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Sample records for relationship inmn-substituted limn2o4

  1. In-situ synchrotron PXRD study of spinel LiMn2O4 nanocrystal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Christiansen, Troels Lindahl

    Many solvothermal reactions have a great potential for environmentally friendly and easily scalable way for producing nanocrystalline materials on an industrial scale. Here we study hydrothermal formation of spinel LiMn2O4 which is a well-known cathode material for Li-ion batteries. The LiMn2O4...

  2. Single Nanorod Devices for Battery Diagnostics: A Case Study on LiMn 2 O 4

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2009-12-09

    This paper presents single nanostructure devices as a powerful new diagnostic tool for batteries with LiMn2O4 nanorod materials as an example. LiMn2O4 and Al-doped LiMn2O4 nanorods were synthesized by a two-step method that combines hydrothermal synthesis of β-MnO2 nanorods and a solid state reaction to convert them to LiMn2O4 nanorods. λ-MnO2 nanorods were also prepared by acid treatment of LiMn2O4 nanorods. The effect of electrolyte etching on these LiMn2O 4-related nanorods is investigated by both SEM and single-nanorod transport measurement, and this is the first time that the transport properties of this material have been studied at the level of an individual singlecrystalline particle. Experiments show that Al dopants reduce the dissolution of Mn3+ ions significantly and make the LiAl 0.1Mn1.9O4 nanorods much more stable than LiMn2O4 against electrolyte etching, which is reflected by the magnification of both size shrinkage and conductance decrease. These results correlate well with the better cycling performance of Al-doped LiMn 2O4 in our Li-ion battery tests: LiAl0.1Mn 1.9O4 nanorods achieve 96% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 1C rate at room temperature, and 80% at 60 °C, whereas LiMn 2O4 shows worse retention of 91% at room temperature, and 69% at 60 °C. Moreover, temperature-dependent I - V measurements indicate that the sharp electronic resistance increase due to charge ordering transition at 290 K does not appear in our LiMn2O4 nanorod samples, suggesting good battery performance at low temperature. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Glycerol-assisted solution combustion synthesis of improved LiMn2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guiyang; Xin, Kong; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Baosen; He, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 has been synthesized by a glycerol-assisted combustion synthesis method. The phase composition and morphologies of the compound were ascertained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical characterization was performed by using CR2032 coin-type cell. XRD analysis indicates that single phase spinel LiMn2O4 with good crystallinity has been obtained as a result of 5 h treatment at 600 °C. SEM investigation indicates that the average particle size of the sample is 200 nm. The initial discharge specific capacity of the LiMn2O4 is 123 mAh/g at a current density of 30 mA/g. When the current density increased to 300 mA/g, the LiMn2O4 offered a discharge specific capacity of 86 mAh/g. Compared with the LiMn2O4 prepared by a conventional solution combustion synthesis method at the same temperature, the prepared LiMn2O4 possesses higher purity, better crystallinity and more uniformly dispersed particles. Moreover, the initial discharge specific capacity, rate capability and cycling performance of the prepared LiMn2O4 are significantly improved.

  4. Structure and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze-min; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2007-01-01

    LiMn2O4, a cathode material of lithium ion battery, was prepared by the citric acid complexing method using lithium acetate and manganese acetate as raw materials. The type of atom location confused degree, the confused degree and judgement method in LiMn2O4 were analyzed. The effect of sintering temperature on structure and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 was also investigated. The results show that the atom location confused degree increases with the decrease of the X-ray diffraction peak intensity ratio of LiMn2O4, I111/I311. The type of atom location confused degree depends on the variation tendency of I111/I311 and I311/I400 value. If the variation tendency is the same, it belongs to the 16c type location confusion, however, if the variation tendency is contrary, it belongs to the anti-spinel type location confusion. When the sintering temperature is low, it is apt to produce the anti-spinel location confusion in LiMn2O4. With the increase of sintering temperature, the confused degree with the anti-spinel type gradually reduces, however, the confused degree with 16c type increases to some extent. When the atom location confusion with the anti-spinel type appears in LiMn2O4, both the initial discharging capacity and cycling properties of LiMn2O4 reduce. However, the atom location confusion with 16c type does not affect the charge and discharge properties of LiMn2O4.

  5. Structure characteristics and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 modified by LiCoO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenping Cai; Mingxun Li; Shigang Lu; Weihua Jin

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the cycle performance of LiMn2O4, the modified LiMn2O4 was prepared by solid-state reactions using LiMn2O4 and LiCoO2 as precursors. XRD and EDS were used to study the structure properties of the modified LiMn2O4. The electrochemical properties of the modified LiMn2O4 were also investigated. The results show that Li and Co atoms could insert into the LiMn2O4 crystal lattice and a newly formed spinel phase, modified LiMn2O4 was obtained. The modified LiMn2O4 exhibits excellent cycle ability at room and elevated temperatures compared to pure LiMn2O4. The improved electrochemical stability of the modified LiMn2O4 attributes to the entrance of Li and Co ions inserted into the spinel crystal structure.

  6. Spinel LiMn2O4 nanorods as lithium ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyung; Muralidharan, P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ruffo, Riccardo; Yang, Yuan; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-11-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline beta-MnO2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn2O4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 microm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn2O4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn2O4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3 V.

  7. Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2008-11-12

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline β-MnO 2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn 2O 4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 μm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn 2O 4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3V. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Graphite assisted synthesis of nanoparticles interconnected porous two-dimensional LiMn2O4 nanoplates with superior performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. H.; Liu, H. Q.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, G. Y.; Guo, Y. J.; Wang, H. F.; Sun, L. F.; Chu, W. G.

    2016-10-01

    A facile graphite assisted approach is proposed to synthesize high performance LiMn2O4 nanostructures. Graphite plates with different sizes and thicknesses are found to have different influences on the structure, morphology and performance of LiMn2O4. Larger and thicker graphite plates result in 2-D porous LiMn2O4 nanoplates whereas smaller and thinner ones lead to the formation of dispersed nanoparticles. Despite the smaller lattice constant, the shorter Lisbnd O and longer Mnsbnd O bonds, and the lower BET surface area compared to dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles, LiMn2O4 nanoplates formed by primary nanoparticles with similar sizes and morphologies exhibit the superior performance because of the better interparticle electronic conductivity. LiMn2O4 nanoplates show the discharge capacity of 104 mAh g-1 at 50 C and the capacity retention of 70.0% after 1000 cycles for 1 C at RT, better than the corresponding values, 95 mAh g-1 and 64.5% for dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The more superior performance of LiMn2O4 nanoplates compared to dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles is particularly manifested in the case of lower percentage conductive additive, which is very significant for practical application. This simple, cost effective, green and up scalable approach can also be employed to synthesize other 2-D nanostructured materials.

  9. Enhanced high temperature performance of LiMn2O4 coated with Li3BO3 solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liu Jinlian; Wu Xianming; Chen Shang; Liu Jianben; He Zeqiang

    2013-08-01

    Cathode material, LiMn2O4, was synthesized by solid-state reaction followed by surface coating of Li3BO3 solid electrolyte. Structure and electrochemical performance of the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques, respectively. Results show that Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 has similar X-ray diffraction patterns as LiMn2O4. The discharge specific capacities of LiMn2O4 coated with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt% Li3BO3 are 123.3, 118.2 and 110 mAh/g, respectively, which is slightly smaller than that of 124.4 mAh/g for LiMn2O4. However, the capacity retention of Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 is at least 5.6 and 7.6% higher than LiMn2O4 when cycled at room temperature and 55 °C, respectively. Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 shows much better cycling behaviours than LiMn2O4.

  10. IN-SITU SYNCHROTRON PXRD STUDY OF SPINEL TYPE LiMn2O4 NANOCRYSTAL FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Christiansen, Troels Lindahl

    Many solvothermal reactions have a great potential for environmentally friendly and easily scalable way for producing nanocrystalline materials on an industrial scale. Here we study hydrothermal formation of spinel LiMn2O4 which is a well-known cathode material for Li-ion batteries. The LiMn2O4...

  11. Preparation of LiMn2O4 Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure by Combustion Synthesis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rangappa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid cathode material has been synthesized by spray drying combustion process. The spinel structure cubic phase LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material was prepared by spray drying process at 120 ℃ and subsequent heat treatment at 700 ℃ for 1 hour. The result indicates that the spinel shaped LiMn2O4 particles wrapped with graphene sheets were formed with particle size in the range of 60-70 nm. The charge-discharge measurement indicates that the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material shows an improved discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g at 0.1C rate. The pristine LiMn2O4 nano crystals present only about 132 mAh/g discharge capacity. The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples show good cyclic performance with only 13% of capacity fading in 30 cycles when compared to the pristine LiMn2O4 that shows 22% of capacity fading in 30 cycles. The capacity retention of the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples is about 10% higher than the pristine cycle after 30 cycles.

  12. Electrochemical performance of nanostructured spinel LiMn 2O 4 in different aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Yuan, Anbao

    A nanostructured spinel LiMn 2O 4 electrode material was prepared via a room-temperature solid-state grinding reaction route starting with hydrated lithium acetate (LiAc·2H 2O), manganese acetate (MnAc 2·4H 2O) and citric acid (C 6H 8O 7·H 2O) raw materials, followed by calcination of the precursor at 500 °C. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope techniques. The electrochemical performance of the LiMn 2O 4 electrodes in 2 M Li 2SO 4, 1 M LiNO 3, 5 M LiNO 3 and 9 M LiNO 3 aqueous electrolytes was studied using cyclic voltammetry, ac impedance and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods. The LiMn 2O 4 electrode in 5 M LiNO 3 electrolyte exhibited good electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity, rate dischargeability and charge/discharge cyclability, as evidenced by the charge/discharge results.

  13. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Normal Spinel LiMn2O4 and Its Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Normal spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by sol-gel method using lithium nitrate,manganese nitrate,citric acid and ethylene glycol as raw materials. LiMn2O4 was characterized by XRD,TG-DTA,IR,SEM and AAS.The optimum conditions for the synthesis were explored.Citric acid and ethylene glycol were mixed with molar ratio of 0.25,and the mixture was esterified at 140℃ for 4 hours.Then lithium nitrate and manganese nitrate were added with molar ratio of 0.6. In the system,the total molar of cations was equal to that of citric acid. At last, reflux the system at 105℃ for 2 hours. Dried gel was fired at 600℃ for 8 hours. Particle diameters of raw product were about 100 nm mainly. Further research shows that lithium ion of LiMn2O4 is easy to be extracted,and normal spinel λ-MnO2 can be obtained after lithium ion extraction.

  14. In-situ synchrotron PXRD study of spinel LiMn2O4 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Christiansen, Troels Lindahl

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a well-known cathode material for Li-ion batteries. It is considered to be a safer, more environmentally friendly and cheaper alternative to the widely used LiCoO2 cathode material. During charging/discharging of a Li-ion battery it is necessary for the Li-ions to be extracted....../inserted into the cathode material. The specific capacity of the cathode material is determined by how many Li-ions can diffuse in and out of the cathode material structure per mass unit. Furthermore the rate of the electrochemical reaction (and therefore the power output of the battery) can be limited by how fast the Li......-ions can diffuse in and out of the structure. The spinel structure of LiMn2O4 allows for a three dimensional Li-ion diffusion via tetrahedral and octahedral holes in the cubic close packed oxide structure. By using LiMn2O4 nanoparticles as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries instead of micronsized...

  15. Sputtering graphite coating to improve the elevated-temperature cycling ability of the LiMn2O4 electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiexi; Zhang, Qiaobao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Xu, Daguo; Zhang, Kaili

    2014-08-14

    To improve the cycle performance of LiMn2O4 at elevated temperature, a graphite layer is introduced to directly cover the surface of a commercial LiMn2O4-based electrode via room-temperature DC magnetron sputtering. The as-modified cathodes display improved capacity retention as compared to the bare LiMn2O4 cathode (BLMO) at 55 °C. When sputtering graphite for 30 min, the sample shows the best cycling performance at 55 °C, maintaining 96.2% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Reasons with respect to the graphite layer for improving the elevated-temperature performance of LiMn2O4 are systematically investigated via the methods of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the graphite coated LiMn2O4 cathode has much less increased electrode polarization and electrochemical impedance than BLMO during the elevated-temperature cycling process. Furthermore, the graphite layer is able to alleviate the severe dissolution of manganese ions into the electrolyte and mitigate the morphological and structural degradation of LiMn2O4 during cycling. A model for the electrochemical kinetics process is also suggested for explaining the roles of the graphite layer in suppressing the Mn dissolution.

  16. Performance and capacity fading reason of LiMn2O4/graphite batteries after storing at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunjian; LI Xinhai; GUO Huajun; WANG Zhixing; HU Qiyang; PENG Wenjie; YANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by a solid-state method. A 204468-size battery was fabricated and stored at 55℃. The structure and mor-phology of the LiMn2O4 cathode were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (gEM) technique. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the surface component of the carbon anode. The discharge capacities of LiMn2O4 stored for 0, 24, 48, and 96 h are 106, 98, 96, and 92 mAh-g-1, respectively. The cyclic performance is improved after storage. The capacity reten-tions of LiMn2O4 stored for 0, 24, 48, and 96 h are 83.8%, 85.8%, 86.9%, and 88.6% after 180 cycles. The intensity of all the LiMn2O4 dif-fraction peaks is weakened. Mn is detected from the carbon electrode when the battery is stored for 96 h. Cyclic voltammograms and elec-trochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to examine the surface state of the electrode after storage. The results show that the re-sistance and polarization of LiMn2O4/electrolyte is increased after storage, which is responsible for the fading of capacity.

  17. Synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance of the honeycomb TiO2/LiMn2O4 cathode materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wei, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    LiMn2O4 electrode suffers serious capacity fading during cycling in LiPF6-based liquid electrolytes. In this work, we synthesized a new type of cathode materials, i.e., the TiO2/LiMn2O4 hybrid material with honeycomb morphology, which exhibits an increased cyclability compared to the LiMn2O4. We...... characterized the morphology and structure of the synthesized materials by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The honeycomb morphology was identified using SEM. The XRD patterns show that the Bragg peak of the plane (111) for TiO2/LiMn2O4 appears at the lower diffraction...... angle compare to LiMn2O4, implying that TiO2 doping induced a change of crystal structure. By performing electrochemical measurements, we observed an enhancement of specific capacity (127.28 mAhg−1) and an improvement of cycling stability in the TiO2/LiMn2O4 hybrid materials. After 100 cycles of charge...

  18. Studies on Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Material Synthesized from Different Mn Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐致远; 冯季军; 彭亚宁

    2004-01-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material was synthesized with the solid-state reaction method. Four manganese compounds including electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD), MnCO3, Mn3O4 and nano-EMD were used as Mn sources while LiOH·H2O was used as the uniform Li source. The crystal structure characteristics of these samples produced were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, particle size distribution analysis and specific surface area testing. Their electrochemical properties were also studied by comparing their specific capacity, charge and discharge efficiency and cycle performance.

  19. Overcharge performance of LiMn_2O_4/graphite battery with large capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-jian; LI Xin-hai; GUO Hua-jun; WANG Zhi-xing; HU Qi-yang; PENG Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    The LiMn_2O_4/graphite battery was fabricated and its 3 C/10 V overcharge performance was studied. Spinel LiMn_2O_4 was synthesized by solid-state method and 325680-type size full battery was fabricated. The structure and morphology of the powders were characterized by XRD and SEM technique, respectively. The battery explodes after 3 C/10 V overcharged test, and surface temperature of the battery case arrives at 290℃ in 12 s after exploding. Black air is given out with blast. Carbon, MnO, and Li_2CO_3 are observed in the exploded powders. The cathode electrode remains spinel structure with 5.0 V charged. Cracks in the cathode electrode particles are detected with the increase of voltage by SEM technique. The 5.0 V charged electrode can decompose into Mn_30_4 at 400 ℃. It is demonstrated that the decomposition of 5.0 V charged electrode can be promoted and Mn~(4+) can be deoxidized to Mn~(2+) by carbon and electrolyte through the simulation of blast process.

  20. Spinel LiMn2O4 nanohybrid as high capacitance positive electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. X.; Xiao, S. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Chang, Z.; Hu, C. L.; Wu, Y. P.; Holze, R.

    2014-01-01

    A LiMn2O4 nanohybrid consisting of nanotubes, nanorods and nanoparticles has been synthesized using α-MnO2 nanotubes from hydrothermal reaction as a precursor. It is characterized with X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. A formation mechanism is proposed. As a positive electrode material for supercapacitors, it exhibits a high specific discharge capacitance of 415 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 0.5 mol l-1 Li2SO4 aqueous solution. Even at 10 A g-1, it still has a specific discharge capacitance of 208 F g-1. The energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor using activated carbon as the negative electrode and LiMn2O4-nanohybrid as the positive electrode in the aqueous solution in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V presents 29.8 Wh kg-1 at power density of 90 W kg-1. In addition, the cycling behavior of the asymmetric supercapacitor is good.

  1. A novel coating onto LiMn2O4 cathode with increased lithium ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiesheng; Li, Minsi; Li, Xifei; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Dongbin; Dong, Litian; Li, Dejun; Lushington, Andrew; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-10-01

    A sol-gel method was employed to synthesize LiMn2O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Calcination treatment with citric acid results in the reduction of external active materials of the cathode, finally a novel layer coating of MnO was proposed on the surface of LiMn2O4. The structures and morphologies of the as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and HRTEM techniques. It was found that the reaction between LiMn2O4 and citric acid derived carbon occurred during coating process, and the resultant layer was verified to be MnO uniformly coated onto the cathode. Electrochemical performances show that the amount of coating exhibits a significant effect on LiMn2O4 performance, and the optimized MnO coating could exhibit improved battery performance of the LiMn2O4 cathode. The obtained improvement is attributed to decreased Mn dissolution into electrolyte upon cycling resulting from the MnO coating.

  2. Jahn-Teller effect in LiMn2O4: influence on charge ordering, magnetoresistance and battery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, K; Xia, H; Mandal, P; Arof, A K

    2017-01-18

    The phase transition near room temperature in LiMn2O4 was studied using thermal expansion measurements, and directly compared with the electrochemical performance of the material. Studies based on thermal expansion indicate the onset of a first-order phase transition at Tc ∼ 220 K for the nearly half-doped material, with [Mn(3+)]/[Mn(4+)] ≈ 1. The Tc shifts to a higher temperature, ∼290 K, and signatures for Verwey-type charge ordering at 290 K can be observed when the fraction of Jahn-Teller Mn(3+) in LiMn2O4 is increased, i.e., [Mn(3+)]/[Mn(4+)] > 1. These studies show that the first-order phase transition near room temperature in LiMn2O4 is associated with charge ordering, which ultimately is a consequence of the Jahn-Teller effect. In addition, the Jahn-Teller effect is proven to be an important cause of magnetoresistance and electrochemical capacity fading in LiMn2O4. Electrochemical measurements show that both materials, either with a Tc ∼ 220 K or Tc ∼ 290 K, exhibit capacity fading to almost the same extent. Electrochemical capacity retention is observed only in nanosized LiMn2O4, for which the phase transition anomalies are completely absent.

  3. Structural study of the controlled hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn2O4 and LixMnyO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Troels Lindahl; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Shen, Yanbin

    LiMn2O4 , which crystallizes in the spinel structure, is of great interest as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to the high natural abundance of manganese, low toxicity, fast ionic diffusion and excellent battery capabilities. The structure is closely related to that of LixMnyO2......, with focus on the size of the nanoparticles. Using a two-phase model, the Rietveld refinements showed a bimodal size distribution for the LiMn2O4, which, to our knowledge, has previously only been determined using SEM. Using the structural Rieveld models for LixMnyO2 and LiMn2O4, a comparison of the two...

  4. Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies on Spinel Phase LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials Prepared by Different Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of processes, high temperature solid state reaction, precipitation and sol-gel technique were used to synthsize spinel phase LiMn2O4. XRD, DTA-TG results show that phase-pure spinel LiMn2O4 could be synthesized under the lowest calcined temperature by the sol-gel technique compared to the precipitation method and solid state reaction. BET, SEM and electrochemical measurements results demonstrate that the features of the powders affect directly the electrochemical capacities; large specific area and small homogeneous grain size are of advantage for the lithium ion insertion and extraction in the charge and discharge process.

  5. Electrochemical performance of SrF2-coated LiMn2O4 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SrF2-coated LiMn2O4 powders with excellent electrochemical performance were synthesized. The electrochemical performance of SrF2-coated LiMn2O4 electrodes was studied as function of the level of SrF2 coating. With increasing the amount of the coated-SrF2 to 2.0% (molar fraction), the discharge capacity of LiMn2O4 decreases slightly, but the cycleability of LiMn2O4 at elevated temperature is improved obviously. In view of discharge capacity and cycleability, the 2.0% (molar fraction) coated sample shows optimum cathodic behaviors. When being cycled at 55 ℃, as-prepared LiMn2O4 remains only 79% of its initial capacity after retention.

  6. Structure and Electrochemical Properties of LiMn2O4-xFx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    LiMn2O4-xFx prepared by the sol-gel method has a perfect crystal formation .The crystal particle size of the material was medium and distributed uniformly. The substitution of F for O increased the specific capacity of the material at the cost of the cycleability .The explanation of this results is that the F decreases the valence of Mn,that is,more Mn3+ and less Mn4+ exist in the material.The increase of Mn3+ will improve the initial specific capacity and Mn3+ is the original reason for Jahn-Teller effect that caused the poor cycleability of the cathode material by the micro-distortion of the crystal structure. In addition, the expanded measurement of the crystal lattice is also the reason for the poor cycleability.Therefore,the results of F-substitution and cation-substitution are opposite.If the two methods are combined,they can compensate the inability each other and the satisfactory results may be obtained.

  7. Influence of Sc3+ on LiMn2O4 cathode materials at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huiyong; DENG Ganqun; GUO Yonglang

    2008-01-01

    Sc3+-doped lithium manganese oxides were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The influences of doping element on structure,mean valence of manganese, and electrochemical performances were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetric tests, and also electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD tests showed that doped lithium manganese oxides were pure spinel structure without other phases. Redox titration and visible spectrophotometry tests indicated that the mean valence of man-ganese in doped lithium manganese oxides was higher than that of pure one. LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 remained 92.9% of the initial specific discharge capacity after 50th cycle at a constant current of 50 m/g, and the reversibility of LiSc0.02Mn1.98O4 was improved in comparison with pure LiMn2O4 at 50 ℃. EIS indicated that film deposition on spinel particles was suppressed because of Sc3+ doping, and the charge transfer be-tween the surface film and spinel particles with increasing temperature for Sc3+-doped materials became easier as compared with undoped one.

  8. Capacity fading of spinel LiMn2O4 during cycling at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A normal spinel LiMn2O4 as cathode material for lithium-ion cells was cycled galvanostatically (0.2 C) at 55℃. To determine the contribution of each voltage plateau to the total capacity fading of the cathode upon repeated cycling, the capacities in each plateau were separated by differentiation of voltage vs. capacity. The results showthat the capacity fading in the upper voltage plateau is more rapidlythan that in the lower during discharging, while in charging process,it fades slower than that in the lower voltage range. The increased capacity shift and aggravated self-discharge/electrolyte oxidation during discharging contribute to a high fading rate in the upper step. Capacity shift also takes place during charging process, which again enhancing the fading rate of the lower voltage plateau. An increase in capacity shift, as a result of an increase in polarization of the cell, plays a major role in determining the fading rate in each voltage plateau, further reflecting the thickening of the passivation layer on the active particles, and the accumulation of electrolyte decomposition. The relative capacity loss for modified spinels is well correlated withthe relative increase in the polarization of the half-cells, confirming the above causes for capacity fade of this kind of cathode material.

  9. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material with Excellent High-Rate and Cycling Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Wang, Xingyao; Zhang, Han

    2016-08-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method using acetone as the reductant under different hydrothermal temperatures. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that optimal LiMn2O4 particles (LMO-120) were synthesized at the temperature of 120°C and the particles were well distributed and about 410 nm in size. Electrochemical performance showed that the as-prepared LiMn2O4 particles exhibited a higher initial discharge capacity than commercial LiMn2O4 (131.5 mAh g-1 versus 115.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C). An excellent discharge capacity retention rate of 94.07% was observed after 60 charge-discharge cycles. On the other hand, when cycled at the high rate of 1 C, the optimal LiMn2O4 in this work showed a high discharge capacity of 107.5 mAh g-1 in contrast to only 92.3 mAh g-1 of the commercial LiMn2O4. These results indicate that LMO-120 showed excellent electrochemical performance, especially the prolonged cycling life and high-rate performance, which suggested that this spinel LiMn2O4 has promise for practical application as a high-rate cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Synthesis of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 Nanorods for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Sun, Bing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-12-15

    The long-standing challenge associated with capacity fading of spinel LiMn2 O4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries is investigated. Single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a template-engaged method. Porous Mn3 O4 nanorods were used as self-sacrificial templates, into which LiOH was infiltrated by a vacuum-assisted impregnation route. When used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods exhibited superior long cycle life owing to the one-dimensional nanorod structure, single-crystallinity, and Li-rich effect. LiMn2 O4 nanorods retained 95.6 % of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles at 3C rate. In particular, the nanorod morphology of the spinel LiMn2 O4 was well-preserved after a long-term cycling, suggesting the ultrahigh structural stability of the single crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods. This result shows the promising applications of single-crystalline spinel LiMn2 O4 nanorods as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material by a modified solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Lin, Shudong; Li, Keyan; Shua, Fenfen; Chen, Kunfeng; Wang, Liqiu; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-12-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by a modified solid state reaction. We pretreated the reactants using tartaric acid as complexing agent through a grinding process to obtain uniform distribution of metal ions at atomic level. The structures, morphologies and electrochemical properties of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and galvanostatic charge-discharge test. The results show that adding tartaric acid during the chemical pretreatment plays an important role in the formation of regular and uniform particles, which is beneficial to the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4. At the current density of 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity is 118 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the capacity retention of 97%.

  12. Surface Modification of LiMn2O4 for Lithium Batteries by Nanostructured LiFePO4 Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 spinel cathode materials have been successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction. Surface of these particles was modified by nanostructured LiFePO4 via sol gel dip coating method. Synthesized products were characterized by thermally analyzed thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results of electrochemical tests showed that the charge/discharge capacities improved and charge retention of battery enhanced. This improved electrochemical performance is caused by LiFePO4 phosphate layer on surfaces of LiMn2O4 cathode particles.

  13. Developments in the Material Fabrication and Performance of LiMn2O4 dCld Cathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Degradation of the active material can be due to loss of crystallinity, alternative phase formations , or potential side reactions.1-4 Methods to eliminate or...subsequent solution was then heated until the water fully evaporated. The resultant gel was then heated until auto ignition occurred, forming a black ash...determine if any structural changes occurred in each sample, a baseline material (LiMn2O4) was fabricated using a traditional sol- gel method. XRD and XRF

  14. Synthesis Of Fe Doped LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials For Li Battery By Solid State Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 is expected as a cathode material for the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. LiMn2O4 has been received attention because this has advantages such as low cost and low toxicity compared with other cathode materials of LiCoO2 and LiNiO2. However, LiMn2O4 has some problems such as small capacity and no long life. LiMn2O4 is phase transformation at around human life temperature. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to stabilize the spinel structure by substituting Mn site ion in LiMn2O4 with transition metals (Al, Mg, Ti, Ni, Fe, etc.. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 spinel was synthesized from Li2CO3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 powder. The purpose of this study is to report the optimal condition of Fe doped LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4. Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and MnO2 mixture powder was heated up to 1173 K by TG-DTA. Li2CO3 was thermal decomposed, and CO2 gas evolved, and formed Li2O at about 800 K. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 was synthesized from a consecutive reaction Li2O, Fe2O3 and MnO2 at 723 ~ 1023 K. Active energy is calculated to 178 kJmol−1 at 723 ~ 1023 K. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 heated mixture powder at 1023 K for 32 h in air flow was observed.

  15. Improvement of Capacity and Cycling Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials with TiO2-B Nanobelts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that TiO2-B nanobelts are uniformly distributed in LiMn2O4 particle. Compared with bare LiMn2O4, TiO2-B/LiMn2O4 composite cathode material shows enhanced specific capacity of 129 mA h g−1 and improved cycling stability. After 50...

  16. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4-x(SO4)x Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Zhao-Yong(陈召勇); HE,Yi(贺益); LI,Zhi-Jie(李志杰); GAO,Li-Zhen(高利珍); JIANG,Qi(江奇); YU,Zuo-Long(于作龙)

    2002-01-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4-x(SO4)x compound cathode materials were synthesized by solid-state reaction of the calculated amounts of LiOH@H2O,MnO2 and MnSO4.The results of the electrochemical test demonstrated that these materials exhibited excellent electrochemical properties.The highest reversible capacity of these series of cathode materials was~120mAh/g,and after 50 cycles,this reversible capacity was still around 116 mAh/g with nearly 100% reversible efficiency,which revealed that doped sulfate ion could improve the structural stability of spinel.

  17. Alkylphosphate-based nonflammable gel electrolyte for LiMn 2O 4 positive electrode in lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Gotoh, Daisuke; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    Polymeric gel containing alkylphosphate has been examined as nonflammable gel electrolyte for LiMn 2O 4 positive electrode of lithium-ion battery (LIB). The gel was composed of a polymer matrix of poly(vinylidenefluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and a liquid component consisting of ternary solvent of trimethyl phosphate (TMP) mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) that dissolves lithium salt (LiPF 6 or LiBF 4). The gel composition of 0.8 M (mol dm -3) LiX (X = PF 6 and BF 4) dissolved in EC + DEC + TMP (55:25:20) with PVdF-HFP showed excellent nonflammable characteristics and high ionic conductivity of ca. 3.1 mS cm -1 at room temperature (20 °C). The charge-discharge cycling test of LiMn 2O 4 positive electrode gave good reversibility with high capacitance in the gel electrolyte. With respect to the electrolyte salt, LiBF 4 was better than LiPF 6 due to its thermal stability during the gel preparation.

  18. Preparation and property of spinel LiMn2O4 material by co-doping anti-electricity ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; ZHU Hua-li; CHEN Zhao-yong; PENG Zhong-dong; HU Guo-rong

    2006-01-01

    LiMn2-xMxO4-yFy(x=0.05; y=0.05; M=Al, Co, Cr and Mg, separately), as the cathode material, was synthesized by the method of high temperature solid-state reaction in laboratory. The results of charge-discharge test show that the properties of LiMn1.95M0.05O3.95F0.05(M= Al, Mg) are obviously superior to those of LiMn2O4. Through the condition experiments on sintering temperature, it is found that the materials present the integrate crystal structure and favorable cycle performance at 800 ℃. The research on the effects of different Mg2+ sources on the properties of LiMn2-xMgxO4-y Fy shows that, with Mg(OH)2 and LiF as the reagents respectively offering Mg2+ and F-, LiMn1.95Mg0.05O3.95F0.05 synthesized has integrate crystal structure and its capacity hardly fades. The results of cyclic voltammetry indicate that the shape of two couples of redox peaks of the material synthesized by co-doping anti-electricity ions is more integrate and symmetrical than that of pure spinel LiMn2O4, which reveals that the co-doping material possesses preferable electrochemical reversibility.

  19. Structural study of the controlled hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn2O4 and LixMnyO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Troels Lindahl; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Shen, Yanbin

    LiMn2O4 , which crystallizes in the spinel structure, is of great interest as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to the high natural abundance of manganese, low toxicity, fast ionic diffusion and excellent battery capabilities. The structure is closely related to that of LixMnyO2......, a layered structure, which can also be described as a defective spinel structure. Here, we show that both LiMn2O4 and LixMnyO2 nanoparticles can be synthesized from a simple, low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis. By tuning a single synthesis parameter (Li-concentration) each of the 2 structures...... or mixtures hereof can be obtained. The products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction both in-house and at SPring-8. Rietveld refinement was carried out on the high-resolution data from the synchrotron source and detailed structural models for both the spinel and the layered phase were obtained...

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Th-doped LiMn2O4 powders for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; FAN Yanliang; LI Shuzhong; XIE Bing; BI Lei; YANG Shuting

    2006-01-01

    To improve the cycle performance of eco-friendly and cost-effective spinel LiMN2O4 as the Li secondary batteries, the Th-doped LiThxMn1-xO4 spinel powers were synthesized by solid-state method. The starting materials, Li2CO3,MnO2 and Th(NO3)4·4H2O, were mixed uniformly using a traditional ball milling, which resulted in a uniform particle size distribution in the mixed powers. Tests of X-ray diffraction, SEM, impedance spectra and charge-discharge were carried out for LiThxMn1-xO4 cathode materials. Results show that the synthesized LiTh0.01Mn1.99O4 material exhibits standard spinel structure, regular particle morphology and excellent property of charge-discharge for big current. The capacity retention of the material modified by doping Th is more than 85.1% of the first discharge specific capacity of 111.5 mAh·g -1 after 20 cycles at the current rate 1C, while the pristine LiMN2O4 is only 57% of the first discharge specific capacity of 110.2 mAh·g-1 after the same cycles at the same current rate.

