with the increasing quenching temperature whereas the Curie temperature slightly decreases. The modification of the atomic order brought by the quenching process also promotes a reduction of the entropy change linked to the martensitic transformation. In turn, no evolution of the magnetization change at the martensitic transformation is detected. According to the Claussius–Clapeyron equation, the achievable shift of the martensitic transformation temperature with the applied magnetic field also depends on the degree of atomic order.

  9. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  10. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  11. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  12. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  13. HERSCHEL KEY PROGRAM, ''DUST, ICE, AND GAS IN TIME'' (DIGIT): THE ORIGIN OF MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC EMISSION IN LOW-MASS PROTOSTARS IN TAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-shi, Kyungki-do 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinhee [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Green, Joel D., E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Six low-mass embedded sources (L1489, L1551-IRS5, TMR1, TMC1-A, L1527, and TMC1) in Taurus have been observed with Herschel-PACS to cover the full spectrum from 50 to 210 μm as part of the Herschel key program, ''Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time''. The relatively low intensity of the interstellar radiation field surrounding Taurus minimizes contamination of the [C II] emission associated with the sources by diffuse emission from the cloud surface, allowing study of the [C II] emission from the source. In several sources, the [C II] emission is distributed along the outflow, as is the [O I] emission. The atomic line luminosities correlate well with each other, as do the molecular lines, but the atomic and molecular lines correlate poorly. The relative contribution of CO to the total gas cooling is constant at ∼30%, while the cooling fraction by H{sub 2}O varies from source to source, suggesting different shock properties resulting in different photodissociation levels of H{sub 2}O. The gas with a power-law temperature distribution with a moderately high density can reproduce the observed CO fluxes, indicative of CO close to LTE. However, H{sub 2}O is mostly subthermally excited. L1551-IRS5 is the most luminous source (Ł{sub bol} = 24.5 L {sub ☉}) and the [O I] 63.1 μm line accounts for more than 70% of its FIR line luminosity, suggesting complete photodissociation of H{sub 2}O by a J shock. In L1551-IRS5, the central velocity shifts of the [O I] line, which exceed the wavelength calibration uncertainty (∼70 km s{sup –1}) of PACS, are consistent with the known redshifted and blueshifted outflow direction.

  14. Brief History of Mass Spectrometry in Korea Related to the Establishment of the Korean Society for Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hun-Young So*

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1970s, there were only a limited numberof mass spectrometers in Korea and experts to whomyou could ask about mass spectrometers. Two magneticsector instruments were bought to Korea by the Japanesereparations as a result of the Treaty on Basic Relationsbetween Japan and the Republic of Korea signed in1965. One was operated at the Seoul National University(SNU) and the other was at the Ginseng and TobaccoResearch Institute. It was too early to see any quadrupolemass spectrometer ev...

  15. Mercury speciation in thawed out and refrozen fish samples by gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    Different sub-sampling procedures were applied for the determination of mercury species (as total mercury Hg, methylmercury MeHg{sup +} and inorganic mercury Hg{sup 2+}) in frozen fish meat. Analyses were carried out by two different techniques. After the sample material was pre-treated by microwave digestion, atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) was used for the determination of total Hg. Speciation analysis was performed according to the following procedure: dissolution of sample material in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), derivatisation with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt{sub 4}), extraction into isooctane and measurement with gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) for the identification and quantification of methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) and inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The concentration range of total Hg measured in the shark fillets is between 0.9 and 3.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} thawed out shark fillet. Speciation analysis leads to {>=}94% Hg present as MeHg{sup +}. Homogeneity, storage conditions and stability of analytical species and sample materials have great influence on analytical results. Sub-sampling of half-frozen/partly thawed out fish and analysis lead to significantly different concentrations, which are on average a factor of two lower. (orig.)

  16. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  17. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  18. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  19. Are levels of bone turnover related to lower bone mass of adolescents previously fed a macrobiotic diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, T.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Seibel, M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dutch adolescents who consumed a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet in early life, demonstrate a lower relative bone mass than their omnivorous counterparts. We investigated whether subjects from the macrobiotic group showed signs of catching up with controls in terms of relative bone mass, reflected by

  20. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  1. Mass-Discrepancy Acceleration Relation: A Natural Outcome of Galaxy Formation in Cold Dark Matter Halos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Navarro, Julio F; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A

    2017-04-21

    We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies. The relation has small scatter: Different feedback implementations-which produce different galaxy populations-mainly shift galaxies along the relation rather than perpendicular to it. Furthermore, galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration g_{†}, above which baryons dominate the mass budget, as observed. These observations, consistent with simple modified Newtonian dynamics, can be accommodated within the standard cold dark matter paradigm.