  1. Co3+-modified Surface of LiMn2O4 Spinel for its Improvement of Electrochemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zishan ZHENG; Zilong TANG; Zhongtai ZHANG; Junbiao LU; Wanci SHEN

    2003-01-01

    Cobalt was used to modify the surface of spinel LiMn2O4 by a solution technique to produce Co3+-modified surface material (COMSM). Cobalt was only doped into the surface of LiMn2O4 spinel. XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis confirms the valence state of Co3+. COMSM has stable spinel structure and can prevent active materials from the corrosion of electrolyte. The ICP(inductively coupled plasma) determination of the spinel dissolution in electrolyte showed the content of Mn dissolved from COMSM was smaller than that from the pure spinel. AC impedance patterns show that the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) for COMSM is smaller than that for pure spinel. The particles of COMSM are bigger in size than those of pure spinel according to the micrographs of SEM(scanning electron microscopy). The determinations of the electrochemical characterization show that COMSM has both good cycling performance and high initial capacity of 124.1 mA/h at an average capacity loss of 0.19 mAh/g per cycle.

  2. Preliminary studies of biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2 O4 as a cathode material on electrochemical performances for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vediappan, Kumaran; Lee, Chang Woo

    2010-05-01

    Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is an inexpensive and pollution-free cathode material for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. In this study, spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material was coated with biomineral powders by the mechano-chemical method. In the course of the material synthesis, citric acid and acryl amide were added to serve as a complexing agent and a gelling agent, respectively, followed by a calcination process at 700 °C for 6 h in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The spinel LiMn2O4 and biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials were, from diverse viewpoints, characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the electrochemical cycling method to understand the mechanism of improvements in electrochemical performances. We suggest that the biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 is a good candidate as a low cost and environmentally friendly cathode material showing the enlarged capacity characteristic of Li-ion rechargeable batteries.

  3. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method as adsorbent of lithium recovery process from geothermal fluid of Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Sapputra, Gede Panca Ady; Widodo, Amien

    2016-04-01

    Lumpur Sidoarjo is one of geothermal fluid types which has a great potential as source of lithium. Adsorption method with Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) as an adsorbent has been chosen for lithium recovery process due to low production cost and environmental friendly. LiMn2O4 was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 200 °C for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 72 hrs. As prepared LiMn2O4 powder is treated by acid treatment with 0.5 M HCl solution for 24 hrs. XRD test result reveals that all of as-prepared samples are indexed as spinel structure of LiMn2O4 (JCPDS card no 35-0782) with no impurity peaks detected. SEM images show that LiMn2O4 has nanoparticles morphology with particle size around 25 nm. The highest adsorption efficiency of adsorbent is obtained by sample hydrothermal for 72 hrs with 42.76%.

  4. Influences of Sintering Process of Sprayed Precursors on the Struc-ture and Electrochemical Properties of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui HUANG; Chen WANG; Lei ZHANG; Yongping GAN; Wenkui ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Well-defined spinel LiMn2O4 powders were synthesized via sintering a precursor, which was prepared by spray-drying method. The effects of sintering process on the structure and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 were discussed. It was found that a single sintering could not synthesize a pure LiMn2O4 compound, while two-step sintering procedure consisting of decomposing sprayed precursors at 350℃ and further sintering at an elevated temperature leads to the formation of a single-phased LiMn2O4 with homogeneous particle size distribution. As compared to that sintered in air, the two-step sintered LiMn2O4 in oxygen shows tighter structure and more uniform particle size, as well as better electrochemical properties. It delivers an initial discharge capacity of 131 mAh·g-1 (1/10C), and still has excellent cycling stability at higher rate (1/5C).

  5. Binder-free flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube network as high power cathode for rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Wu, Xianwen; Doan, The Nam Long; Tian, Ye; Zhao, Hongbin; Chen, P.

    2016-09-01

    Highly flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes are developed and used as a high power cathode for the Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Battery (ReHAB). LiMn2O4 particles are entangled into CNT networks, forming a self-supported free-standing hybrid films. Such hybrid films can be used as electrodes of ARLB without using any additional binders. The binder-free LiMn2O4/CNT electrode exhibits good mechanical properties, high conductivity, and effective charge transport. High-rate capability and high cycling stability are obtained. Typically, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode achieves a discharge capacity of 72 mAh g-1 at the large-current of 20 C (1 C = 120 mAh g-1), and exhibits good cycling performance and high reversibility: Coulombic efficiency of almost 100% over 300 charge-discharge cycles at 4 C. By reducing the weight, and improving the large-current rate capability simultaneously, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode can highly enhance the energy/power density of ARLB and hold potential to be used in ultrathin, lightweight electronic devices.

  6. A truncated octahedral spinel LiMn2O4 as high-performance cathode material for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caihua; Tang, Zilong; Wang, Shitong; Zhang, Zhongtai

    2017-07-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a promising cathode candidate for lithium ion batteries whose electrochemical properties strongly depend on the surface orientation. In this work, we have successfully synthesized a high crystalline and well-defined truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 through the hydrothermal and heat treatment. The main {111} facets are aligned along the orientations mitigating Mn dissolution while the truncated {100} and {110} facets are along those facilitating Li+ diffusion. Benefiting from the unique structure, the octahedral LiMn2O4 delivers 143.4 mAh g-1 (close to the theoretical capacity of 148 mAh g-1) at 0.2 C and over 120 mAh g-1 at 30 C (discharged within 2 min) at 55 °C. Moreover, the fabricated LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 full cell demonstrates 121.6 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 56.0 mAh g-1 at 30 C with ∼81.2% capacity retention following 1000 cycles. The facilely synthesized truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 shows great potentials in practical applications for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Enhanced high temperature cycling performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells with methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) as electrolyte additive and its acting mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengju Bian; Zhongru Zhang; Yong Yang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) on the high-temperature (∼50◦C) cycle performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells are investigated. By addition of 2 wt%MMDS into a routine electrolyte, the high-temperature cycling performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells can be significantly improved. The analysis of differential capacity curves and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) indicates that MMDS decomposed on both cathode and anode. The three-electrode system of pouch cell is used to reveal the capacity loss mechanism in the cells. It is shown that the capacity fading of cells without MMDS in the electrolytes is due to irreversible lithium consumption during cycling and irreversible damage of LiMn2O4 material, while the capacity fading of cell with 2 wt%MMDS in electrolytes mainly originated from irreversible lithium consumption during cycling.

  8. Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of LiMn2O4 Thin Films Prepared by Solution Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xianming; HE Zeqiang; XU Mingfei; LI Xinhai; XIAO Zhuobing

    2006-01-01

    LiMn2O4 thin films were prepared by solution deposition using lithium acetate and manganese acetate as raw materials. The phase constitution and surface morphology were observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the thin films were studied by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge experiments and impedance spectroscopy in 1 mol·L-1 LiPF6/EC-DMC solution using lithium metal as both the counter and reference electrodes. The films prepared by this method are of spinel phase. The lattice parameter increases with the annealing temperature and annealing time. The film annealed at 750 ℃ for 30 minutes has the highest capacity of 34.5 μAh·cm-2·μm-1, and its capacity loss per cycle is 0.05% after being cycled 100 times.

  9. A comprehensive study on influence of Nd3+ substitution on properties of LiMn2O4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balaji; T Manichandran; D Mutharasu

    2012-06-01

    LiNdMn2−O4 samples are synthesized via co-precipitation technique. The activation energies computed from thermogravimetric analyses on the basis of Ozawa method have been observed to linearly increase with increase in dopant concentration. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate the cubic–spinel structure for all the samples. The lattice parameter has been observed to decrease with increasing concentration of Nd3+ doping. The octahedral site preference of neodymium dopant in the LiMn2O4 structure has been elucidated using XRD and FT–IR studies. The porosity and surface roughness obtained from SEM analysis have been observed to decrease with increase in Nd3+ dopant concentration in LiMn2O4 lattice. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were analysed through cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance techniques. The specific capacity has been observed to decrease initially with increase in Nd3+ dopant concentration, whereas the capacity retention has increased with increase in dopant concentration. The observed percentage capacity retention after 50 cycles of the electrodes LiNd0.05Mn1.95O4, LiNd0.10Mn1.90O4 and LiNd0.15Mn1.85O4 were 88.4%, 97.1% and 96.8%, respectively. The Li ion diffusion coefficient ascertained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was found to be higher for LiNd0.10Mn1.90O4 around 3.74 × 10-12 cm2 s-1.

  10. Composition-structure-property-performance relationship inMn-substituted LiMn2O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Craig R.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gee, B.; Tucker, Mike; Grush, Melissa M.; Bergmann, Uwe; Striebel, Kathryn A.; Cramer, StephenP.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2001-03-09

    The spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been extensively studied as a positive electrode active material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Partial substitution of Mn by another metal has also been the subject of recent study in an effort to improve the cycling performance. In general, the literature has shown that Mn substitution results in improved cycling stability at the expense of capacity (1,2). Resistance to the formation of tetragonal phase upon lithiation of the starting spinel (via a higher nominal Mn oxidation state in the substituted spinel) has been suggested as a mechanism for the improved performance. The degree of substitution is an important factor to optimize in order to minimize capacity loss and costs. The spectroscopic investigations on LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} described in the previous paper (LixMn2O4) confirmed that the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect (CJTE) from the [Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 6}] octahedra is the mechanism for the cubic to tetragonal phase transformation. The driving force for the CJTE is based upon the electronic structure, therefore changes in electronic structure should lead to changes in the phase behavior. The fact that the LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} does not form tetragonal phase upon discharging (FUJI3, MUCK?), unlike the 100% Mn{sup 4+} spinel Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12} (THAC5), led to the hypothesis that an increased degree of covalency as a source for the behavior. An increased covalence would remove the driving force for the transformation, the increased electronic stability achieved in tetragonally-distorted [Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 6}] octahedra, due to a change in electron density and widening of the Mn 3d bands. The STH field is dependent upon the amount of unpaired spin density transferred between the magnetic (transition-metal) and diamagnetic ions through an intermittent oxygen ion, attributable to overlap and electron transfer effects. Therefore, the magnitude of the STH coupling constant reflects the degree of covalency (GESC, HUAN). In the case of LiMn{sub 2-y}Me{sub y}O{sub 4}, the STH coupling constant characterizes the amount of unpaired spin density transferred to the Li{sup +} from the Mn, Co, or Ni. Similarly, the La/Lb ratio of the Mn L-XES is sensitive to the amount of electron density at the Mn site as a higher ratio indicates that the Mn 3d{sub 5/2} level is more populated (GRUS1). An investigation into the effects of Mn-substitution on the electronic structure along with the ramifications to the phase behavior upon changing lithium content was carried out. To accomplish this, a set of LiMn{sub 2-y}Me{sub y}O{sub 4} with Me = Li, Co, or Ni over a range of y were synthesized, characterized, and subjected to changes in lithium content by various techniques.

  11. Characterization of Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 spinel materials treated with aqueous acidic solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis an investigation of two spinel materials, Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 used for Li-ion battery applications is performed interms of formation and reactivity towards acidic solutions. Subsequent characterizations such as structural, magnetic, chemical, and electrochemical characterizations ar

  12. Comparison study of magnetic ordering for Fe-free and Fe-doped LiMn2O4 spinel oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Ma, Boyu; Wang, Aihua; Chen, Ning; Liu, Lihua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weipeng; Li, Xiaoxiang; Cao, Guohui; Ma, Xingqiao; Lu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The structural and physical properties of LiMn2-xFexO4 (x = 0 to 0.5) were investigated. Contrasting LiMn2O4 with LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4, we observed a remarkable difference in the magnetic frustration. The LiMn2O4 sample has a magnetic ordering transition at 61 K while Fe-doped LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4 has an antiferromagnetic ordering transition with a Neel temperature at TN = 34 K. Our result showed a larger value of the frustration index (f=| w|/TC) for pure LiMn2O4 than for LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4. Fe-doping results in a decrease in the degree of frustration. Fe dopants occupying positions of Mn ion can break the original moment equilibrium so as to suppress the magnetic frustration in LiMn2O4.

  13. Growth behavior of LiMn2O4 particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-11-01

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn2O4 particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn2O4 particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn2O4 is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO3 precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn2O4 spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled.

  14. Rigid-flexible coupling high ionic conductivity polymer electrolyte for an enhanced performance of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pu; Duan, Yulong; Hu, Deping; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2015-03-04

    LiMn2O4-based batteries exhibit severe capacity fading during cycling or storage in LiPF6-based liquid electrolytes, especially at elevated temperatures. Herein, a novel rigid-flexible gel polymer electrolyte is introduced to enhance the cyclability of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature. The polymer electrolyte consists of a robust natural cellulose skeletal incorporated with soft segment poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate). The introduction of the cellulose effectively overcomes the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the gel polymer electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation demonstrates that the poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate) matrices effectively dissociate the lithium salt to facilitate ionic transport and thus has a higher ionic conductivity at room temperature. Ionic conductivity of the gel polymer electrolyte is 3.3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The gel polymer electrolyte remarkably improves the cycling performance of LiMn2O4-based batteries, especially at elevated temperatures. The capacity retention after the 100th cycle is 82% at 55 °C, which is much higher than that of liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents). The polymer electrolyte can significantly suppress the dissolution of Mn(2+) from surface of LiMn2O4 because of strong interaction energy of Mn(2+) with PECA, which was investigated by DFT calculation.

  15. Improvement of Capacity and Cycling Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials with TiO2-B Nanobelts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.;

    2013-01-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 was modified with TiO2-B nanobelts to improve its specific capacity and cycling performance. TiO2-B/LiMn2O4 composites were fabricated by a facile liquid phase mixing method. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  16. Optimization of LiMn2O4 electrode properties in a gradient- and surrogate-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenbo; Xue, Nansi; Gupta, Amit; Sastry, Ann M.; Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Shyy, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of discharge rate and LiMn2O4 cathode properties (thickness, porosity, particle size, and solid-state diffusivity and conductivity) on the gravimetric energy and power density of a lithium-ion battery cell are analyzed simultaneously using a cell-level model. Surrogate-based analysis tools are applied to simulation data to construct educed-order models, which are in turn used to perform global sensitivity analysis to compare the relative importance of cathode properties. Based on these results, the cell is then optimized for several distinct physical scenarios using gradient-based methods. The complementary nature of the gradient- and surrogate-based tools is demonstrated by establishing proper bounds and constraints with the surrogate model, and then obtaining accurate optimized solutions with the gradient-based optimizer. These optimal solutions enable the quantification of the tradeoffs between energy and power density, and the effect of optimizing the electrode thickness and porosity. In conjunction with known guidelines, the numerical optimization framework developed herein can be applied directly to cell and pack design.

  17. X-ray nanotomography analysis of the microstructural evolution of LiMn2O4 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Han, Kai; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Kung, Harold H.; Wang, Jun; Barnett, Scott A.; Faber, Katherine T.

    2017-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges for advancing lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is to minimize cell degradation during operation for long-term stability. To this end, it is important to understand how cell performance during operation relates to complex LIB microstructures. In this report, transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) nanotomography is used to gain quantitative three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-performance correlations of LIB cathodes during cycling. The 3D microstructures of LiMn2O4 (LMO) electrodes, cycled under different conditions, including cycle number, operating voltage, and temperature, are characterized via TXM and statistically analyzed to investigate the impact of cycling conditions on the electrode microstructural evolution and cell performance. It is found that the number of cracks formed within LMO particles correlated with capacity fade. For the cell cycled at elevated temperatures, which exhibits the most severe capacity fade among all cells tested, mechanical cracking observed in TXM is not the only dominant contributor to the observed degradation. Mn2+ dissolution, as verified by detection of Mn on the counter electrode by energy dispersive spectrometry, also contributed. The current work demonstrate 3D TXM nanotomography as a powerful tool to help probe in-depth understanding of battery failure mechanisms, which could be applicable to electrode structure optimization for advancing LIB development.

  18. Aqueous energy-storage cells based on activated carbon and LiMn2O4 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Ortal; Luski, Shalom; Brousse, Thierry; Aurbach, Doron

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing need for rechargeable energy-storage devices of many kinds. There are some applications for which energy density is important, whereas for others rate capability (high-power density) and prolonged durability are essential. Batteries address the need for high energy density, while electrochemical capacitors, so called, supercapacitors, can be relevant for the high power density purpose. In between these two kinds of devices, it is possible to develop hybrid systems which possess intermediate properties between supercapacitors and batteries, and which contain both a capacitive or pseudocapacitive electrode and a battery type electrode. With a good selection of electrodes, it is possible to achieve high-rate capability and durability, and also enhanced specific energy density compare to standard supercapacitors. This paper describes the development and study of Li-ion-based hybrid capacitor based on a carbon-based capacitive negative electrode, LiMn2O4 spinel as positive electrode and aqueous solutions with Li2SO4 salt as the electrolyte (pH = 7.5). Here, we demonstrate full hybrid devices as a proof of concept.

  19. Rechargeable lithium battery with spinel-related λ-MnO 2 III. Scaling-up problems associated with LiMn 2O 4 synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manev, V.; Momchilov, A.; Nassalevska, A.; Sato, Atsushi

    The scaling-up problems connected with the LiMn 2O 4 synthesis were studied. A strong effect of the mass of the starting materials and of the air flow rate through the furnace during the synthesis on the specific capacity was observed. The increase of the batch amount brings about a reduction in the specific surface area of the product, which cannot be compensated by grinding because it leads to considerable reduction of its electrochemical utilization. The very fast or slow cooling of the synthesized material have a negative effect on the specific capacity. The process of preparation of LiMn 2O 4 spinel with high electrochemical performance is a rather complex procedure, but it is possible to obtain a product, which is capable to exchange reversibly up to 0.9 equiv. Li per mole.

  20. Hierarchical LiMn2O4 Hollow Cubes with Exposed {111} Planes as High-Power Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Cao, Chuanbao; Zhang, Junting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Xilan; Xu, Xingyan

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical LiMn2O4 hollow cubes with exposed {111} planes have been synthesized using cube-shaped MnCO3 precursors, which are fabricated through a facile co-precipitation reaction. Without surface modification, the as-prepared LiMn2O4 exhibits excellent cyclability and superior rate capability. Surprisingly, even over 70% of primal discharge capacity can be maintained for up to 1000 cycles at 50 C, and with only about 72 s of discharge time the as-prepared materials can deliver initial discharge capacity of 96.5 mA h g(-1). What is more, the materials have 98.4% and 90.7% capacity retentions for up to 100 cycles at 5 C under the temperatures of 25 and 60 °C, respectively. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical and interior hollow structure, exposed {111} planes, and high-quality crystallinity.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Property of LiMn2O4 Porous Hollow Nanofiber as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lianfeng; Zhang, Xueyu; Yue, Kaiqiang; Wu, Yue; Zhuang, Jian; Lü, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers with a porous structure have been synthesized by modified electrospinning techniques and subsequent thermal treatment. The precursors were electrospun directly onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The heating rate and FTO as substrate play key roles on preparing porous hollow nanofiber. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers showed the high specific capacity of 125.9 mAh/g at 0.1 C and a stable cycling performance, 105.2 mAh/g after 400 cycles. This unique structure could relieve the structure expansion effectively and provide more reaction sites as well as shorten the diffusion path for Li+ for improving electrochemical performance for LIBs.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Property of LiMn2O4 Porous Hollow Nanofiber as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lianfeng; Zhang, Xueyu; Yue, Kaiqiang; Wu, Yue; Zhuang, Jian; Lü, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers with a porous structure have been synthesized by modified electrospinning techniques and subsequent thermal treatment. The precursors were electrospun directly onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The heating rate and FTO as substrate play key roles on preparing porous hollow nanofiber. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers showed the high specific capacity of 125.9 mAh/g at 0.1 C and a stable cycling performance, 105.2 mAh/g after 400 cycles. This unique structure could relieve the structure expansion effectively and provide more reaction sites as well as shorten the diffusion path for Li(+) for improving electrochemical performance for LIBs.

  3. Pengaruh Variasi Temperatur Hidrotermal Pada Sintesis Lithium Mangan Oksida (Limn2o4 Spinel Terhadap Efisiensi Adsorpsi Dan Desorpsi Ion Lithium Dari Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi dalam bidang material menunjukkan perkembangan yang sangat pesat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir.Salah satu material yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam berbagai aplikasi adalah lithium. Lithium sendiri bisa didapatkan dari air laut brines dan geothermal fluid. Salah satunya adalah Lumpur Sidoarjo. Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel digunakan sebagai material absorben karena murah, tidak beracun dan mudah didapatkan. Pada penelitian ini metode hidrotermal digunakan sebagai metode sintesis pada LiMn2O4 karena dapat dilakukan pada temperatur yang relatif rendah dan menghasilkan partikel yang lebih homogen. Metode hidrotermal dilakukan pada temperatur 160 oC, 180 oC dan 200 oC selama 24 jam. Pengujian XRD dilakukan untuk mengetahui struktur kristal. Pengujian SEM dilakukan untuk mengetahui morfologi material setelah proses hidrotermal. Pengujian BET dilakukan untuk mengetahui surface area. Setelah itu metode acid treatment dilakukan untuk proses adsorpsi dan desorpsi. Adsorpsi dilakukan dengan mencelupkan Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel yang telah disintesis kedalam Lumpur Sidoarjo.Pengujian ICP dilakukan untuk mengetahui kandungan lithium yang terdapat pada Lumpur Sidoarjo sebelum dan sesudah adsorpsi untuk mengetahui jumlah lithium yang terserap.Pengujian desorpsi dilakukan dengan mencelupkan LiMn2O4 kedalam larutan HCL. Pada uji XRD menunjukkan bahwa LiMn2O4 berstruktur kristal cubic. Dari hasil uji SEM terlihat bahwa tidak banyak perbedaan morfologi pada ketiga variasi.Partikel cenderung membentuk aglomerasi. Pada hasil uji ICP menunjukkan bahwa LiMn2O4 dengan temperatur hidrotermal 160oC memiliki efisiensi adsorpsi paling tinggi dengan 6,775 ppm. Sementara untuk desorpsi yang paling tinggi adalah 200oC sebesar 0.081 ppm

  4. All-nanowire based Li-ion full cells using homologous Mn2O3 and LiMn2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Yehua; Jia, Dingsi; Peng, Zheng; Xia, Yongyao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2014-02-12

    We report an all-nanowire based flexible Li-ion battery full cell, using homologous Mn2O3 and LiMn2O4 nanowires for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The same precursors, MnOOH nanowires, are transformed from hydrothermally grown MnO2 nanoflakes and directly attached on Ti foils via reaction with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode are subsequently formed by thermal annealing and reaction with lithium salt, respectively. The one-dimensional nanowire structures provide short lithium-ion diffusion path, good charge transport, and volume flexibility for Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, thus leading to good rate capability and cycling performance. As proof-of-concept, the Mn2O3 nanowire anode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 815.9 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and maintains a capacity of 502.3 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles. The LiMn2O4 nanowire cathodes show a reversible capacity of 94.7 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and high capacity retention of ∼ 96% after 100 cycles. Furthermore, a flexible Mn2O3//LiMn2O4 lithium ion full cell is fabricated, with an output voltage of >3 V, low thickness of 0.3 mm, high flexibility, and a specific capacity of 99 mA h g(-1) based on the total weight of the cathode material. It also exhibits good cycling stability with a capacity of ∼ 80 mA h g(-1) after 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  5. Failure analysis of LiMn2O4 power battery%锰酸锂动力电池失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 刘军; 邓爽; 赵鸿飞; 肖海清

    2012-01-01

    针对商业化的锰酸锂( LiMn2O4)动力电池,研究其各种常见的失效模式(容量衰减、泄气或漏液、热失控和集流体腐蚀等)及失效原因.结果表明:温度是造成锰酸锂动力电池容量衰减、热失控、泄气或漏液的重要应力;集流体腐蚀行为主要受电解质盐的影响,其次受表面状况、溶剂、电解液中的杂质、温度等方面的影响.%The common failure modes and failure mechanism of commercial LiMnjO. power battery was researched. The capacity fading, discouraged or leakage, collector fluid corrosion and thermal runaway are the main failure modes of LIMn2O4 power battery. The results show that the temperature is the main reason that causes the capacity fading, discouraged or leakage and thermal runaway of LiMn2O4 power battery, and the corrosion behavior of the fluid collection is mainly affected by the influence of the electrolyte salt, surface conditions, solvent, impurities in the electrolyte, temperature, etc.

  6. Structure and surface chemistry of Al2O3 coated LiMn2O4 nanostructured electrodes with improved lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, G. H.; Brooke, P. D.; Rainwater, B. H.; Lai, S. Y.; Hu, R.; Ding, Y.; Alamgir, F. M.; Sandhage, K. H.; Liu, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum oxide coatings deposited on LiMn2O4/carbon fiber electrodes by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are shown to enhance cathode performance in lithium-ion batteries. With a thin Al2O3 coating derived from 10 ALD cycles, the electrodes exhibit 2.5 times greater capacity retention over 500 cycles at a rate of 1C as well as enhanced rate capability and decreased polarization resistance. Structural and surface studies of the electrodes before and after cycling reveal that a near-surface phenomenon is responsible for the improved electrochemical performance. The crystal structure and overall morphology of the LiMn2O4 electrode are found to be unaffected by electrochemical cycling, both for coated and uncoated samples. However, evidence of Mn diffusion into the ALD coatings is observed from both transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) after electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, XPS analysis of the Al 2p photoemission peak for the ALD coated electrodes reveal a significant shift in binding energy and peak shape, suggesting the presence of an Al-O-F compound formed by sequestering HF in the electrolyte. These observations provide new insight toward understanding the mechanism in which ultrathin coatings of amphoteric oxides can inhibit capacity loss for LiMn2O4 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn2O4 onto carbon fiber paper current collector for binder free lithium-ion battery positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Gordon Henry; Lai, Samson Yuxiu; Rainwater, Ben Harris; Liu, Meilin

    2014-04-01

    Concerns over the safety and high cost of lithium ion batteries, especially those containing cobalt-based active materials, limit their use to applications where energy density requirements cannot be met by any other materials. Manganese-spinel based positive electrode materials represent a promising candidate for lithium ion batteries because of their lower cost, lower toxicity, and greater resistance to thermal runaway than cobalt-based active materials. Although LiMn2O4 has a well-known issue of capacity fading, investigations into nanostructured composites composed of surface modified spinel phases have demonstrated outstanding performance, suggesting that LiMn2O4 has potential to be a viable positive electrode for safe, inexpensive, high power, and long lifetime lithium-ion batteries. Here we report a low-temperature hydrothermal process for growth of conformal coatings of highly crystalline LiMn2O4 directly onto a carbon fiber current collector, completely eliminating the process steps and materials associated with the conventional tape casting approach (binders, solvents, and metal foils). The prepared electrodes tested at a rate of 1 C showed an initial discharge capacity of 125 mAh g-1 and an average energy efficiency of 92.4% over 100 cycles.

  8. Mn3O4 nano-sized crystals: Rapid synthesis and extension to preparation of nanosized LiMn2O4 materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Ling Cui; Yong-Li Li; Shi-You Li; Guo-Cun Sun; Jin-Xia Ma; Lu Zhang; Tian-Ming Li; Rong-Bo Ma

    2014-05-01

    With a novel gas-liquid reaction, a facile and rapid method has been successfully developed for the synthesis of nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals. Coupled with complementary experiments, preparation mechanisms of Mn(II) and Mn(III)Mn(III)Mn(II) coordination complexes as well as nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals are studied. Besides, as the extension of synthesis of nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals, the intermediate ammonia alkaline solution containing Mn(III)Mn(III)Mn(II) coordination complexes, which tend to decompose into nano-sized Mn3O4 crystals spontaneously, are used to prepare nanosized LiMn2O4 materials. Although any physical treatment has been done to disperse powders, the as-synthesized LiMn2O4 nanoparticles are still existence with homogeneous size distribution (about 24.2 nm) without any obvious agglomeration. That is to say, the novel method is constructive not only to accelerate reaction rates for the elevated oxidation state of manganese ions, but also to prepare dispersed nanosized LiMn2O4 materials with good electrochemical properties.

  9. A Novel Method to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 Cathode Active Material by CaCO3 Surface Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halil Sahan; Hüseyin G(o)ktepe; Saban Patat

    2011-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by glycine-nitrate method and coated with CaCO3 in order to enhance the electrochemical performance at room temperature (25℃) and 55℃. The uncoated and CaCO3-coated LiMn2O4 materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical tests. XRD and SEM results indicated that CaCO3 particles encapsulated the surface of the LiMn2O4 without causing any structural change. The charge-discharge tests showed that the specific discharge capacity fade of pristine electrode at 25 and 55℃ were 25.5% and 52%, respectively. However, surface modified cathode shows 7.4% and 29.5% loss compared to initial specific discharge capacity at 70th cycle for 25 and 55℃, respectively. The improvement of electrochemical performance is attributed to suppression of Mn2+dissolution into electrolyte via CaCO3 layer.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 by wet chemical route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xianming; LI Runxiu; CHEN Shang; HE Zeqiang

    2009-01-01

    Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 was prepared by wet chemical route. The phase, surface morphology, and electrochemical properties of the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments. Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 has similar X-ray diffraction patterns as LiMn2O4. The corner and border of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 particles are not as clear as the uncoated one. The two powders show similar values of lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. When cy-cled at room temperature and 55℃ for 40 times at the charge-discharge rate of 0.2C, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 shows the capacity retentions of 98.2% and 93.9%, respectively, which are considerably higher than the values of 85.4% and 79.1% for the uncoated one. Both the capacity retention differences between Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3-coated LiMn2O4 and LiMn204 cycling at room temperature and 55℃ become larger with the increase of charge-discharge rate. When the charge-discharge rate reaches 2C, the capacity retention of LATP-coated LiMn2O4 becomes 8.4% higher than the uncoated LiMn2O4 for room temperature cycling, and it becomes 11.1% higher than the latter when cycled at 55℃.

  11. A New PAA Sol-Gel Method to Synthesisthe Spinel LiMn2O4 Material for Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A PAA sol-gel method, which is based on the chelate effect of PAA polymer, was developed forthe synthesis of the spinel LiMn2O4 material. The pyrolysis process of the PAA-nitrate mixture precursorwas investigated by TG and DTA analysis. It is found that the structure and electrochemical properties ofthe material are sensitive to the atmosphere employed in the synthesis process. Preliminary results showthat the material thus prepared has a good electrochemical performance even at high charge and dischargecurrent.

  12. Synthesis of LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders by modified Pechini process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Urbano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders were synthesized by Pechini process, modified in order to reduce the number of steps and to work at temperatures below or equal to 400oC. Both phases crystallize in the same spinel structure with lattice constants of 8.21 and 8.22 Å respectively. Although the annealing temperature was low, the cristallinity is good and no residual amounts of organic material were detected.

  13. The Mechanism of Sol-Gel Synthesis of Normal Spinel LiMn2O4 with Chelation of Citric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hui; LEI Jia-heng; CHEN Yong-xi; SUN Yu-bin; YUAN Qi-hua

    2002-01-01

    The sol-gel process of citric acid chelating with metal cations for the synthesis of normal spinel LiMn2O4 and the reaction mechanism were investigated by means of XRD, IR, TG-DTA, and SEM. The results show that at the beginning lithium citrate and chelate compound of citric acid with manganese ions formed, and then with heating the esterification and condensation reactions occured between them and glycol. The products obtained are polymers in which metal cations are distributed homogeneously on atomic scale that ensure high reactivity to cations of Li + and Mn2 + . Firing the gel prepared by this process, the lattice diffusions of solid reactant ions caused by non-homogeneity of reactants are eliminated and avoided. At 400℃ phase-pure LiMn2 O4 with nanometer scale crystallization having precise stoichiometry and perfect crystallization can be obtained. The model of chelate coordinate of double-molecule between citric acid and Mn2 + in the gel network is proposed. It is important for explaining the dispersion state of Mn2 + and the formation process of gel by this model.

  14. Nature of the Electrochemical Properties of Sulphur Substituted LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bakierska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanostructured LiMn2O4 (LMO and LiMn2O3.99S0.01 (LMOS1 spinel cathode materials were comprehensively investigated in terms of electrochemical properties. For this purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements as a function of state of charge (SOC were conducted on a representative charge and discharge cycle. The changes in the electrochemical performance of the stoichiometric and sulphur-substituted lithium manganese oxide spinels were examined, and suggested explanations for the observed dependencies were given. A strong influence of sulphur introduction into the spinel structure on the chemical stability and electrochemical characteristic was observed. It was demonstrated that the significant improvement in coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of lithium cell with LMOS1 active material arises from a more stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI layer. Based on EIS studies, the Li ion diffusion coefficients in the cathodes were estimated, and the influence of sulphur on Li+ diffusivity in the spinel structure was established. The obtained results support the assumption that sulphur substitution is an effective way to promote chemical stability and the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4 cathode material.

  15. Tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane/lithium bis(oxalate)borate electrolyte for LiMn2O4/graphite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusachi, Yuki; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2011-10-01

    Silane-based electrolyte is a promising candidate for safer electrochemical energy storage devices because it is thermally and electrochemical stable, less flammable and environmental benign. In this paper, electrochemical properties of one of the silane-based electrolytes, tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3)-lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) was studied using LiMn2O4 as cathode and MAG graphite as anode. When combined with LiBOB as lithium salt, the 1NM3-LiBOB electrolyte can provide solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation due to the reductive decomposition of LiBOB at first charging cycle. Compared to the electrolyte used in the conventional lithium-ion batteries, 1NM3-LiBOB electrolyte showed compatible battery performance in LiMn2O4/MAG chemistry. The AC impedance measurement indicates that the activation energy (Ea) obtained from the charge transfer impedance for 1NM3-LiBOB was higher than that of the state-of-the-art electrolyte. Due to its low conductivity, the rate capability of 1NM3-LiBOB electrolyte needs to be improved.

  16. Neutron scattering study on cathode LiMn2O4 and solid electrolyte 5(Li2O)(P2O5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, E.; Putra, Teguh P.; Jahya, A. K.; Insani, A.; Adams, S.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron scattering is very important technique in order to investigate the energy storage materials such as lithium-ion battery. The unique advantages, neutron can see the light atoms such as Hydrogen, Lithium, and Oxygen, where those elements are negligible by other corresponding X-ray method. On the other hand, the energy storage materials, such as lithium ion battery is very important for the application in the electric vehicles, electronic devices or home appliances. The battery contains electrodes (anode and cathode), and the electrolyte materials. There are many challenging to improve the existing lithium ion battery materials, in order to increase their life time, cyclic ability and also its stability. One of the most scientific challenging is to investigate the crystal structure of both electrode and electrolyte, such as cathodes LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, and solid electrolyte Li3PO4. Since all those battery materials contain Lithium ions and Oxygen, the used of neutron scattering techniques to study their structure and related properties are very important and indispensable. This article will review some works of investigating electrodes and electrolytes, LiMn2O4 and 5(Li2O)(P2O5), by using a high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) at the multipurpose research reactor, RSG-Sywabessy of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Indonesia.

  17. Three-Dimension Hierarchical Al2O3 Nanosheets Wrapped LiMn2O4 with Enhanced Cycling Stability as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Feiyan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongqiang; Hu, Sijiang; Wu, Xianming; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Youguo; He, Zeqiang; Li, Qingyu

    2016-08-24

    A three dimensional (3D) Al2O3 coating layer was synthesized by a facile approach including stripping and in situ self-assembly of γ-AlOOH. The uniform flower-like Al2O3 nanosheets with high specific area largely sequesters acidic species produced by side reaction between electrode and electrolyte. The inner coating layer wrapping spinel LiMn2O4 effectively inhibits the dissolution of Mn by suppressing directive contact with electrolyte to enhance cycling stability. The rate performance is improved because of the better electrolyte storage of the assembled hierarchical architecture of the 3D coating layer affording unimpeded Li(+) diffusion from electrode to electrolyte. The electrochemical results reveal the as-prepared coated LiMn2O4 sample with the amount of Al2O3 at 1 wt % exhibits superior cycle stability under room temperature even at elevated temperature. The initial specific discharge capacity is 128.5 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and retains 89.8% of the initial capacity after 800 cycles at 1 C rate. When cycling at 55 °C, the composite shows 93.6% capacity retention after 500 cycles. This facile surface modification and effective structure of coating layer can be adopted to enhance the cycling performance and thermal stability of other electrode materials for which Al2O3 plays its role.

  18. Effect of sintering time on the electrochemical properties of spinel LiMn2O4 synthesized by solid-state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Weihua Qiu; Renhua Zhao; Hui Xia; Hailei Zhao; Jingjing Liu

    2008-01-01

    LiMn204 powder as a cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was prepared by solid-state reaction from Li2CO3 and electrolytic MnO2 at different sintering periods (2, 6, 18, and 32 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the prepared samples are identified as the spinel structure with a space group of Fd3 m. The lattice parameters almost remain the same as the sin-tering periods increase. The sample with a sintering period of 32 h shows good cycling performance at both low and high current densities, and also elevated temperature. It is believed that the excellent electrochemical behavior of this sample results from its good crystallinity and large grain size compared with other samples. Different electrochemical measurements were conducted to investi-gate the electrochemical properties of spinel LiMn2O4.

  19. Synthesis of nanostructured LiMn2O4 thin films by glancing angle deposition for Li-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani-Haghighi, S.; Khare, C.; Trócoli, R.; Dushina, A.; Kieschnick, M.; LaMantia, F.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-11-01

    The development of electric vehicles and portable electronic devices demands lighter and thinner batteries with improved specific charge and rate capabilities. In this work, thin films of LiMn2O4 were fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering. Glancing angle deposition is introduced as a promising approach for fabrication of porous cathode thin films with 2.6 times the capacity in comparison with conventionally sputtered films of the same thickness. Surface morphology and crystallinity of the films are studied along with their electrochemical performance in an aqueous electrolyte. The glancing angle deposited films can reach a rate capability of up to 4 mA cm-2 with minimal energy loss, and a life cycle longer than 100 charge/discharge cycles.

  20. Interfacial characteristics of a PEGylated imidazolium bistriflamide ionic liquid electrolyte at a lithium ion battery cathode of LiMn2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Simon E; Wu, Lin; Crain, Daniel J; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Roy, Dipankar

    2013-03-01

    Nonvolatile and nonflammable ionic liquids (ILs) have distinct thermal advantages over the traditional organic solvent electrolytes of lithium ion batteries. However, this beneficial feature of ILs is often counterbalanced by their high viscosity (a limiting factor for ionic conductivity) and, sometimes, by their unsuitable electrochemistry for generating protective layers on electrode surfaces. In an effort to alleviate these limiting aspects of ILs, we have synthesized a PEGylated imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (bistriflamide) IL that exhibited better thermal and electrochemical stability than a conventional electrolyte based on a blend of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. The electrochemical performance of this IL has been demonstrated using a cathode consisting of ball-milled LiMn2O4 particles. A direct comparison of the ionic liquid electrolyte with the nonionic low-viscosity conventional solvent blend is presented.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of sol-gel derived LiMn2O4cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peifeng; FAN Huiqing; FU Yunfei; LI Zhuo; DENG Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 has been considered to be the most promising alternative cathode material for the new generation of lithium-ion batteries in terms of its low cost, non-toxicity and easy manufacture. The spinel lithium manganese mixed oxides were prepared from lithium nitrate, manganese nitrate and citric acid by asol-gel method and were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charging-discharging technique. The different sintering temperatures for different time have strong influence on the structure, initial discharge capacity and cycling performance of the lithium manganese oxide. It shows that the lithium manganese oxides sintered at 700 ℃ for 10 h have a single spinel structure and better electrochemical properties. The initial discharging capacity can be up to 125.9 mAh·g-1 , even after six cycles, it still retains 109.1 mAh·g-1 .

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of spinels: LiMn2O4 and Li4Mn5O12 at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwaba, R. S.; Matshaba, M. G.; Ngoepe, P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Energy storage technologies are critical in addressing the global challenge of clean sustainable energy. Spinel lithium manganates have attracted attention due to their electrochemical properties and also as promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The current study focused on the effects of high temperatures on the materials, in order to understand the sustainability in cases where the battery heats up to high temperature and analysis of lithium diffusion aids in terms of intercalation host compatibility. It is also essential to understand the high temperature behaviour and lithium ion host capability of these materials in order to perform the armorphization and recrystalization of spinel nano-architectures. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out to predict high temperature behaviour of the spinel systems. The NVE ensemble was employed, in the range 300 - 3000K. The melting temperature, lithium-ion diffusion and structural behaviour were monitored in both supercell systems. LiMn2O4 indicated a diffusion rate that increased rapidly above 1500K, just before melting (˜1700K) and reached its maximum diffusion at 2.756 × 10-7 cm2s-1 before it decreased. Li4Mn5O12 indicated an exponential increase above 700K reaching 8.303 × 10-7 cm2s-1 at 2000K and allowing lithium intercalation even above its melting point of around 1300K. This indicated better structural stability of Li4Mn5O12 and capability to host lithium ions at very high temperatures (up to 3000 K) compared to LiMn2O4.

  3. Impact test of LiMn2O4 power battery under different temperatures%不同温度下锰酸锂动力电池的撞击实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 刘军; 邓爽; 肖海清

    2012-01-01

    将锰酸锂动力电池在不同温度(-30℃、20℃、40 ℃和65℃)下搁置后,快速进行重物撞击实验.实验所用锰酸锂动力电池的总体安全性较差;电池在撞击过程中,实验环境温度越高,电池的安全性越差;温升速率越快,越容易发生着火等热失控现象.未着火与着火试样的温升速率与最高温度分别呈线性和3次多项式的关系.%The impact tests were quickly taken to the commercial lithium manganese oxide(LiMn2O4) power battery after stored under different temperatures( - 30 ℃ - 20 ℃ ,40 ℃ and 65 ℃ ) . The total safety performance of the experiment used LiMn2O4 power battery was poor. In impact process, the higher the environment temperature was, the worse the battery thermal stability was. The battery was prone to occur thermal runaway such as fire when the temperature rise rate was high. Temperature rising rate and maximum temperature was a linear and cubic polynomial relationship of the samples that did not burn and burned during impact tests, respectively.

  4. Electrochemical properties of spinel LiMn2O4 and LiAl0.1Mn1.9O3.9F0.1 synthesized by solid-state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Weihua Qiu; Hailei Zhao; Jingjing Liu

    2008-01-01

    Two types of spinel cathode powders, LiMn2O4 and LiAl0.1Mn1.9O3.9F0.1, were synthesized by solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the prepared samples were identified as the spinel structure with a space group of Fd3 m. The cubic lattice parameter was determined from least-squares fitting of the XRD data. The LiAl0.1Mn1.9O3.9F0.1 sample showed a little lower initial capacity, but better cycling performance than the LiMn2O4 sample at both room temperature and an elevated temperature. The Vanderbilt method was used to test the electrochemical conductivity of the LiMn2O4 samples. The electrochemical impedance spec- troscopy (EIS) method was employed to investigate the electrochemical properties of these spinel LiMn2O4 samples,C 2008 University of Science and Technology Beijing. All fights reserved.

  5. Recent developments in spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material%尖晶石型LiMn2O4正极材料的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占旭; 乔庆东; 康晓雪

    2012-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 has been considered as a potential cathode material for power Li-ion batteries because of its low cost, rich resource and high safety. However, spinel IiMn2O4 shows poor cycling performance at elevated temperatures, which restricts its application. In this paper, the capacity degradation mechanism of spinel LiMn2O4 is introduced. The progress in ion substitution and surface coating treatment for spinel LiMn2O4 at home and abroad are described in detail. The reason of enhanced electrochemical performance of ion substitution and surface treatment for spinel LiMn2O4 are discussed as well. Finally, some future directions for spinel LiMn2O4 are pointed out.%尖晶石型锰酸锂以成本低廉、资源丰富和良好的安全性能,成为动力锂离子电池的理想正极材料.但尖晶石LiMn2O4高温循环性能差限制了其应用.阐述了尖晶石LiMn2O4容量衰减的机理;详细介绍了国内外在LiMn2O4正极材料体相掺杂和表面包覆改性的研究进展,并对体相掺杂和表面包覆改性LiMn2O4正极材料电化学性能提高的机理进行了讨论.最后对尖晶石LiMn2O4正极材料今后的发展方向进行了展望.

  6. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-NMC/graphite lithium ion batteries part II: Calendar aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Zhang, Mengjia; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    A detailed post-mortem analysis was carried out for commercial lithium ion batteries stored at 4.2 V and 4.0 V at 60 °C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes for the cells aged at 4.2 V were loss of cycleable lithium, decomposition of the electrolyte and loss of active cathode material (LiMn2O4/Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2). The cells aged at 4.0 V also exhibited loss of cycleable lithium, but at a smaller extent. In fact, the aged anodes did not show significant changes compared to the new anode. Electrochemical impedance measurements including symmetric laboratory test cells gained from new and aged cells revealed valuable information about changing charge-transfer processes. The 4.2 V-cathode and both aged anodes surprisingly exhibited a decreased charge-transfer resistance, while the 4.0 V-cathode's charge-transfer resistance increased.

  7. Strain-induced tuning of surface energetics, electron conductivity and reduction drive in spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivetti, Ivan; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    LiMn2O4 (LMO) implementation in cathodes of rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is hampered by the limited lifetime of the material and the stability of its interfaces, starting from the Solid Electrolyte Interphase. Recent experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations indicate that the formation and effectiveness of the SEI on LMO are related to the surface orientation. In this context, we analyse the role of geometrical strain for the relative energy, magnetic ordering and the reduction drive of several LMO surfaces. DFT simulations reveal LMO surfaces to be markedly sensitive to geometrical strain. Strain lower than 10% can lead to insulator-metal and ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transitions, alter the relative energy of LMO surfaces, and induce changes as large as 1.0 eV in the surface chemical potential, thence the reduction drive. Prompted by advances in the synthesis of metal-oxide core-shell nanostructures, the use of strained LMO coating to enhance SEI-formation is put forward as a potential nano-engineered strategy for longer lived SEI on LMO substrates. Eu FP7 project SIRBATT (Ref. 608502, end date: August 2016).

  8. A general strategy to construct uniform carbon-coated spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with a long cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Huiqin; Liu, Yumin; Bai, Gongxun; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Control over one-dimensional growth of spinel-type LiMn2O4 nanowires is challenging in the area of materials science due to their cubic crystal structure. The current strategy is to use a self-support template to fabricate LiMn2O4 nanowires, which is time-consuming and limits their large-scale commercial production. In this paper, we propose a general strategy to construct well-defined LiMn2O4 nanowires terminated with amorphous carbon at the edges by an ingenious method without using any template. Benefited from its unique carbon-coated nanowire structure, the electrode exhibits a capacitor-like rate performance and battery-like high capacity for long-time cycling. Even after 1500 cycles at an extremely high current density of 30 C, approximately 82% of its initial capacity can still be retained. Significantly, the strategy reported here will be beneficial and revelatory to manufacture other extensive one-dimensional robust carbon-decorated nanowires, paving new ways for future developments of ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.Control over one-dimensional growth of spinel-type LiMn2O4 nanowires is challenging in the area of materials science due to their cubic crystal structure. The current strategy is to use a self-support template to fabricate LiMn2O4 nanowires, which is time-consuming and limits their large-scale commercial production. In this paper, we propose a general strategy to construct well-defined LiMn2O4 nanowires terminated with amorphous carbon at the edges by an ingenious method without using any template. Benefited from its unique carbon-coated nanowire structure, the electrode exhibits a capacitor-like rate performance and battery-like high capacity for long-time cycling. Even after 1500 cycles at an extremely high current density of 30 C, approximately 82% of its initial capacity can still be retained. Significantly, the strategy reported here will be beneficial and revelatory to manufacture other extensive one-dimensional robust carbon-decorated nanowires, paving new ways for future developments of ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of materials and electrochemical performance characterization (Fig. S1-10). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02057c

  9. Characteristics of LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.45Co0.1Mn0.45O2 as cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; ZENG Su-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 4sO2 was synthesized from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 ℃ in air. The structures and characteristics of LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2, LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 were investigated by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The results show that LiNi0.4s Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The commercial LicoO2 has sphere-like appearance and smooth surfaces, while the LiMn2 O4 and LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 consist of cornered and uneven particles. LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a large disLiMn2 O4 and LiCoO2, respectively. LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 have higher discharge voltage and better rate-capability than LiNi0. 45Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2. All the three cathodes have excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of above 89.3 % at the 250th cycle. Batteries with LiMn2 O4 or LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 cathodes show better safety performance under abusive conditions than those with LiCoO2 cathodes.

  10. Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 thin-film electrodes on transparent conducting oxides for all-solid-state and electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Manuel; Beleke, Alexis B.; Guntow, Uwe; Buensow, Johanna; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Posset, Uwe; Lorrmann, Henning; Zaghib, Karim; Sextl, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Transparent Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 thin films were prepared on transparent conducting oxide substrates via sol-gel dip coating technique. The resulting films were highly uniform and transparent after annealing at 600 °C and 400 °C for Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4, respectively. Different film thicknesses ranging from 50 nm to about 800 nm were attained and the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for evaluating the crystallization of the active materials. Ellipsometric porosimetry was used to measure the porosity of the anode material. Furthermore, electrochemical techniques such as cyclovoltametry and galvanostatic charging/discharging confirm the successful synthesis of electrochemically active LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 films. Single-layer electrodes show stable capacities at discharge rates up to 100C indicating the high rate capability and therefore and therefore are classified as materials for power. Furthermore, the electrochromic effects were observed for both thin-film systems and evaluated in preliminary tests.

  11. Experimental research on the performance of LiMn2O4 base 18650 power battery%LiMn2O4基18650动力电池性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美红; 梁兴华; 吴汉杰; 宋清清; 刘浩

    2015-01-01

    LiMn2O4 was prepared by sol gel method as the anode material of 18650 fully battery. Three road conditions of city, suburb and intercity were simulated to test the battery output characteristic to analyze the manganese base power battery performance according to the characteristic curves. The results showed that the LiMn2O4 cathode material was spinel structure, and its particles were uniform, the 18650 power battery had a good performance under the condition of city and suburb, and the battery performance needed to be improved under the condition of intercity.%采用溶胶凝胶法制备LiMn2O4作为正极材料制成18650全电池。用模拟工况实验了市内、市郊、城际3种不同道路工况下对应的电池输出特性,并根据特性曲线分析不同道路工况锰基动力电池的性能。结果表明:LiMn2O4正极材料为尖晶石结构,颗粒均匀,在市内和郊区工况下18650动力电池有较好的性能,而城际工况下电池性能有待提高。

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material for Li-ion Battery%锂离子电池正极材料LiMn2O4的合成与晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮艳莉; 唐致远; 韩恩山; 冯季军

    2005-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 powders were prepared using two-step synthesis method consisting of solid-state reaction method and citrate modified sol-gel method. The effects of the calcination temperature and the Li/Mn ratio of raw materials were studied on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the spinel LiMn2O4 powders,such as crystallinity, lattice constant and density. The title compound was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Polycrystalline LiMn2O4 powers calcined at 750℃ were found to be composed of very uniformly-sized microcrystal with an average particle size of 300 nm. The improvement in electrochemical properties was mainly attributed to the process of re-grinding by absolute alcohol.

  13. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2/graphite lithium ion batteries. Part I: Cycle aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    A detailed capacity fade analysis was carried out for a commercial lithium ion battery with a mixed LiMn2O4/NMC cathode, cycled at room temperature with a continuous discharge rate of 1C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes was loss of cycleable lithium due to SEI-layer formation on the anode. The layer formation is accelerated by transition metals coming from the cathode. Impedance spectroscopy proved a significant increase of the cathode charge transfer resistance and of the serial resistance due to electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface layer on the anode. The changing of the impedance spectra of the lithium ion battery with aging could be interpreted with the help of impedance spectra of symmetric cells. From DRT analysis equivalent circuits for anode and cathode were derived, which were used for fitting of the impedance spectra.

  14. Study on safety performance of LiMn2O4 power batteries under deviant use%锰酸锂动力电池滥用条件下安全性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云建; 吕军

    2011-01-01

    采用商品化的LiMn2O4和石墨作为正负极材料制作锰酸锂动力电池(347080-16Ah),测试其热冲击,穿刺,短路和过充安全实验.研究发现,电池经过热冲击、穿刺和短路测试后,电池未发生爆炸起火现象.但是3 C/10 V过充后,电池发生爆炸,并放出大量黑烟,电池表面最高温度达到290℃.黑烟的主要成分是CO2、CO、H2、CH4、C2H6、C2H4和炭黑,爆炸后的粉末主要成分为C、MnO和Li2CO3.%The power battery (347080-16 Ah) was manufactured with the commercial LiMn2O4 as cathode and graphite as anode. The heat concussion, puncture, shod circuit and overcharge performance of batteries were tested. The LiMn2O4 battery shows good safety performance and doesn't explode after heat concussion, puncture,and short circuit test. But the battery blasted after 3 C/10 V overcharge and released black smoke. The maximal temperature of battery surface reached 290 ℃ after blast. The smoke was made up of CO2, CO, H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4 and carbon powers. The carbon, MnO, and Li2CO3 were observed in the exploded powders.

  15. The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4-Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Patrick; Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Baba, Nilüfer; Lagaly, Paul; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Aging of lithium-ion cells is an inevitable phenomenon limiting the lifetime. Undesirable side reactions during cycle or calendar aging may affect the performance of all components of the lithium-ion cell. This results in a decreased capacity and an increase in the overall cell impedance. Based on electrochemical and physical characterization methods, the aging behavior during calendar aging of a 18650-cell, containing a blend of LiMn2O4 and Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) as cathode material and graphite as anode material was systematically investigated. To understand how the safety behavior of a lithium-ion cell changes with aging, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied. With these methods the thermal stability behavior of the complete lithium-ion cell and its respective cathode and anode material were investigated. The focus of this work was it to generate first cause-effect relations between the aging under one exemplary aging condition and the thermal stability of a lithium-ion battery both on cell and material level.

  16. Thermal Synergy Effect between LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 and LiMn2O4 Enhances the Safety of Blended Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Yangyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Jianxin; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Shiyong; Gan, Chaolun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-08-10

    The layer-structured LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (L523) with high specific capacity and the spinel LiMn2O4 (LMO) with excellent thermostability complement each other in a blended cathode for better heat stability and electrochemical performance. The delithiated LMO starts to react with electrolyte at 160-200 °C to cause structural instability, and the delithiated L523 generates massive heat when its temperature is raised above 275 °C with the electrolyte present, but we found that the blended cathode shows a remarkable improvement in thermal stability since the reaction at 160-200 °C between LMO and the electrolyte disappears, and the total heat generated from the reaction between L523 and the electrolyte is drastically reduced. The reaction between LMO and the electrolyte at 160-200 °C causes structural instability of LMO as a self-accelerating attack from HF. With L523 present, this reaction is eliminated because the H(+) from HF and Li(+) in L523 undergo exchange reaction to prevent further generation of HF. The presence of LMO, however, reduces the total heat generated by L523 reacting with the electrolyte at high temperature. This thermal synergy between LMO and L523 not only improves the thermal safety of the blended cathode but also preserves their structures for better electrochemical performance.

  17. 锂离子电池正极材料尖晶石型LiMn2O4的制备及电化学性能研究%Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4 as Cathode Material for Lithium.ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱希平

    2012-01-01

    首次采用基于复合络合剂柠檬酸和β-环糊精的溶胶凝胶法制备了尖晶石型锰酸锂,并研究了煅烧温度对材料电化学性能的影响。电化学性能表明,700℃煅烧制备的材料具有优异的倍率和循环性能。在3C电流下此材料的首次和第200次放电比容量分别为102mAh/g和90.8mAh/g,容量保持率为89%。%Spinel LiMn2O4 has been firstly synthesized by a sol-gel method based on composite chelating reagents of citric acid and β-cyclodextrin, and the effects of calcination temperatures on the electrochemical performance of the LiMn2O4 has also been investigated. The electrochemical results indicate that the spinel LiMn2O4 synthesized at 700℃exhibits good rate capability and cy- clic performance. It is 102 mAh/g and 90.8 mAh/g that are delivered at 3 C in the 1st and 200th cycles, respectively, with the re- tention of 89%

  18. 石墨烯/尖晶石LiMn2O4纳米复合材料制备及电化学性能%Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Modified Nano-Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永丽; 徐坤; 袁铮; 谢仁箭; 朱光林; 庄全超; 强颖怀

    2013-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法和还原氧化石墨法制备尖晶石LiMn2O4纳米晶和石墨烯纳米片,并采用冷冻干燥法制备了石墨烯/尖晶石LiMn2O4纳米复合材料,利用XRD、SEM、AFM等对其结构及表面形貌进行表征;利用CV、充放电、EIS研究纳米复合材料的电化学性能和电极过程动力学特征.结果表明:纳米LiMn2O4电极材料及其石墨烯掺杂纳米复合材料的放电比容量分别为107.16 mAh·g-1,124.30 mAh·g-1,循环100周后,对应容量保持率为74.31%和96.66%,石墨烯可显著改善尖晶石LiMn2O4电极材料的电化学性能,归结于其良好的导电性.纳米复合材料EIS上感抗的产生与半导体尖晶石LiMn2O4不均匀地分布在石墨烯膜表面所造成局域浓差有关,并提出了感抗产生的模型.%Nano-LiMn2O4 and graphene nanosheets were synthesized by sol-gel route and reduction of exfoliated graphite oxides method respectively. Graphene modified spinel LiMn2O4 cathode nanocomposites were synthesized by freeze-drying method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The graphene modified spinel LiMn2O4 nanocomposites exhibited a high discharge capacity of 124.30 mAh·g-1 at 0.1C, while spinel LiMn2O4 only delivered 107.16 mAh·g-1 at the same rate. Compared with pure LiMn2O4, the graphene modified LiMn2O4 exhibited excellent cycle ability, with a capacity retention of 96.66% after 100 cycles versus about 74% for pure LiMn2O4. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the excellent conductivity of graphene nanosheets. The inductive loop observed in the impedance spectra of the graphene modified LiMn2O4 electrode was attributed to the formation of nano-LiMn2O4 local concentration cell from which current flows in opposition to Li de-intercalation into cathode, consistent with the conditions for the generation of an inductive loop. Consequently a model was proposed to explain the inductive loop response of composites electrode for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  20. Surface modification and characterization of F-Co doped spinel LiMn2O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yaochun; DAI Yongnian; YANG Bin; MA Wenhui; WATANABE Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    Spinel LiCo0.09Mn1.91O3.92F0.08 as cathode material was modified with LiCoO2 by the sol-gel method, and the crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical performance were characterized with XRD, SEM, EDS, AAS and charge-discharge test in this paper. The results show that a good clad coated on parent material can be synthesized by the sol-gel method, and the materialswith modification have perfect spinel structure. LiCo0.09Mn1.91O3.92F0.08 materials coated by LiCoO2 improve the stability of crystal structure and decrease the dissolution of Mn into electrolyte. With the LiCoO2 content increasing, the specific capacity and cycle performance of samples are improved. The capacity loss is also suppressed distinctly even at 55 ℃.

  1. Deep Discharge Characteristics of LiMn2O4-dCld Cathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    was 1 molar LiPF6 in proportional mixtures of diethyl carbonate , dimethyl carbonate , and ethylene carbonate . Cells were cycled with an ARBIN MSTAT4...glass separator. The LixMn2O4-dXd cathode was fabricated by mixing together the active material, carbon , and polytetrafluoroethylene with an 85:10

  2. Fabrication procedure for LiMn2O4/Graphite-based Lithium-ionRechargeable Pouch Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Zheng, Honghe; Battaglia, Vincent S.

    2007-04-30

    Procedures were developed at LBNL specifically for making electrodes and batteries of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) and MCMB (meso carbon micro beads) graphite for high-power applications (HEVs). Electrode performance can be very dependent on the materials used so it is pointed out that Toda M809 was used for the cathode active material and MCMB 10-28 from Osaka Gas was used for the anode active material. The conductive additives were Dankon black, an acetylene black, and SFG-6, a micron-size graphite. The binder used was PVdF (Kureha 1100). More details of these procedures can be found in the lab notebook of Gao Liu. These procedures are documented here but are continuously being refined, and should therefore be considered a work in progress.

  3. Doping Effect on the Grain Growth of Spinel LiMn2O4 Prepared by Sol-Gel Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cathode-active materials, Li1+yMn2-xO4 (M = A1, Co, Ni, Zn, y = 0.02, x = 0.02) powder, were synthesized by sol-gel method using LiOH, Mn(NO3)2 as the starting materials, citric acid as a carrier and A1(NO3)3·9H2O or Co(NO3)2·6H2O or Ni(NO3)2·6H2O or Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as dopants. The influence of different doping elements on the structural properties of the as-prepared samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared samples were identified as the spinel structure with space group Fd3m. The grain size increases gradually as the sintering temperature rises and corresponding activation energies for the grain growth have been estimated using Arrhenius' empirical relation.

  4. Fs-laser microstructuring of laser-printed LiMn2O4 electrodes for manufacturing of 3D microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, J.; Kim, H.; Mangang, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2014-03-01

    Lithium manganese oxide composite cathodes are realized by laser-printing. The printed cathode is a composite and consists of active powder, binder and conductive agents. Laser-printed cathodes are first calendered and then laser structured using femtosecond-laser radiation in order to form three-dimensional (3D) micro-grids in the cathode material. Three-dimensional micro-grids in calendered/laser structured cathodes exhibit improved discharge capacity retention at a 1 C discharging rate. Calendered but unstructured cathodes indicate the poorest cycling behavior at 1 C discharge. The improved capacity retention and the reduced degradation of calendered/structured cathodes can be attributed to both the increased electrical contact through calendering as well as shortened Li-ion pathways due to laser-induced 3D microgrids.

  5. LiMn2O4基18650动力电池性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美红; 梁兴华; 吴汉杰; 宋清清; 刘浩

    2015-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法制备LiMn2O4作为正极材料制成18650全电池。用模拟工况实验了市内、市郊、城际3种不同道路工况下对应的电池输出特性,并根据特性曲线分析不同道路工况锰基动力电池的性能。结果表明:LiMn2O4正极材料为尖晶石结构,颗粒均匀,在市内和郊区工况下18650动力电池有较好的性能,而城际工况下电池性能有待提高。

  6. Pengaruh Waktu Hidrotermal Pada Proses Sintesis Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel (Limn2o4 Nanopartikel Terhadap Efisiensi Adsorpsi Dan Desorpsi Ion Lithium Dari Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Panca Ady Sapputra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia terdapat geothermal fluid yaitu Lumpur Sidoarjo, yang menurut ilmuwan dari Jepang, Prof. Wataru Tanikawa, Lumpur Sidoarjo mengandung unsur Lithium yang besar dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai baterai. Dari berbagai macam metode ekstraksi yang ada dipilih ialah metode adsorpsi dan desorpsi dengan Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel sebagai adsorben. Proses sintesis lithium mangan oksida spinel menggunakan metode hidrotermal pada temperatur 200oC dengan waktu 24, 48, dan 72 jam. Kemudian dilakukan acid treatment untuk proses adsorpsi dan desorpsi (ekstraksi. Karakterisasi pengujian menggunakan XRD, SEM, dan ICP. Morfologi yang terbentuk masih terdapat aglomerasi (penggumpalan, namun semakin bertambahnya waktu reaksi, adanya perubahan morfologi yaitu semakin tinggi tingkat homogenitasnya. Efisiensi adsorpsi dan desorpsi dari hasil sintesis dengan metode hidrotermal variasi waktu 24, 48 dan 72 jam pada temperatur 200°C, sebesar 41,76%, 42%, 42,76% untuk efisiensi adsorpsinya dan sebesar 1,21%, 1,06%, 0,94% untuk efisiensi desorpsinya.

  7. Structural and electrochemical properties of aluminium doped LiMn2O4 cathode materials for Li battery: experimental and ab initio calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available @csir.co.za 2 1. Introduction In recent years, lithium-ion batteries have become the most promising energy sources to power the forthcoming plug-in hybrid electric vehicles or electric vehicles[1]. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most popular types...

  8. Lithium Ion Coupled Electron-Transfer Rates in Superconcentrated Electrolytes: Exploring the Bottlenecks for Fast Charge-Transfer Rates with LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Victoria A; Zakharkin, Maxim V; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu; Yashina, Lada V; Antipov, Evgeny V; Stevenson, Keith J

    2017-09-19

    The charge-transfer kinetics of lithium ion intercalation into LixMn2O4 cathode materials was examined in dilute and concentrated aqueous and carbonate LiTFSI solutions using electrochemical methods. Distinctive trends in ion intercalation rates were observed between water-based and ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate solutions. The influence of the solution concentration on the rate of lithium ion transfer in aqueous media can be tentatively attributed to the process associated with Mn dissolution, whereas in carbonate solutions the rate is influenced by the formation of a concentration-dependent solid electrolyte interface (SEI). Some indications of SEI layer formation at electrode surfaces in carbonate solutions after cycling are detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The general consequences related to the application of superconcentrated electrolytes for use in advanced energy storage cathodes are outlined and discussed.

  9. Preparation of 18650 type LiMn2O4 lithium-ion battery using direct sealing method%直封式工艺制备18650型LiMn2O4锂离子电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦俊红; 张培彦; 杨涛; 杨瑞

    2015-01-01

    分别以LiMn2O4和石墨作为正负极活性材料,用直接封口方式制备了圆柱18650型1 400 mAh锂离子电池.结果表明,与采用半敞开方式制备的电池相比,该制备工艺不但缩短了电池的制作周期,降低了制造成本,同时也解决了电池壳体表面锈蚀的问题.

  10. Electrochemical performances of spinel LiMn2O4 material for lithium ion battery%LiMn2O4在锂离子蓄电池中的电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高英; 王东玺; 龚金保; 王爱玲; 王晓峰; 王德全

    2001-01-01

    论述了LiMn2O4材料的合成工艺对电化学性能的影响,最佳合成条件下的初放电容量可达到120mAh/g。将尖晶石型LiMn2O4材料作为正极活性材料制成18650型锂离子蓄电池,电化学测试表明电池的初放容量达到1.2Ah。对正极组分(活性物质,导电剂,粘结剂)的不同配比及电极制备工艺进行优化设计,电池在常温下以0.5A电流充放电可达500次循环,荷电态月平均自放率为9.2%。

  11. 高倍率型微米级单晶锂离子电池正极材料%Single crystal and micro-size LiMn2O4 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠孜锐; 孙玉城

    2010-01-01

    主要研究了具有微米级单晶改性正极材料LiMn1.82Al0.18O4的基本物理和电化学性能,并考察了该材料在18650型高功率锂离子电池中的应用.通过扫描电子显微镜法(SEM)照片可看出该材料由平均粒径为6~8 μm的具有八面体单晶颗粒组成,比表面积小于0.4 m2/g,振实密度可达2.4 g/cm3.电化学性能测试表明,样品LiMn1.82Al0.18O4在3.0~4.35 V(vs.Li/Li+)充放电电压范围内,可逆比容量可达100 mAh/g.以该材料为正极材料的18650型高功率锂离子电池容量可达1 000 mAh,30 C倍率放电容量保持率达到0.2 C倍率下的92%以上,具有优异的倍率性能.