  2. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    on experience from product modelling projects in several companies. Among them for example companies manufacturing electronic switchboards, spray dryer systems and air conditioning equipment. The framework is divided into three views: the product knowledge view, the life phase system view and the transformation...... and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  3. The relation between the production efficiency of nitrogen atoms and the electrical characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.J.J.; Yang, R.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a nitrogen plasma jet, atomic nitrogen is the longest lived radical species and, through recombination, gives rise to highly reactive excited nitrogen species. In this paper, the atomic nitrogen concentration in the effluent of a nitrogen-fed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is determined by

  4. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  5. A renormalization group invariant line and an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1992-10-01

    The renormalization group equations (RGE's) of the Standard Model at one loop in terms of the gauge couplings g 1,2,3, the top Yukawa coupling g t and the scalar self coupling λ are reexamined. For g 1,2 = 0, the general solution of the RGE's is obtained analytically in terms of an interesting special solution for the ratio λ/g 2 t as function of the ratio g 2 t /g 2 3 which i) represents an RG invariant line which is strongly infrared attractive ii) interpolates all known quasi-fixed points and iii) is finite for large g 2 t /g 2 3 (ultraviolet limit). All essential features survive for g 1,2 ≠ 0. The invariant line translates into an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation, which e.g. associates to the top masses m t = 130/145/200 GeV the Higgs masses m H ≅ 68-90/103-115/207 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  6. The mass limit of white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Liu He-Lei; Zhang Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, U. Das and B. Mukhopadhyay proposed that the Chandrasekhar limit of a white dwarf could reach a new high level (2.58M⊙) if a superstrong magnetic field were considered (Das U and Mukhopadhyay B 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 071102), where the structure of the strongly magnetized white dwarf (SMWD) is calculated in the framework of Newtonian theory (NT). As the SMWD has a far smaller size, in contrast with the usual expectation, we found that there is an obvious general relativistic effect (GRE) in the SMWD. For example, for the SMWD with a one Landau level system, the super-Chandrasekhar mass limit in general relativity (GR) is approximately 16.5% lower than that in NT. More interestingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will be first increased when the magnetic field strength keeps on increasing and reaches the maximal value M = 2.48M⊙ with B D = 391.5. Then if we further increase the magnetic fields, surprisingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will decrease when one takes the GRE into account. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  7. Recurrence relations for three-loop prototypes of bubble diagrams with a mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    Recurrence relations derived via the Chetyrkin-Tkachev method of integration by parts are applied to reduce scalar three-loop bubble (vacuum) diagrams with a mass to a limited number of master integrals. The reduction is implemented as a package of computer programs for analytic evaluation in FORM. The algorithms are applicable to diagrams with any integer powers on the lines in an arbitrary dimension. A physical application is the evaluation of the three-loop QCD correction to the electroweak ρ-parameter. 8 refs., 1 fig

  8. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  9. Chain propagator, mass, and universality in polymer solutions from Brownian relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A.

    2005-01-01

    A Lagrangian theory for single chains in polymer solutions is addressed via a recent Brownian relativity. By employing generalized diffusive coordinates, statements of covariance and diffusivity invariance result into free particle Lagrangians, where mass turns out to rise as a universal spacetime property. It descends from lowering diffusivity (or curving spacetime), so identifying a mechanism which conceptually resemble those ruling macromolecular scaling laws. An extended chain propagator recovers the Gaussian end-to-end distribution and, in the limits of time-like and space-like orbits, the dualism for diffusive paths and polymer random-walks

  10. Bill related to the struggle against proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This bill indicates the modifications brought to different French laws and codes (penal code, defence code, custom code) and defines provisions and penalties within the frame of struggle against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, biological weapons and toxin-based weapons, chemical weapons), and against the proliferation of their vectors. These modifications, provisions and penalties also concern double-use products. The bill also defines the modifications brought to the French penal procedure code. It finally addresses offenses related to these proliferations which can be considered as an act of terrorism

  11. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    functions in standard {Lambda}CDM models. The observed relation also boosts the sSFR relative to the specific accretion rate and produces a different dependence on mass, both of which are observed. The derived Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation for the regulator system is fit to published Z(m{sub star}, SFR) data for the SDSS galaxy population, yielding {epsilon} and {lambda} as functions of m{sub star}. The fitted {epsilon} is consistent with observed molecular gas-depletion timescales in galaxies (allowing for the extra atomic gas), while the fitted {lambda} is also reasonable. The gas-regulator model also successfully reproduces the Z(m{sub star}) metallicities of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2. One consequence of this analysis is that it suggests that the m{sub star}-m{sub halo} relation is established by baryonic processes operating within galaxies, and that a significant fraction (40%) of baryons coming into the halos are being processed through the galaxies. This fraction may be more or less constant. The success of the gas-regulator model in simultaneously explaining many diverse observed relations over the 0 < z < 2 interval suggests that the evolution of galaxies is governed by simple physics that form the basis for this model.

  12. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between...... protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...... nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46 gram/year with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95%CI: 13, 79; P=0.006) and FFM increased 15 gram/year (1, 30; P=0.046). Results were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53 gram/year with 1 E% protein...

  13. Early-type galaxies: mass-size relation at z ˜ 1.3 for different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data of the Lynx superstructure and GOODS/CDF-S to build a sample of 75 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs), spanning different environments (cluster/group/field) at z ˜ 1.3. By estimating their mass, age (SED fitting, with a careful attention to the stellar population model used) and size, we are able to probe the dependence on the environment of the mass-size relation. We find that, for ETGs with 10^{10} < M / M_⊙ < 10^{11.5}, (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ˜ 1.3 to present; (2) the mass-size relation in cluster/group environments at z ˜ 1.3 lies at smaller sizes than the local mass-size relation (R_{e,z ˜ 1.3}/R_{e,z = 0} ˜ 0.6-0.8).

  14. THE L∝σ8 CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion σ and total galaxy luminosity L V separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.268 or L V ∝σ 3.74 . This corresponds to dlog σ/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L∝L 0.32 . In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L V and M: dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.120, L V ∝σ 8.33 , and dlog σ/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve σ according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that σ increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause σ to decrease, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ –0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow σ∝L V +0.12 relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M . ∝σ 4 , ''saturates'' at high M . such that M . becomes almost independent of σ.

  15. Derivation of mass relations for composite W* and Z* from effective Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Masaki; Oneda, Sadao.

    1985-04-01

    In an effective-Lagrangian model with gauge bosons (W,Z,γ) and their neighboring spin J=1 composites (W*,Z*), we find relations among their masses, m sub(W), m sub(Z), m sub(W*) and m sub(Z*): m sub(W) m sub(W*) = cos theta m sub(Z) m sub(Z*) (as a generalization of m sub(W) = cos theta m sub(Z)) and m sub(W) 2 + m sub(W*) 2 + tan 2 theta m sub(W0) 2 = m sub(Z) 2 + m sub(Z*) 2 with m sub(W0) being the mass of W in the standard model provided that the system respects the SU(2) sub(L) x U(1) sub(Y) symmetry. W* and Z* are taken as the lowest-lying excited states belonging to an SU(2) sub(L)-triplet in the symmetric limit. The existence of W* coupling to the V-A current modifies the relation between G sub(F) and M sub(W) and that of Z* generates a new interaction of the (Jsup(em)) 2 -type as well as the deviation of sin theta sub(W) observed at low energies from the mixing angle sin theta in neutral-current interactions. (author)

  16. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease: Report of a Case Presenting as a Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a nosological entity defined as a chronic immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by a tendency to form tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions or by organ failure. Urologic involvement in IgG4-RD has been described in some short series of patients and in isolated case reports, most often involving the kidneys in so-called IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD. The disease can occasionally mimic malignancies and is at risk of being misdiagnosed due to its rarity. We report the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with a right renal mass suspected of being malignant. Laboratory tests showed normal creatinine levels, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and high levels of C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria. The patient underwent radical right nephroureterectomy and histopathologic examination revealed features proving IgG4-RKD. He was therefore referred to immunologists. Typical clinical presentation of IgG4-RKD includes altered renal function with inconstant or no radiologic findings. Conversely, in the case we presented, a single nodule was detected upon imaging evaluation, thus mimicking malignancy. This raises the issue of a proper differential diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach can be useful, although in clinical practice the selection of patients suspected of having IgG4-RKD is critical in the cases presenting with a renal mass that mimics malignancy.

  17. Estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure from mass imbibition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyafei, Nayef; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-05-01

    We perform spontaneous imbibition experiments on three carbonates - Estaillades, Ketton, and Portland - which are three quarry limestones that have very different pore structures and span wide range of permeability. We measure the mass of water imbibed in air saturated cores as a function of time under strongly water-wet conditions. Specifically, we perform co-current spontaneous experiments using a highly sensitive balance to measure the mass imbibed as a function of time for the three rocks. We use cores measuring 37 mm in diameter and three lengths of approximately 76 mm, 204 mm, and 290 mm. We show that the amount imbibed scales as the square root of time and find the parameter C, where the volume imbibed per unit cross-sectional area at time t is Ct1/2. We find higher C values for higher permeability rocks. Employing semi-analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow and using reasonable estimates of relative permeability and capillary pressure, we can match the experimental data. We finally discuss how, in combination with conventional measurements, we can use theoretical solutions and imbibition measurements to find or constrain relative permeability and capillary pressure.