  12. Study on synthesis and electrochemical performance of the spinel LiMn2O4%正尖晶石LiMn2O4的合成与电化学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉城; 卢世刚; 刘人敏

    2000-01-01

    采用高温固相反应原理合成了LiMn2O4锂离子电池正极材料,研究了合成原料中n(Li)/n(Mn)(摩尔比)和合成温度以及掺杂金属钴元素对合成产物性能和结构的影响,恒电流充放电结果麦明LiMn2O4容量为115~120mAh/g,掺杂钴以后容量下降而循环性能改善,XRD测试分析表明合成产物具有正尖晶石结构;通过进一步优化材料的粒度和电极制备时控制导电剂的加入量,确定了提高LiMn2O4的容量、改善材料循环性能的其他因素.以合成产物为阴极材料,MCMB为阳极材料,组装的18650型锂离子电池的容量达到了1250mAh,循环300次后容量保持70%左右.

  13. The influence of doped elements on structure and performances of LiMn2O4%掺杂元素对LiMn2O4结构和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗穗莲; 李伟善; 邱仕洲

    2001-01-01

    Li ion batteries were widely used in electronic industry and hadgreat potentiality of application in transportation and other power sources.It was necessary to find substitutes for lithium cobalt oxide used as positive active material in Li ion batteries because of the lack of cobalt in the earth.It was believed that lithium manganese oxide was a good substitute.However,structure instability of lithium manganese oxide made its application difficulty.Many methods were developed to prepare stable lithium manganese oxide.It was found that some elements doped in lithium manganese oxide could stabilize its structure.Recent literatures on investigations on doped lithium manganese oxide were reviewed.%用价廉的氧化物取代锂离子电池正极活性物锂钴氧化物,是锂离子电池进一步发展及扩大其应用领域的重要保证。锂锰氧化物是最有希望的正极活性物质。但锂锰氧化物的不稳定性制约着它的应用。如何获取结构稳定的锂锰氧化物成为当今锂离子电池研究的热门课题。用掺杂方法被认为是稳定锂锰氧化物结构的有效方法,本文综述了近期掺杂锂锰氧化物的合成及性能的研究状况。

  14. 尖晶石锰酸锂的柠檬酸辅助溶胶-凝胶法合成及电化学表征%Synthesis and electrochemical characterizations of spinel LiMn2O4 by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘兴泉; 张峥; 向小春; 刘宏基

    2011-01-01

    The spinel Li1+xMn2O4(x=0,0. 02,0. 05,0. 07)cathode materials were prepared by a citric acid-assisted sol-gel method using LiOH and Mn(CH3COO)2 as raw materials and citric acid as the chelating agent,the molar ratio of citric acid to Li was 1:1,and the precursors and resultant materials were characterized by TG-DTA, SEM and XRD, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the materials were investigated by galvanostatic charge and discharge and CV test. The influence of Li/Mn molar ratios on the electrochemical properties of Li1+xMn2O4 cathode materials was examined. The results revealed that the optimal sintering temperature was 750 ℃, the well-defined pure cubic spinel phase can be obtained by calcining the precursor at 750 °C. The optimal Li/Mn molar ratio was 1. 05: 2,and the initial discharge capacity of Li1.05Mn2O4 was 124. 5 mAh/g at 0. 5C and 3. 4~4. 35V range, it remained 92. 5% of the initial specific discharge capacity after 90 cycles. The Li1.05Mn2O4 displayed better electrochemical performance.%以醋酸锰、氢氧化锂为原料,以柠檬酸为络合剂,n(柠檬酸):n(锂)=1:1,采用柠檬酸辅助溶胶-凝胶法制备了富锂尖晶石Li1+xMn2O4 (x=0,0.02,0.05,0.07),采用TG-DTA、XRD、SEM分别对前驱体和目标材料进行了表征,采用恒流充放电及循环伏安(CV)测试对材料进行了电化学性能表征,考察了不同n(Li):n(Mn)对材料性能的影响.结果表明,材料的最佳烧结温度为750℃,前驱体经750℃煅烧可获得晶体结构完整和形貌规整的尖晶石型锰酸锂,最佳n(Li):n(Mn)=1.05:2,在0.5C和3.4~4.35 V电压条件下,Li1.05 Mn2 O4的初始放电容量达到124.5 mAh/g,90次循环后放电容量保持率达到92.5%.显示了良好的综合电化学性能.

  15. Effect of pH on Cycle Pformance of LiV3 O8//LiMn2 O4 Aqueous Lithium-ion Battery%pH 对水溶液锂离子电池负极材料 LiV3O8性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长委; 吴斌; 田卿卿; 朱靖

    2014-01-01

    采用柠檬酸溶胶-凝胶法合成了层状锂离子嵌入化合物LiV3 O8,用XRD、 SEM对其晶体结构和表面形貌进行表征,用循环伏安法对其嵌锂性能和扩散系数进行测定,用恒电流充放电法研究了电解液pH对电极可逆性及对模拟电池容量和循环性能的影响。结果显示,电解液pH =7时,电池的性能最优,首次放电比容量为81.0 mAh · g-1,40次后比容量保持率达89.1%。%Layered lithium ion intercalation compound LiV 3 O8 was synthesized by citric acid sol -gel method.The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by XRD and SEM.The lithium intercalation properties and the diffusion coefficients of as prepared materials were tested by cyclic voltammetry.The effect of pH on the reversibility of electrode , battery capacity and cycle performance were studied by galvanostatic charge -discharge.The battery showed the best electrochemical performance with electrolyte pH =7.The first specific discharge capacity was 81 mAh· g-1 with a retention of 89.1%after 40 cycles.

  16. Synthesis and Defect Structure Analysis of Complex Oxides for Li-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoguang

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage development due to the vast demand from portable electronics, (hybrid) electric vehicles and future power grids. The research in this dissertation is focused on the development of oxide electrodes for lithium-ion batteries with high power density and improved stability. One of the promising cathodes for lithium-ion batteries is lithium manganospinel (LiMn2O4). However, this compound suffers from manganese dissolution and a Jahn-Teller distortion due to Mn3+, especially in oxygen deficient LiMn2O4-delta. Hydrothermal based synthesis methods were developed to eliminate oxygen vacancies to enable high power in cathodes composed of nano-sized spinel particles. The relationship between oxygen defects and the capacity fading mechanism was demonstrated, and collapse of the mechanical structure was identified in defect-rich LiMn 2O4-delta. Next, the nickel substituted manganospinel, LiNi0.5Mn 1.5O4 shows unexpected high voltage side reactions. To overcome this drawback, a thin and chemically inert titanate was used as an artificial SEI (solid electrolyte interface) coating to prohibit transition-metal dissolution and parasitic side reactions, which led to a 200% improvement of the capacity retention at 55°C and negligible polarization losses. Finally, the spinel-structured lithium titanate (Li 4Ti5O12) is introduced as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its higher operating potential and excellent structural stability compared to current graphite anodes. However, the poor electronic conductivity and low lithium diffusion coefficient hinder its wide application. Given these advantages, a facile, low-cost solution method is explored to synthesize nano-sized titanates. Rapid charge/ discharge was achieved up to rates of 100 C (36 second charge/ discharge) due to a shorter lithium mean-free path and better contact between the active material and conductive agents.

  17. Spinel Phases LiRExMn2-xO4(RE=Nd,Ce) as Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several series of LiRExMn2-xO4(RE=Ce, Nd) samples prepared at different contents and in different rare earth metals substitution were studied in order to further understand the dependence of the electrochemical performance on the doping rare earth metals. These cathodes were more tolerant to repeat lithium extraction and insertion than a standard LiMn2O4 spinel electrode in spite of a small reduction in the initial capacity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the Mn4+ contents for spinel LiMn2O4 directly affected the initial capacity and cyclability of LiMn2O4.

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis of Li-Mn-O spinels: positive electrode for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiron, S.; Rougier, A.; Aymard, L.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    Li-Mn-O oxides were synthesized by mechanochemistry from a stoichiometric mixture of Li 2O and MnO 2 using various grinding times (0grinding a value of 8.24 Å similar to stoichiometric LiMn 2O 4. As a matter of fact, after 8 h of milling, mechanosynthesized Li-Mn-O spinel-type oxide shows quasi-identical electrochemical performances as high temperature LiMn 2O 4 ground for 1 h.

  19. Band Diagram and Rate Analysis of Thin Film Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Formed by Electrochemical Conversion of ALD-Grown MnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Matthias J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Schnabel, Hans-Dieter [Leupold-Institut für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften, Westsächsische Hochschule, 08012 Zwickau Germany; Holder, Aaron M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; George, Steven M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Musgrave, Charles B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 USA

    2016-09-22

    Nanoscale spinel lithium manganese oxide is of interest as a high-rate cathode material for advanced battery technologies among other electrochemical applications. In this work, the synthesis of ultrathin films of spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) between 20 and 200 nm in thickness by room-temperature electrochemical conversion of MnO grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. The charge storage properties of LiMn2O4 thin films in electrolytes containing Li+, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ are investigated. A unified electrochemical band-diagram (UEB) analysis of LiMn2O4 informed by screened hybrid density functional theory calculations is also employed to expand on existing understanding of the underpinnings of charge storage and stability in LiMn2O4. It is shown that the incorporation of Li+ or other cations into the host manganese dioxide spinel structure (..lambda..-MnO2) stabilizes electronic states from the conduction band which align with the known redox potentials of LiMn2O4. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrate that up to 30% of the capacity of LiMn2O4 arises from bulk electronic charge-switching which does not require compensating cation mass transport. The hybrid ALD-electrochemical synthesis, UEB analysis, and unique charge storage mechanism described here provide a fundamental framework to guide the development of future nanoscale electrode materials for ion-incorporation charge storage.

  20. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  1. Enhanced Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au with Pd nanoparticles were synthesized and coated onto the spinel LiMn2O4 via a coprecipitation calcination method with the objective to improve the microstructure, conductivity, and electrochemical activities of pristine LiMn2O4. The novel LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 composite cathode had high phase purity, well crystallized particles, and more regular morphological structures with narrow size distributions. At enlarged cycling potential ranges the LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 sample delivered 90 mAh g−1 discharge capacity compared to LiMn2O4 (45 mAh g−1. It was concluded that even a small amount of the Pd and Au enhanced both the lithium diffusivity and electrochemical conductivity of the host sample due to the beneficial properties of their synergy.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Ni Doped Spinel LiNixMn2-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn2O4 and Ni doped LiNixMn2-xO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using the solution...

  3. Increasing the durability of Li-ion batteries by means of manganese ion trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anjan; Ziv, Baruch; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C.

    2017-02-01

    Manganese dissolution from positive electrodes seriously reduces the useful life of Li-ion batteries, especially with positive electrode materials having spinel phases. We show herein that Mn ion trapping separators containing inexpensive mass-produced materials may dramatically increase the life of Li-ion batteries. LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing these materials and a LiPF6 based electrolyte solution display excellent capacity retention during cycling at both room and elevated temperatures, over baseline cells with plain separators. After 30 days of cycling at 55 °C and C/5 rate, LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing three different Mn-trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities retain between 75% and 125% more of the initial capacity than the baseline cells. Mn amounts in graphite negative electrodes from cells with the functional separators are 13-21 times lower than in baseline cells. LiMn2O4 lattice shrinkage in cells with functionalized separators is negligible compared to baseline cells, indicating major reductions in the loss of electrochemically active Li+ ions and increased stability of the LiMn2O4 crystal lattice.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of LiMMn2–O4(M = Cu, Cr; 0 0 4)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Thirunakaran; B Ramesh Babu; N Kalaiselvi; P Periasamy; T Prem Kumar; N G Renganathan; M Raghavan; N Muniyandi

    2001-02-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is beset with problems of capacity fade upon repeated cycling. The loss in capacity upon cycling is attributable to Jahn–Teller distortion and manganese dissolution in the electrolyte in the charged state. One way to circumvent this capacity fade is to introduce other 3 transition metal ions in the LiMn2O4 lattice. In this paper, we report on the effect of partial substitution of manganese in the LiMn2O4 phase with copper (II) and chromium (III) ions. It has been shown that the higher octahedral stabilization energy of trivalent chromium imparts greater structural stability to chromium-doped LiMn2O4 spinels. Both copper and chromium reduce the capacity of the spinel in the 4 V region. In terms of its good reversible capacity and ability to sustain cycling with minimal capacity fade, LiCr0.1Mn1.9O4 may be considered as a potential cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells.

  5. Magnetic ordering in the spinel compound Li[Mn2−xLix]O4(x = 0,0.04)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaddy, J.; Lamsal, J.; Petrovic, M.; Montfrooij, W.; Schmets, A.; Vojta, T.

    2009-01-01

    The two B-site ions Mn3+ and Mn4+ in the stoichiometric spinel structure LiMn2O4 form a complex, columnar ordered pattern below the charge-ordering transition at room temperature. On further cooling to below 66 K, the system develops long-range antiferromagnetic order. In contrast, whereas lithium-s

  6. KINETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SPINEL TYPE LiMnLiMn2O4 INTO TUNNEL TYPE MnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud K Walanda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithiated phase LiMn2O4 is a potential cathode material for high-energy batteries because it can be used in conjunction with suitable carbon anode materials to produce so-called lithium ion cells. The kinetic transformation of LiMn2O4 into manganese dioxide (MnO2 in sulphuric acid has been studied. It is assumed that the conversion of LiMn2O4 into R-MnO2 is a first order autocatalytic reaction. The transformation actually proceeds through the spinel l-MnO2 as an intermediate species which is then converted into gamma phase of manganese dioxide. In this reaction LiMn2O4 whose structure spinel type, which is packing between tetrahedral coordination and octahedral coordination, is converted to form octahedral tunnel structure of manganese dioxide, which is probably regarded as a reconstructive octahedral-coordination transformation. Therefore, it is a desire to investigate the transformation of manganese oxides in solid state chemistry by analysing XRD powder patterns. Due to the reactions involving solids, concentrations of reactant and product are approached with the expression of peak areas.   Keywords: high-energy battery, lithium ion cells, kinetic transformation

  7. Research on cathode material of Li-ion battery by yttrium doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yanwen; KANG Xiaoxue; LIU Liying; XU Chaqing; QU Tao

    2008-01-01

    Modification of LiFePO4, LiMn2O4 and Li1+xV3O8 by doping yttrium was investigated. The influences of doping Y on structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of cathode materials were investigated systematically. The results indicated that the mechanisms of Y doping in three cathode materials were different, so the influences on the material performance were different. The crystal structure of the three materials was not changed by Y doping. However, the crystal parameters were influenced. The crystal parameters of LiMn2O4 became smaller, and the interlayer distance of (100) crystal plane of Li1+xV3O8 was lengthened after Y doping. The grain size of Y-doped LiFePO4 became smaller and grain morphology became more regular than that of undoped LiFePO4. It indicated that Y doping had no influence on crystal particle and morphology of LiMn2O4. The morphology of Li1+xV3O8 became irregular and its size became larger with the increase of Y. For LiFePO4 and Li1+xV3O8, both the initial discharge capacities and the cyclic performance were improved by Y doping. For LiMn2O4, the cyclic performance became better and the initial discharge capacities declined with increasing Y doping.

  8. Synergetic action of doping and coating on electrochemical performance of lithium manganese spinel as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Halil Şahan; Mehmet Nurullah Ateş; Fatma Kiliç Dokan; Ahmet Ülgen; Şaban Patat

    2015-02-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 and multidoped spinel LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 were synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method and coated with lithium borosilicate (LBS) in order to enhance the electrochemical performance at room temperature. The structure and electrochemical performance of all samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements. The XRD analysis shows that the samples exhibit a pure spinel phase. The SEM results indicated that LBS particles had encapsulated the surface of the undoped and multidoped LiMn2O4 without causing any structural change. The charge–discharge tests showed that LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 displays better cycling performance than the pristine LiMn2O4 at room temperature. However, in the same conditions, LBS-coated LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 and LiMn2O4 have better cycling performance than uncoated samples. The results suggest that multidoped and LBS-coated LiMn2O4 could develop into a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm, if you leave the relationship twists the truth to make you feel you are to blame ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  10. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  11. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    “The common good” is a contested concept both presently and historically. The contestation takes place both through definitions and concrete practices of gift-giving at the messy and blurred intersection between state, marked and civil society. From the Danish constitution of 1849 until today......-giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... to trace the networks of concepts and practices of the “common good” in a historical perspective. Second, it presents an empirical analysis of how a corporate philanthropic foundation, the Egmont Foundation from Denmark, through concrete gift-giving practices and concepts plays an important role in shaping...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured electrodes for solid state ionic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuelan

    Solid-state electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries will influence the way we use energy and the environment we live in. The demands for advanced power sources with high energy efficiency, minimum environmental impact, and low cost have been the impetus for the development of a new generation of batteries and fuel cells. Currently, lithium ion battery technology's greatest disadvantages are long-term cycling stability and high charge/discharge rate capabilities. On the other hand, fuel cell technology's greatest disadvantage is cost. It is found that these problems could be attenuated by the incorporation of nano-structured materials. But, we are still far away from possessing a solid scientific understanding of what goes on at the nanoscale inside these solid state ionic devices, and what is the relationship between nano-structures and their electrochemical properties, especially between the microstructure and electrode polarization and degradation. Electrode polarization represents a voltage loss in an electrochemical energy conversion process. Such understanding is critical for further progress in solid state ionic devices. This thesis focused on the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanostructured porous electrodes with desired composition and microstructure to minimize electrode polarization losses in the application of fuel cells and lithium ion batteries. Various chemical methods such as sol-gel, hydrothermal, surfactant, colloidal and polymer template-assisted processes have been applied in this work. And various characterization techniques have been used to explore the understanding of the microscopic features with electrochemical interfacial properties of the electrodes. Solid-state diffusion often limits the utilization and rate capability of electrode materials in a lithium-ion battery, especially at high charge/discharge rates. When the fluxes of Li+ insertion or extraction

  13. Relationship between

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lide

    2001-01-01

    [1]Craig, H., Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, Science, 1961,133: 17020703.[2]Dansgaard, W., Stable isotope in precipitation, Tellus, 1964, 14(4): 436-468.[3]Merlivat, L., Jouzel, J., Global climate interpretation of the deuterium-oxygen 18 relationship for precipitation, J. Geophys.Res.. 1979, 84: 5029-5033.[4]Jouzel, J., Merlivat, L., Deuterium and oxygen-18 in precipitation: modeling of the isotope effects during snow formation.J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89(D7): 11749-11757.[5]Sonntag, C., Klitzsch, E., Lohnert, E. P. et al., Palaeoclimatic information from deuterium and oxygen-18 in Carbon- 14-dated North Saharan groundwaters, in Isotope Hydrology, IAEA,Vienna, 1979, 569-581.[6]Armengaud, A., Koster, R. D., Jouzel, J. et al., Deuterium excess in Greenland snow: analysis with simple and complex models, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103(D8): 8947-8953.[7]Jouzel, J., Merlivat, L., Lorius, C., Deuterium excess in an East Antarctic ice core suggests higher relative humidity at the oceanic surface during the last glacial maximum, Nature, 1982, 299 (5885): 688-691.[8]Qin Dahe, Ren Jiawen, Wang Wenti, et al., Distribution of δD in 25 cm surface snow across the Antarctic, Science in China, Ser. B, 1992,22(7): 768-776.[9]Yao Tandong, Ding Liangfu, Pu Jianchen et al., Characteristic of δ 18O in snow and its relation with moisture sources in Tanggula Mountains, Tibetan Plateau, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1991, (20): 1570-1573.[10]Zhang Xinping, Shi Yafeng, Yao Tandong, Variational features of precipitation, δ 18O in Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Science in China, Ser. D, 1995, 38(7): 854-864.[11]Zhang Xinping, Yao Tandong, Relations between weather systems affecting Tibetan Plateau and oxygen isotope in precipitation, Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology (in Chinese), 1995, 17(2): 125-131.[12]Tian Lide, Yao Tandong, Yang Zhihong, δ18O in precipitation and moisture sources upon the Tibetan Plateau, Cryosphere

  14. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2......O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g-1. The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve....

  15. Science and Technology Text Mining: Electrochemical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-14

    mercury or clinical or amino or hydrogen peroxide or paste or corona or tissue* or helium or ascorbic acid or receptor* or chromium or radiation or...organic, composite, nonaqueous, 1-i, ceramic, propylene carbonate, ceo2, lanthium gallate, zirconia -based, rubbery, with modest emphasis on composite film...oxides, limn2o4, licoo2, linio2, propylene carbonate, water, methanol, polyaniline, methane, polyethelyne oxide, manganese dioxide, zirconia , polypyrrole

  16. Parameterization and Estimation of Surrogate Critical Surface Concentration in Lithium-Ion Batteries (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    electrode, or cathode, is a lithium-metal oxide and its composition can vary through different chemistries (i.e. LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4) with different...Matlab- Simulink it is convenient to express the PDE into an ordinary set of ODEs, using finite differences method along the particle radius r...information from literature and battery nominal performance. The minimization procedure has been conducted using Matlab/ Simulink , with a gradient free

  17. Oxygen vacancies lead to loss of domain order, particle fracture, and rapid capacity fade in lithium manganospinel (LiMn₂O₄) batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoguang; Lin, Xianke; Lu, Wei; Bartlett, Bart M

    2014-07-23

    Spinel-structured lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) has attracted much attention because of its high energy density, low cost, and environmental impact. In this article, structural analysis methods such as powder neutron diffraction (PND), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM & SEM) reveal the capacity fading mechanism of LiMn2O4 as it relates to the mechanical degradation of the material. Micro-fractures form after the first charge (to 4.45 V vs. Li(+/0)) of a commercial lithium manganese oxide phase, best represented by the formula LiMn2O3.88. Diffraction methods show that the grain size decreases and multiple phases form after 850 electrochemical cycles at 0.2 C current. The microfractures are directly observed through microscopy studies as particle cracks propagate along the (1 1 1) planes, with clear lattice twisting observed along this direction. Long-term galvanostatic cycling results in increased charge-transfer resistance and capacity loss. Upon preparing samples with controlled oxygen contents, LiMn2O4.03 and LiMn2O3.87, the mechanical failure of the lithium manganese oxide can be correlated to the oxygen vacancies in the materials, providing guidance for better synthesis methods.

  18. Discharge Process of Insertion Electrodes Controlled by Lithium Ion Diffusion in Solid Materials%锂离子固相扩散控制下的材料放电过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐致远; 薛建军; 李建刚; 王占良

    2001-01-01

    从理论上分析了在锂离子固相扩散控制条件下 ,电极材料的恒流放电过程 .数值计算的结果表明 ,Q值(放电时率和扩散时间常数之比)对材料的放电容量有非常重要的影响 .模拟了 LiMn2O4正极材料和石墨负极材料的恒流放电曲线 ,分析了颗粒粒径对这两种材料放电容量的影响 .%We have analyzed the galvanostatic discharge process of insertion electrodes controlled by lithium ion diffusion in solid materials. It is demonstrated by mathematic calculation that the discharge capacity of insertion electrode depends on the value of Q(defined as the ratio of discharge hour rate and diffusion time constant). The galvanostatic discharge curve of spinel LiMn2O4 cathode and graphite anode have been simulated. The effect of particle size on the discharge capacity of spinel LiMn2O4 cathode and graphite anode is evaluated.

  19. Conductivity measurement of lithium-ion batteries cathode materials with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy%交流阻抗法测定锂离子电池正极材料的导电率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟智; 翁之望

    2011-01-01

    The conductivities of LiCo2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4 as commercialization lithioum-ion batteries cathode materilas were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result shows that LiCoO2 cathode materilas is higher electrical conductivities than LiMn2O4 and LiFPO4 materials, and the electrical conductivity and the ion conductivity of LiFePO4 cathode materials are lower due to the polyanion-group PO43-.%采用交流阻抗法测定了3种锂离子电池正极材料LiCoO2,LiMn2O4和LiFePO4的电子导电率、离子导电率和材料电导率.结果表明,LiCoO2材料的电导率较高,含有聚阴离子基团LiFePO4材料的电子电导率和离子电导率均较低.

  20. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.

  1. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed....

  2. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  3. Ancestral Relationships Using Metafounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2015-01-01

    due to finite size of the ancestral population and connections between populations. This complicates the conciliation of both approaches and, in particular, combining pedigree with genomic relationships. We present a coherent theoretical framework to consider base population in pedigree relationships....... We suggest a conceptual framework that considers each ancestral population as a finite-sized pool of gametes. This generates across-individual relationships and contrasts with the classical view where each population is considered as an infinite, unrelated pool. Several ancestral populations may......Recent use of genomic (marker-based) relationships shows that relationships exist within and across base population (breeds or lines). However, current treatment of pedigree relationships is unable to consider relationships within or across base populations, although such relationships must exist...

  4. Managing intimate interracial relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Okitikpi, Oluwatoyin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. It is evident that there is fairly widespread disapproval of intimate interracial relationships. This thesis explores the experiences of those involved in such relationships, how they manage their relationships, and the kind of pressures they confront. It considered the ways in which the reactions and attitudes of significant others and strangers impact upon such relationships and...

  5. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  6. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  7. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  8. Ideals in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, G J; Simpson, J A; Thomas, G; Giles, L

    1999-01-01

    This research examined lay relationship and partner ideals in romantic relationships from both a social-cognitive and an evolutionary perspective. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the qualities of an ideal partner were represented by 3 factors (partner warmth-trustworthiness, vitality-attractiveness, and status-resources), whereas the qualities of an ideal relationship were represented by 2 factors (relationship intimacy-loyalty and passion). A confirmatory factor analysis in Study 3 replicated these factor structures but found considerable overlap across the partner and relationship dimensions. Studies 4 and 5 produced convergent and discriminant validity evidence for all 5 factors. Study 6 indicated that the higher the consistency between the ideals and related assessments of the current partner and relationship, the more positively the current relationship was evaluated.

  9. 荷电态对锰酸锂电池储存性能的影响%Effect of state of charge on storage performance of manganese spinel battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云建; 李新海; 郭华军; 王志兴

    2011-01-01

    The power battery was manufactured with the commercial LJMn2O4 and graphite. The storage performances of LiMn2O4 batteries at different charged states were studied. Structure, morphology and surface state change of the LiMn2O4 before and after storage were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The electrochemical performances of LiMn2O4 battery before and after storage were tested. The results show that the capacity recovery of LiMn2O4 at discharge state is the best, and it is 99.4%, while the ratio at full charged state is the smallest, which is 93.6%. The cycling performance is improved because of the low capacity and MnO2 film deposited on the electrode. The cycling performance of LiMn2O4 after storage is improved. The cycling performance of LiMn2O4 stored at full charged state is the best, and the capacity retaining is 89.7% after 170 cycles. The capacity retaining is 85.4% after 170 cycles before storage. The capacity fading of LiMn2O4 battery is increased with the increase of charge state, which is because of the increase of Mn dissolution and polarization of electrode.%采用商品化的LiMn2O4和石墨作为正负极材料制作锰酸锂动力电池,研究锰酸锂电池在不同荷电态下的储存性能,并且利用扫描电镜(SEM)、X线衍射(XRD)、循环伏安(CV)和交流阻抗(AC)等分析检测手段表征LiMn2O4电极储存前后的结构、形貌和表面状态变化,测试锰酸锂电池储存前后的电化学性能.研究结果表明:锰酸锂在放电态下储存的容量恢复率最高,达到99.4%;满电储存后容量恢复率最低,为93.6%;储存后锰酸锂电池的循环性能均有所改善,其中满电储存后循环性能最好,170次循环容量保持率为89.7‰,储存前170次循环容量保持率为85.4%;锰酸锂电池储存后容量衰减随着荷电态的增加而增加,这主要是由Mn溶解量以及储存后正极表面极化的增加而引起的.

  10. Customer relationship marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sæter, Jan Øyvind

    2006-01-01

    Customer relationship marketing has become an interesting choice of strategy for companies in today’s competitive markets. Different positioning strategies like price and product quality are easy to imitate, eluding the importance of sustainable competitive advantage. The customers need to be attracted and bonded towards the store through relationships. The paper discusses several factors affecting relationship marketing and the advantages with this strategy. Through the the...

  11. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  12. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  13. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  14. Relationship Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santabarbara, Todd; Erbe, Ryan; Cooper, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Intimate or romantic relationships for young people today play an integral role in their health and quality of life. Between the ages of 11 and 13 students become more interested in the opposite sex and as a result they begin to develop more intimate relationships. Around this age students are learning to deal with these feelings of attraction and…

  15. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  16. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...

  17. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  18. Close partner relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Stanojević Tatjana Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of emotional attachment, specific emotional relationships are being established at an early age between a child and its parents. On the basis of the quality of these relationships the child creates the so-called internal working model ie the image of itself as well as others. The working model persists throughout one's lifetime, shaping in part the quality of adult relationships. Thus, a dominant adult relationship is a close, partner or love one. Within the indicated theoretical context, we were interested in finding out whether there is a statistically significant link between the emotional ties of parents and their children formed in early childhood. The investigation included 180 grown-ups of the same sex and age. For investigating close partner relationships the test Experience in Close Relationship by the American authors (Brenan K.A., Clark C.L., & Shaver P.R. 1998. was used, while the early emotional relationships were investigated using a test which has been the only one so far to measure this quality in adults - Adult Attachment Interview, (Main M., Casidy J., & Kaplan N., 1985. The results show there is a statistically significant link between the observed variables.

  19. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... dynamics of these relations - in the intimate partnerships, friendships across the borders, children of mixed parentage...

  20. FRANCHISOR-FRANCHISEE RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: TIME OF RELATIONSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Varotto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchise literature disputes how the relationship between franchisors and franchisees develops over time. Traditional lifecycle theory views relationships following an ascendant curve, in which relationship quality and performance strengthen over time. Another perspective better reflects the peculiarities of the franchisor-franchisee relationship, indicating that relationship quality in franchise systems follows a U-shaped curve. There is also limited research on the moderating effect of time on the relationship between relational variables and outcomes. This study sheds light on the influence of relationship duration on relationship quality and financial performance in the franchisee-franchisor relationship. Using a self-report survey from a sample of 342 franchisees, mean and regression analyses are conducted to test relationships. Results confirm the time effect on franchisor-franchisee relationship quality and performance, but the hypothesized shape of relationship phases is only partially confirmed. Moreover, time has a positive moderating effect on the impact of relationship quality on financial performance.

  1. Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  2. Protecting relationships from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-02-01

    Although partners in close social relationships often enable one another to manage stress, stress can also undermine the many benefits that these relationships provide. We review interventions designed to reduce the effects of stress on relationships, distinguishing (a) couple-targeted interventions that aim to build couples' skills in managing stress from (b) stress-targeted interventions intended to eliminate stress itself. Recent examples of these approaches are presented and evaluated. Couple-targeted and stress-targeted interventions both hold promise for empowering couples to sustain their relationship and the well-being of their children, and additional empirical work will help clarify the conditions under which different strategies prove most effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes to Your Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Last name: Email: * Zip: * *required We will not sell or share your name. Changes to Your Relationship ... Kids and Teens Activities Resolving Family Conflicts ALZConnected Online Community Back to top Search local resources Get ...

  4. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place......The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  5. Managing inter-organizational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2005-01-01

    orweakened by partner- comfortability and dependability. Then we show how partnersperceived attraction towards an industrial company can be managed using a combinationof structural- and behavioral adjustments.Key words: Inter-organizational relationships; Relationship Management; Relationship...

  6. Parental Relationships in Fragile Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara McLanahan; Audrey N. Beck

    2010-01-01

    ...: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child...

  7. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  8. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  9. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  10. Cadmium and zinc relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Piscator, M

    1978-08-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in kidney and liver have been measured under different exposure situations in different species including man. The results show that zinc increases almost equimolarly with cadmium in kidney after long-term low-level exposure to cadmium, e.g., in man, horse, pig, and lamb. In contrast, the increase of zinc follows that of cadmium to only a limited extent, e.g., in guinea pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, and chicks. In liver, the cadmium--zinc relationship seems to be reversed in such a way that zinc increases with cadmium more markedly in laboratory animals than in higher mammals. These differences between cadmium and zinc relationships in humans and large farm animals and those in commonly used laboratory animals must be considered carefully before experimental data on cadmium and zinc relationships in laboratory animals can be extrapolated to humans.

  11. Coaching relationship - and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; O'Broin, Alanna; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2016-01-01

    on the outcomes of coaching. It is a presentation, on factors specifically related to engagement of the coachee and building effective coaching relationships: (a) a study examining the power relations between employee coachee and coach from the middle manager coach perspective, highlighting coaching relationship...... quality as a necessity for moments of symmetry and equality in fruitful coaching; (b) a study on the diversity factor of coach age, finding that age was not significant in executive coachées coach selection, however age signified credibility and experience, with possible implications for young executive...

  12. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced...... and volunteered participation. Typically, the social interaction was experienced as giving and was referred to in positive terms but recurrently, the opposite was experienced too. The ambiguity of the relationship clearly emerged in all of the synthesized themes presented in this article. Implications...

  13. Customer relationships marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one clic...

  14. Impact of an Intimate Relationships Class on Unrealistic Relationship Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Brenda L.; Drake, Teske R.; Linney, Kirsten D.

    2007-01-01

    Unrealistic relationship beliefs have been shown to be related to lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Yet, young adults often hold unrealistic or irrational beliefs about intimate relationships. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intimate relationships course in reducing young adults' irrational relationship…

  15. Need fulfillment in polyamorous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa E; Bartholomew, Kim; Cobb, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Polyamory is characterized by simultaneous consensual romantic relationships with multiple partners. Polyamory allows individuals to fulfill their relationship needs with multiple romantic partners, yet researchers have not identified how having needs met in one romantic relationship may be related to relationship outcomes in a concurrent relationship. Polyamorous individuals (N=1,093) completed online measures of need fulfillment, relationship satisfaction, and commitment for two concurrent romantic relationships. Participants reported high levels of need fulfillment and satisfaction in both relationships. Need fulfillment with one partner negatively predicted approximately 1% of the variance in relationship satisfaction with the other partner; however, there was no association between need fulfillment with one partner and commitment to the other. Generally, the findings suggest that polyamorous relationships are relatively independent of one another. This study provides initial evidence that polyamory may be a viable and fulfilling alternative way of conducting intimate relationships.