  18. Effects of general relativity on glitch amplitudes and pulsar mass upper bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Montoli, A.; Pizzochero, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    Pinning of vortex lines in the inner crust of a spinning neutron star may be the mechanism that enhances the differential rotation of the internal neutron superfluid, making it possible to freeze some amount of angular momentum which eventually can be released, thus causing a pulsar glitch. We investigate the general relativistic corrections to pulsar glitch amplitudes in the slow-rotation approximation, consistently with the stratified structure of the star. We thus provide a relativistic generalization of a previous Newtonian model that was recently used to estimate upper bounds on the masses of glitching pulsars. We find that the effect of general relativity on the glitch amplitudes obtained by emptying the whole angular momentum reservoir is less than 30 per cent. Moreover, we show that the Newtonian upper bounds on the masses of large glitchers obtained from observations of their maximum recorded event differ by less than a few percent from those calculated within the relativistic framework. This work can also serve as a basis to construct more sophisticated models of angular momentum reservoir in a relativistic context: in particular, we present two alternative scenarios for macroscopically rigid and slack pinned vortex lines, and we generalize the Feynman-Onsager relation to the case when both entrainment coupling between the fluids and a strong axisymmetric gravitational field are present.

  19. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  20. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  1. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Pseudotumor Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ryeol Cheong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD is a relatively recently recognized entity that is histopathologically characterized by an extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells with dense fibrosis. IgG4RD is now known to affect any organ system, and a few cases of gastrointestinal lesions have also been reported. However, solitary IgG4RD of the stomach is still very rare. Furthermore, as it can mimic malignant conditions, it is important to recognize this disease to avoid unnecessary surgery. Herein, we present a case of IgG4RD presenting as an isolated subepithelial mass in the stomach.

  2. Relation of body mass index to risk of stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is a devastating complication after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but the influence of obesity on risk of stent thrombosis is unclear, and it is unknown if this relation is dependent on stent type. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between body...... mass index (BMI) and stent thrombosis after PCI with bare-metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES). We followed 5,515 patients who underwent PCI with implantation of ≥1 BMS or DES at a high-volume tertiary invasive cardiology center from 2000 through 2006. Only patients with a single type of stent...... (BMS or DES) implanted at the index PCI were included. Median follow-up period was 26 months (interquartile range 12 to 44) and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 78 patients. Hazard ratio of definite stent thrombosis adjusted for number of stents at the index PCI was 0.92 (95% confidence interval...

  3. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum......Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  4. Pionic atom as a probe of origin of the Hadron Mass. Quantitative evaluation of the chiral condensate in a nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Itahashi, Kenta; Hirenzaki, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is believed to be the mechanism which endows nucleus their large masses. The order parameter of the symmetry breaking is the chiral condensate, whose magnitude is predicted to decrease linearly as the nuclear density is increased. The reduction of quark condensate was quantitatively studied from recent precise measurement of deeply bound pionic 1s states on three tin (Sn) isotopes. We made use of the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation which connects the magnitude of quark-codensate to a pion decay constant, and then used the Tomozawa-Weinberg relation which relates the pion decay constant to an isovector strength of the pion-nucleus potential. The potential strength was determined by fitting the measured pionic 1s-state binding energies. The result shows that the quark-condensate strength is reduced by about 35% at normal nuclear density, compared with the ''vacuum'' value obtained from pionic hydrogen X-ray measurements. This is the first quantitative deduction of the quark condensate modification at finite nuclear density, and is an important step towards understanding the origin of hadron masses. (author)

  5. Neighbourhood Influences on Children's Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle L; Pearson, Amber L; Bentham, Graham; Day, Peter; Kingham, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown. To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours. Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables) were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Increased community engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing). Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight-related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  6. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  7. Influence of a Thiolate Chemical Layer on GaAs (100 Biofunctionalization: An Original Approach Coupling Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bienaime

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in microelectronics and optoelectronics; Gallium Arsenide (GaAs is a III-V crystal with several interesting properties for microsystem and biosensor applications. Among these; its piezoelectric properties and the ability to directly biofunctionalize the bare surface, offer an opportunity to combine a highly sensitive transducer with a specific bio-interface; which are the two essential parts of a biosensor. To optimize the biorecognition part; it is necessary to control protein coverage and the binding affinity of the protein layer on the GaAs surface. In this paper; we investigate the potential of a specific chemical interface composed of thiolate molecules with different chain lengths; possessing hydroxyl (MUDO; for 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (HS(CH211OH or carboxyl (MHDA; for mercaptohexadecanoic acid (HS(CH215CO2H end groups; to reconstitute a dense and homogeneous albumin (Rat Serum Albumin; RSA protein layer on the GaAs (100 surface. The protein monolayer formation and the covalent binding existing between RSA proteins and carboxyl end groups were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. Characterization in terms of topography; protein layer thickness and stability lead us to propose the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface as the optimal chemical layer to efficiently graft proteins. This analysis was coupled with in situ MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry measurements; which proved the presence of a dense and uniform grafted protein layer on the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface. We show in this study that a critical number of carboxylic docking sites (10% is required to obtain homogeneous and dense protein coverage on GaAs. Such a protein bio-interface is of fundamental importance to ensure a highly specific and sensitive biosensor.

  8. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  9. Determination of selected metals in urban runoff and related estuarine sediments by neutron activation and atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.R.; Guinn, V.P.; Scherfig, J.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution sources for Newport Bay, California are of a nonpoint nature. To assess the heavy metals loading of the runoff into the Bay, 18 water samples, taken during dry and rainy periods, have been analyzed for Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In addition, 7 sediment cores from the Upper Bay and 5 sediment grab samples from the Lower Bay were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for Cr, Fe, and Co, whereas Mn, Cu, and Pb were determined by AAS. Zinc was determined by both of these techniques. Three major streams pass into Newport Bay carrying: (1) agricultural and to some extent urban and residential runoff (70-90%), (2) urban runoff (10-30%), and (3) residential runoff (<5%). The levels of Zn and Pb are much higher under storm conditions, e.g., 338 μg/l Zn and 425 μg/l Pb, than during dry weather, where typical concentrations are 20 μg/l Zn and 9 μg/l Pb. For Cu there is a moderate increase from about 10 μg/l in dry weather to a maximum of 54 μg/l under storm conditions. Soil erosion appears to be responsible for high Mn values (max. 1230 μg/l) in agricultural storm runoff. The cleansing action of a storm is evidenced by high concentrations in the beginning, and much lower levels towards the end of the storm.Vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment cores indicate that Zn and Pb are the only metals of those investigated that show clearly increased levels in the uppermost layers. Typical enrichment ratios are 2.0 for Zn and 5.5 for Pb. Maximum concentrations of Zn and Pb in sediments from the Upper Bay were 300 ppm and 132 ppm, respectively. The highest Pb value was found close to the mouth of the urban drainage channel. Dating of selected cores was carried out by the Pb-210 method. Mass injection rates into Upper Newport Bay for Zn and Pb of anthropogenic origin were estimated to be 6.0 and 6.5 tons/yr, respectively

  10. The relative reactivities of ethane, ethane-d6, n-butane and neopentane towards 'hot' tritium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urch, D.S.; Welch, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    The reactions of recoil tritium with ethane-butane, and ethane-neopentane mixtures have been studied in the presence and absence of helium moderator. It is shown that the larger molecules are labelled by recoil atoms of a higher mean energy than those which label ethane. It is also shown that hydrogen atoms at CH 2 sites are replaced by higher energy tritium atoms than those at CH 3 sites. An analogy is drawn with the abstraction reaction and a simple unified model for high-energy recoil tritium reactions at a C-H site is proposed. The more complex the other groups attached to the carbon the greater the mean energy of the recoil atoms reacting with the C-H bond. Experiments with ethane-d 6 established that the primary isotope effect for abstraction is comparable to that for displacement with a value of 1.25 approximately 1.30. (orig.) [de

  11. SEASONAL, SIZE-RELATED AND AGE-RELATED PATTERNS IN BODY-MASS AND COMPOSITION OF PURPLE SANDPIPERS CALIDRIS-MARITIMA IN BRITAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUMMERS, RW; UNDERHILL, LG; NICOLL, M; RAE, R; PIERSMA, T

    1992-01-01

    The masses Of 3229 Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima from Britain were analysed for differences related to age, season and size. First-year birds were lighter by 2 g. There was only a slight increase in mass in mid-winter, in contrast to other waders wintering in Britain, suggesting that Purple