  16. Adult intergenerational relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Treas, J.; Scott, J.; Richards, M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of research on the relationships between parents and their adult, grown-up children. Interest in intergenerational ties has increased again as a result of the aging of Western societies. The chapter discusses the following topics in the literature: (i) the degree to wh

  17. Snooping in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  18. Social Relationships and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses 3 variables that assess different aspects of social relationships-social support, social integration, and negative interaction. The author argues that all 3 are associated with health outcomes, that these variables each influence health through different mechanisms, and that associations between these variables and health are…

  19. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  20. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  1. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  2. Multi-Dimensional Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between China and Russia are set to reach new heights during the next two years with the advent of the Russian Year in China (2006) and the Chinese Year in Russia (2007). Russian Ambassador to China Sergey Razov shared his views with Beijing Review about this development in bilateral relations between the two giant neighbors.

  3. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  4. Dentist-Patient Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Raftu

    2016-01-01

    In the dentist-patient relationship confidence comes from the assurance that personal information(belonging to the patient will remain confidential; this is in the interest of the patient and the patient'sautonomy is recognized. There were presented several behavioral types which can lead to a physicianpatientrelationship, based on trust.

  5. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  6. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Søndergaard; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    . Typically, the social interaction was experienced as giving and was referred to in positive terms but recurrently, the opposite was experienced too. The ambiguity of the relationship clearly emerged in all of the synthesized themes presented in this article. Implications for practice: Hospitalized patients...

  7. Relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Y; Horne, Sharon G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships with respect to their current level of stress, internalized homophobia, perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, and social support. Four groups were compared according to their current type of race relationship (ethnic minority women with White partners, White partners only, both ethnic minority partners, and White women with ethnic minority partners). No significant differences were found in terms of children and income; however, ethnic minority women with ethnic minority partners reported lower education attainment than the other groups. Relationally, there were no significant differences by race relationship for social support, relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, or stress. Internalized homophobia was lowest for interracial partnerships (ethnic minority paired with White partner). These findings are discussed in relationship to minority stress.

  8. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  9. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  10. Customer relationships marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one click of the mouse. Every one of them is characterized by specific needs, and, in that sense the company must strive to satisfy them with the right offer at the right time and through the right channel. The aim of the company is to have loyal customers who will help the company make maximized profit and competitive advantage on the market.

  11. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  12. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  13. Probability distribution relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Abdelkader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interesting to show the most famous distributions and their relations to the other distributions in collected diagrams. Four diagrams are sketched as networks. The first one is concerned to the continuous distributions and their relations. The second one presents the discrete distributions. The third diagram is depicted the famous limiting distributions. Finally, the Balakrishnan skew-normal density and its relationship with the other distributions are shown in the fourth diagram.

  14. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Bordean; Alina Raileanu

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain in a market economy with the competition becoming increasingly tough, with consumer preferences and demands more sophisticated and diverse, a company must manage in the best possible way the relations with the existing and potential customers to know their preferences, attitudes, purchasing behaviour, motivations, in order to attract the proper clients for their company products. These goals may be achieved by implementing a strategy called “Customer Relationship Manageme...

  15. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...... an empirical longitudinal study. The results indicate transformations in belongings and longings indicating reinterpretation of the self, others and home in context of exclusion processes at various levels....

  16. Marketing by managing relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1984-10-01

    As competition increases and funding tightens, hospitals will have to realize that marketing largely is the managing of relationships--relationships between health care consumers and the provider. Prospective payment will make a hospital's fiscal viability increasingly sensitive to volume; stable profitability will depend on a steady level of patient utilization. And to ensure stable utilization, the hospital must create a base of loyal patients. Four marketing strategies can help to build this client base: 1. Create a strong care of essential services focused on the most significant customer needs. 2. Customize relationships by tailoring specific services to specific market segments' special needs. 3. Augment the basic service by offering extras and amenities. 4. Offer price incentives for people to become loyal customers. At least four types of patient loyalty exist, and a hospital should concentrate on fostering one or more types among its patients. Service loyalty occurs when a person always goes to the same provider for the same service. Provider loyalty exists when a person seeks a diversity of related services from the same provider. Family loyalty occurs when an entire family uses a particular provider. Organizational loyalty exists when an entire organization is oriented--through a contract or preferred provider arrangement, for example--toward a specific provider.

  17. Structure and electrochemical properties of La, F dual-doped LiLa0.01Mn1.99O3.99F0.01 cathode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Chen; Shengjun Li; Chuang Yang

    2008-01-01

    The cathode materials LiMn204 and rare earth elements La-doped or La and F dual-doped spinel lithium manganese oxides were synthesized by the citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The synthesized samples were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG) measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and charge-discharge test. XRD data shows that all the samples exhibit the same pure spinel phase, and the LiLa0.01Mn1.9903.99F0.01 and LiLao.01Mnl.9904 samples have smaller lattice parameters and unit cell volume than LiMn2O4. SEM indicates that LiLao.01Mnl.9903.99F0.01 has a slightly smaller particle size and a more regular morphology structure with narrow size distribution. The charge-discharge test reveals that the initial capacities of LiMn2O4, LiLa0mMnl.9904, and LiLa0.01Mn1.99O3.99F0.01 are 129.9, 122.8, and 126.4 mAh-g-1, and the capacity losses of the initial values after 50 cycles are 14.5%, 7.6%, and 8.0%, respectively.The CVs show that the La and F dual-doped spinel displays a better reversibility than LiMn2O4.

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zemin; ZHAO Liancheng

    2007-01-01

    The preparation process and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 and LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni) were studied.The results show that the decomposition temperature range of xerogel prepared with lithium acetate and manganese acetate as raw materials is large and the decomposition speed is slow.Oxygen consumed is apt to get a prompt supplement during the preparation of LiMn2O4,and carbonization of the organic matter can be reduced or avoided,which is favorable to the combination of lithium and manganese.Using lithium acetate,manganese acetate, chromium nitrate,and nickel nitrate as raw materials and adopting the citric acid complexing method,it has been found that the prepared powders have high purity,high quality stability,and even doping characters. With the increase of sintering temperature,the particle size and crystal lattice constant of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni) enhance.However,the purity of the product is relatively high and has no obvious change,which is advantageous to the control of the quality of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, NJ).Doping with a small amount of Cr3+ and Ni2+ can stabilize the spinel structure of LiMn2O4,suppress the Jahn-Teller effect,and improve the cycling properties but reduce the initial capacity.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical characterizations of spinel LiMn1.94MO4 (M = Mn0.06, Mg0.06, Si0.06, (Mg0.03Si0.03)) compounds as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Liu, Xingquan; Cheng, Cai; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Yue; Chen, Bing; Xiong, Weiqiang

    2015-05-01

    The spinel LiMn1.94MO4 (M = Mn0.06, Mg0.06, Si0.06, (Mg0.03Si0.03)) compounds are successfully synthesized by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The crystal structures and morphologies of synthesized compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. All the compounds possess the cubic spinel structure of LiMn2O4 with space group of Fd-3m. The electrochemical properties of synthesized compounds are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the Si-doping can increase the discharge capacity of LiMn2O4 due to the more expanded and regular MnO6 octahedra. In particular, for the LiMn1.94Mg0.03Si0.03O4 compound, the addition of Si4+ ions can make up for the shortage of Mg-doping in term of the discharge capacity. As a result, the Mg2+ and Si4+ co-doping has the effect of synergistic enhancement, which can make full use of the respective advantages of Mg-doping and Si-doping. The optimal LiMn1.94Mg0.03Si0.03O4 can deliver the initial discharge capacity of 128.3 mAh g-1 with good capacity retention of 92.8% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C in the voltage range of 3.20-4.35 V. Compared with the undoped LiMn2O4, the co-doped compound also presents superior rate performance, especially the capacity recovery performance.

  20. Industrial relationship marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellinck, T.; Marriott, H. [Focal Research Consultants Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    A survey was conducted to establish a process for analyzing electrical utility/industrial customer relations. The information was used to help the utility companies in decision making and customer-oriented action. Data was collected by mail with two surveys. One hundred and thirteen companies were used in the development and analysis of key customer indicators. Factors which influence the relationship measures of customer satisfaction and customer commitment were identified. The report can be used as a basis on which utilities can build customer information for decision making in the development of marketing strategy. tabs., figs.

  1. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  2. Cadmium and zinc relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.; Piscator, M.

    1978-08-01

    Higher mammals, such as homo sapiens, accumulate zinc in kidney cortex almost equimolarly with cadmium. A different pattern seems to be present in liverthere is a limited increase of zinc in two species of large farm animals compared with a marked increase in the laboratory. In large farm animals, an equimolar increase of zinc with cadmium in renal cortex seems to indicate that the form of metallothionein that binds equal amounts of cadmium and zinc in present. Differences in cadmium and zinc relationships in large animals and humans compared with laboratory animals must be carefully considered. (4 graphs, 26 references)

  3. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well...

  4. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  5. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  6. Social Support in Intimate Relationships: The Role of Relationship Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Brian P; Hammond, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Prior research on effective support interactions in intimate relationships often focuses on support provision rather than how people seek support. The current study investigated how differences in relationship autonomy-authentic and self-determined relationship motivations-predicted the behavior and outcomes of couples ( N = 80) in support interactions. Results indicated that support seekers' motivation and behavior were the primary contributor to effective support interactions. Support seekers who were autonomously motivated tended to seek support in a more direct and positive manner, which in turn promoted greater levels of emotional, informational, and tangible support from their partners. The relationship autonomy of both the support provider and the support seeker also predicted better subjective experiences regardless of behavior, such as perceiving the interaction as more supportive. These results illustrate how relationship autonomy promotes well-being in relationships via support seeking behaviors, as well as positive interpretations and experiences of important relationship interactions.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support previous claims based only on electrochemical data and ex situ XRD and IR measurements that the oxidation of Co(OH)2 leads to the formation of an inert CoOOH phase impervious to further reduction.

  8. Microwave Synthesis of Cathode Material LixMn2O4 for Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hua; LIU Han-xing; OUYANG Shi-xi

    2002-01-01

    LiMn2O4 was synthesized rapidly by microwa e heating. The product phases of the microwave synthesis and conventional solid-state synthesis were comparatively invesitigated. The capacity of microwave synthesis product decreases relatively slow. The lithium ion can be inserted into and extracted from the spinel framework structure fluently after cycling. But the capacity of the conventional solid-state synthesis product is more remarkably lowered. The spinel framework structure was destroyed which hindered the lithium ion from inserting and extracting. The influential factors of the process parameters are discussed such as heat preservation time, pre-heating at 400℃ for 24h and coupled agent.

  9. Dynamically compacted all-ceramic lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Michiel J. G.; Ooms, Frans G. B.; Kelder, Erik M.; Legerstee, Waiter J.; Schoonman, Joop; Weisenburger, Alfons

    This paper deals with a cell design and a unique manufacturing process for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Detailed analyses of the manufacturing of the components for such a battery and the compaction of the green battery are presented. The electrodes were made of coatings of LiMn 2O 4 on metal foils. The electrolyte was a free-standing foil of the ceramic electrolyte Li-doped BPO 4 in a polymer matrix. The different layers were wound and compacted by using magnetic pulse compaction. Several characteristics of the compacted batteries are presented.

  10. A Type of Lithium-ion Battery Based on Aqueous electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.J.Wang; N.H.Zhao; L.J.Fu; B.Wang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction A new type of rechargeable lithium ion battery with an aqueous electrolyte was announced by W. Li et al. in 1994[1].This type of battery uses the lithium intercalation compounds LiMn2O4 and VO2 as electrode materials and an alkaline aqueous electrolytic solution. By this combination, the disadvantages of the non-aqueous Li-ion battery type, i.e. high cost and safety problems could be faded away[2]. So this type of aqueous Li-ion battery was regarded as the promising power for electric veh...

  11. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ,a Funeka P. Nkosi,ab Elumalai Viswanathan,c Mkhulu K. Mathe,a Krishnan Damodaranc and Kenneth I. Ozoemena*ab The well-established poor electrochemical cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at elevated... ns ed u nd er a C re at iv e Co m m on s A ttr ib ut io n 3. 0 U np or te d Li ce nc e. View Article Online View Journal | View Issue This journal is© the Owner Societies 2016 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13074--13083 | 13075...

  12. Mentoring: the ultimate professional relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, A E; Sibbald, R G

    1998-04-01

    Mentoring plays a significant role in business, industry, government, education, and healthcare. Mentoring relationships help promote the individual's professional growth and development. Such development involves knowledge and skill acquisition, which is facilitated by interaction with other, more experienced and proficient professionals. The Belcher-Sibbald Continuum of Learning describes the relationship among the concepts of role modeling, networking, preceptoring, and mentoring. Each concept is defined and described as a unique relationship which promotes professional growth and development. In addition, three mentoring/networking relationships in the context of the wound care community are presented to provide insight into this type of relationship.

  13. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  14. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    In the recent years the successful collaborative arrangements and relationships between university, industry and public institutions have become a mantra in transforming new scientific knowledge into new innovations and business ventures. The fit between these very different actor groups has been...... explores four different strategies for dealing with network relations; the research oriented strategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial partnering strategy, and the policy-oriented strategy. The research-oriented strategy is narrowly focusing on how a biotechnology firm transforms their scientific...... of bringing the technologies from an experimental stage at a research lab to be able handle industrial processes and full-scale production. Last but not least the policy oriented strategy focus on problem of having products approved by the public authorities.Theoretically the article draws upon network...

  15. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non-productive...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...

  16. Investigation of Consensually Nonmonogamous Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Terri; Matsick, Jessica; Moors, Amy Catherine; Ziegler, Ali

    2017-03-01

    We proposed that the premise that monogamy is the exemplary form of romantic partnership underlies much theory and research on relationship quality, and we addressed how this bias has prompted methodological issues that make it difficult to effectively address the quality of nonmonogamous relationships. Because the idea that consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are functional (i.e., satisfying and of high quality) is controversial, we included a basic study to assess, in a variety of ways, the quality of these relationships. In that study, we found few differences in relationship functioning between individuals engaged in monogamy and those in CNM relationships. We then considered how existing theories could help researchers to understand CNM relationships and how CNM relationships could shed light on relationship processes, and we proposed a model of how CNM and monogamous relationships differ. Finally, in a second study, we determined that even researchers who present data about CNM are affected by the stigma surrounding such relationships. That is, researchers presenting findings favoring polyamory were perceived as more biased than researchers presenting findings favoring monogamy.

  17. On Cycles in AS Relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    Several users of our AS relationship inference data (http://www.caida.org/data/active/as-relationships/), released with cs/0604017, asked us why it contained AS relationship cycles, e.g., cases where AS A is a provider of AS B, B is a provider of C, and C is a provider of A, or other cycle types. Having been answering these questions in private communications, we have eventually decided to write down our answers here for future reference.

  18. Some notes on Einstein relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael P.; Masters, Andrew J.

    Transport coefficients are often expressed in the form of an Einstein relationship. In this report we point out some possibly surprising properties of the correlation functions appearing in such expressions and we discuss under what conditions the relationships are true. We further consider the Einstein relationship for the shear viscosity proposed by McQuarrie [in Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row), 1976]. On the basis both of theoretical analysis and computer simulation, we conclude that this expression is incorrect.

  19. Creating Good Relationships: Responsiveness, Relationship Quality, and Interpersonal Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Amy; Crocker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Perceived partner responsiveness is a core feature of close, satisfying relationships. But how does responsiveness originate? Can people create relationships characterized by high responsiveness, and consequently, higher quality relationships? We suggest that goals contribute to cycles of responsiveness between people, improving both people’s relationship quality. The present studies examine 1) how interpersonal goals initiate responsiveness processes in close relationships, 2) the self-perpetuating nature of these processes, and 3) how responsiveness evolves dynamically over time through both intrapersonal projection and reciprocal interpersonal relationship processes. In a semester-long study of 115 roommate dyads, actors’ compassionate and self-image goals predicted a cycle of responsiveness between roommates, occurring within weeks and across the semester. In a 3-week study of 65 roommate dyads, actors’ goals again predicted cycles of responsiveness between roommates, which then contributed to both actors’ and partners’ relationship quality. Results suggest that both projection and reciprocation of responsiveness associated with compassionate goals create upward spirals of responsiveness that ultimately enhance relationship quality for both people. PMID:20565187

  20. Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselquist, J; Rusbult, C E; Foster, C A; Agnew, C R

    1999-11-01

    The present work advances and tests an interdependence-based model of the associations among commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust. Findings from two longitudinal studies revealed good support for model predictions. Commitment-inspired acts such as accommodation and willingness to sacrifice provide diagnostic information regarding a partner's pro-relationship motives. Individuals come to trust their partners when they perceive that their partners have enacted pro-relationship behaviors, departing from their direct self-interest for the good of the relationship. The results of mediation analyses are consistent with a model of mutual cyclical growth in which (a) dependence promotes strong commitment, (b) commitment promotes pro-relationship acts, (c) pro-relationship acts are perceived by the partner, (d) the perception of pro-relationship acts enhances the partner's trust, and (e) trust increases the partner's willingness to become dependent on the relationship. Auxiliary analyses revealed that self-reported attachment style does not account for substantial variance beyond the features of interdependence that form the basis for the present model.

  1. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Relationship marketing in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H C; Fleming, D; Mangold, W G; LaForge, R W

    1994-01-01

    Building relationships with patients is critical to the success of many health care organizations. The authors profile the relationship marketing program for a hospital's cardiac center and discuss the key strategic aspects that account for its success: a focus on a specific hospital service, an integrated marketing communication strategy, a specially designed database, and the continuous tracking of results.

  3. Relationship Development in Greenfield Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drogendijk, Rian; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield''s degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource...

  4. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W

    2017-02-27

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds.

  5. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  6. Organizational Culture and Relationship Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Koen, C.I.; Noorderhaven, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    While both the strategic management and the network literature recognize the importance of inter-firm relationships for explaining competitive advantage, the question why firms differ in their ability to benefit from these relationships is rarely addressed.This paper aims to begin to fill this gap i

  7. 7 Secrets of Lasting Relationships!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Do a web search on the phrase "CRM sucks" and one will find scores of articles, webinars, and blog rants dedicated to the theme. Indeed, if one uses constituent relationship management (CRM) software, one is probably familiar with the litany of complaints. But this is not the time to give up. After all, this is one relationship that really needs…

  8. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  9. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have turned out to be of fundamental importance both for our understanding human sociality and for the design of digital communication technology. However, social networks are themselves based on dyadic relationships and we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide us with a unique window into the structure of relationships and the way these change across the lifespan. We here use data from a large national mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the pattern in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of the two sexes change across the lifespan: these differences mainly reflect women's shifting pattern...

  10. Relationship marketing in digital economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing in digital economy represents a new phase of marketing development in the XXI century. Key features lie in the development of closer relationship and cooperation between companies and their Internet consumers and partners. It was the problem of nonestablished e-relationships that was the main reason for failure of those companies that first started their new, digital environment business. Challenge for companies in the future will be introducing the CRM concept, with the main goal of bringing the high satisfaction and loyalty to their consumers in the e-market. .

  11. The relationship in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic relationship in motivational interviewing is hypothesized to have both a direct impact on client outcomes as well as facilitating the emergence of client language in favor of change. The nature of this relationship is characterized by empathy, partnership, and support of the client's autonomy commonly called the spirit of the method. This article explores the implications of this spirit on the practice and understanding of motivational interviewing, including common misconceptions attributable to a misunderstanding of the role of the relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Ombuds’ corner: Relationship to authority

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Among the cases brought to the Ombuds, many of them have to do with difficulties between supervisees and supervisors. In fact, they form the majority of the cases. For both parties, the source of the conflict boils down to the relationship that people entertain with what can be called "the authority". The relationship with the authority is somewhat different within the various Sectors of CERN, as are the relationships between personnel and supervisors. Generally one considers that natural authority can either come from a respected technical knowledge, or from charisma along with a good understanding of human relationships. Of course together these qualities ge...

  13. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff training;...

  14. Relationships and project marketing success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Lindblom, Jarno

    2002-01-01

    Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the individual project and at the level of multiple projects. This article first defines key characteristics of project business......, identifies potentially relevant actors in the project marketing milieu, and emphasizes the importance of constantly nurturing project business relationships, also in "sleeping relationship" periods where concrete projects are not expected. Thereafter the points made are illustrated with a Finnish......-Chinese turnkey project case at the level of the individual project and a Danish-German professional service project case at the level of multiple projects. It is concluded that project managers and marketers should focus their attention on the management of project relationships before, during, and after...

  15. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  16. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pepur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.

  17. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...... cultures become global institutional forces in their own right, while some institutions become trapped in their own local organizational cultures. In conclusion, the article is a call for the development of a more temporal perspective on the relationships between culture and institutions- seen in a global......This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...

  18. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences ... changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women. ... Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at ...

  19. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN PROFFESIONAL SPORT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to present the evolution of Barclays Premier League organization from the relationship marketing perspective and to analyze issues regarding the way in which the sportive...

  20. Discovering Relationships Involving Baravelle Spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    This article details an exploration of Baravelle spirals as visual representations of infinite geometric series, focusing on a variety of strategies used by preservice teachers in discovering patterns and investigating relationships of variables.

  1. Relationship between polypharmacy and underprescribing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Mascha A. J.; van Marum, Rob J.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Jansen, Paul A. F.

    AIMS Underprescribing is increasingly recognized as an important problem. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between polypharmacy and underprescribing. METHODS Treatment of current medical problems in geriatric patients was compared with general practitioner and national

  2. Critical Incidents in Internal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, Päivi

    2000-01-01

    Critical incidents have had an important role in service quality and service management research. The focus of critical-incident studies has gradually shifted from separate acts and episodes towards relationships, and even switching from one relationship to another. The Critical Incident Technique has mainly been used when studying the service sector, concentrating on the customer's perception of critical incidents. Although some studies have considered the perceptions of employees important,...

  3. Relationship quality and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  4. Improving the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Spinel Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Arrebola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examined the use of nanospinels to construct batttery electrodes. We chose two spinels suitable as cathode materials (LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which are representative of 4 and 5 V versus Li metal, resp. and one providing good results as anode (Li4Ti5O12. In order to ensure good cell performance, nanometric particles must meet another requirement; thus they should contain few surface or bulk defects (i.e., they should be highly crystalline. Because the synthesis of such spinels usually requires a thermal treatment, ensuring that they will meet both requirements entails accuratly controlling in the synthesis conditions. Thermal decomposition of nanooxalate in the spinel-conaining elements obtained by mechanochenical activation in the presence of polymers provides a simple, effective route for this purpose. We prepared two types of hybrid lithium-ion batteries using LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode materials, and Li4Ti5O12 as anode material. The electrochemical properties of these cells were compared with those of a similar configuration made from micrometric particles. The nano-nano configuration exhibited higher reversibility and better performance than the micro-micro configuartion in both types of cells, possibly as a result of lithium ions in the former being able to migrate more easily into the electrode material.

  5. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  6. Thermodynamic Stability of Transition-Metal-Substituted LiMn2-x Mx O4 (M=Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) Spinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chenying; Chen, Jiewei; Knight, James C; Manthiram, Arumugam; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    The formation enthalpies from binary oxides of LiMn2 O4 , LiMn2-x Crx O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1), LiMn2-x Fex O4 (x=0.25 and 0.5), LiMn2-x Cox O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) and LiMn1.75 Ni0.25 O4 at 25 °C were measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and were found to be strongly exothermic. Increasing the Cr, Co, and Ni content leads to more thermodynamically stable spinels, but increasing the Fe content does not significantly affect the stability. The formation enthalpies from oxides of the fully substituted spinels, LiMnMO4 (M=Cr, Fe and Co), become more exothermic (implying increasing stability) with decreasing ionic radius of the metal and lattice parameters of the spinel. The trend in enthalpy versus metal content is roughly linear, suggesting a close-to-zero heat of mixing in LiMn2 O4 -LiMnMO4 solid solutions. These data confirm that transition-metal doping is beneficial for stabilizing these potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Nayaka; J Manjanna; K C Anjaneya; P Manikandan; P Periasamy; V S Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we have synthesized a new composition, LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi), by the sol–gel method. The formation of solid solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) showed a high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low-frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to the Li-ion migration through the interface from the surface layer of the particles to the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammogram (between 3.5 and 4.9 V) for these materials using CR2032 coin-type cell shows two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to two-step reversible intercalation process, wherein Li-ions occupy two different tetragonal 8a sites in spinel LiMn2O4 ( < 1) lattice. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves for = Al (77 mAh g-1) showed reasonably good capacity retention than that of = Bi (11 mAh g-1) at the end of 17th cycle.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ohno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging has high sensitivity to proton (1H and lithium (7Li. It is a useful measurement for electrolyte in Li-ion battery. 1H NMR images of lithium ion battery which is composed of LiMn2O4 / LiClO4 + propylene carbonate (PC / Li-metal have been studied. 1H NMR images of electrolyte near cathode material (LiMn2O4 showed anomalous intensity distribution, which was quite inhomogeneous. From NMR images as a function of repetition time (TR, it was concluded that the anomalous intensity distribution was not due to change of relaxation time but an indirect (spatial para-magnetization effect from cathode material. The paramagnetization induced by high magnetic field distorts linearity of magnetic gradient field, leading to apparent intensity variance. This functional image is an easy diagnostic measurement for magnetization of cathode material, which allows the possibility to check uniformity of cathode material and change of magnetization under electrochemical process.

  9. Thermophysical properties of LiCoO₂-LiMn₂O₄ blended electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcu, Petronela; Seifert, Hans J

    2016-04-21

    Thermophysical properties of two cathode types for lithium-ion batteries were measured by dependence on temperature. The cathode materials are commercial composite thick films containing LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 blended active materials, mixed with additives (binder and carbon black) deposited on aluminium current collector foils. The thermal diffusivities of the cathode samples were measured by laser flash analysis up to 673 K. The specific heat data was determined based on measured composite specific heat, aluminium specific heat data and their corresponding measured mass fractions. The composite specific heat data was measured using two differential scanning calorimeters over the temperature range from 298 to 573 K. For a comprehensive understanding of the blended composite thermal behaviour, measurements of the heat capacity of an additional LiMn2O4 sample were performed, and are the first experimental data up to 700 K. Thermal conductivity of each cathode type and their corresponding blended composite layers were estimated from the measured thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity and the estimated density based on metallographic methods and structural investigations. Such data are highly relevant for simulation studies of thermal management and thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries, in which the bulk properties are assumed, as a common approach, to be temperature independent.

  10. Thin-film lithium-ion battery derived from Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 sintered pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhuo-bing; MA Ming-you; WU Xian-ming; HE Ze-qiang; CHEN Shang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-film lithium-ion battery of LiMn2O4/Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3/LiMn2O4 was fabricated using Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 sintered pellet as both substrate and electrolyte. Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 sintered pellet was prepared by sol-gel technique, and the thin-film battery was heat-treated by rapid thermal annealing. Phase identification, morphology and electrochemical properties of the components and thin-film battery were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments. The results show that Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 possesses a electrochemical window of 2.4 V and an ionic conductivity of 1.2×10-4 S/cm. With Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 sintered pellet as both substrate and solid electrolyte, the fabricated thin-film battery with an open circuit voltage of 1.2V can be easily cycled.

  11. TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites by microwave-assisted forced hydrolysis as excellent insertion anode for Li-ion battery and capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Mhamane, Dattakumar; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Roh, Ha-Kyung; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-09-01

    TiO2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite (TiO2-rGO) is fabricated by microwave-assisted forced hydrolysis and examined as prospective electrode for energy storage applications, especially in Li-ion battery (LIB) and Li-ion capacitor (LIC). First, the uniformly distributed nanoscopic TiO2 particulates (∼3 nm) over rGO nanosheets is evaluated as anode in half-cell assembly to ascertain the Li-insertion behavior and found that ∼0.68 mol Li (∼227 mAh g-1) is reversible. Then, "rocking-chair" type LIB is fabricated with spinel LiMn2O4 cathode, and the LiMn2O4/TiO2-rGO assembly exhibits high capacity (∼120 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C rate), good rate capability (∼53 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate), and excellent cycleability (∼90% initial reversible capacity after 1000 cycle) as well. Similarly, the LIC is also constructed with activated carbon cathode, and such configuration delivered a maximum energy density of ∼50 Wh kg-1 with ∼82% retention after 4000 cycles. The synergistic effect of both rGO and anatase nanoparticles provides excellent energy efficiency and battery performance in different kind of Li-ion based energy storage devices.

  12. Few Atomic Layered Lithium Cathode Materials to Achieve Ultrahigh Rate Capability in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhixin; Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M; Chou, Shu-Lei; Chen, Lingna; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-09-01

    The most promising cathode materials, including LiCoO2 (layered), LiMn2 O4 (spinel), and LiFePO4 (olivine), have been the focus of intense research to develop rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronic devices. Sluggish lithium diffusion, however, and unsatisfactory long-term cycling performance still limit the development of present LIBs for several applications, such as plug-in/hybrid electric vehicles. Motivated by the success of graphene and novel 2D materials with unique physical and chemical properties, herein, a simple shear-assisted mechanical exfoliation method to synthesize few-layered nanosheets of LiCoO2 , LiMn2 O4 , and LiFePO4 is used. Importantly, these as-prepared nanosheets with preferred orientations and optimized stable structures exhibit excellent C-rate capability and long-term cycling performance with much reduced volume expansion during cycling. In particular, the zero-strain insertion phenomenon could be achieved in 2-3 such layers of LiCoO2 electrode materials, which could open up a new way to the further development of next-generation long-life and high-rate batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li2CO3 and pure Li3PO4, respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na2CO3 and Li3PO4vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li2CO3 containing the impurity of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g(-1). The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn2O4) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn2O4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li2CO3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li2CO3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn3O4) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Conceptualising primary labour relationship quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas I. Ehlers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A typology of desirable social conditions in supervisory relationships suggested that such conditions may also be desirable in other forms of labour relationships. A literature review confirmed that trust, compliance, fairness and good faith can be confidently regarded as universally desirable social conditions in all forms of individual or collective labour relationships between employers and employees. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if primary labour relationship quality (PLQ can be confidently conceptualised as a social construct that strongly relates to the perceived levels of compliance, fairness and good faith in supervisory or primary labour relationships. Setting: A combination of random and convenience sampling approaches was implemented to collect PLQ related data from 454 voluntary respondents, who were subordinate employees in the Tshwane region. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted. This included conceptual definition of the PLQ construct, objective measurement of PLQ levels of voluntary respondents in an adequately sized sample, factor analysis and testing for relationships and differences in means between variables. Results: Data analysis results confirmed that it can be confidently concluded that the conceptual definition of PLQ was valid, and that positive PLQ perceptions of subordinate employees were significantly related to at least two other forms of desirable organisational outcomes. Conclusion: PLQ perceptions can be confidently defined as a distinct subjective quality estimate that is assimilated from unique expectations and perceptions of the levels of compliance, fairness, good faith and trust that a supervisor displays in a labour relationship with an immediate subordinate.

  16. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN PROFFESIONAL SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to present the evolution of Barclays Premier League organization from the relationship marketing perspective and to analyze issues regarding the way in which the sportive organization implements the relationship marketing principles, which strategies is using and what are the main benefits, based on the examination of its history and its current practices. The relationship between sport organizations and the consumers of the sport product is a genuine bond; in fact the consumer is the sine qua non condition for the sport organizations to exist. Without constant reference to the final consumer, the professional sport finds itself in the situation of no means or reasons to outlast. Even more, all the transactions achieved on the sport market imply a certain level of expressing relationship marketing. This paper studies the impact of embracing the principles of relationship marketing in one of the most successful sportive organizations, Barclays Premier League, and the positive changes driven by this approach over the past decade. The research presents also the complex dynamic of creating and maintaining relations in professional sport as well as the implications of adopting a functional approach of the relationship marketing in this field. One important aspect refers to the added value this concept creates for the sportive organization. The result of this study consists of a set of recommended strategies and tactics to be introduced by a football club oriented towards achieving relationship marketing oriented goals that would help the organization to fully benefit from the implementation of this concept.

  17. Brand relationships: A study of five relationship constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    This study investigates the relationships between the five brand relationship constructs sense of community, brand identification, brand love, brand loyalty, and active engagement. Structural equation modelling with partial least squares showed provided support for six relational hypotheses....... An important finding was that sense of community, a construct that applies to at general consumer context and not only brand communities, is an important antecedent of brand loyalty and brand love. The study also shows that brand love can be more narrowly defined and operationalzed than it has been in previous...

  18. Brand relationships: A study of five relationship constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    . An important finding was that sense of community, a construct that applies to at general consumer context and not only brand communities, is an important antecedent of brand loyalty and brand love. The study also shows that brand love can be more narrowly defined and operationalzed than it has been in previous......This study investigates the relationships between the five brand relationship constructs sense of community, brand identification, brand love, brand loyalty, and active engagement. Structural equation modelling with partial least squares showed provided support for six relational hypotheses...