  12. Plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry by group I and group II matrix-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, W.-T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Na, K, Ca and Ba matrices on the plasma excitation conditions in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were studied. Normalized relative intensity was used to indicate the extent of the plasma-related matrix effects. The group I matrices have no effects on the plasma excitation conditions. In contrast, the group II matrices depress the normalized relative intensities of some spectral lines. Specifically, the Group II matrices have no effects on the normalized relative intensity of atomic lines of low upper energy level (soft lines), but reduce the normalized relative intensity of some ionic lines and atomic lines of high energy level (hard lines). The Group II matrices seem to shift the Saha balance of the analytes only; no shift in the Boltzmann balance was observed experimentally. Moreover, for some ionic lines with sum of ionization and excitation potentials close to the ionization potential of argon (15.75 eV), the matrix effect is smaller than other ionic lines of the same element. The reduced matrix effects may be attributed qualitatively to charge transfer excitation mechanism of these ionic lines. Charge transfer reaction renders ionic emission lines from the quasi-resonant levels similar in characteristics of atomic lines. The contribution of charge transfer relative to excitation by other non-specific excitation mechanisms (via Saha balance and Boltzmann balance) determines the degree of atomic behavior of a quasi-resonant level. A significant conclusion of this study is that plasma-related matrix effect depends strongly on the excitation mechanism of a spectral line. Since, in general, more than one excitation mechanism may contribute to the overall excitation of an emission line, the observed matrix effects reflect the sum of the effects due to individual excitation mechanisms. Excitation mechanisms, in addition to the often-used total excitation energy, should be considered in matrix effect studies

  13. Guarding against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs): Practical evidence from China's local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shukui; Wang, Siliang

    2017-04-01

    China is faced with serious challenges brought by large-scale social protests in the period of rapid urbanization and profound social transition. In rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China's local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive three-dimensional theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed data and/or cases, break various local practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce the probabilities of conflicts through regulating land expropriation behavior and safeguarding economic interests and participation rights of affected peasants, and the specific local practices which point to the innovative local government behaviors with heterogeneity, in general, the tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments' paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.

  14. Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sogacheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transport of air masses to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectories analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate over different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving from Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in the air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that, on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperature is lower and RH is higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources also make a substantial contribution.

  15. Of mice, men and elephants: the relation between articular cartilage thickness and body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Malda

    Full Text Available Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue's thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse to 4000 kg (African elephant. Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications.

  16. Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

  17. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-341). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1983

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1982

  19. The relative impact of baryons and cluster shape on weak lensing mass estimates of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. E.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Haq, M. E.; Deering, N. J.; King, L. J.; Applegate, D.; McCarthy, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing depends on the integrated mass along the line of sight. Baryons contribute to the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and the resulting mass estimates from lensing analysis. We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the impact of baryonic processes on the bias and scatter of weak lensing mass estimates of clusters. These estimates are obtained by fitting NFW profiles to mock data using MCMC techniques. In particular, we examine the difference in estimates between dark matter-only runs and those including various prescriptions for baryonic physics. We find no significant difference in the mass bias when baryonic physics is included, though the overall mass estimates are suppressed when feedback from AGN is included. For lowest-mass systems for which a reliable mass can be obtained (M200 ≈ 2 × 1014M⊙), we find a bias of ≈-10 per cent. The magnitude of the bias tends to decrease for higher mass clusters, consistent with no bias for the most massive clusters which have masses comparable to those found in the CLASH and HFF samples. For the lowest mass clusters, the mass bias is particularly sensitive to the fit radii and the limits placed on the concentration prior, rendering reliable mass estimates difficult. The scatter in mass estimates between the dark matter-only and the various baryonic runs is less than between different projections of individual clusters, highlighting the importance of triaxiality.

  20. Activity-related characteristics of the convective envelopes in evolving low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, S.M.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Convective envelope structures have been computed for the post-main-sequence evolutionary phases of 0.7-1.6 solar mass model stars having initial mass-fraction abundances of helium and heavier elements equal to Y = 0.25 and Z = 0.0169 (solar), respectively. Two types of quantities as a function of the basic stellar parameters have been studied. The first of these is relevant to the theory of stellar dynamos and includes estimates of the convective turnover time, various dynamo number parameters, and the maximum nonthermal energy which is available for the dynamo action. The other is related to the expected sizes of inhomogeneities on the stellar surfaces and comprises the determination of the depth of the convective zone, the pressure scale height at the outer edge of the convective region, and the thicknesses of the shells where the superadiabatic gradient is large and where the opacity is within 10 percent of its maximum. All of the above properties, which are fully discussed, are extensively tabulated and their variations as a function of evolutionary state are conveniently displayed in a number of contour plots to facilitate comparisons with observations. 29 references