  19. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  20. Memory, neurodynamics, and human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Jim; Stevens, David

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss the implications of the functional organization and dynamics of the brain for understanding human relationships. In particular, we focus on the brain's multiple memory systems and the various roles they play in organizing the interactions of people as they come to know one another. The distinction between the relatively independent declarative, procedural, and emotional learning systems is especially significant in this regard, as the former mediates what we know about one another, the second mediates what we do with one another, and the third affects behavior by altering our emotional state. Knowledge of the functioning of these dissociable memory systems provides a novel perspective on relationships--both ordinary social relationships and those that develop in psychotherapy--and further illuminates psychotherapeutic transference and countertransference phenomena. We begin with a review of the neural basis of these processes, then turn our attention to the interpersonal level of analysis.

  1. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Toca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.

  2. Perspectives on contemporary lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R

    2017-01-02

    This article introduces the special issue on contemporary lesbian relationships. The beginning notes some of the prominent changes that have occurred in the past 15 years in the visibility and positive representation of lesbian couples in our popular U.S. culture. The remainder focuses on identifying and summarizing the primary themes of the special issue, including the implications of changes in marriage rights, the acknowledgment and exploration of the effects of sexual minority stress, and a shift in the framing of research to better reflect the diversity of lesbian relationship experiences.

  3. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  4. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  5. Assesment of customer relationship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is customer relationship marketing and its new trends. The particular goal of the presented research study was to identify and analyse the indicators of customer relationship development in human resources recruitment / leasing companies. Nine indicators have been explored: mission statement concerning customer commitment, customer attraction, customer commitment, development of customer value, understanding customer needs, goals for customer satisfaction, after sales services, measurement of customer satisfaction, complaint management. The indicators were made sequentially operational in order to translate customer relationship development into specific activities designed to increase business performance. Based on a set of customer indicators four scientific hypotheses were tested. We proved that strong customer orientation has a positive impact on business performance. Out of nine indicators, seven of them have a strong impact on business outcomes. The research confirms that business performance increases with firm size and market density, and that introduction of quality management systems improves company performance. Finally, the appropriateness of the customer relationship indicators applied in human resources recruitment companies is discussed.

  6. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  7. DIMENSIONS OF THE COUNSELOR'S RELATIONSHIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KACZKOWSKI, HENRY R.

    THE PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES CONCEPT EMPHASIZES A TEAM APPROACH. AN INHERENT WEAKNESS IN THIS CONCEPT IS THE TENDENCY TOWARD COMPARTMENTALIZATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL. A NATURAL RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND INSTRUCTION BECAUSE BOTH DEAL WITH THE PUPIL, GUIDANCE WITH CONATIVE ASPECTS AND INSTRUCTION WITH COGNITIVE ASPECTS. THE STRATEGIES…

  8. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  9. Trusting Relationships in International Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Ruzicka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    How can trusting relationships be identified in international politics? The recent wave of scholarship on trust in International Relations answers this question by looking for one or the combination of three indicators – the incidence of cooperation; discourses expressing trust; or the calculated...

  10. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  11. Eco-Health Relationship Browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eco-Health Relationship Browser (Browser) is a web tool designed to portray, in an engaging and intuitive way, the linkages between ecosystems, their services, and potential health outcomes that have been associated with those services in the literature. It functions an inte...

  12. Credit Protection and Lending Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of credit default swaps (CDS) on lending relationships and credit market efficiency. CDS insulate lenders against losses from forcing borrowers into default and liquidation. This improves the credibility of foreclosure threats, which can have positive implications for borrower

  13. Resolving mammalian relationships with molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships amongst extant mammals, as derived from extensive molecular data sets. Analyses of molecular data gave strong evidence for dividing placental (eutherian) mammals into four major groups. One of these grou

  14. Leveraging Learning Through Mentoring Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Bronwen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    To facilitate the integration of technology into the learning environment, the Office of Instructional Computing at the State University of New York at Stony Brook engages students as peer mentors and as technology mentors to faculty. Examines the two mentoring relationships, the design of the programs, and the pros and cons of such programs. (PEN)

  15. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…

  16. The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of our lesson in this module is for you to become acquainted with the importance of es- tablishing and maintaining a shared vision of positive professional interpersonal relationship practices among all stakeholders on your campus. This module introduces the use of administrative tools designed to help you document and measure progress…

  17. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  18. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…

  19. Ecotourism and Environmental Education: Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines relationships among environmental education, ecotourism, and public attitudes toward conservation. The global ecotourism industry and the worldwide growth of national parks and other protected areas reflect the long-term impact of environmental education. The entire cycle of protection, ecotourism use of protected areas, and more positive…

  20. Physical Education and Fostering Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Rather than presenting an academic paper, I wanted to simply examine my own perspective as a physical educator and classroom teacher and the importance of creating relationships with children. As a relatively new physical educator and recent Masters of Education graduate of the University of Toronto at OISE, but experienced classroom teacher…

  1. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  2. Exploring relationships in teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a study exploring aspects of teenage pregnant women relationships with the fathers of their unborn children within the context of two contrasting demographic areas of the UK. The perceptions of teenage pregnant women on how they view their relationship with the fathers of their unborn babies has not been fully investigated. Three major categories emerged from the perspectives of 47 teenage pregnant women: (i) age of baby's father; (ii) education and employment status of baby's father; and (iii) ability of baby's father to provide financial support. Teenage pregnant women living in the south-east were more likely to maintain the relationship with fathers of their babies than those living in the north-west. This was found to be statistically significant. The age, employment status and education of the baby's father can influence the continuance of the partnership between the participant and of the father of her baby. The statistical difference in the maintenance of the relationship between the prospective parents may be associated with the continuing demographic and cultural characteristics of the north-west, where teenage pregnancy remains high and the south-east where the rates are low.

  3. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Unteachable Moments and Pedagogical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how Julia Kristeva's theory can inform our understanding of unteachable moments. It proposes a pedagogical relationship that can contain breakdowns of meanings and work toward breakthroughs to new awareness, particularly related to social justice pedagogy in teacher education. First, one example from the author's own teaching…

  5. Toponym Disambiguation by Arborescent Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imene Bensalem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of referring to a place in the geographical space can be formal, based on the spatial coordinates, or informal, which we use in natural language by using toponyms (place names. A toponym can represent several geographical places. This ambiguity made problematic its conversion towards a unique formal representation. Toponym disambiguation in text is the task of assigning a unique location to an ambiguous place name in a given textual context. Approach: Several toponym disambiguation heuristics assumed a geographical proximity between the toponyms of the same context. This proximity can be in terms of spatial distance or in terms of arborsecent relationships, i.e., proximity in the hierarchical tree of the world places. This study presented a new toponym disambiguation heuristic in text based on the quantification of the arborescent proximity between toponyms. This quantification was done by a new measure of geographical correlation that we call the Geographical Density. Results: Our method was compared to the state of the art methods using GeoSemCor corpus and it has outperformed them in term of recall (87.4% and coverage (99.0%. The results showed that the toponyms of the same context are much closer in terms of arborescent relationships than in terms of spatial relationships. Conclusion: We believe that the quantification of arborescent relationships between toponyms of the same textual context is a good way to improve the recall of TD task. However, all the arborescent relationships’ types must be considered and not only the meronymy, which is the relation the most exploited in the existing TD methods.

  6. Relationship Stability through Lenses of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Gunnur

    2012-01-01

    Research on relationship stability usually considers the effect of couple outcomes and individual differences on relationship stability in isolation from each other. These separate bodies of research often lead to inconsistent results. In order to better understand relationship stability and explain inconsistencies in the literature, it is important to investigate more complex models that integrate couple outcomes and behaviors with individual differences. Motivated by these considerations, we examined the complex interplay between personal characteristics, couple interactions, and relationship stability. In particular, we investigated the relationships among investment model, big five personality traits, attachment dimensions, relationship factors and relationship stability. Participants of this study included 162 individuals (Female N=117) who are currently in a relationship from a large Midwestern university campus. Analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modeling. Examination of the structural path parameters indicated that attachment had significant direct effect on personality, relationship factors, and relationship stability. Personality also had a significant direct effect on relationship stability. Finally personality had no direct effect on relationship factors and relationship factors had no direct effect on relationship stability. These results suggest that the effect of personality on relationship stability is direct, rather than being mediated by relationship factors. PMID:23124824

  7. Sociocultural Perspectives on Interpersonal Relationships in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Julio; Moll, Luis; Gonzalez, Maria; Cannella, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the importance of interpersonal relationships for facilitating Latino/a students' academic success, focusing on the way that dynamic notions of culture enhance their understanding of these crucial relationships. The authors discuss two types of relationships that support student success: (1) relationships with…

  8. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  9. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ awareness of target language pragmatic features is influenced by individual difference variables, the least explored one being emotional intelligence. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness, the current study was conducted over 120 Iranian senior undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language at a university in Iran. Pragmatic awareness was measured through a 12-scenario contextualized pragmatic judgment task. Emotional intelligence was also measured through the EQ-i. The results of the Pearson correlation revealed a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of emotion-driven authentic materials in English language classes to invoke emotional intelligence in language learners.

  10. [Interpersonal relationship in technical nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Inês Lemos Coelho; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the theme concerning interpersonal relationship in technical nursing are scarce or non-existent However, since this professional category has an expressive number of representatives who deliver various types of direct care to patients, it needs theoretical and pratical contents. This study aimed at investigating how the content related to this theme is addressed among the teachers of a technical school, its importance to students and its aplicability by professionals in this level. To that end, questionnaires were used. The results showed interpersonal relationship as fundamental; however; its routine applicability is not clear. This leads to the conclusion that there are difficulties to identify the real content given, thus difficulty is also supposed to exist in to put it into practice.

  11. Rethinking Loyalty in Business Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    This conceptual paper develops an alternative understanding of the foundation of commitment and loyalty in business relationships. It is argued that commonly used facets of commitment and loyalty depend on past behavior or expectations but do not explain the foundation of such commitment and loya...... for the foundation of loyalty contributes to an understanding of loyalty and customer behavior in business markets and challenges current loyalty measurement models.......This conceptual paper develops an alternative understanding of the foundation of commitment and loyalty in business relationships. It is argued that commonly used facets of commitment and loyalty depend on past behavior or expectations but do not explain the foundation of such commitment...... and loyalty. The paper develops a relevant constructs which explain the alignment and match between customers and suppliers. The foundation of commitment and loyalty should be seen as an aggregated match of three elements: business understanding, business resources, and business interaction. The new model...

  12. the Parent Child Purchase Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Catriona

    2009-01-01

    This is an interpretive inquiry into the ‘parent-child purchase relationship’. This study aims to understand the parent-child purchase relationship from the consumer perspective, rather than the much reported ‘vested interest’ perspective, in order to enhance and inform an understanding of the phenomenon. Commencing with an overview of current literature, specifically that of the pester power phenomenon, to contextualise the theoretical framework, the extant construct of pester power is exami...

  13. ACMEOLOGY OF THE MARITAL RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa A. Zotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the basis of theoretical and practical studies leading psychological mechanisms of stability of the relations proposed noospheric vision of marriage. Considered noosferology promise for understanding the system of the marital relationship from the perspective of theory of the brain. Noospheric paradigm of social cognition is defined as an integrative phenomenon, studying holistic development of the individual, society, social groups in the context of macroevolution and psikhopedogogics

  14. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    as between consumers and a consumer culture increasingly marked by reluctance and scepticism towards the marketplace and its commercial actors. The study empirically explores consumer experiences related to the interactive Nike+ concept launched by Nike for the tracking of running exercise. The study shows...... that consumers remain critical toward the Nike+ initiative as an emotional partner as well as a social interaction builder. This consumer resistance endures in spite of Nike fulfills the criteria for relationship building set forth in the literature....

  15. The normal posterior atlantoaxial relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, J.E. (Rochester General Hospital, NY (USA)); Schuster, J.A. (Rochester Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The relationship of the posterior aspects of the atlas and the axis were studied in 100 normal adult volunteers. The ratio of the height of the atlantal spinolaminar line to the atlantoaxial interspinous distance was found to be remarkably constant and was less than 2.0 in all men and women. This ratio should prove helpful in detecting hyperflexion injuries isolated to the atlantoaxial level. (orig.).

  16. Structure activity relationships of spiramycins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, S; Sano, H; Sunazuka, T

    1985-07-01

    Sixty-six derivatives of spiramycin I and neospiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by four parameters, MIC, affinity to ribosomes (ID50), therapeutic effect in mice and retention time in HPLC. Among the derivatives, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl- and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyrylspiramycin I showed the highest therapeutic effect which was superior to acetylspiramycin. Structure activity relationships of spiramycins are discussed.

  17. CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS WITH RUTHLESS BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Power, John; Whelan, Susan; Davies, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The marketing and reputation literature has failed to investigate how brands with negative associations can build trusting relationships with consumers. Research into the measurement of product brand image is unbalanced and has focused on using only positive traits (Aaker, 1999; Batra et al. 1993; Bellenger et al., 1976), as the belief was that a brand could have significant brand equity when consumers held a favourable impression of the brand (Keller, 1993). However, it has been argued tha...

  18. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  19. Alliance and group cohesion in relationship education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Antle, Becky; Barbee, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Relationship education programs have been shown as an effective way to increase relationship functioning. There is less known about how process factors, such as alliance with the leader or group dynamics, affect outcomes in these interventions. We examined group cohesion and alliance with the leader in a relationship education program tailored for individuals. Specifically, we examined whether participants' ratings (n = 126) of the group cohesion and alliance with the leader were associated with changes in relationship adjustment, relationship confidence, and communication quality from pre- to postintervention. The results demonstrated that participants' perceptions of the cohesion among the members in their relationship education group, but not the leader-participant alliance, made a significant contribution to the changes in participants' relationship functioning. These results suggest that the group dynamics among the members in the group are important ingredients in relationship education. Implications for relationship programs are provided. © FPI, Inc.

  20. Inferring AS Relationships from BGP Attributes

    CERN Document Server

    Giotsas, Vasileios

    2011-01-01

    Business relationships between autonomous systems (AS) are crucial for Internet routing. Existing algorithms used heuristics to infer AS relationships from AS topology data. In this paper we propose a different approach to infer AS relationships from more informative data sources, namely the BGP Community and Local Preference attributes. These data contain rich information on AS routing policies and therefore closely reflect AS relationships. We accumulate the BGP data from RouteViews, RIPE RIS and route servers in August 2010 and February 2011. We infer the AS relationships for 39% of links that are visible in our BGP data. They cover the majority of links among the Tier-1 and Tier-2 ASes. The BGP data also allow us to discover special relationship types, namely hybrid relationship, partial-transit relationship, indirect peering relationship and backup links. Finally we evaluate and analyse the problems of the existing inference algorithms.

  1. Relationship Satisfaction and Risk Factors for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.

  2. Relationship stigma and relationship outcomes in interracial and same-sex relationships: Examination of sources and buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Starks, Tyrel J

    2015-12-01

    Interracial and same-sex romantic relationships are more common and socially accepted in the United States than ever before; yet, stigmatization of these relationships persists, with consequences for relationship dynamics. We conducted an online survey study with adults living in the United States in interracial and same-sex relationships to examine associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with several relationship outcomes (i.e., investment, satisfaction, intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, love, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction), as well as the potential buffering roles of egalitarianism and dyadic coping. Regression analyses with 480 participants support that above and beyond individually experienced discrimination and other well-known predictors of relationship outcomes, relationship stigma from friends in particular was associated with lower relationship commitment, trust, love, and sexual communication, as well as greater odds of intimate partner aggression victimization. Egalitarianism and dyadic coping moderated some of the associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with relationship outcomes, supporting their potential roles as buffers. These findings suggest many avenues for future research and implications for clinicians working with interracial and same-sex couples, individuals in those couples, and their families. Given increasing prevalence of interracial and same-sex relationships and marriages, more work should continue to explore these couples' experiences and how best to support them.

  3. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management.

  4. Surveys explore critical governance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M K

    1987-01-01

    The transition in religious-sponsored health care from a ministry of direct service to one of governance has generated serious and penetrating questions, analyses, and retrenchment. Emphasis on and demand for value-laden leadership development programs are growing at the same time that sponsoring groups are becoming more actively involved in the governance and oversight of their corporate ministries. Two recent Catholic Health Association (CHA) studies focused on the critical governance relationship between the sponsoring group and its incorporated ministries. The first study asked religious institutes and dioceses that were sponsors of CHA member health care freestanding facilities and systems to describe their current governance structure. The second study represented an initial attempt to identify qualitative components of effective governance or sponsorship and asked 19 major superiors and system chief executive officers (CEOs) to characterize an ideal relationship between sponsor and ministry. The studies' findings included the following: In freestanding facilities, lay-religious governing boards have all but replaced the all-sponsor and all-lay advisory boards of the past. Trustee orientation, development, and evaluation were not equally stressed in the three groups surveyed, with trustee evaluation programs lagging behind in all three. Major superiors and CEOs had remarkably similar expectations relating to accountability for mission, relationships between sponsor and corporation, communication, and leadership development. Both major superiors and CEOs looked for greater collaboration in defining roles, translating mission into "business plan", and developing formation programs for leadership. Major superiors' emphasized simplicity of life-style, whereas the CEOs stressed stable commitment to corporate ministry.

  5. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Heidi S.; Pakkenberg, Bente; Dam, Maria

    2014-01-01

    total number of brain cells in cetaceans, and even fewer have used unbiased counting methods. In this study, using stereological methods, we estimated the total number of cells in the neocortex of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) brain. For the first time, we show that a species...... density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain....

  6. Intimate relationships and attitudes toward celebrities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCutcheon, Lynn E; Gillen, Meghan M; Browne, Blaine L; Murtagh, Michael P; Collisson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ... from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS). We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially...

  7. Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a ... Data source: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and ... relationship of PDW and SSNHL but due to the limited studies on this subject more ...

  8. Technological Collaboration in International Subcontractor Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    1998-01-01

    The utilization of relationship-oriented practices differ among subcontractors, based on their export propensity and orientation towards innovation.......The utilization of relationship-oriented practices differ among subcontractors, based on their export propensity and orientation towards innovation....

  9. Relationship marketing in a hospital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Amanda L; Weaver, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores relationship marketing as adopted by staff of the Forbes Medical Library at The Children's Hospital in Denver. It provides a broad overview of relationship marketing along with its applications in libraries, and a description of how the library staff has used specific relationships with different hospital groups to enhance library service. The examples illustrate the importance of persistence, patience, and flexibility when consciously developing relationships between a library and individuals or groups.

  10. Relationship Quality in Interethnic Marriages and Cohabitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.; Amato, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in…

  11. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…

  12. The Relationship among Spontaneity, Impulsivity, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.; Green, Doreen J.; Prorak, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate two characteristics of spontaneity, its relationship to creativity and to impulsivity. We hypothesized a positive relationship between spontaneity and creativity, consistent with Moreno, 1953 "canon of spontaneity-creativity." We also predicted a negative relationship between spontaneity and…

  13. 29 CFR 801.8 - Employment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA restrictions...

  14. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  15. Mentor Commitment in Formal Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the role of mentor commitment relative to protege perceptions of relationship quality within formal mentoring programs. Based on a matched sample of 91 mentors and proteges, the results indicated that mentor commitment related positively to protege reports of relationship quality. This relationship was stronger for male…

  16. Changes in Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; Harris, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although teacher-student relationships lie at the heart of students' schooling experience, fundamental questions regarding these relationships remain unanswered. Aims: This study investigates three related questions about these relationships: To what extent do they change from the beginning to the end of a school year? Are any emergent…

  17. Enhancing relationship quality measurement: The development of the Relationship Flourishing Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Penfield, Randall D; Cohen, Laura M; Lang, Samantha F; Owenz, Meghan B; Pasipandoya, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Relationship quality is the most frequently assessed construct in the intimate relationships literature. Dozens of assessment instruments exist, but the vast majority conceptualize relationship quality in terms of satisfaction (or a similar construct), which focuses on the hedonic (pleasure or happiness) dimension of the relationship. Some scholars question whether the richness and depth of adult intimate relationships can be captured by satisfaction ratings and suggest focusing on a complementary eudaimonic (human flourishing) dimension of the relationship. This study evaluates the development of the Relationship Flourishing Scale, a 12-item measure of eudaimonic relationship quality that assesses meaning, personal growth, relational giving, and goal sharing. The study supports the construct validity of the Relationship Flourishing Scale, including its content, concurrent, convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. Its incremental validity and independence suggest that it provides information about deeper and richer aspects of relationship quality than do current hedonic relationship quality measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Alice D; Latner, Janet D

    2009-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 dating or married couples. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy. Heavier women were judged by their male partners as lower in attractiveness/vitality and as poorer matches to their partners' attractiveness ideals. In contrast, men's BMI was generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women's relationship difficulties.

  19. Conceptualizing Interpersonal Relationships in Agile IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sabine; Matook, Sabine

    Agile information systems development (ISD) is a people-centered approach that emphasizes frequent interaction and genuine co-operation between customers and developers. While business relationships are the norm in the workplace, agile ISD leads to the creation of close interpersonal relationships....... Drawing on relationship theory and friendship literature we propose a theoretical framework of three types of workplace relationships. The framework is used for deriving theoretical preconceptions about agile relationships and their impact on the agile ISD team’s ability to deliver valuable, working...

  20. Review of Relationships Among Variables in TAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuanquan; QI Jiayin; SHU Huaying

    2008-01-01

    The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an important tool in information technology research. Many scholars have applied the classical TAM to various research domains. However, the relationships between variables in these TAM models are not strongly desired. Thirty-four articles selected from international journals were analyzed to show that most of the relationships in the classical TAM are significant, but the stabilities of these relationships differ. The significant positive relationships between perceived ease of use and its independent variables are more stable than the others. Various factors can strengthen or weaken these relationships.

  1. An Investigation of Relationship between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khajehnoori

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Globalization and body image of women inTehran, Shiraz and Estahban. The Sample of the study consisted of 2200 women in these cities. Afterreviewing local and international literature, we examined 9 hypotheses that drawing from synthesizedtheoretical framework with regard to Giddens theory and past researches.The research methodology was a survey. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and a scalefor body image. All women of these cities selected systematically at random. The results showed thatModernity, Awareness about Globalization, Life style, negotiation in family, Cultural Capital and MarriageStatus on the whole could explain about 40 percent of women's body image.

  2. Relationship between Endometriosis and Subfertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DJ Cahill

    2003-01-01

    An association between minor endometriosis and subfertility is shown by prevalence studies but a clear causal relationship has not yet been demonstrated. This review presents the evidence for pituitary-ovarian dysfunction as a cause for subfertility in women with minor endometriosis. Using tubal infertility cases as controls, group comparison has shown effects on the following: follicular growth (impaired), preovulatory circulating oestradiol levels (reduced) and early luteal phase oestradiol and progesterone (reduced) , and LH surge patterns (disordered). preovulatory follicular fluid LH concentration (reduced), and granulosa cell steroidogenic capacity (impaired) . However, these findings are not consistent in the literature. Compared with controls, reduced oocyte fertilisation and implantation rates are reported in natural and gonadotrophin stimulated cycles. An inherent disorder of follicular function is possible as a cause, with LH surge impairment probably a secondary phenomenon. Natural subfertility is substantially disordered as a result of oocyte fertilisation impairment. However, as excess numbers of oocytes are available in bitrofertility in vitro fertility (IVF) is still successful.

  3. Relationship between adipokines and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Furugen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk for developing characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Interestingly, chronic exposure to periodontal pathogens’ endotoxin and increased cytokine production have been proposed to enhance the risk for causing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Obesity has also recently been reported to be associated with periodontitis. Obesity induces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, promotes chronic low-grade inflammation, and increases adipokines derived from adipocytes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the roles of adipokines in chronic inflammatory states such as periodontitis and focus primarily on adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Understanding the role of adipokines may help elucidate relationships among periodontitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  5. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  6. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  7. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  8. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  9. Relationship authenticity partially mediates the effects of attachment on relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, Danney; Warner, Rebecca M

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with anxious and avoidant attachment tend to experience less satisfaction in their relationships. Past research suggests the negative effects of attachment on relationship satisfaction may be partially mediated by self-disclosure and self-concealment; the present study evaluated relationship authenticity as a potential additional mediator. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that relationship authenticity is distinct from self-disclosure and self-concealment. Relationship authenticity predicted additional variance in relationship satisfaction controlling for attachment, self-disclosure, and self-concealment. The results were consistent with relationship authenticity, along with self-disclosure and self-concealment, partially mediating the effects of attachment on relationship satisfaction. These findings suggest that relationship authenticity may play a unique role in understanding how attachment influences relationship satisfaction. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Obsessing about intimate-relationships: testing the double relationship-vulnerability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Guy; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Karp, Einat; Gal, Netali

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive preoccupation and doubts centering on one's intimate relationship may have a negative impact on the romantic dyad and lead to significant distress. In this research we investigated whether the co-occurrence of attachment anxiety and overreliance on intimate relationships for self-worth-what we call double relationship-vulnerability-is linked with relationship-centered obsessions and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Study 1 employed a correlational design to examine the link between double relationship-vulnerability and relationship-centered obsessions. Study 2 employed an experimental design to assess response to subtle threats to the relationship self-domain among individuals with double relationship-vulnerability. Study 1 supported the link between double relationship-vulnerability and relationship-centered obsessions. Study 2 showed that when confronted with subtle threats to the relationship self-domain, individuals with double relationship-vulnerability are more likely to experience distress and engage in mitigating behavior in response to relationship doubts and fears. Our studies were conducted with non-clinical samples. These findings suggest that double relationship-vulnerability may make individuals more susceptible to the development and maintenance of relationship-centered obsessions and compulsions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  12. The Stellar Activity - Rotation Relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Mamajek, Eric E; Henry, Gregory W

    2012-01-01

    Using a new catalog of 824 solar and late-type stars with X-ray luminosities and rotation periods we have studied the relationship between rotation and stellar activity. From an unbiased subset of this sample the power law slope of the unsaturated regime, $L_X/L_{bol}\\propto Ro^\\beta$, is fit as $\\beta=-2.70\\pm0.13$. This is inconsistent with the canonical $\\beta=-2$ slope to a confidence of 5$\\sigma$ and argues for an interface-type dynamo. Super-saturation is observed for the fastest rotators in our sample and its parametric dependencies are explored. Significant correlations are found with both the corotation radius and the excess polar updraft, the latter theory being supported by other observations. We also present a new X-ray population synthesis model of the mature stellar component of our Galaxy and use it to reproduce deep observations of a high Galactic latitude field. The model, XStar, can be used to test models of stellar spin-down and dynamo decay, as well as for estimating stellar X-ray contamin...

  13. Human/mouse homology relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBry, R.W.; Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Conservation of genomic organization in different mammalian species has long been recognized, but only recently has it been possible to examine these relationships systematically on a genome-wide scale in some detail. Mapping of several mammalian species in progressing rapidly, but by far the most detailed information is still to be found in the human and mouse databases. Perhaps the most important aspect of recent progress in genome mapping data. With mapping databases continuing to expand at a greater than linear rate, any attempt at a comprehensive comparative map is doomed to be out of date by the time it is published. However, we feel that it is valuable to provide a summary that is as nearly up to date as possible. We have made a particular effort to include recent human physical mapping data and to identify those mouse genes that have been well-mapped with respect to each other by virtue of having been examined in the same cross. As the human-mouse comparative map becomes more dense, it is not surprising that the observed number of conserved linkage groups continues to increase. Nadeau et al. placed 425 loci on both maps, which delineated over 100 conserved linkage groups. Copeland et al. put a total of 917 markers on both the human and the mouse maps, marking 101 segments of conserved linkage groups. In the present summary, we have placed 1416 loci, and these define at least 181 different conserved linkage groups. 47 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S Mortensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Possessing large brains and complex behavioural patterns, cetaceans are believed to be highly intelligent. Their brains, which are the largest in the Animal Kingdom and have enormous gyrification compared with terrestrial mammals, have long been of scientific interest. Few studies, however, report total number of brain cells in cetaceans, and even fewer have used unbiased counting methods. In this study, using stereological methods, we estimated the total number of cells in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas brain. For the first time, we show that a species of dolphin has more neocortical neurons than in any mammal studied to date including humans. These cell numbers are compared across various mammals with different brain sizes, and the function of possessing many neurons is discussed. We found that the long-finned pilot whale neocortex has approximately 37.2 × 109 neurons, which is almost twice as many as humans, and 127 × 109 glial cells. Thus, the absolute number of neurons in the human neocortex is not correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans (at least compared to cetaceans as has previously been hypothesized. However, as neuron density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain.

  15. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Italian Legal System bounds it, within the meaning of article 4 of Worker’s Statutory. On the other hand, the customer rating can be considered as a type of control on the business organization, in observance of limits established by the same article.Moreover, the paper’s purpose is to inquire about the feedback positive impact on workers: customer satisfaction could provide business bonus, or it could become an evidence against employer in a court case.

  16. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  17. The Relationship between Metaphor and Metonymy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苗苗

    2016-01-01

    Metaphor and metonymy has been widely discussed in cognitive linguistics. However, there are also some problems concerning their relationship. Some linguists deem that metaphor is more basic than metonymy. While others claim metonymy is the foundation for metaphor, In this paper, so as to solve these uncertainties about their relationship and to present an overview of metaphor and metonymy, the paper will analyze the characteristic of metaphor and metonymy and then delineate their differences, hence reaching the relationship of metaphor and metonymy.

  18. SOCIAL NETWORK EFFECTS ON ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Fatma; Selim HOVARDAOGLU

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to obtain information about social network variables in order to predict the relational commitment of married individuals and people having dating relationships. For this purpose, social network analysis has been carried out on 134 people having dating relationship and 154 married individuals and then Relationship Stability Scale, Subjective Norm Scale and Social Network Feature Survey prepared by the researcher were used. The results indicated that the app...

  19. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  20. Business Relationships and Integration of Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    It is a well-established view that, over time, companies in a business-to-business setting develop long-lasting business relationships. The business relationship between two companies involves a wide range of exchanges on products, technical and economic issues. It also has a social content as it engages people in both companies. Business relationships are, therefore, argued to be founded on a varying extent of exchanges and content of behaviour. This thesis deals with the current and complex...

  1. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play

  2. Relationships between grandparents and teenage grandchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Nicola; Hill, Malcolm; Sweeting, Helen; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Little research is available on the range of help and support grandparents and older grandchildren provide to each other or of the importance and quality of this relationship. Through individual and group interviews, this study explored the relationship between grandparents and teenage grandchildren, looking at the ways teenage grandchildren and their grandparents say that they relate to each other, how they care and provide support and how the relationship changes over time. The ...

  3. Relationship outcomes as measurement criteria to assist communication strategists to manage organisational relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Botha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonfinancial assets like relationships are increasingly important to managers. Communication managers in particular are focusing on measuring and managing organisational relationships as a means to quantify the return on investment (ROI of public relations and communication strategies. Measuring relationships offers communication managers a way to evaluate its contribution to the organisation. A commonly agreed upon definition of these relationships, however, does not exist. If we consider communication management is a managerial function, it must first refine its instruments of measurement. This study looks at the three-stage model of organisational relationships (relationship antecedents, maintenance strategies and relationship outcomes proposed by Grunig & Huang (2000 to firstly review the development of the model. Secondly, the study takes an in-depth look at each relationship outcomes of trust, commitment, satisfaction and control mutuality. Lastly, we assess the reliability and validity of the use of current relationship outcome measures through a survey of 154 organisational relationships. Previous studies that have utilized these outcomes in the measurement of organisational relationships do not discuss the possible interaction (or relationship among these outcomes. This study contributes to current literature by both providing an improved framework for the measurement of relationship outcomes and hypothesizing about how these outcomes interact with one another. It also discusses the managerial implications of managing relationships through the constant measurement of trust, commitment, satisfaction and control mutuality

  4. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE TOURIST SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Cosic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing concept is widely applied in the contemporary conditions of business operations at the tourist market. However traditional marketing concept is more and more subjected to essential changes, firstly through strategic orientation of tourist companies and tourist destinations which are focused at developing relationships with potentional consumers as well as at maintaining and improving relationships with active consumers and stakeholders at the market.This paper is dealing with pointing out essential differences between traditional and relationship marketing, as well as analysing fields of activities in which key changes towards need for relationship marketing implementation are taking place and will take place.

  5. Relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, W F; Bailey, C; Wagner, A; Hardesty, V A

    1986-10-01

    Previous research suggested that hyperactive children are especially susceptible to accidents. Two questions remain: is the relationship peculiar to hyperactivity in childhood or for behaviorally disturbed children in general and does the relationship hold for females as well as for males? To answer these questions 189 patients at a child psychiatric clinic were rated on a scale which included measures of hyperactivity and accident proneness. The hyperactive patients were more likely to be described as accident prone than nonhyperactive patients. The relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness is confirmed and is specific. The relationship holds for both boys and girls.

  6. The Relationship between Periodontopathy and Estrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shiguang; LI Dexiang

    2002-01-01

    Objecitve To discuss the relationship between peridontopathy and estrogen. Method We discussed the relationship between periodontopathy and increasing of estrogen, the relationship between peridontopoathy and deficiency of estrogen and the relationship between osteoprotegerin in osteoblasts and estrogen. Results When estrogen increased or decreased abnormally, osteoporosis could occur, which induced alveolar ridge resorption and alveolar bone atrophy. Then the teeth exfoliated.Teeth uncleanness facilitated periodontopathy. Conclusion No matter how young or old, keeping the relative balance of estrogen can protect gingiva and alveolar bone. At the same time, keeping teeth clean is also essential to prevent periodontopathy.

  7. Boundary issues in teacher-student relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, S M

    1993-01-01

    Increasing concern about therapist-patient sex has led to a consideration of boundaries in all trust-based relationships, which always include elements of power and dependency. Such relationships include those between teacher and student, especially those involving research or clinical supervision. Teacher-student relationships differ from those between therapist and patient because of the collegiality considered important for the student's development. Yet, both share the objective of fostering independence of the "client." Therefore, teachers need to find a balance of nurturance and separateness in their relationships with their students, so that the students can carry that modeling into their own careers.

  8. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR SERVICE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ioana CIOBANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, relationship marketing has been a topic of interest for practitioners and researchers who analyze this area. During this period, the development of sustainable business relations represented a strategic priority. From this perspective, relationship marketing is a tool for managers who need to create new organizational structures. The implementing of relationship marketing activities is performed both inside and outside the organization. This article presents the evolution of the concept of relationship marketing in marketing theory and practice from the perspective of intensification of relations between clients and businesses and thus the requirements imposed by the new business environment.

  9. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR SERVICE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ioana CIOBANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, relationship marketing has been a topic of interest for practitioners and researchers who analyze this area. During this period, the development of sustainable business relations represented a strategic priority. From this perspective, relationship marketing is a tool for managers who need to create new organizational structures. The implementing of relationship marketing activities is performed both inside and outside the organization. This article presents the evolution of the concept of relationship marketing in marketing theory and practice from the perspective of intensification of relations between clients and businesses and thus the requirements imposed by the new business environment.

  10. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-10-09

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers' attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one's favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands.

  11. Are secret relationships hot, then not? Romantic secrecy as a function of relationship duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Craig A; Foster, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

    2010-01-01

    Are secret romances alluring or aversive? One theory suggests that romantic secrecy increases obsessive preoccupation with romantic partners and thereby enhances romantic relationships. Another theory suggests that romantic secrecy is burdensome and thereby undermines romantic relationships. We sought to rectify these conflicting perspectives by examining romantic secrecy and relationship duration using a large, Internet-based sample (N = 564). We predicted that romantic secrecy would have a positive influence in newer romantic relationships (obsessive preoccupation theory) and a negative influence in older romantic relationships (burden theory). In contrast, the obtained results indicate that romantic secrecy is a burden to both new and old romantic relationships.

  12. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population. Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P sarcopenia was also more prevalent in participants with albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38–8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria. This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa. PMID:26817888

  13. Relationship between ouabain and asthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-hong; Wan, Yan; Lou, Huan; Xue, Ting; Su, Ping

    2014-02-01

    A growing number of researches have shown that ouabain can regulate mammalian sperm function and male reproduction by modulating the sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction in vitro. This study further examined the relationship between ouabain and asthenozoospermia. In this study, the rat was intraperitoneally injected with ouabain at different concentrations (low-dose ouabain group: 12.5 μg/kg body weight per day, and high-dose ouabain group: 25 μg/kg body weight per day) for 30 days to establish the asthenozoospermia model. The sperms from 60 males with normal fertility were incubated with ouabain of gradient concentrations (10(-7)-10(-2) mol/L) for 4 h. The sperm motility was evaluated under a microscope. Moreover, the endogenous ouabain (EO) level was determined in seminal plasma of mild or severe asthenozoospermia patients and males with normal fertility by competitive inhibition ELISA. The results showed that the sperm motility was significantly diminished in the rats treated with different concentrations of ouabain. The number of motile sperms (grades a and b) was decreased greatly in a time- and dose-dependent manner in 10(-5)-10(-2) mol/L ouabain groups (P0.05). Furthermore, the EO level was significantly increased in asthenozoospermia patients as compared with that in males with normal fertility (25.27±1.71 μg/L in mild asthenozoospermia patients, 26.52±1.82 μg/L in severe asthenozoospermia patients, 19.31±1.45 μg/L in normal fertility men) (Pasthenozoospermia was successfully established by intraperitoneal injection of ouabain, and 10(-5) mol/L ouabain was sufficient enough to inhibit sperm motility in vitro. Moreover, EO, a normal constituent of seminal plasma, was highly expressed in asthenozoospermia males as compared with normal fertility ones.

  14. Research and clinical practice relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashammakhi N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: I highly value and greet the authors for their editorial. Many important issues related to medical education and its future in Libya have been discussed in this paper [1]. One important point that has been addressed and I feel deserves attention is the “abnormal” relationship between clinical practice and research in Libya. From discussions with colleagues, this problem somehow has evolved from a misconception about educational and training systems that may have occurred in the past. It may also be related to the lack of attention to research that has long existed in Libya [2,3]. The other aspect, shared with many other developing countries, is the misconception of research as unimportant or a luxury aspect of medicine. When it comes to understanding how a system (including healthcare can be updated and developed, the answer is vague! One important reason is a lack of understanding of the impact that research has on developing methods. In developed countries, research is the main academic distinction that leads to appointments for coveted positions in the system and is an important factor for academic promotion. In Libya, there remain arguments about who will be awarded Chair of university clinical departments. Such a post should no doubt be given to those with established academic achievements. When highly qualified persons are at the top of the pyramid this leads to further progress and enhanced research and advancement. The authors have discussed the point of having proper search committees for leadership and faculty positions. I believe that it will help eliminate the current stagnation and help to create innovative solutions. This should lead to improved medical education, health services, and ultimately impact the quality of life of all Libyan citizens.

  15. Parenting in On/Off Relationships: The Link Between Relationship Churning and Father Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Family systems theory points to the interconnected nature of dyadic relationships within the family unit, arguing for attention to how the parental relationship shapes their ties to and interactions with their children. Grounded in family systems theory, we consider how relationship churning-defined as being in an on-again/off-again relationship with the same partner-is associated with father involvement. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how father involvement among relationship churners compares with father involvement among those in three other relationship types (measured during the first five years of the focal child's life): stably together relationships, stably broken-up relationships, and repartnered relationships. First, we find that churning fathers remain more involved with their 9-year-old children than do parents who stably break up or repartner, but they are less involved than those who are stably together. Second, lower relationship quality among churners-and, to a lesser extent, repartnering and childbearing with a new partner-explains some of the differences in father involvement between churners and the stably together. Third, these differences are most apparent among parents not living together when father involvement is measured. Taken together, the focus on relationship churning extends prior research on the association between relationship transitions and father involvement by separating relationship instability from partner change.

  16. Multidimensional Scaling Applied to Linguistic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1973-01-01

    As the several specific applications in this paper demonstrate, multidimensional scaling provides a long-needed means for investigating and describing spatial relationships among speech varieties. It is especially applicable to the relationships among varieties of a single language (or more properly, linguistic "cline"), which, as is…

  17. Healthcare and Listening: A Relationship for Caring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Foley, Amy; Crigger, Nancy; Brannigan, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The optimal relationship between healthcare provider and patient is one of trust. This therapeutic relationship is dependent on the ability of the healthcare provider to communicate effectively with the patient. Research indicates that when healthcare providers listen to patients, there is more compliance with medical regimens, patient…

  18. Interpersonal Perceptions and Relationship--Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbell, Marshall; Dallinger, Judith

    A study examined the relationship of interpersonal perceptual variables to communication contexts, specifically relationship types. The variables examined were (1) interpersonal solidarity, (2) perceived homophily, (3) uncertainty reduction, (4) feeling good, (5) interpersonal attraction, (6) relational safety, and (7) self-disclosure. The…

  19. Do children stabilize relationships in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between fertility behavior and the process of relationship duration. The potential endogeneity of fertility on dissolution risk is taken into account by modeling fertility and dissolution jointly. We apply the timing-of-event method (Abbring and van den Berg...

  20. Outsourcing relationships: Changes in power and dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2013-01-01

    for the relationship to remain aligned and appropriate must also change. Through an empirical dyadic investigation of a large multinational corporation and three of its vendors the key-determinants related to changes in outsourcing relationships are investigated. This dyadic study shows that companies need to consider...

  1. Bulimia and Interpersonal Relationships: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…

  2. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  3. Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Finds subjects' relationships with soap opera characters, like social relationships with real people, are based on reduction of uncertainty and ability to predict the character's feelings and attitudes. Discusses implications for uncertainty reduction theory…

  4. Critical Elements of the Employment Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Joseph

    The employment relationship in public schools is governed by constitutional mandates, federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, and contractual obligations. This chapter discusses fundamental aspects of the employment relationship that are influenced by legal principles derived from state law, local district policy and practice, and…

  5. Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/03- ART15 $15.00.

  6. Friend Flips: A Story Activity about Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Leigh; Reyes, Jovanni V.; Farmer, Jennifer; Wilson, Kelly L.; McNeill, Elisa Beth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are influenced by the type, length and quality of the connections shared with different people throughout their lifespan. Relationships with peers, friends, and adults help to shape knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to health. Recognizing healthy or unhealthy characteristics allow youth to strengthen relationships and…

  7. The Effects of Traumatic and Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeck, Tricia L.; Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand what constitutes a traumatic relationship experience for adults in abusive intimate relationships and what effects, losses, and coping strategies were the most salient for these participants. A total of 101 individuals (42 males, 59 females) who reported experiencing an abusive or traumatic relationship…

  8. Improving Music Teaching through Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships are fundamental to learning and human development. To develop a positive and safe classroom environment with student motivation and learning, music educators need to learn to relate and connect effectively with others. This article looks at the importance of the interpersonal relationships in the classroom environment…

  9. Introduction to media and advertising creative relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on the relationship of media and advertising creative for the report, Through the analysis of the nature and characteristics of various advertising media, from video, print, advertising, outdoor this four aspects explain the relationship between media and advertising creative. Fully understand the media for advertising creative, make the best combination of media and advertising, make advertising creative into real productivity.

  10. Strategic Relationship Management in School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Mary John; O'Hair, H. Dan; Lee, Renee; Averso, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Research supports the need for schools to operate as professional learning communities fueled by a supportive accurate understanding of collaborative relationships among school stakeholders. These relationships are necessary to build trust and foster discourse focused on improved teaching and learning practices and increased student achievement.…

  11. Interpersonal Attraction in the Counseling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Dale; Diaz, Sandra

    Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role theory of dyadic relationships, in which attraction depends on the exchange value of the assets and liabilities each person brings to the situation, is employed as a foundation for this review of the literature on interpersonal attraction in the counseling relationship. A three-stage model, accounting for both…

  12. Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses the views of agency and stewardship theory on governance of the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries. It explores the influence of strategy, task environment and cultural differences on this relationship. The conceptual model is explored based on a survey of 76 poli

  13. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  14. Patterns of Stepchild-Stepparent Relationship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn; Jamison, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two stepdaughters and 17 stepsons participated in this grounded theory study of emerging adult stepchildren's perceptions about how relationships with their stepparents developed. The theory created from this study proposes that the degree to which stepchildren engage in relationship-building and -maintaining behaviors with stepparents is a…

  15. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  16. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  17. 25 CFR 163.72 - Supervisory relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervisory relationship. 163.72 Section 163.72 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.72 Supervisory relationship. In any agreement authorized by the Secretary, Indian...

  18. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  19. Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated three million American youth are in formal, one-to-one mentoring relationships, and countless more have meaningful, natural mentoring relationships with extended family members, teachers, neighbors, coaches and other caring, non-parental adults. The empirical literature generally indicates that close and enduring mentoring…

  20. Time Consistency In Teacher-Class Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainhard, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching and learning are inherently social processes. An important constituent element of social processes is the interpersonal relationship between those who interact. Accordingly, the teacher-student relationship, which is the central theme of this PhD thesis, has been a major topic in

  1. Immigration and Students' Relationship with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Bondy, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Students' relationship with teachers is a building block toward student progress and success. Little is known, however, about the relationships the children of immigrants have with their teachers, which is particularly relevant today in the midst of the current social, political, and economic debate over the influence of immigration in U.S.…

  2. Understanding a mentorship relationship and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mentorship relationship as a system of knowledge, reciprocal learning, acting and relationship-building After the introductory discussion on how to conceptualize mentoring, a process with many dimensions: teaching, counselling, guidance, animation, friendship and many other, the author deals with the mentoring relationship (edu-cation and communication within mentoring pairs. In a mentoring relationship there are two actors, a mentor and a mentee. There is also a »third, excluded partner« (company, educational organisation, etc. providing supportive organisational rules for the mentoring relationship. The author examines the transformation of the mentor, mentee and their social environment as well as the process of transmission of knowledge. She points out that the significance of a mentoring relationship lies less in the transmission of knowledge than in the mentor’s and mentee’s joint creation of new knowledge. She stresses the importance of action, the main drive for learning. A mentoring relationship includes communication and reciprocity as well as transmission of knowledge by means of predominantly non-informal edu- cational programmes, as well as learning and relationship building. It has several phases, some of which are more interactive than others, with more cognitive dissonance and with richer emotions.

  3. Assessment of Dependency, Agreeableness, and Their Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jennifer Ruth; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Agreeableness is central to the 5-factor model conceptualization of dependency. However, 4 meta-analyses of the relationship of agreeableness with dependency have failed to identify a consistent relationship. It was the hypothesis of the current study that these findings might be due in part to an emphasis on the assessment of adaptive, rather…

  4. Putting Relationship Maintenance into Proper Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Carlos G.

    Noting that scholars often agree that varying investigations of relationship maintenance are only different mappings of the same territory, this paper organizes and criticizes the literature on relationship change from a position that defines maintenance as behavior that functions to sustain interpersonal bonds towards future interaction. The…

  5. 32 CFR 352a.5 - Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationships. 352a.5 Section 352a.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.5 Relationships. (a) In the performance...

  6. Peer Relationships of Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Yael; Deignan, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interviews with parents of children with cochlear implants found that, although implants have the potential to improve deaf children's relationships with hearing peers, these children still face communication obstacles which impede their social relationships. Results are discussed from the viewpoints of…

  7. Bulimia and Interpersonal Relationships: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…

  8. Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Online Accesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanpang, Pannee; Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out in Thailand investigating the relationship between students' use of an e-learning system and their learning outcomes in a course on Business Statistics. The results show a clear relationship between accesses to the e-learning system, as measured by number of "hits", and outcomes, as measured by…

  9. Patterns of Stepchild-Stepparent Relationship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn; Jamison, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two stepdaughters and 17 stepsons participated in this grounded theory study of emerging adult stepchildren's perceptions about how relationships with their stepparents developed. The theory created from this study proposes that the degree to which stepchildren engage in relationship-building and -maintaining behaviors with stepparents is a…

  10. Sexually explicit media use and relationship satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veit, Maria; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Hald, Gert Martin

    2017-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional questionnaire design and a sample of 2284 coupled Croatian adults, this study investigated the association between Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) use and relationship satisfaction. Further, possible moderation of emotional intimacy on the relationship between SEM use and re...

  11. Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated three million American youth are in formal, one-to-one mentoring relationships, and countless more have meaningful, natural mentoring relationships with extended family members, teachers, neighbors, coaches and other caring, non-parental adults. The empirical literature generally indicates that close and enduring mentoring…

  12. 17 CFR 200.71 - Fiduciary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiduciary relationships. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.71 Fiduciary relationships. A member should avoid service as a fiduciary if it would interfere or seem to interfere with the proper...

  13. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  14. 32 CFR 989.5 - Organizational relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational relationships. 989.5 Section 989.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.5 Organizational relationships. (a) The host...

  15. Therapeutic relationships in vocational rehabilitation : Predicting good relationships for people with psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catty, Jocelyn; White, Sarah; Koletsi, Marsha; Becker, Thomas; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Lissouba, Pascale; Roessler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Burns, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic relationships between clients and vocational rehabilitation workers have been shown to predict entering competitive employment. We aimed to determine predictors of good relationships, using data from an international randomized controlled trial of supported employment (n = 312). Baseline

  16. The Influence of Relationship Proneness on Relationship Satisfaction and Relationship Commitment: Empirical Evidence from Domestic Tourists in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugine Tafadzwa Maziriri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, small tourism enterprises lie at the heart of the industry and form a major part of the tourism sector. There are the cornerstones of tourism development in local economies. This study assessed the influence of relationship proneness on relationship satisfaction and relationship commitment among domestic tourism clients within the Cape Town Metropolitan Area of South Africa. In spite of the increasing research on small tourism enterprises, they seem to be a paucity of studies that have investigated the influence of relationship proneness on relationship satisfaction and relationship commitment. The study utilised a quantitative research design using a structured questionnaire. The design was suitable to solicit the required information relating to relationship proneness, relationship satisfaction and relationship commitment. The findings indicate that relationship proneness has a positive influence on relationship satisfaction, relationship proneness has a positive influence on relationship commitment and relationship satisfaction exerts a positive influence on relationship commitment. All the posited three hypotheses were supported. The empirical study provided fruitful implications to academicians by making a significant contribution to the relationship marketing literature by systematically exploring the influence of relationship proneness on relationship satisfaction and relationship commitment. This study therefore, stand to immensely contribute new knowledge to the existing body of relationship marketing literature in Africa – a context that is often most neglected by some researchers in developing countries.

  17. Searching for self and relationships online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, M Kyle

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to study how Internet use relates to psychological well-being, relationships, the self and identity. University students (N = 203) completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of time spent online, "pathological" Internet use, Internet motivation, loneliness, relationship quality, self-concept clarity, and ego identity. Results showed positive relationships between measures of Internet use and loneliness. As well, face-to-face relationships were rated higher on both positive and negative quality dimensions relative to online relationships. Finally, Internet use was negatively correlated with self-concept clarity, and associated with moratorium identity status. These results suggest that the Internet may be an important aid for young adults as they searched for an adult identity.

  18. Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Using a daily process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.

  19. Adolescent intimate heterosexual relationships: measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2013-02-01

    During adolescence, individuals develop increased ability to have emotionally and physically intimate relationships. The type of intimate relationship will make a difference as to whether the adolescent engages in protective behaviors or avoids risky behaviors. However, in reviewing the literature on the association of relationship type and sexual risk and protective behaviors, four methodological challenges were noted. These challenges limit our understanding of the impact of relationship type. These four challenges are: (a) inconsistent definitional frameworks; (b) lack of adolescent voices; (c) lack of consideration of gender; and (d) poor differentiation between individual and relationship risk. These issues direct the course of future work in this area and are necessary to advance the field of adolescent sexual health, particularly with regard to the development and testing of appropriate interventions designed to reduce untoward outcomes of adolescent sexuality.

  20. Pathological love: impulsivity, personality, and romantic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Eglacy C; Tavares, Hermano; Berti, Marina P; Pereira, Ana P; Lorena, Andrea; Mello, Cidália; Gorenstein, Clarice; Zilberman, Monica L

    2009-05-01

    Pathological love (PL)--behavior characterized by providing repetitive and uncontrolled care and attention to the partner in a romantic relationship--is a rarely studied condition, despite not being rare and causing suffering. This study aims at investigating impulsivity, personality, and characteristics related to the romantic relationship in this population. Eighty-nine individuals (50 with PL; 39 individuals with no psychiatric disorder) were compared regarding impulsivity, personality, type of attachment, satisfaction with romantic relationship, and love style. Individuals with PL have higher levels of impulsivity (Promantic relationships (PRelationship Assessment Scale). Individuals with PL present personality traits and relationship aspects that must be taken into account in devising assessment and therapeutic strategies for this population.

  1. Taking the pulse of strategic outsourcing relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Kenneth A; Lamberti, Mary Jo; Kaitin, Kenneth I

    2014-10-01

    Articles in peer-reviewed journals and the trade press presuppose that strategic outsourcing relationships have been formed to replace preexisting collaborative approaches with contract research organizations. They do not consider that large, fragmented pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies may be supporting competing and conflicting relationship models simultaneously. A recent Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development study quantifies actual strategic outsourcing practices among drug development companies and sheds new light on why these relationships may be failing. Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development conducted an in-depth assessment of 43 Phase II and III clinical studies completed since 2012 to examine the outsourcing relationships used by 9 major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to support key functional areas. Descriptive statistics were assessed and t tests were performed to characterize outsourcing practices by function and to determine differences in study performance between transactional and strategic outsourcing relationships. The results indicate that sponsor companies are using a variety of outsourcing relationship models to support their studies, mixing and matching the use of internal staff, and using traditional transactional and strategic outsourcing relationships simultaneously. Specifically, despite the fact that each sponsor company had entered into several strategic outsourcing relationships, in no instance did a single contract research organization manage all functional areas supporting an individual Phase II or III study. In addition, sponsor companies vary the types of outsourcing relationship models that they use on a study-by-study basis. The inability of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to consistently embrace and coordinate sourcing strategies is creating internal friction and inefficiency. As a result, the expected impact of strategic outsourcing relationships on drug development performance

  2. The Loss and Recovery of Erotic Intimacy in Primary Relationships: Narrative Therapy and Relationship Enhancement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Maryhelen

    2000-01-01

    Therapists working with intimate relationships are frequently confronted with issues regarding the loss of erotic intimacy, differences in levels of sexual desire, and the existence of intimate relationships outside the primary. Proposes that an approach derived from an integration of narrative therapy and relationship enhancement therapy can be…

  3. The development of romantic relationships and adaptations in the system of peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2002-12-01

    In this review, it is proposed that a systems approach to the study of the development of romantic relationships might enhance our understanding of the nature of social relationships, and the links between social relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. First, a selected literature review is provided on the normative development of romantic relationships during adolescence, antecedents of different romantic involvement pathways, and positive and negative qualities of these relationships. Second, the focus is placed on the how the development of romantic relationships occurs within existing systems of relationships including peer networks and close friendships. It is suggested that the development of romantic relationships may change the peer network and nature of relationships with friends and others, and particular types of transitions in social relationships will likely occur. The timing of these transitions and an understanding of the entire peer system as romantic relationships develop will likely improve our understanding of individual developmental processes such as identity formation and the development of externalizing and internalizing problems. Finally, it is proposed that adolescents are faced with a complicated task that includes developing romantic interests and relationships but managing their changing social networks.

  4. Relationship Churning, Physical Violence, and Verbal Abuse in Young Adult Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults' romantic relationships are often unstable, commonly including breakup--reconcile patterns. From the developmental perspective of emerging adulthood exploration, such relationship "churning" is expected; however, minor conflicts are more common in churning relationships. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships…

  5. Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, L A; Schmitt, J P

    1986-10-01

    The relationship quality of partners in 44 married, 35 heterosexual cohabiting, 50 gay, and 56 lesbian monogamous couples was studied. Each couple lived together and did not have children living with them. Relationship quality was dimensionalized as love for partner, liking of partner, and relationship satisfaction. Cohabiting partners had the lowest Love for Partner and Relationship Satisfaction scores. Differences were also found among partner types on: barriers to leaving the relationship, alternatives to the relationship, a belief that mindreading is expected in the relationship, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, dyadic attachment, shared decision making, and perceived social support from family. The four partner groups did not differ in psychological adjustment. For each type of partner, love for partner was related to many barriers to leaving the relationship and high dyadic attachment; liking of partner was related to few alternatives to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making; and relationship satisfaction was related to many attractions, few alternatives, few beliefs regarding disagreement is destructive to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making. Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to identify the best set of predictors for each partner type. Results are discussed in the context of existing models of relationship quality.

  6. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  7. Hopes and Concerns in Couple Relationships across Adulthood and Their Association with Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Villamizar, Diana Janeth

    2012-01-01

    The study explored goals in couple relationships, and determined their association with age and the level of satisfaction expressed with the relationship. The participants were made up of 355 volunteers, aged between 20 and 78, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months. The sample was gathered to ensure an age and gender balance.…

  8. The Loss and Recovery of Erotic Intimacy in Primary Relationships: Narrative Therapy and Relationship Enhancement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Maryhelen

    2000-01-01

    Therapists working with intimate relationships are frequently confronted with issues regarding the loss of erotic intimacy, differences in levels of sexual desire, and the existence of intimate relationships outside the primary. Proposes that an approach derived from an integration of narrative therapy and relationship enhancement therapy can be…

  9. When the Relationship becomes Her: Revisiting Women's Body Concerns from a Relationship Contingency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T.; Kwang, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Given women's communally oriented socialization and social pressures to find romantic partners, many heterosexual women may derive self-worth from having romantic relationships (relationship contingency). Across two studies, we explored whether relationship contingency heightens women's body shame. Studies 1A and 1B found that relationship…

  10. Improving Relationship Satisfaction--Qualitative Insights Derived from Individuals Currently within a Couple Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of relationship breakdown, and the unequivocal association with poor outcomes, ways in which to improve relationship satisfaction are of great importance. Derived from in-depth interviews with 112 individuals in a couple relationship, this study aims to explore and understand different beliefs and perceived capabilities toward…

  11. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  12. MINING TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS FROM SPATIOTEMPORAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining topological relationship patterns involve three aspects. First one is the discovery of geometric relationships like disjoint, cover, intersection and overlap between every pair of spatiotemporal objects. Second one is tracking the change of such relationships with time from spatiotemporal databases. Third one is mining the topological relationship patterns. Spatiotemporal databases deal with changes to spatial objects with time. The applications in this domain process spatial, temporal and attribute data elements to find the evolution of spatial objects and changes in their topological relationships with time. These advanced database applications require storing, management and processing of complex spatiotemporal data. In this paper we discuss a model-view-controller based architecture of the system, the design of spatiotemporal database and methodology for mining spatiotemporal topological relationship patterns. Prototype implementation of the system is carried out on top of open source object relational spatial database management system called postgresql and postgis. The algorithms are experimented on historical cadastral datasets that are created using OpenJump. The resulting topological relationship patterns are presented.

  13. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2011-01-01

    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  14. Relationship Ambiance and Condom Use in Greek Young Adults’ Dating Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos S. Kordoutis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether ambiance, a qualitative relationship characteristic, predicted condom use in Greek young adults’ dating relationships, along with other objective relationship characteristics, such as relationship duration and coital sex frequency. Ambiance definition was based on the fundamental companionate-passionate love distinction. Participants were 277 Greek university students, 18-25 years old, having an ongoing relationship; they provided their basic demographics and information on their relationship, such as duration and coital sex frequency. They also described their relationship, in terms of passionate and companionate ambiance, using the rating scales of an 11-item ambiance measure. Finally, they indicated whether they had used or not used a condom at first, last intercourse and consistently during the last month. We hypothesized that condoms would be used more frequently at first and last intercourse, and more consistently in relationships with predominantly companionate rather that passionate ambiance. Three logistic regression analyses revealed that ambiance predicted condom use and that condoms were used more frequently at last intercourse and more consistently in relationships of companionate rather than passionate ambiance. Further analyses indicated that ambiance qualified condom use effects of relationship duration and coital sex frequency. It is suggested that companionate ambiance focuses partners on the normative aspect of the relationship, increasing protective behavior, while passionate, on the sexual and intimate, undermining it.

  15. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  16. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  17. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  18. Technology, relationships, and problems: a research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Webster, Megan

    2008-10-01

    The advances in technology alter the ways we interact with each other. For some, the use of technology can facilitate a relationship; for others, technology can complicate aspects of a relationship. The purpose of this research synthesis is to summarize current research exploring the ways in which technology impacts relationships negatively. Eight studies were reviewed across the following areas: preoperational definitions, sample, methodology, control of extraneous variables, causal influence, generalizability, validity of statistical findings, and conclusions. Implications for authors, researchers, and therapists working with couples and families struggling with technology issues are discussed.

  19. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... future research efforts on interpersonal attraction in the buyer– supplier context. Finally, the managerial value and challenges of applying attraction to buyer–supplier exchange relationships are discussed....... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...

  20. The complex relationship between depression and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliyala Krishna

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and depression are mental health problems that are commonly encountered in neuropsychiatric practice in the elderly. Approximately, half of the patients with late-onset depression have cognitive impairment. The prevalence of depression in dementias has been reported to be between 9 and 68%. Depression has been both proposed to be a risk factor for dementia as well as a prodrome of dementia. This article is a selective literature review of the complex relationship between the two conditions covering definitions, epidemiology, related concepts, treatment, and emerging biomarkers. The methodological issues and the mechanisms underlying the relationship are also highlighted. The relationship between the two disorders is far from conclusive.

  1. Dynamic Relationships in E-Government Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Reinwald, Anja Kaldahl

    2012-01-01

    four Danish municipalities. Based on an exploratory, multiple case study we develop a descriptive model of the dynamic relationships between IT managers and line managers in public organizations. The model describes four archetypes – craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, partnership, and companionship...... and tactical benefits of IS. However, although IS management has been studied at the strategic level, middle management has not received the same attention. Existing research has, for example, investigated the relationship between the CIO and top management, but no studies have looked at the relationship...

  2. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  3. Romantic Relationships and Relationship Satisfaction Among Adults With Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Schermuck, Constanze; Ballerstein, Sarah; Ahlers, Christoph J; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience difficulties in maintaining romantic relationships. In this study high-functioning adults with ASD were examined concerning their romantic relationship interest and experience. Participants, 31 recruited via an outpatient clinic and 198 via an online survey, were asked to answer a number of self-report questionnaires. The total sample comprised 229 high-functioning adults with ASD (40% males, average age: 35 years). Of the total sample, 73% indicated romantic relationship experience and only 7% had no desire to be in a romantic relationship. ASD individuals whose partner was also on the autism spectrum were significantly more satisfied with their relationship than those with neurotypical partners. Severity of autism, schizoid symptoms, empathy skills, and need for social support were not correlated with relationship status. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of high-functioning adults with ASD are interested in romantic relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean; Brown, Kirk Warren; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Campbell, W Keith; Rogge, Ronald D

    2007-10-01

    Two studies examined the role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and in responses to relationship stress. Using a longitudinal design, Study 1 found that higher trait mindfulness predicted higher relationship satisfaction and greater capacities to respond constructively to relationship stress. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings. Mindfulness was again shown to relate to relationship satisfaction; then, using a conflict discussion paradigm, trait mindfulness was found to predict lower emotional stress responses and positive pre- and postconflict change in perception of the relationship. State mindfulness was related to better communication quality during the discussion. Both studies indicated that mindfulness may play an influential role in romantic relationship well-being. Discussion highlights future research directions for this new area of inquiry.

  5. Effect of Crystallinity on Electrochemical Insertion/Extraction of Li in Transition Metal Oxides Part II: TiO2, V2O5 and MoOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical irtsertion/extraction of Li on cathode materials of anatase type TiO2, quasilayered structure V2O5 and layered structure MoO3 was measured on samples of which structures were well characterized and showed a wide range of crystallinity. On the basis of experimental results on structure, morphology and charge-discharge characteristics, the effect of crystallinity of the cathode materials on electrochemical Li insertion/extraction performance was discussed.These three transition metal oxides were classified as one group on the basis of whether the crystallirfity of these oxides affects to the performance or not; LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.5Ni0.5O2belongs to the former group and TiO2, V2O5 and MoO3 to the latter.

  6. A kinetics study of self-discharge of spinel electrodes in Li/Li xMn 2O 4 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazami, R.; Ozawa, Y.

    The rate of self-discharge in lithium half-cells with the spinel-type LiMn 2O 4 cathode was investigated in the 60-75 °C temperature range. The time dependence of the capacity loss and the open-circuit voltage (OCV) was monitored during the thermal aging. Lithium re-intercalation from the electrolyte appears to govern the mechanism of self-discharge in the two plateaus at the '4 V' areas. Treatment of the OCV data acquired during aging and by the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) method allowed the electrode composition to be determined during the course of self-discharge. Self-discharge current was then determined and plotted against OCV. The isothermal voltammograms obtained show characteristic self-discharge current peaks.

  7. A novel strategy to construct high performance lithium-ion cells using one dimensional electrospun nanofibers, electrodes and separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    We successfully demonstrated the performance of novel, one-dimensional electrospun nanofibers as cathode, anode and separator-cum-electrolyte in full-cell Li-ion configuration. The cathode, LiMn2O4 delivered excellent cycle life over 800 cycles at current density of 150 mA g-1 with capacity retention of ~93% in half-cell assembly (Li/LiMn2O4). Under the same current rate, the anode, anatase phase TiO2, rendered ~77% initial reversible capacity after 500 cycles in half-cell configuration (Li/TiO2). Gelled electrospun PVdF-HFP exhibits liquid-like conductivity of ~3.2 mS cm-1 at ambient temperature conditions (30 °C). For the first time, a full-cell is fabricated with enitrely electrospun one-dimensional materials by adjusting the mass loading of cathode with respect to anode in the presence of gelled PVdF-HFP membrane as a separator-cum-electrolyte. Full-cell LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiO2 delivered good capacity characteristics and excellent cyclability with an operating potential of ~2.2 V at a current density of 150 mA g-1. Under harsh conditions (16 C rate), the full-cell showed a very stable capacity behavior with good calendar life. This clearly showed that electrospinning is an efficient technique for producing high performance electro-active materials to fabricate a high performance Li-ion assembly for commercialization without compromising the eco-friendliness and raw material cost.We successfully demonstrated the performance of novel, one-dimensional electrospun nanofibers as cathode, anode and separator-cum-electrolyte in full-cell Li-ion configuration. The cathode, LiMn2O4 delivered excellent cycle life over 800 cycles at current density of 150 mA g-1 with capacity retention of ~93% in half-cell assembly (Li/LiMn2O4). Under the same current rate, the anode, anatase phase TiO2, rendered ~77% initial reversible capacity after 500 cycles in half-cell configuration (Li/TiO2). Gelled electrospun PVdF-HFP exhibits liquid-like conductivity of ~3.2 mS cm-1 at ambient temperature conditions (30 °C). For the first time, a full-cell is fabricated with enitrely electrospun one-dimensional materials by adjusting the mass loading of cathode with respect to anode in the presence of gelled PVdF-HFP membrane as a separator-cum-electrolyte. Full-cell LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiO2 delivered good capacity characteristics and excellent cyclability with an operating potential of ~2.2 V at a current density of 150 mA g-1. Under harsh conditions (16 C rate), the full-cell showed a very stable capacity behavior with good calendar life. This clearly showed that electrospinning is an efficient technique for producing high performance electro-active materials to fabricate a high performance Li-ion assembly for commercialization without compromising the eco-friendliness and raw material cost. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04486f

  8. Gas evolution behaviors for several cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weihe; Li, Hong; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan

    Several 18650 lithium-ion batteries using LiCoO 2, LiMn 2O 4, and LiFePO 4 as cathode materials were assembled separately. Gas species of these batteries under normal cycling and overcharging to 4.5 and 5.0 V conditions were examined by means of GC-MS method. Under the normal charge and discharge voltage range, it is found that gas components are independent to the cathode materials. C 2H 5F gas was detected in all cases. A formation mechanism is proposed. Under overcharging condition, it is found that the gas components are different and there is a correlation between the C 2H 2 product and the oxidation ability of various delithiated cathode materials.