  1. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis and relation to body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozdemir@firat.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Erhan [Department Orthopedic Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Murat, Ayse [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Karakurt, Lokman [Department Orthopedic Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Poyraz, A. Kursad [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Ogur, Erkin [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the role of sonography in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Materials and methods: This study evaluates 39 patients with plantar fasciitis and control group of 22 healthy volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured 5 mm distal to the insertion of the calcaneus of plantar aponeurosis. Qualitative parameters such as decreased echogenity, biconvexity, perifascial fluid and calcification of plantar fascia were also noted. Results: Mean plantar fascia thickness was measured 2.9 mm in patients with unilateral heel pain, 2.2 mm for contralateral normal heel and 2.5 mm for control group. There was a statistically significant difference between heel with plantar fasciitis, contralateral normal heel and control groups (p = 0.009 and 0.0001, respectively). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m{sup 2} in patients with heel pain and 25 kg/m{sup 2} in control group. Body mass index measurements were significantly different between plantar fasciitis and control groups. We found reduced plantar fascia echogenity in 16 cases (41%), calcaneal spur in 20 cases (51%), biconvex appearance in two cases (5.1%) and perifascial fluid in one case (2.5%). Conclusion: We conclude that in patients with plantar fasciitis, ultrasound may detect relatively small differences in plantar fascia thickness even in clinically unequivocal plantar fasciitis.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis and relation to body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Erhan; Murat, Ayse; Karakurt, Lokman; Poyraz, A. Kursad; Ogur, Erkin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the role of sonography in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Materials and methods: This study evaluates 39 patients with plantar fasciitis and control group of 22 healthy volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured 5 mm distal to the insertion of the calcaneus of plantar aponeurosis. Qualitative parameters such as decreased echogenity, biconvexity, perifascial fluid and calcification of plantar fascia were also noted. Results: Mean plantar fascia thickness was measured 2.9 mm in patients with unilateral heel pain, 2.2 mm for contralateral normal heel and 2.5 mm for control group. There was a statistically significant difference between heel with plantar fasciitis, contralateral normal heel and control groups (p = 0.009 and 0.0001, respectively). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m 2 in patients with heel pain and 25 kg/m 2 in control group. Body mass index measurements were significantly different between plantar fasciitis and control groups. We found reduced plantar fascia echogenity in 16 cases (41%), calcaneal spur in 20 cases (51%), biconvex appearance in two cases (5.1%) and perifascial fluid in one case (2.5%). Conclusion: We conclude that in patients with plantar fasciitis, ultrasound may detect relatively small differences in plantar fascia thickness even in clinically unequivocal plantar fasciitis

  3. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ≥65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

  5. Relative muscle mass and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Hong

    Full Text Available The association between relative muscle mass (RMM and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM is largely unknown. We examined whether RMM predicted development of T2DM in an apparently young healthy population.This cohort study was comprised of 113,913 men and 89,854 women, free of T2DM at baseline, who underwent a health checkup examination and were followed-up annually or biennially for an average of 2.9 years. We used skeletal muscle mass index (SMI as an indicator of RMM. SMI (% [total skeletal muscle mass (kg/body weight (kg×100] was estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The study outcome was incident T2DM, defined as fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL, HbA1C ≥6.5%, or use of medication for T2DM.During 589,098.8 person-years of follow-up, 4,264 individuals developed T2DM (incidence rate, 7.2 per 1000 person-years. Median age (range at baseline was 39.1 years (18.1-87.1. RMM was negatively associated with incidence of T2DM in a dose-response manner. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs for incident T2DM comparing quartiles 3, 2 and 1 of RMM to the highest quartile were 1.32 (1.14-1.52, 1.63 (1.42-1.86, and 2.21 (1.94-2.51, respectively, for males and 1.18 (0.88-1.58, 1.46 (1.11-1.91, and 1.96 (01.51-2.53 for females (P for trend <0.001; 0.011. This association was stronger in younger or premenopausal subjects.RMM was negatively associated with development of T2DM in a large sample of young and middle-aged Korean adults. Further research is required to determine whether preservation of muscle mass through intervention affects the risk of T2DM.

  6. Interfacing of thermal ionization mass spectrometer with PC/XT and related software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, A.D.; Gurba, P.B.; Rajendrakumar; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Coelho, G.J.M.; Das, K.V.; Indurkar, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A completely automated Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), is used in Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE) Tarapur for precise and accurate measurement of isotopic composition and concentration determination of special nuclear materials (Uranium and Plutonium) for the purpose of input accounting of the plant. It is provided with one Hewlett-Packard, H-9845B desktop computer to control various instrument parameters and perform automatic analysis of 13 samples in sequence. The computer gave fairly good service for six years with intermittent minor maintenance before it developed major problems. In view of the fact that its repair and maintenance cost is several times the cost of locally available computer, it was decided to replace the imported Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer with PC/XT. This report describes the interfacing of TIMS with PC/XT and the related Software development. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 annexures

  7. Dimensions of socioeconomic position related to body mass index and obesity among Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Danish population. Possible interactions between the different dimensions and gender differences were also investigated. Methods....... Associations between dimensions of socioeconomic position and weight status were examined by use of linear multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: BMI and prevalence of obesity were significantly associated with education for both men and women. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity...... adjustment for educational level. Conclusions: Education was the dimension most consistently associated with BMI and obesity, indicating the importance of cultural capital for weight status. The gender-specific pattern showed a stronger social gradient for women, and indicated that a high relative body...