  9. Recent progress on nanostructured 4 V cathode materials for Li-ion batteries for mobile electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile electronics have developed so rapidly that battery technology has hardly been able to keep pace. The increasing desire for lighter and thinner Li-ion batteries with higher capacities is a continuing and constant goal for in research. Achieving higher energy densities, which is mainly dependent on cathode materials, has become a critical issue in the development of new Li-ion batteries. In this review, we will outline the progress on nanostructured 4 V cathode materials of Li-ion batteries for mobile electronics, covering LiCoO2, LiNixCoyMn1−x−yO2, LiMn2O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Li-rich layered oxide materials. We aim to provide some scientific insights into the development of superior cathode materials by discussing the advantages of nanostructure, surface-coating, and other key properties.

  10. LiBOB基电解液在锂离子动力电池中的应用%The application of LiBOB based electrolyte in power Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳; 闫坤; 邢桃峰; 仇卫华

    2011-01-01

    The unique advantages of lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) as electrolyte salt for power Li-ion battery and the key problems of LiBOB-based electrolyte were summarized. The review was especially focused on the effect of impurities,optimization of its solvents and the compatibility of LiBOB-based electrolyte with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 electrodes.%介绍了双草酸硼酸锂(LiBOB)作为锂离子动力电池电解质锂盐的独特优势以及LiBOB基电解液应用中的关键问题.主要针对LiBOB基电解液中杂质影响和溶剂优化,以及与LiMnO、LiFePO正极材料的相容性进行了阐述.

  11. A Self-Healing Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Hao; Dong, Xiaoli; Cao, Jingyu; Wang, Lie; Xu, Yifan; Ren, Jing; Hwang, Yunil; Son, In Hyuk; Huang, Xianliang; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-11-07

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries are critical for the next-generation electronics. However, during the practical application, they may break under deformations such as twisting and cutting, causing their failure to work or even serious safety problems. A new family of all-solid-state and flexible aqueous lithium ion batteries that can self-heal after breaking has been created by designing aligned carbon nanotube sheets loaded with LiMn2 O4 and LiTi2 (PO4 )3 nanoparticles on a self-healing polymer substrate as electrodes, and a new kind of lithium sulfate/sodium carboxymethylcellulose serves as both gel electrolyte and separator. The specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance can be well maintained after repeated cutting and self-healing. These self-healing batteries are demonstrated to be promising for wearable devices. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electrochemical behaviors of a wearable woven textile Li-ion battery consisting of a core and wound electrode fibers coated with active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Bang, S.; Zhou, D.; Yun, S.

    2017-04-01

    A new fiber-type Li-ion battery that consists of carbon nanotube fibers deposited with active materials has been developed and tested. The active materials, LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12, were deposited on the surface of carbon nanotube fibers in order to use as electrodes. Tensile strength of the CNT fibers with active material was measured by tensile tests to investigate the mechanical characteristics. Electrochemical property is also measured by a battery tester during charging and discharging. The results show that current discharge capacity is about 25 mAh/g between 3.0 V and 4.2 V. That means the fiber with active materials is good for an anode electrode. Mathematical material models considering the lithium concentration and the length of Li-C bond have been established in order to predict the effective elastic modulus of electrode composite materials.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of multidoped lithium manganese oxide spinel LiCo0.02La0.01Mn1.97O3.98Cl0.02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Na; TANG Zhi-yuan; HUANG Qing-hua; LU Xing-he

    2006-01-01

    Multidoped spinel LiCo0.02La0.01Mn1.97O3.98Cl0.02 was synthesized by solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical performance were characterized by XRD, ESEM, particle size distribution analysis, specific surface area testing, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the sample exhibits pure spinel phase. The substitution of Co, La for Mn and Cl for O in the LiMn2O4 stabilizes the structural integrity of the spinel host, which in turn increases the electrochemical cycleability. The electrochemical experiments confirm that the capacity of the LiCo0.02La0.01Mn1.97O3.98Cl0.02electrode maintains 90.6% of the initial capacity at 180th cycle.

  14. Hierarchical surface atomic structure of a manganese-based spinel cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yoon, Gabin; Jeong, Minseul; Lee, Min-Joon; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-01-19

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in high-power applications requires improvement of their high-temperature electrochemical performance, including their cyclability and rate capability. Spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a promising cathode material because of its high stability and abundance. However, it exhibits poor cycling performance at high temperatures owing to Mn dissolution. Herein we show that when stoichiometric lithium manganese oxide is coated with highly doped spinels, the resulting epitaxial coating has a hierarchical atomic structure consisting of cubic-spinel, tetragonal-spinel, and layered structures, and no interfacial phase is formed. In a practical application of the coating to doped spinel, the material retained 90% of its capacity after 800 cycles at 60 °C. Thus, the formation of an epitaxial coating with a hierarchical atomic structure could enhance the electrochemical performance of LIB cathode materials while preventing large losses in capacity.

  15. Capacity Titration Technique for Determining the Solid Diffusion Coefficient of Intercalary Species within Insertion-host Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Cun TANG; Tian Duo LI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity titration technique (CT technique) was developed on basis of the RPG (ratio of potentio-charge capacity to galvano-charge capacity) method to continuously determine the solid diffusion coefficient D of the intercalary species within insertion-host materials with a small voltage region. The linear equations of D vs. q (value of ratio of the potentio-charge capacity to the galvano-charge capacity) were given in different range of q. By the CT technique,the Li+ solid diffusion coefficients D within LiMn2O4 at different voltages were determined. The results showed that the values of D varied from 3.447× 10-9 cm2/s to 7.60× 10-11cm2/s in the voltage range of charge from 3.3V to 4.3V as a function of voltage with "W" shape.

  16. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  17. Gassing behavior of lithium titanate based lithium ion batteries with different types of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiali; Bian, Peiwen; Li, Jia; Ji, Wenjiao; Hao, Hao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-07-01

    Gassing behavior of LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12 full cell with different electrolytes that stored at elevated temperature of 70 °C is investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed in battery formation and storage processes. The results suggest that the SEI film is formed as a consequence of intrinsic reaction between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solvents. A smooth SEI layer is formed on Li4Ti5O12 electrode with full coverage in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte during lithium intercalation process while gradually dissolved with lithium extraction. Moreover, the gas specificities generated in the different electrolyte solvents are also determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis and the reaction mechanisms of LTO electrode with electrolyte solvents are proposed.

  18. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  19. Views on inter-enterprise relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of major scientific approaches to inter-enterprise relationships. A distinction is made between approaches that focus on business process integration (Supply Chain Management, Costing approaches), approaches that focus on organizational collaboration (Transaction Cost The

  20. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  1. College Health: Sexual Health, Relationships, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Ask Us Health Guides Guías de la Salud Dicas de Saúde Parents Clinicians About Us Donate ... in a relationship can be both physical and mental. Your partner should never threaten you or hurt ...

  2. Managing creativity in business market relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The guest editors' introduction to the Special Issue on managing creativity in business market relationships positions the topic at the intersection between interorganizational research and creativity research. It introduces three paradoxes that managers of such processes face: a) the tension...

  3. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  4. Diagrammatic Reasoning with Classes and Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss a diagrammatic visualization and reasoning language coming about by augmenting Euler diagrams with higraphs. The diagrams serve (hierarchical as well as trans-hierarchical) classification and specification of various logical relationships between classes. The diagrams rely...

  5. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  6. Interracial and Cross-cultural Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Reagan H.; Goldstein, Helen Haft

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the need to improve interracial and cross-cultural relationships within therapeutic settings. Suggests strategies counselors can use to communicate more successfully with clients from different racial or ethnic backgrounds who have different values and personal characteristics. (MK)

  7. Do children stabilize relationships in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between fertility behavior and the process of relationship duration. The potential endogeneity of fertility on dissolution risk is taken into account by modeling fertility and dissolution jointly. We apply the timing-of-event method (Abbring and van den Berg......, Econometrica 71(5):1491-1517, 2003) to identify the causal effect of births on the dissolution hazard. We show that couples who are less prone to split up are more prone to invest in children, and therefore, one might (mistakenly) conclude that children stabilize relationships. However, when correcting...... for the selectivity bias arising from the fertility decision, we conclude that children themselves have a negative effect on relationship duration....

  8. City shows gratitude for Fermilab relationship

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierce, Gala

    2006-01-01

    "Part of last week Batavia Chamber of Commerce celebration wasn't just to salute one of Batavia's heroes - Carla Hill - but to commemorate a 40-year relationship between the city and Fermilab" (1 page)

  9. Relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and endoscopic findings among patients with dyspepsia in north ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Results: Of the 148 subjects studied, 68 (46.0%) were males and 80 (54.0%) females.

  10. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy individuals with background of diabetic sibling. ... As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of ... Article Metrics.

  11. Corporate Relationship Marketing in Developing Economies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Bank performance measurement/functional relationships ... Methods. The study involved a cross-sectional survey design in line with the .... and efficacious guide for bank management teams to meaningfully design.

  12. Beauty and the Beholder: A Sensitive Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Spehar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite a rich set of experimental findings suggesting that certain stimulus qualities, such as symmetry, proportion, or complexity, are related to aesthetic appeal, the exact functional relationship between aesthetic experience and any of these stimulus qualities remains unknown. Motivated by our previous findings that humans display a consistent preference for a certain range of fractal dimension across fractal images of various types we turn to scale-specific processing of visual information to understand this relationship. Our hypothesis is that the preference for certain spatial structures, including fractals, can be partially accounted for by the visual system's general sensitivity for spatial variations at the spatial scales that most closely approximate given spatial structures. Although we do not offer a comprehensive model of aesthetic experience, we demonstrate a strong relationship between visual preference for simple visual patterns and visual sensitivity. Our results support assertions that there is a close relationship between aesthetic experience and the coding of natural stimuli.

  13. Mining Concepts Relationship Based on Numeric Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Sarem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With vigorous development of the Internet, e-learning system has become more and more popular and many adaptive learning systems have been developed. In recent years, researchers have proposed various approaches for developing adaptive learning systems based on concept maps. Nevertheless, most of them deal only with binary grades of each test item, furthermore, the existing methods that based on fuzzy set theory do not take in consideration the conceptual weight of concept in each question that might be cause to construct incorrectly relationships or exaggerate the degree of relationship. To cope with this problem, this study proposes an innovative approach to automatically construct concept maps. Firstly, we use look ahead fuzzy association rule mining algorithm to mind some information about the relationships between questions, then we construct the questions-relationships mapping. After that, we calculate the relevance degree between concepts in each question to obtain the final concept maps.

  14. The relationship between participatory management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between participatory management and empowerment with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The results showed that between participative management and empowerment of physical education teachers ...

  15. Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...

  16. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting ...

  17. The intergenerational transmission of relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim; Henderson, Antonia J; Trinke, Shanna J

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the intergenerational transmission of violence in a community sample. A telephone survey of 1,249 adults in the City of Vancouver assessed family-of-origin violence (father to mother, mother to father, father to self, and mother to self), as well as physical and psychological abuse in intimate relationships. All forms of family-of-origin violence were predictive of all forms of relationship abuse, consistent with a general social learning model of relationship violence. There was no evidence of gender-specific or role-specific patterns of transmission. For example, father-to-mother violence was not specifically predictive of men's perpetration and women's victimization in adult relationships. Nor was parent-to-self violence more predictive of victimization than perpetration. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Views on inter-enterprise relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of major scientific approaches to inter-enterprise relationships. A distinction is made between approaches that focus on business process integration (Supply Chain Management, Costing approaches), approaches that focus on organizational collaboration (Transaction Cost

  19. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE INNOVATION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Boier

    2014-01-01

    Inspired from the context of business-to-business markets, relationship marketing in the context of innovation have been expanded more and more to the consumer markets as well. The paper starts with a review of several most relevant studies on relationship marketing-innovation topic, from the first references to the current complex approaches. The effective stakeholder involvement in the value creation provides a more fertile ground for further successful innovations. All of the variables gen...

  20. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Musab Işık; Kürşad Timuroğlu; Yussuf Aliyev

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significan...

  1. The Relationship Satisfaction scale - psychometric properties

    OpenAIRE

    Espen Røysamb; Joar Vittersø; Kristian Tambs

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Relationship Satisfaction (RS) scale. Two population based samples were used: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=117,178) and The Quality of Life study (N=347). Convergent and discriminant validity was investigated in relation to the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Relationship Satisfaction of partner, Big Five personality traits (IPIP50) and future relatio...

  2. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rozitta Chittaie

    2012-01-01

    Changing in the current competitive environment, increasing simplicity of penetrating into the competitive market, and rapid growing of information technology are essential motives for performing activities in an environment. Nowadays, some companies step into rapid and instant development of their markets in order to improve customer relationship. These companies through adopting customer relationship management (CRM) systems can earn and retain their customers' loyalty. As a result, designi...

  3. Relationship marketing: The six markets framework

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Adrian

    1993-01-01

    The emergence of relationship marketing in the 1980s has been not so much a discovery, but a rediscovery of an approach which has long formed the cornerstone of many successful businesses. This approach emphasises the development and enhancement of relationships over the customer life cycle rather than new customer acquisition. Despite the increasing recognition of the importance of retention of existing customers, relatively little effort has been directed at developing frameworks and analyt...

  4. [International Relationship of Japanese General Thoracic Surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2017-01-01

    Japanese thoracic surgeons have created personal relationship with European and North American surgeons. During the last 10 years, official relation between Japanese Association for Chest Surgery(JACS) and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) has been established besides personal interaction, and communication among the thoracic surgeons in Asia was prompted through Asia Thoracoscopic Surgery Education Program( ATEP). International relationship through academic associations is expected to contribute to encouraging general thoracic surgeons.

  5. Exploring Longitudinal Risk-return Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben J.; Bettis, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk...... can lead to the inverse longitudinal risk-return relationships observed empirically. We discuss this apparent paradox and the possible resolution between mindless and conscious behavior as plausible causes of the longitudinal Bowman Paradox....

  6. Doctor-Patient Relationship in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh D Lakdawala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of doctor-patient relationship in view of a changing world with special emphasis on mental health professionals. It takes into account transference and counter-transference issues in doctor-patient relationships. It deals with issues pertaining to consent and liabilities, confidentiality and patient protection. Role of a psychiatrist as a leader in the art of communication is touched upon. In the end issues about professional fees and ethics too is dealt with.

  7. Relationships, networks and innovation - Squaring the circle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester

    2009-01-01

    energy sector, two specific aspects are addressed: 1 the trade-off between explorative innovation and network efficiency; 2 the effect of innovating in a network, in which the organisations have established relationships. The case study illustrates that a network based on existing relationships...... was working efficiently but was lacking the ability to explore new possibilities. On the other hand, a comprehensive network consisting of 'new' partners did not succeed in getting an outcome from the network....

  8. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Musab Işık; Kürşad Timuroğlu; Yussuf Aliyev

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significan...

  9. Human resource management in triangular employment relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fontinha, Ana Rita Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento (co-tutela), Psicologia (Psicologia dos Recursos Humanos do Trabalho e das Organizações), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universidade de Lisboa, 2013 This dissertation concerns the triangular employment relationships of agency workers and outsourced workers. In particular, the aim was to investigate the relationship between employees’ perceptions and attributions of human resource management (HRM) practices and their dual affective organisational commitment, i.e., the...

  10. EDITORIAL THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING AND SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Salazar-López

    2010-01-01

    On the last 1st of July, the National Government issued Decree 2376, which defines the following: «Through which the Teaching-Service Relationship is regulated for Human Talent training programs in the Health field.  One of the main objectives of this measure is to update the norms regulating the relationships of the multiple educational programs in the area of health with the different healthcare service provider institutions, for the purpose of achieving adequate development of the activity...

  11. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive ...

  12. The relationship between cultural identity and accent

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Ahu Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-75. This study investigates the relationship between cultural identity and accent. The focus is on the relationship between the identity perceptions of 20 native speakers of English, who have been living in Turkey for a long period of time, and their Turkish accent in terms of nativelikeness...

  13. The Relationship between Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮丽莉

    2013-01-01

    The strong version of Sapir-Whorf's hypothesis emphasizes the definite control of language over our thoughts or cul-ture. While the weak one argues language can influence but the influence is relative. This thesis is to give a view on the relation-ship between these two concepts, hoping to give some help to the research of language and culture, and the understanding of their relationship.

  14. Learning Multiple Tasks with Deep Relationship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Mingsheng; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Deep neural networks trained on large-scale dataset can learn transferable features that promote learning multiple tasks for inductive transfer and labeling mitigation. As deep features eventually transition from general to specific along the network, a fundamental problem is how to exploit the relationship structure across different tasks while accounting for the feature transferability in the task-specific layers. In this work, we propose a novel Deep Relationship Network (DRN) architecture...

  15. ATTACHMENT, BORDERLINE PERSONALITY, AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. S...

  16. PSYCHOPATHY AND INSTRUMENTAL VIOLENCE: FACET LEVEL RELATIONSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed usin...

  17. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  18. The longitudinal association of relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in long-term relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Erin E; Rehman, Uzma S; Woody, Erik Z; Purdon, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Several prominent models of relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction imply directional relationships between these constructs (e.g., attachment theory, social exchange models of relationship satisfaction, the interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction). Previous research has demonstrated that sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction are distinct but correlated constructs, but relatively few studies have examined how they are related over time. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine this association. A sample of heterosexual couples (N = 113) completed a longitudinal study spanning 2 years. At Times 1 and 2 they completed measures of relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. Data were analyzed according to the principles of the actor-partner interdependence model using structural equation modeling. Significant actor effects were detected such that, for both men and women, one's own earlier sexual satisfaction predicted one's later relationship satisfaction. In contrast, one's own earlier relationship satisfaction did not significantly predict one's subsequent sexual satisfaction. Sexual satisfaction was a stronger predictor of subsequent relationship satisfaction for men than women. There were no significant partner effects. These results contribute to our theoretical understanding of sexuality and sexual satisfaction in the context of long-term relationships by providing support for theories that conceptualize sexual satisfaction as one factor that contributes to relationship satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  20. Interpersonal mechanisms linking close relationships to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; Collins, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Close relationships play a vital role in human health, but much remains to be learned about specific mechanisms of action and potential avenues for intervention. This article provides an evaluation of research on close relationships processes relevant to health, drawing on themes from major relationship science theories to present a broad conceptual framework for understanding the interpersonal processes and intrapersonal pathways linking relationships to health and disease outcomes. The analysis reveals that both social connection and social disconnection broadly shape biological responses and behaviors that are consequential for health. Furthermore, emerging work offers insights into the types of social dynamics that are most consequential for health, and the potential pathways through which they operate. Following from this analysis, the authors suggest several research priorities to facilitate the translation of discoveries from relationship science into relationship-based interventions and public health initiatives. These priorities include developing finer grained theoretical models to guide research, the systematic investigation of potential mediating pathways such as dyadic influences on health behavior and physiological coregulation, and taking into account individual differences and contextual factors such as attachment style, gender, socioeconomic status, and culture. In addition, a pressing need exists for laboratory and field research to determine which types of interventions are both practical and effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Intergenerational Relationship Quality Across Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Lauren A.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Studies of intergenerational relationship quality often include one or two generations. This study examined within-family differences and similarities or transmission of positive and negative relationship quality across three generations. Method. Participants included 633 middle-aged individuals (G2; 52% women, ages 40–60 years), 592 of their offspring (G3; 53% daughters; ages 18–41 years), and 337 of their parents (i.e., grandparents; G1; 69% women; ages 59–96 years). Results. Multilevel models revealed differences and similarities in relationship quality across generations. The oldest generation (G1) reported greater positive and less negative quality relationships than the middle (G2) and the younger (G3) generations. There was limited evidence of transmission. Middle-aged respondents who reported more positive and less negative ties with their parents (G1) reported more positive and less negative ties with their own children (G3). Grandmother (G1) reports of more positive relationship quality were associated with G3 reports of more positive relationship quality with G2. Discussion. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis and only partially consistent with the theory of intergenerational transmission. Overall, this study suggests that there is greater within-family variability than similarities in how family members feel about one another. PMID:22628478

  2. Clinical Relationships Extraction Techniques from Patient Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Tawfik Abdel-Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF project was used to extract important information from medical texts by building a system for the purpose of clinical research, evidence-based healthcare and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. The system is divided into two parts, one part concerns with the identification of relationships between clinically important entities in the text. The full parses and domain-specific grammars had been used to apply many approaches to extract the relationship. In the second part of the system, statistical machine learning (ML approaches are applied to extract relationship. A corpus of oncology narratives that hand annotated with clinical relationships can be used to train and test a system that has been designed and implemented by supervised machine learning (ML approaches. Many features can be extracted from these texts that are used to build a model by the classifier. Multiple supervised machine learning algorithms can be applied for relationship extraction. Effects of adding the features, changing the size of the corpus, and changing the type of the algorithm on relationship extraction are examined.

  3. Al-doped spinel LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4 with improved high-rate cyclability in aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anbao; Tian, Lei; Xu, Wanmei; Wang, Yuqin

    To improve the cyclability of spinel LiMn 2O 4 in aqueous electrolyte, Al-doped LiAl xMn 2- xO 4 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) materials are prepared using a room-temperature solid-state grinding reaction followed by calcination at different temperatures for different durations, respectively. Their phase structures and morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Electrochemical performances of the materials are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods. XRD results reveal that the crystallinity of the LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4 increases with increasing calcination temperature and calcination time. However, when the calcination temperature is increased to 800 °C, a small amount of Mn 3O 4 impurity phase is detected in the product calcined for 12 h, due to the decomposition of LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4, while the product calcined for a shorter time of 3 or 6 h is found to be LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4 single phase. TEM results confirm that the grain size of the materials increases with increasing calcination temperature. Electrochemical experiments demonstrate that the charge/discharge cyclability of the LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4 increases with increase in calcination temperature and calcination time. Compared with the pristine LiMn 2O 4, the Al-doped LiAl xMn 1- xO 4 show the obviously improved cyclability, especially for the LiAl 0.1Mn 1.9O 4 calcined at an elevated temperature for 12 h.

  4. CO₂ and O₂ evolution at high voltage cathode materials of Li-ion batteries: a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsen; Rus, Eric; Sakuraba, Takahito; Kikuchi, Jun; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Abruña, Héctor D

    2014-07-01

    A three-electrode differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) cell has been developed to study the oxidative decomposition of electrolytes at high voltage cathode materials of Li-ion batteries. In this DEMS cell, the working electrode used was the same as the cathode electrode in real Li-ion batteries, i.e., a lithium metal oxide deposited on a porous aluminum foil current collector. A charged LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4 was used as the reference electrode, because of their insensitivity to air, when compared to lithium. A lithium sheet was used as the counter electrode. This DEMS cell closely approaches real Li-ion battery conditions, and thus the results obtained can be readily correlated with reactions occurring in real Li-ion batteries. Using DEMS, the oxidative stability of three electrolytes (1 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC, EC/DMC, and PC) at three cathode materials including LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 were studied. We found that 1 M LiPF6 + EC/DMC electrolyte is quite stable up to 5.0 V, when LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 is used as the cathode material. The EC/DMC solvent mixture was found to be the most stable for the three cathode materials, while EC/DEC was the least stable. The oxidative decomposition of the EC/DEC mixture solvent could be readily observed under operating conditions in our cell even at potentials as low as 4.4 V in 1 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC electrolyte on a LiCoO2 cathode, as indicated by CO2 and O2 evolution. The features of this DEMS cell to unveil solvent and electrolyte decomposition pathways are also described.

  5. Exceptional performance of TiNb₂O₇ anode in all one-dimensional architecture by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Suresh Kumar, Palaniswamy; Chui Ling, Wong; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-06-11

    We report the extraordinary performance of an Li-ion battery (full-cell) constructed from one-dimensional nanostructured materials, i.e. nanofibers as cathode, anode, and separator-cum-electrolyte, by scalable electrospinning. Before constructing such a one-dimensional Li-ion battery, electrospun materials are individually characterized to ensure its performance and balancing the mass loading as well. The insertion type anode TiNb2O7 exhibits the reversible capacity of ∼271 mAh g(-1) at current density of 150 mA g(-1) with capacity retention of ∼82% after 100 cycles. Under the same current density, electrospun LiMn2O4 cathode delivered the discharge capacity of ∼118 mAh g(-1). Gelled electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) nanofibers membrane is used as the separator-cum-electrolyte in both half-cell and full-cell assembly which exhibit the liquid like conductivity of ∼2.9 mS cm(-1) at ambient conditions. Full-cell, LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiNb2O7 is constructed by optimized mass loading of cathode with respect to anode and tested between 1.95 and 2.75 V at room temperature. The full-cell delivered the reversible capacity of ∼116 mAh g(-1) at current density of 150 mA g(-1) with operating potential and energy density of ∼2.4 V and ∼278 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Further, excellent cyclability is noted for such configuration irrespective of the applied current densities.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of nanostructured MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite in aqueous electrolyte LiNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujković Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrolytic solutions of contemporary Li-ion batteries are made exclusively with the organic solvents since anodic materials of these batteries have potentials with greater negativity than the potential of the water reduction, thus the organic electrolytes can withstand the voltages of 3-5 V that are characteristic for these batteries. Ever since it was discovered that some materials can electrochemically intercalate and deintercalate Li+ ions in aqueous solutions, numerous studies have been conducted with the aim of extending operational time of the aqueous Li-ion batteries. Manganese oxide has been studied as the electrode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with organic electrolytes. In this paper its electrochemical behavior as an anode material in aqueous electrolyte solutions was examined. MnO2 as a component of nanodispersed MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite was successfully synthesized hydrothermally. Electrochemical properties of this material were investigated in aqueous saturated LiNO3 solution by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charging/discharging (LiMn2O4 as cathode material techniques. The obtained composite shows a relatively good initial discharge capacity of 96.5 mAh/g which, after 50th charging/discharging cycles, drops to the value of 57mAh/g. MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite, in combination with LiMn2O4 as a cathode material, shows better discharge capacity compared to other anodic materials used in aqueous Li-ion batteries according to certain studies that have been conducted. Its good reversibility and cyclability, and the fact that hydrothermal method is simple and effective, makes MnO2/C(Vulcan® composite a promising anodic material for aqueous Li-ion batteries.

  7. Brief report: Activities in heterosexual romantic relationships: grade differences and associations with relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J

    2012-02-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and eleventh (36 boys; 56 girls) grades reporting current romantic relationships indicated their engagement in activities with romantic partners and relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed important grade differences in activity involvement, with eighth- and eleventh-graders reporting higher engagement than fifth-graders, especially in out-of-school activities. Additionally, engagement in out-of-school activities was most strongly associated with relationship satisfaction for all grades.

  8. Relationship of personality dimensions and aggression in romantic relationship among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression in romantic relationships is a continuing factor for breakups, physical assault, kidnapping, rape and even murder. It is also associated with adjustment difficulties including peer rejection, depression and maladaptive personality features. The present study aims to explore the personality correlates of aggression in romantic relationship. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 110 male and female participants in the age range of 18-32 years. The Socio-demographic schedule, General Health Questionnaire Relationship Satisfaction Scale NEO Five Factor Inventory, The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and Checklist for Psychological Aggression were administered. Results: Personality characteristics like openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively correlated with all forms of aggression. Men and women had significant differences with respect to aggression in romantic relationships. The relationship satisfaction has negative association with neuroticism. Conclusions: It has implications in understanding pattern of aggression in romantic relationships and thus may help in developing intervention programs for the same.

  9. Romantic relationships in the ecosystem: Compassionate goals, nonzero-sum beliefs, and change in relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Canevello, Amy; Lewis, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    According to the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation, people with ecosystem motivation believe their interpersonal relationships work in nonzero-sum ways. A longitudinal study of individuals in romantic relationships and a study of romantic couples who had a conflict discussion in the laboratory both showed that compassionate goals predict increased nonzero-sum beliefs through increased responsiveness and perceptions of partner's responsiveness and that nonzero-sum beliefs uniquely predict increased relationship quality through increased optimism that relationship problems can be overcome. The results support the view that motivational orientations shape people's lay theories that their relationship works in zero-sum or nonzero-sum ways, and further show that nonzero-sum beliefs are an important and unique predictor of change in relationship quality independent of responsiveness or perceived partner responsiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Relationship of personality dimensions and aggression in romantic relationship among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj K; Raju, Mohan

    2013-04-01

    Aggression in romantic relationships is a continuing factor for breakups, physical assault, kidnapping, rape and even murder. It is also associated with adjustment difficulties including peer rejection, depression and maladaptive personality features. The present study aims to explore the personality correlates of aggression in romantic relationship. The sample consisted of 110 male and female participants in the age range of 18-32 years. The Socio-demographic schedule, General Health Questionnaire Relationship Satisfaction Scale NEO Five Factor Inventory, The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and Checklist for Psychological Aggression were administered. Personality characteristics like openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively correlated with all forms of aggression. Men and women had significant differences with respect to aggression in romantic relationships. The relationship satisfaction has negative association with neuroticism. It has implications in understanding pattern of aggression in romantic relationships and thus may help in developing intervention programs for the same.

  11. The Relationship between Mother-Daughter Relationship and Identity in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, ミナ; 岡本, 祐子

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we elucidated the association between mother-daughter relationships and the identities of daughters during adolescence. We also determined the differences in the identities of daughters who lived with their mothers and those who lived separately. Using a mother-daughter relationship scale and an identity scale, we surveyed 112 female college students. We performed a factor analysis of the mother-daughter relationship scale and extracted two factors, i.e., codependency an...

  12. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths’ heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths’ more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and el...

  13. Relationship quality as the predictor of long term relationship in the Malaysian dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, Bonaventure; Gyau, Amos; Stringer, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Dairy market in Malaysia has been increasing due to high income and population growth in the region. In response to the increasing demand, milk processors need to obtain constant milk supplies from the dairy farmers. One way of doing this is when the buyers and the sellers build and maintain quality relationships in order to enhance long term sustainability of the milk supply. This paper examines the determinants of relationship quality and its role in enhancing long term relationship between...

  14. SOCIAL NETWORK EFFECTS ON ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma CAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to obtain information about social network variables in order to predict the relational commitment of married individuals and people having dating relationships. For this purpose, social network analysis has been carried out on 134 people having dating relationship and 154 married individuals and then Relationship Stability Scale, Subjective Norm Scale and Social Network Feature Survey prepared by the researcher were used. The results indicated that the approval of the closest social network member and the level of enjoyment of each other’s social network members had the best predictive value for relationship satisfaction and the investment to the relationship. The results also demonstrated that, approval of the social network had a negative impact on the level of the quality of alternatives and it showed that social networks were seen as a barrier function to have alternative relationships. Furthermore, by dividing social network members into two groups, for the dating group, the approval of the social network was the most significant variable for commitment but in the married group, the need for social network approval was not an important criteria because of having their relatioship already confirmed legally. When social network members were categorised and examined, the closest social network members did not differ by sex, but were varied in terms of relationship types. In the flirt group, one of their friends among his/her social network and their partners’ social network was specified as the closest social network member whereas in the married group, the closest social network member among his/her social network was their mother while it was their sibling among partner’s social network.

  15. Intimate Relationship of Sex and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationship of Sex and IBD Go Back The Intimate Relationship of Sex and IBD Email Print + Share It’s ... to keep these diseases from interfering with truly intimate relationships. – Sara M. Silberman This article originally appeared in ...

  16. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.11 Determination of marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an...

  17. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship... claimant is deemed to be the wife, husband, or widow(er) of the employee if the person's marriage to...

  18. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE INNOVATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Boier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired from the context of business-to-business markets, relationship marketing in the context of innovation have been expanded more and more to the consumer markets as well. The paper starts with a review of several most relevant studies on relationship marketing-innovation topic, from the first references to the current complex approaches. The effective stakeholder involvement in the value creation provides a more fertile ground for further successful innovations. All of the variables generating the success of a relationship marketing approach – trust, commitment, communication, seller’s customer orientation and empathy, experience and satisfaction a.s.o. – are also involved, with specific particularities, in the management of the innovation and new product development processes. The paper also outline the different perspectives to understand the relationship marketing-innovation approaches, coming from the product type, its business-to-business or business-to-consumer settings, the specific industry, the actual stage of the market evolution – emerging or mature –, the level of technological novelty as dimension of technological uncertainty, the position/ status and role of stakeholders as part in the relationships, the state of the new product development process in which the interactions occurs or special issues like sustainable innovation, for profit and not-for-profit areas etc.

  19. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  20. Intimate Relationships and Attitudes Toward Celebrities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. McCutcheon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three subscales from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS. We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially on its two problematic subscales. In three multiple regressions, specific measures of behavior during conflict with a romantic partner and certain love styles significantly predicted scores on all three of the CAS subscales. We discuss the implications of being a celebrity worshiper on one’s relationship with an intimate partner.