  8. Matrix digestion of soil and sediment samples for extraction of lead, cadmium and antimony and their direct determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Fisher, A.S.; Henon, D.N.; Hill, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmentally friendly and simple method has been developed for complete digestion of lead, cadmium and antimony from soil samples using a magnesium nitrate assisted dry ashing procedure. Statistical data for a series of experiments with standard reference materials are presented, and precision values are found to be comparable for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. From a single digest solution all analytes are quantified without involving any preconcentration routes. Inter-method comparison of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) shows that the probability of the results being different is less than 99 %. (author)

  9. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  10. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  11. SU-C-BRC-05: Monte Carlo Calculations to Establish a Simple Relation of Backscatter Dose Enhancement Around High-Z Dental Alloy to Its Atomic Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, S; Kushima, N; Katsura, K; Tanabe, S; Hayakawa, T; Sakai, H; Yamada, T; Takahashi, H; Abe, E; Wada, S; Aoyama, H [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a simple relation of backscatter dose enhancement around a high-Z dental alloy in head and neck radiation therapy to its average atomic number based on Monte Carlo calculations. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo code was used to calculate dose enhancement, which is quantified by the backscatter dose factor (BSDF). The accuracy of the beam modeling with PHITS was verified by comparing with basic measured data namely PDDs and dose profiles. In the simulation, a high-Z alloy of 1 cm cube was embedded into a tough water phantom irradiated by a 6-MV (nominal) X-ray beam of 10 cm × 10 cm field size of Novalis TX (Brainlab). The ten different materials of high-Z alloys (Al, Ti, Cu, Ag, Au-Pd-Ag, I, Ba, W, Au, Pb) were considered. The accuracy of calculated BSDF was verified by comparing with measured data by Gafchromic EBT3 films placed at from 0 to 10 mm away from a high-Z alloy (Au-Pd-Ag). We derived an approximate equation to determine the relation of BSDF and range of backscatter to average atomic number of high-Z alloy. Results: The calculated BSDF showed excellent agreement with measured one by Gafchromic EBT3 films at from 0 to 10 mm away from the high-Z alloy. We found the simple linear relation of BSDF and range of backscatter to average atomic number of dental alloys. The latter relation was proven by the fact that energy spectrum of backscatter electrons strongly depend on average atomic number. Conclusion: We found a simple relation of backscatter dose enhancement around high-Z alloys to its average atomic number based on Monte Carlo calculations. This work provides a simple and useful method to estimate backscatter dose enhancement from dental alloys and corresponding optimal thickness of dental spacer to prevent mucositis effectively.

  12. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  13. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  14. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-06-28

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions

  15. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans-Lacko Sara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. Methods This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Results This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions

  16. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  17. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  18. The relation between specific baryon angular momentum and mass for a sample of nearby low-mass galaxies with resolved H I kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between specific baryon angular momentum jb and baryon mass Mb for a sample of nearby late-type galaxies with resolved H I kinematics. This work roughly doubles the number of galaxies with Mb ≲ 1010 M⊙ used to study the jb-Mb relation. Most of the galaxies in the sample have their baryon mass dominated by their gas content, thereby offering jb and Mb measures that are relatively unaffected by uncertainties arising from the stellar mass-to-light ratio. Measured H I surface density radial profiles together with optical and rotation curve data from the literature are used to derive a best-fitting relation given by j_b=qM_b^{α }, with α = 0.62 ± 0.02 and log10 q = -3.35 ± 0.25. This result is consistent with the j_b∝ M_b^{2/3} relation that is theoretically expected and also measured by Obreschkow & Glazebrook for their full sample of THINGS spiral galaxies, yet differs to their steeper relation found for subsets with fixed bulge fraction. The 30 arcsec spatial resolution of the H I imaging used in this study is significantly lower than that of the THINGS imaging used by Obreschkow & Glazebrook, yet the results presented in this work are clearly shown to contain no significant systematic errors due to the low-resolution imaging.

  19. Communication from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-04

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to the export of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology.

  20. Communication from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to the export of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology