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Sample records for relationship distress psycinfo

  1. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  2. Distressed Relationships : Lessons from the Norwegian Banking Crisis

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    Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.; Michalsen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper measures the economy-wide impact of bank distress on the loss of relationship benefits. We use the near-collapse of the Norwegian banking system during the period 1988 to 1991 to measure the impact of bank distress announcements on the stock prices of firms maintaining a relationship with

  3. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

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    Eberhard-Gran Malin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558 completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25. Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11, somatic disease (β = 0.11, work related stress (β = 0.10 and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09. Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors.

  4. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

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    Mubaraki Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  5. Prospective relationships between workplace sexual harassment and psychological distress.

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    Nielsen, M B; Einarsen, S

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to workplace sexual harassment (SH) has been associated with impaired mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the relationship are lacking. To examine gender differences in prospective associations between SH and psychological distress. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2005 in a representative sample of Norwegian employees. Follow-up data were collected in 2007. SH was measured with the Bergen Sexual Harassment Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the 25 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) with cases of psychological distress defined as having a mean score of Workplace measures against SH would be expected to lead to a reduction in mental disorders. The finding that psychological distress predicts SH among men may indicate either a vulnerability factor or a negative perception mechanism.

  6. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

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    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Family caregivers' attributions about care-recipient behaviour: does caregiver relationship satisfaction mediate the attribution-distress relationship?

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    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-09-01

    The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  8. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

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    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Psychological distress in health sciences college students and its relationship with academic engagement

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    Cristina Liébana-Presa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.

  10. Depression, posttraumatic stress and relationship distress in parents of very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Colditz, Paul B; Sanders, Matthew R; Boyd, Roslyn N; Pritchard, Margo; Gray, Peter H; Whittingham, Koa; Forrest, Kylee; Leeks, Rebecca; Webb, Lachlan; Marquart, Louise; Taylor, Karen; Macey, Judith

    2018-03-03

    To determine the prevalence, associated factors, and relationships between symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS), and relationship distress in mothers and fathers of very preterm (VPT) infants (relationship distress. The corresponding percentages in fathers were 16.9, 23.7, and 27%. Depression was positively associated with having previous children (p = 0.01), speaking little or no English at home (p = 0.01), financial stress (p = 0.03), and recently accessing mental health services (p = 0.003) for mothers, and financial stress (p = 0.005) and not being the primary income earner (p = 0.04) for fathers. Similar associations were found for symptoms of PTS and relationship distress. Being in higher relationship distress increased the risk of depression in both mothers (p relationship.

  11. Detection of patient psychological distress and longitudinal patient-doctor relationships: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ridd, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Peters, Tim J; Salisbury, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Psychological distress in patients who attend their GP is thought to be under-recognised. However, it is likely that both disclosure and detection are influenced by how well the patient and doctor know each another. To examine whether patient-doctor depth of relationship is associated with identification of psychological distress. Cross-sectional study in general practices in and around Bristol, England. Patients (aged ≥16 years) were asked to complete a questionnaire and consent to their electronic medical records being reviewed. Study GPs independently assessed patient psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression was used to look for associations between patient-doctor depth of relationship and GP detection of patient psychological distress (defined according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12). There were 643 eligible appointments with 31 GPs. In total, 541 (84.1%) patients returned questionnaires and 490 (76.2%) consented to their records being reviewed. Patient-doctor depth of relationship was not associated with GP detection of mild to severe patient psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.02) but, in secondary analyses, it was associated with the identification of moderate to severe distress (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.26). GPs reported more patient psychological distress in patients who reported a greater depth of relationship but this did not relate to patients' GHQ-12 scores. Evidence to support an association between patient-doctor depth of relationship and improved GP detection of patients with psychological distress was weak, except in those patients who GPs thought were more distressed. GPs may overestimate emotional distress in patients who report deeper patient-doctor relationships.

  12. Detection of patient psychological distress and longitudinal patient–doctor relationships: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Peters, Tim J; Salisbury, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological distress in patients who attend their GP is thought to be under-recognised. However, it is likely that both disclosure and detection are influenced by how well the patient and doctor know each another. Aim To examine whether patient–doctor depth of relationship is associated with identification of psychological distress. Design and setting Cross-sectional study in general practices in and around Bristol, England. Method Patients (aged ≥16 years) were asked to complete a questionnaire and consent to their electronic medical records being reviewed. Study GPs independently assessed patient psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression was used to look for associations between patient–doctor depth of relationship and GP detection of patient psychological distress (defined according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12). Results There were 643 eligible appointments with 31 GPs. In total, 541 (84.1%) patients returned questionnaires and 490 (76.2%) consented to their records being reviewed. Patient–doctor depth of relationship was not associated with GP detection of mild to severe patient psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.02) but, in secondary analyses, it was associated with the identification of moderate to severe distress (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.26). GPs reported more patient psychological distress in patients who reported a greater depth of relationship but this did not relate to patients' GHQ-12 scores. Conclusion Evidence to support an association between patient–doctor depth of relationship and improved GP detection of patients with psychological distress was weak, except in those patients who GPs thought were more distressed. GPs may overestimate emotional distress in patients who report deeper patient–doctor relationships. PMID:22429433

  13. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

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    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Distress Severity Following a Romantic Breakup is Associated with Positive Relationship Memories among Emerging Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    symptoms has received little attention. We examined links between breakup-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and relationship memories of different valence. Ninety-one emerging adults (Mage = 20.13) who had experienced a recent romantic breakup recorded the frequency of positive and negative......Romantic relationship loss is associated with significant psychological distress for emerging adults. Intrusive memories of stressful events are typically associated with symptom severity; however, whether spontaneous positive memories of a relationship breakup may also be related to psychological...... spontaneous relationship memories in a four-day online memory diary. Control memories were also recorded. Positive memories were specifically related to breakup distress, whereas negative memories were related to both breakup distress and depression. No such associations were found for the control memories...

  15. Assessing the Relationship Between Mental Distress and Tobacco Use in Post-Katrina and Rita Louisiana.

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    Mukherjee, Snigdha; Canterberry, Melanie; Yore, Jennifer B; Ledford, Edward Cannon; Carton, Thomas W

    2017-08-24

    The relationship between mental health status and smoking is complicated and often confounded by bi-directionality, yet most research on this relationship assumes exogeneity. The goal of this article is to implement an instrumental variable approach to (1) test the exogeneity assumption and (2) report on the association between mental health status and smoking post-disaster. This analysis utilizes the 2006 and 2007 Louisiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the link between mental distress and smoking in areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Residence in a hurricane-affected parish (county) was used as an instrumental variable for mental distress. Just over 22% of the sample resided in a hurricane-affected parish. Residents of hurricane-affected parishes were significantly more likely to report occasional and frequent mental distress. Residence in a hurricane-affected parish was not significantly associated with smoking status. With residence established as a salient instrumental variable for mental distress, the exogeneity assumption was tested and confirmed in this sample. A dose-response relationship existed between mental distress and smoking, with smoking prevalence increasing directly (and non-linearly) with mental distress. In this sample, the relationship between mental distress and smoking status was exogenous and followed a dose-response relationship, suggesting that the disasters did not result in an uptake of smoking initiation, but that the higher amounts of mental distress may lead to increased use among smokers. The findings suggest that tobacco control programs should devise unique strategies to address mentally distressed populations.

  16. A comprehensive model of stress - The roles of experienced stress and neuroticism in explaining the stress-distress relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, GM; van Sonderen, E; Emmelkamp, PMG

    1999-01-01

    Background: In this study, a complex theoretical model regarding the stress-distress relationship was evaluated. The various components in the model included experienced stress (daily hassles), psychological distress, neuroticism, problem-focused coping, avoidant coping, satisfaction with received

  17. Relationship between self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress in individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations.

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    Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Escudero-Pérez, S; Barros-Albarrán, M D; López-Jiménez, A M; Perona-Garcelán, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress caused by the voices in psychiatric patients. Fifty-one individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis participated in this study. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) emotional factor was applied to measure the distress caused by the voices, the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS) was given for measuring the levels of self-focused attention, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. The results showed that distress caused by the voices correlated positively with self-focused attention (private and public) and negatively with mindfulness. A negative correlation was also found between mindfulness and self-focused attention (private and public). Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that public self-focus was the only factor predicting distress caused by the voices. Intervention directed at diminishing public self-focused attention and increasing mindfulness could improve distress caused by the voices.

  18. Moral distress reexamined: a feminist interpretation of nurses' identities, relationships, and responsibilites.

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    Peter, Elizabeth; Liaschenko, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Moral distress has been written about extensively in nursing and other fields. Often, however, it has not been used with much theoretical depth. This paper focuses on theorizing moral distress using feminist ethics, particularly the work of Margaret Urban Walker and Hilde Lindemann. Incorporating empirical findings, we argue that moral distress is the response to constraints experienced by nurses to their moral identities, responsibilities, and relationships. We recommend that health professionals get assistance in accounting for and communicating their values and responsibilities in situations of moral distress. We also discuss the importance of nurses creating "counterstories" of their work as knowledgeable and trustworthy professionals to repair their damaged moral identities, and, finally, we recommend that efforts toward shifting the goal of health care away from the prolongation of life at all costs to the relief of suffering to diminish the moral distress that is a common response to aggressive care at end-of-life.

  19. Social relationships and quality of life moderate distress associated with delusional ideation.

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    Lim, Michelle H; Gleeson, John F; Jackson, Henry J; Fernandez, Katya C

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, individuals who followed a particular new religious movement (NRM) reported significantly less distress even though they reported similar levels of delusional ideation when compared with individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Protective factors such as social relationship quality and quality of life (QOL) were hypothesized to explain attenuated distress associated with delusional ideation. NRM individuals (n = 29), individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders (n = 25), and control individuals (n = 63) were recruited. Psychotic symptoms, delusion-proneness, and facets of social relationships quality and QOL were examined across group. Potential moderators of the relationship between group membership and distress were further examined in multiple regression models. NRM participants reported more social relationships that were of higher quality (as demonstrated by more crisis supports, unique and overlap supports, more helpful supports and more reciprocated supports) than individuals with psychotic disorders. NRM participants also reported significantly higher QOL than individuals with psychotic disorders. Furthermore, NRM participants reported more distinct and less reciprocated supports, and significantly higher psychological, environmental, and total QOL, when compared with control participants. The relationship between group membership, delusional ideation, and distress was moderated by relationship reciprocity as well as by total QOL. Findings highlight the importance of establishing healthy reciprocal social relationships and improving QOL in people diagnosed with psychotic disorders, as these factors may act as a buffer against distress associated with delusional beliefs.

  20. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

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    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  1. College students' electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships: anticipated distress and associations with risky behaviors.

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    Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L; Ramos, Michelle C; Margolin, Gayla

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' reports of electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships. We examined 22 items representing four categories of electronic victimization: hostility, humiliation, exclusion, and intrusiveness. Nearly all participants (92%) reported some electronic victimization in the past year, with males reporting more victimization and females anticipating more distress. Both females and males anticipated more distress from electronic victimization in dating relationships than friendships. More actual experience with electronic victimization related to lower anticipated distress. Electronic victimization was associated with females' alcohol use, even after controlling for other victimization experiences. Discussion focuses on the contextualized nature of electronic victimization, and on the importance of understanding what makes electronic victimization highly distressing for some individuals.

  2. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed que...

  3. Cancer-related communication, relationship intimacy, and psychological distress among couples coping with localized prostate cancer.

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    Manne, Sharon; Badr, Hoda; Zaider, Talia; Nelson, Christian; Kissane, David

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of relationship-enhancing (self-disclosure, mutual constructive communication) and relationship-compromising communication (holding back, mutual avoidance, and demand-withdraw communication) on couples' psychological distress. Seventy-five men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in the past year and their partners completed surveys about communication, intimacy, and distress. Multi-level models with the couple as unit of analyses indicated that the association between mutual constructive communication, mutual avoidance, and patient demand-partner withdraw and distress could be accounted for by their influence on relationship intimacy. Intimacy did not mediate associations between self-disclosure, holding back, and partner demand-patient withdraw communication and distress. These findings indicate that the way in which couples talk about cancer-related concerns as well as the degree to which one or both partners avoid talking about cancer-related concerns can either facilitate or reduce relationship intimacy, and that it is largely by this mechanism that these three communication strategies impact psychological distress. Relationship intimacy and how patients and partners communicate to achieve this intimacy is important for the psychological adjustment of early stage prostate cancer survivors and their partners.

  4. Metacognitive self-reflectivity moderates the relationship between distress tolerance and empathy in schizophrenia.

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    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    Deficits in empathy seen in schizophrenia are thought to play a major role in the social dysfunction seen in the disorder. However, little work has investigated potential determinants of empathic deficits. This study aimed to fill that gap by examining the effects of two variables on empathy - distress tolerance and metacognitive self-reflectivity. Fifty-four people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services at an urban VA or community mental health center were assessed for empathy, metacognition, and distress tolerance. Bivariate correlations and moderation methods were used to ascertain associations amongst these variables and examine interactions. Results revealed that, against hypotheses, empathy was not related at the bivariate level to either distress tolerance or metacognitive self-reflectivity. However, consistent with hypotheses, moderation analyses revealed that participants with higher self-reflectivity showed no relationship between distress tolerance and empathy, while those with lower self-reflectivity showed a relationship such that reduced ability to tolerate distress predicted reduced empathy. Taken together, results of this study suggest that lack of distress tolerance can negatively affect empathy in people with schizophrenia with lesser capacity for metacognitive self-reflection; thus, fostering self-reflectivity may help overcome that negative impact. Future work is needed investigating the impact of metacognitively-tailored interventions on empathy in this population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) and 123 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Type D Scale (DS14), and Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale. Results: Remembered parenting was significantly associated with higher anxiety and depression...

  6. Psychological Distress Following Suicidality Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Role of Social Relationships

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    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal relations between past suicidality and subsequent changes in psychological distress at follow-up were examined among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths, as were psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, social support, negative social relationships) that might mediate or moderate this relation. Past suicide attempters were found to have higher levels of depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms, and conduct problems at a later time than youths who neither attempted nor ideated. Psychosocial factors failed to mediate this relation. The interaction among past suicidality, social support, and negative relationships was associated with subsequent changes in all three psychological distress indicators six months later. Specifically, high levels of support (either from family or friends) or negative relationships were found to predict increased psychological distress among those with a history of suicide attempts, but not among youths without a history of suicidality. The findings suggest that GLB youths who attempt suicide continue to have elevated levels of psychological distress long after their attempt and they highlight the importance of social relationships in the youths’ psychological distress at follow-up. PMID:22162620

  7. Predictors of emotional distress in pregnant women: the mediating role of relationship intimacy.

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    Costa, Eleonora C V; Castanheira, Eva; Moreira, Litícia; Correia, Paulo; Ribeiro, Duarte; Graça Pereira, M

    2017-12-15

    Assessment and treatment of emotional distress during pregnancy show that worries during pregnancy and interpersonal relationships with partners are the important factors determining psychological health. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of worries during pregnancy, relationship intimacy, and marital satisfaction on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in pregnant women, as well as to analyse the mediating effect of relationship intimacy between marital satisfaction and emotional distress. During their second and third trimester of pregnancy, 200 Portuguese women were recruited during childbirth preparation consultations and completed the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships Scale (PAIR), the Marital Life Areas Satisfaction Evaluation Scale (MLASES), and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that being unemployed or on sick leave, being younger, having a history of miscarriage, having more worries during pregnancy, and declaring low-relationship intimacy were the main predictors of emotional distress. Relationship intimacy mediated the relation of marital satisfaction to anxiety and depression symptoms. This study highlights the importance of the worries during pregnancy and relationship intimacy in shaping pregnant women's emotional distress, and identifies both as targets of intervention.

  8. Moral distress and Burnout syndrome: are there relationships between these phenomena in nursing workers?1

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    Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi, Guilherme Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify relationships between moral distress and Burnout in the professional performance from the perceptions of the experiences of nursing workers. Methods this is a survey type study with 375 nursing workers working in three different hospitals of southern Rio Grande do Sul, with the application of adaptations of the Moral Distress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, validated and standardized for use in Brazil. Data validation occurred through factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. For the data analysis bivariate analysis using Pearson's correlation and multivariate analysis using multiple regression were performed. Results the existence of a weak correlation between moral distress and Burnout was verified. A possible positive correlation between Burnout and therapeutic obstinacy, and a negative correlation between professional fulfillment and moral distress were identified. Conclusion the need was identified for further studies that include mediating and moderating variables that may explain more clearly the models studied. PMID:24553701

  9. Moral distress and burnout syndrome: are there relationships between these phenomena in nursing workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi, Guilherme Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Silveira, Rosemary Silva da

    2014-01-01

    to identify relationships between moral distress and Burnout in the professional performance from the perceptions of the experiences of nursing workers. this is a survey type study with 375 nursing workers working in three different hospitals of southern Rio Grande do Sul, with the application of adaptations of the Moral Distress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, validated and standardized for use in Brazil. Data validation occurred through factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. For the data analysis bivariate analysis using Pearson's correlation and multivariate analysis using multiple regression were performed. the existence of a weak correlation between moral distress and Burnout was verified. A possible positive correlation between Burnout and therapeutic obstinacy, and a negative correlation between professional fulfillment and moral distress were identified. the need was identified for further studies that include mediating and moderating variables that may explain more clearly the models studied.

  10. Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2016-05-01

    The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.

  11. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet-fatty foods, salty-fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students.

  12. Relationship of Genetic Variants With Procedural Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersig, Anne L; Schutte, Debra L; Standley, Jennifer; Leslie, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure. Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Samples were collected from children and biological parents for analysis of genomic variation. Genotyped variants had known or suspected association with phenotypes of interest. Analyses included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests. Genotype and phenotype data were available from 828 children and 376 family trios. Children were 50% male, had a mean age of 7.2 years, and were 84% White/non-Hispanic. In family-based analysis, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1143629, interleukin ( IL1B) 1β) was associated with observed child distress at Bonferroni-corrected levels of significance ( p = .00013), while two approached significance for association with high state anxiety (rs6330 Nerve Growth Factor, Beta Subunit, [ NGFB]) and high trait anxiety (rs6265 brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ BDNF]). In the child-only analysis, multiple SNPs showed nominal evidence of relationships with phenotypes of interest. rs6265 BDNF and rs2941026 cholecystokinin B receptor had possible relationships with trait anxiety in child-only and family-based analyses. Exploring genomic variation furthers our understanding of pain, anxiety, and distress and facilitates genomic screening to identify children at high risk of procedural pain, anxiety, and distress. Combined with clinical observations and knowledge, such explorations could help guide tailoring of interventions to limit procedure-related distress and identify genes and pathways of interest for future genotype-phenotype studies.

  13. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slonim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207 aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62 across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results: Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions: The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.

  14. Traditional Machismo and Caballerismo as Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction in Hispanic Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Catherine J.; Owens, Gina P.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2013-01-01

    An online survey was used to examine 45 Hispanic male veterans' traditional machismo and caballerismo as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Higher traditional machismo was associated with higher PTSD severity and distress and lower relationship satisfaction. Psychometric…

  15. Relationship of external influence to parental distress in decision making regarding children with a life-threatening illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high. External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making.

  16. The relationship between loss of parents in the holocaust, intrusive memories, and distress among child survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzter-Pouw, Sonia; Werner, Perla

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of intrusive memories of the Holocaust and their relationship to distress was examined among 272 child survivors in Israel. Using attachment theory as a conceptual framework, the authors also examined the effects of type of experience and loss of parents in the Holocaust, psychological resources, other life events, and sociodemographic characteristics on distress and symptomatic behavior. Eighty five percent of the participants reported suffering from intrusive memories. Structural equation modeling showed that survivors who lost one or both parents in the Holocaust suffered more distress because of more intrusive memories. These findings suggest that intrusive memories may be part of unfinished mourning processes related to the loss of parents in the Holocaust. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. A meta-analysis of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2018-06-01

     Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.  Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress: Examining relationships concurrently and over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munakata Tsunetsugu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  20. THROUGH THE LOOKING-GLASS PsycINFO as an Historical Archive of Trends in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2018-02-05

    Those interested in tracking trends in the history of psychology cannot simply trust the numbers produced by inputting terms into search engines like PsycINFO and then constraining by date. This essay is therefore a critical engagement with that longstanding interest to show what it is possible to do, over what period, and why. It concludes that certain projects simply cannot be undertaken without further investment by the American Psychological Association. This is because forgotten changes in the assumptions informing the database make its index terms untrustworthy for use in trend-tracking before 1967. But they can indeed be used, with care, to track more recent trends. The result is then a Distant Reading of psychology, with Digital History presented as enabling a kind of Science Studies that psychologists will find appealing. The present state of the discipline can thus be caricatured as the contemporary scientific study of depressed rats and the drugs used to treat them (as well as of human brains, mice, and myriad other topics). To extend the investigation back further in time, however, the 1967 boundary is also investigated. The author then delves more deeply into the prehistory of the database's creation, and shows in a précis of a further project that the origins of PsycINFO can be traced to interests related to American national security during the Cold War. In short: PsycINFO cannot be treated as a simple bibliographic description of the discipline. It is embedded in its history, and reflects it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Processing in the Aftermath of Relationship Dissolution: Associations with Concurrent and Prospective Distress and Posttraumatic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2017-01-01

    Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event...... Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution. Initially, 148 participants completed measures of trait-like and dissolution-specific cognitive processing, growth, and distress (T1). A subsample completed a seven-month follow-up (T2). Higher frequency of relationship-dissolution intrusive...... thoughts predicted concurrent distress after accounting for brooding and relationship characteristics. Further, higher brooding and lower reflection predicted higher distress prospectively. Concurrent growth was predicted by both higher brooding and more deliberate relationship-dissolution thoughts...

  3. Investigating the relationship between neighborhood experiences and psychiatric distress for individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the relationships between how research participants experienced their neighborhood, their neighborhood social climate, and psychological well-being. Participants (n = 525) were residents of supported housing programs who used mental health services at one of 17 community mental health centers in South Carolina. Hierarchical regression and mediation analyses were employed to answer research questions. Results suggest that neighbor relations, perceptions of neighborhood safety, and neighborhood satisfaction were significantly associated with perceptions of neighborhood social climate; and neighborhood social climate accounted for a significant amount of the variance in psychiatric distress. Of particular interest, perceptions of neighborhood social climate fully mediated the relationship between the specific reported neighborhood experiences and psychiatric distress. These findings have implications for interventions and policy aimed at promoting integration of individuals with serious mental illness into community settings.

  4. Relationship between emotional distress and quality of life on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Meranti island regency hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridah, I. N.; Perwitasari, D. A.; Pusfita, M.; Jasman, H.

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) always got treatment for a long time so that it can affect the emotional distress and the quality of life. This study aimed to find the relationship between emotional distress with quality of life. This study used cross sectional design. DDS was used to measure patients emotional distress. EQ-5D was used to measure patients quality of life. Subjects of this study were T2DM patients ICD X.E11 with aged over 18 years old. A total of 80 patients participated in the study. The result showed that the mean of score on emotional burden was 2.985±0.678, physician distress was 2.650±0.801, regiment distress was 3.222±0.75 and interpersonal distress was 2.529±0.859. The result of the analysis showed that there was relationship between employment and interpersonal distress with index and correlation showed weak negative (r-0.212, -0.306) and significant relationship (pemotional burden with VAS showed weak negative correlation (r-0.215, -0.251) and significant relationship (pemotional distress can degraded the quality of life.

  5. Relationship Intimacy: Associations with Psychological Distress and Work Productivity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    scale as a reliable tool for assessment of quality of marital relationship in patients on long-term hemodialysis . Iran J Kidney Dis, 3(4), 242-245...A. J. (1989). Spouse criticism and support: their association with coping and psychological adjustment among women with rheumatoid arthritis ...experience for patients , partners, family members, and close friends. Breast cancer patients not only face the psychological distress of a life

  6. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting

  7. Does exercise habit strength moderate the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in Malaysian primary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Nurul Ain; Hashim, Hairul Anuar

    2015-01-01

    We examined the moderating effects of exercise habit strength on the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in primary school children. The sample consisted of 165 primary school students (10-12 years old). Participants completed measures of emotional distress, exercise habit strength, and the Digit Span Test. Mid-year exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results of SEM revealed an acceptable fit for the hypothesised model. Exercise habit was positively associated with short-term memory, and better short-term memory was associated with better academic performance. However, although an inverse relationship was found between emotional distress and short-term memory, a positive association was found between exercise habit strength and emotional distress. The findings indicate that exercise habit is positively associated with cognitive ability and mediates the negative effect of distress.

  8. Metacognitions or distress intolerance: The mediating role in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and problematic internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Given the relevance of problematic Internet use (PIU) to everyday life, its relationship to emotional dysregulation and the importance of metacognitions and distress intolerance in process and intermediaries research, this study examined which of metacognitions and distress intolerance acts as an intermediary between emotional dysregulation and PIU. In the current study, 413 undergraduate students from the University of Tehran, Iran (202 females; mean age = 20.13) voluntarily completed a questionnaire package which included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30(, and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS). The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL software. Significant correlations were found between PIU and emotional dysregulation and both distress intolerance and metacognitions ( P  intolerance. Also, these findings emphasize that distress intolerance has a more significant mediating role than metacognition in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and PIU.

  9. The relationship between academic assessment and psychological distress among medical students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Mataroria P; Strom, Joanna M; Alyami, Hussain M; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Yielder, Jill; Hill, Andrew G

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review was conducted to determine the relationship between academic assessment and medical student psychological distress with the aim of informing assessment practices. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases (Medline, Medline IN PROCESS, PubMed, EMBASE, Psychinfo, ERIC) from 1991 to May 2014 was completed. Articles focusing on academic assessment and its relation to stress or anxiety of medical students were included. From 3,986 potential titles, 82 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 23 studies met review inclusion criteria. Studies focused on assessment stress or anxiety, and assessment performance. Consistent among the studies was the finding that assessment invokes stress or anxiety, perhaps more so for female medical students. A relationship may exist between assessment stress or anxiety and impaired performance. Significant risks of bias were common in study methodologies. There is evidence to suggest academic assessment is associated with psychological distress among medical students. However, differences in the types of measures used by researchers limited our ability to draw conclusions about which methods of assessment invoke greater distress. More rigorous study designs and the use of standardized measures are required. Future research should consider differences in students' perceived significance of assessments, the psychological effects of constant exposure to assessment, and the role of assessment in preparing students for clinical practice.

  10. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Morten B. Nielsen; Jan O. Christensen; Live B. Finne; Stein Knardahl

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the r...

  11. Depression and insomnia as mediators of the relationship between distress and quality of life in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyeong Min; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jae Sung; Chun, Mison; Hyun, So Yeon; Kang, Dae Ryong; Oh, Min Jung; Kim, Nam Hee

    2017-08-01

    Distress in cancer patients leads to poorer quality of life (QOL) and negatively impacts survival. For efficient management of a patient's disease course, the interrelationships among distress, depression, insomnia, and QOL must be understood. This study aimed to investigate whether depression and insomnia mediate the relationship between distress and QOL in cancer patients. Cancer patients referred to a specialized psycho-oncology clinic (n=208) participated in this study. Distress, depression, insomnia, and QOL were measured with the following questionnaires: Distress Thermometer, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were performed to analyze the mediating effects of depression and insomnia on the relationship between distress and QOL. Distress exerted nearly equal direct (ß=-0.291, p=0.002) and indirect (mediated by depression and insomnia) (ß=-0.299, p=0.003) negative effects on QOL. Depression exhibited the largest direct negative effect on QOL. The indirect effects of distress on QOL through depression alone, through insomnia alone, and through an insomnia to depression pathway were all significant (ß=-0.122, p=0.011; ß=-0.102, p=0.002; and ß=-0.075, pDepression and insomnia, both individually and as part of an interrelated pathway, partially mediate the relationship between distress and QOL. Appropriate interventions to alleviate insomnia and depression may mitigate the negative impacts of distress on QOL in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Fushimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6 scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  13. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis patients: the moderating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study described the prevalence of psychological distress and examined the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Seven hundred and twenty patients with TB from three cities of Shandong Province in eastern China participated in a cross-sectional survey. Patients were measured with the Kessler 10 (K10), the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a self-developed perceived discrimination questionnaire. A total of 58.6% of patients with TB scored above 16 on the K10, indicating moderate and serious psychological distress. Chi-square test revealed that female patients reported higher psychological distress than male patients. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis among the whole sample indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related with psychological distress (β = .28, p ≤ .01). The multiple group analysis of SEM showed that perceived discrimination had a significantly substantial (β = .50, p ≤ .001), significantly moderate (β = .15, p ≤ .01), and insignificant effect (β = .05, p ≥ .05) on psychological distress among low self-esteem, moderate self-esteem, and high self-esteem patients with TB, respectively, which verified the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress.

  15. Relationship of External Influence to Parental Distress in Decision Making Regarding Children with a Life-Threatening Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Methods Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. Results More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high. Conclusions External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making. PMID:21693541

  16. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry DL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with

  17. The relationship between distress tolerance and antisocial personality disorder among male inner-city treatment seeking substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Gratz, Kim L; Lejuez, C W

    2008-10-01

    There is currently limited research on the potential mechanisms underlying the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). One such mechanism, distress tolerance (defined as an individual's behavioral persistence in the face of emotional distress) may underlie the development of ASPD and its associated behavioral difficulties. It was hypothesized that substance users with ASPD would evidence significantly lower levels of distress tolerance than substance users without ASPD. To test this relationship, we assessed 127 inner-city males receiving residential substance abuse treatment with two computerized laboratory measures of distress tolerance. The mean age of the sample was 40.1 years (SD = 9.8) and 88.2% were African American. As expected, multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that distress intolerance significantly predicted the presence of an ASPD diagnosis, above and beyond key covariates including substance use frequency and associated Axis I and II psychopathology. Findings suggest that distress tolerance may be a key factor in understanding the development of ASPD, setting the stage for future studies expanding on the nature of this relationship, as well as the development of appropriate interventions for this at-risk group.

  18. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  19. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  20. The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationships Between Internal Distress and Smoking Behavior During a Quit Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M. Palm; Hayes, Steven C.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA) (i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether pre-quit general EA (Acceptance & Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between four measures of post-quit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving), and smoking. Participates: 40 adult smokers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Distress Tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Results: Multilevel models showed that pre-quit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks post-quit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between post-quit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high pre-quit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, pre-quit smoking-specific EA did not predict post-quit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA pre-quit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Conclusions: Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater post-quit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. PMID:25347023

  1. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  2. The role of distress intolerance in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and problematic alcohol use among Latin American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the relationship between stress, distress and healthy lifestyle behaviour: a qualitative study of patients and general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne H; Harris, Mark F

    2013-11-01

    The process of initiating and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours is complex, includes a number of distinct phases and is not static. Theoretical models of behaviour change consider psychological constructs such as intention and self efficacy but do not clearly consider the role of stress or psychological distress. General practice based interventions addressing lifestyle behaviours have been demonstrated to be feasible and effective however it is not clear whether general practitioners (GPs) take psychological health into consideration when discussing lifestyle behaviours. This qualitative study explores GPs' and patients' perspectives about the relationship between external stressors, psychological distress and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 16 patients and 5 GPs. Transcripts from the interviews were thematically analysed and a conceptual model developed to explain the relationship between external stressors, psychological distress and healthly lifestyle behaviours. Participants were motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle however they described a range of external factors that impacted on behaviour in both positive and negative ways, either directly or via their impact on psychological distress. The impact of external factors was moderated by coping strategies, beliefs, habits and social support. In some cases the process of changing or maintaining healthy behaviour also caused distress. The concept of a threshold level of distress was evident in the data with patients and GPs describing a certain level of distress required before it negatively influenced behaviour. Maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours is complex and constantly under challenge from external stressors. Practitioners can assist patients with maintaining healthy behaviour by providing targeted support to moderate the impact of external stressors.

  4. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Couples' Support-Related Communication, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction among Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…

  6. Romantic relationships and psychological distress among adolescents: Moderating role of friendship closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Ruhl, Holly; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-11-01

    The formation of romantic relationships and friendships in adolescence is a defining milestone in the progression toward social maturity. Thus, examining adolescents' friendship and romantic experiences serves a vital role in understanding their psychological adjustment. The main purposes of the current study were to examine (a) whether romantic involvement, romantic security, and friendship closeness were independently predictive of late adolescents' depression and loneliness, and (b) whether friendship closeness would moderate the negative effects of adolescents' lower degrees of romantic involvement and romantic security on depression and loneliness. Data came from 12th grade adolescents (N = 110, 53 females) as well as their parents and a same-sex best friend. Adolescents reported on their romantic involvement, romantic security, and psychological distress. Parent reports of adolescents' depressive symptoms and friend reports of friendship closeness were also included. Higher degrees of romantic involvement and friendship closeness were related to lower degrees of loneliness. Higher degrees of romantic security were related to lower degrees of depression and loneliness. The effect of romantic involvement on depression and loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Also, the effect of romantic security on loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Future research should focus on the interactive roles that friendships and romantic relationships play in the emergence of psychopathology during adolescence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures, and their inter-relationship with psychological distress: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; O'Brien, K; Waller, J; Gallagher, P; D'Arcy, T; Flannelly, G; Martin, C M; McRae, J; Prendiville, W; Ruttle, C; White, C; Pilkington, L; O'Leary, J J; Sharp, L

    2017-08-01

    To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. Longitudinal survey. Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (±related procedures). Questionnaires were mailed to women 4, 8 and 12 months post-colposcopy. Details of physical after-effects (pain, bleeding and discharge) experienced post-colposcopy were collected at 4 months. Colposcopy-specific distress was measured using the Process Outcome-Specific Measure at all time-points. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to identify associations between physical after-effects and distress over 12 months, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. Prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects. Associations between the presence of any physical after-effects, awareness of after-effects, and number of after-effects and distress. Five-hundred and eighty-four women were recruited (response rate = 73, 59 and 52% at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively). Eighty-two percent of women reported one or more physical after-effect(s). Multiple physical after-effects were common (two after-effects = 25%; three after-effects = 25%). Psychological distress scores declined significantly over time. In adjusted analyses, women who experienced all three physical after-effects had on average a 4.58 (95% CI: 1.10-8.05) higher distress scored than those who experienced no after-effects. Women who were unaware of the possibility of experiencing after-effects scored significantly higher for distress during follow-up. The prevalence of physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures is high. The novel findings of inter-relationships between awareness of the possibility of after-effects and experiencing multiple after-effects, and post-colposcopy distress may be relevant to the development of interventions to alleviate post-colposcopy distress. Experiencing multiple

  8. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the 'inverse hazard law'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.

  9. Examining the relationship between psychological distress and adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV.

  10. Key constructs in "classical" and "new wave" cognitive behavioral psychotherapies: relationships among each other and with emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Ioana A; Montgomery, Guy H; Szamoskozi, Stefan; David, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to relate key constructs from three forms of cognitive behavioral therapy that are often placed in competition: rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The key constructs of the underlying theories (i.e., irrational beliefs/unconditional self-acceptance, dysfunctional cognitions, experiential avoidance/psychological inflexibility) of these therapies have not been explicitly studied in their relationships to each other and with emotional distress. We used a cross-sectional design. The variables were selected to indicate key constructs of the three major forms of therapy considered. Study 1 used a sample of 152 students, who were assessed during a stressful period of their semester (mean age = 21.71; 118 females), while Study 2 used a clinical sample of 28 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (mean age = 26.67; 26 females). Results showed that these constructs, central in the therapies considered, had medium to high associations to each other and to distress. Experiential avoidance was found to mediate the relationship between the other, schema-type cognitive constructs and emotional distress. Moreover, multiple mediation analysis in Study 2 seemed to indicate that the influence of the more general constructs on distress was mediated by experiential avoidance, whose effect seemed to be carried on further by automatic thoughts that were the most proximal to distress. Although each of the cognitive constructs considered comes with its underlying theory, the relationships between them can no longer be ignored and cognitive behavioral therapy theoretical models reliably accounting for these relationships should be proposed and tested. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relationship of age and gender to the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily

    2012-06-01

    As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.

  12. Relationship between ICU nurses' moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorideh, Foroozan Atashzadeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of intensive care unit nurses' major problems, which may happen due to various reasons, and has several consequences. Due to various moral distress outcomes in intensive care unit nurses, and their impact on nurses' personal and professional practice, recognizing moral distress is very important. The aim of this study was to determine correlation between moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover in intensive care unit nurses. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. A total of 159 intensive care unit nurses were selected from medical sciences universities in Iran. Data collection instruments included "demographic questionnaire," "ICU Nurses' Moral Distress Scale," "Copenhagen Burnout Inventory" and "Hinshaw and Atwood Turnover Scale." Data analysis was done by using SPSS19. Informed consent from samples and research approval was obtained from Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences University Research Ethics Board in Tehran. The findings showed intensive care unit nurses' moral distress and anticipated turnover was high, but burnout was moderate. The results revealed that there was a positive statistical correlation between intensive care unit nurses' age, their work experience and the fraction of nurses' number to number of intensive care unit beds with their moral distress and burnout. However, there were no correlation between gender, marriage status, educational degree and work shift and moral distress. Some of the findings of this research are consistent with other studies and some of them are inconsistent. Similarly, moral distress with burnout and anticipated turnover did not have statistical correlation. However, a positive correlation was found between burnout and anticipated turnover. The results showed that increase in the recruitment of young nurses, and nursing personnel, and diminishing intensive care unit nurses' moral distress, burnout and their turnover intention are essential. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  14. Relationship of locus of control, psychological distress, and trauma exposure in groups impacted by intense political conflict in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vasiliki; Gadallah, Mohsen; Leon, Gloria R; Massou, Efthalia; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Skembris, Angelos; Levett, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Social and political instability have become common situations in many parts of the world. Exposure to different types of traumatic circumstances may differentially affect psychological status. The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between personal perceptions of control over the events happening in one's life and psychological distress in two groups who experienced physical trauma but differed as to whether the trauma was a result of political upheaval and violence. Views on the extent to which the state was interested in the individual were also assessed. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were injured in the Cairo epicenter and 120 matched controls from the greater Cairo area whose injuries were from other causes. The Brown Locus of Control Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL 90-R) were administered approximately three months after the January 2011 start of the demonstrations and subsequent overthrow of the government. The groups did not differ on locus of control. For both groups, externality was associated with greater distress, suggesting a relationship between perceived helplessness in controlling one's life and distress. The Cairo group scored significantly higher than the control group on the SCL 90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and Positive Symptom Total (PST). Perceptions of state interest in the population were low; overall, 78% viewed the state as having little or no interest in them. Discussion The relationship between exposure intensity and psychological distress is examined. In addition, differences in findings in populations experiencing political chaos compared with other types of disasters are considered. Beliefs regarding personal control over one's life circumstances are more closely associated with psychological distress than the circumstances in which the trauma occurred.

  15. Substance Abuse and Its Relationship with Household Dysfunction and Psychological Distress among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between experiencing household dysfunction and substance abuse in adulthood among Jamaican university students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which consisted of university students who were 18 years or older. Systematic sampling techniques were utilized to identify participants spanning across all faculties of a single university. The questionnaire utilized for this study included questions from several standardized scales: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission/Organization of American States (CICAD/OAS drug use questionnaire and the household dysfunction scale from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE questionnaire. Results:A total of 382 students participated in the study (279 females and 103 males. More than a third of the students (38.9% reported substance use, with 13.6% being substance abusers. Seven of every ten respondents were raised in a dysfunctional household. A significant positive relationship was observed between household dysfunction and substance abuse, where higher levels of household dysfunction were found to be associated with substance abuse: χ2 (2, n = 382 = 7.685, p < 0.05. Additionally, witnessing a mother or caregiver being violently treated, living with an alcoholic family member or a household member who attempted suicide was found to be associated with substance abuse during adulthood. Conclusion:These findings highlight the role of household dysfunction as a serious risk factor for adult drug abuse and can be used to help guide and inform drug prevention and intervention strategies.

  16. Locating qualitative studies in dementia on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO: A comparison of search strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Abbott, Rebecca

    2017-10-28

    Qualitative research in dementia improves understanding of the experience of people affected by dementia. Searching databases for qualitative studies is problematic. Qualitative-specific search strategies might help with locating studies. To examine the effectiveness (sensitivity and precision) of 5 qualitative strategies on locating qualitative research studies in dementia in 4 major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL). Qualitative dementia studies were checked for inclusion on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Five qualitative search strategies (subject headings, simple free-text terms, complex free-text terms, and 2 broad-based strategies) were tested for study retrieval. Specificity, precision and number needed to read were calculated. Two hundred fourteen qualitative studies in dementia were included. PsycINFO and CINAHL held the most qualitative studies out the 4 databases studied (N = 171 and 166, respectively) and both held unique records (N = 14 and 7, respectively). The controlled vocabulary strategy in CINAHL returned 96% (N = 192) of studies held; by contrast, controlled vocabulary in PsycINFO returned 7% (N = 13) of studies held. The broad-based strategies returned more studies (93-99%) than the other free-text strategies (22-82%). Precision ranged from 0.061 to 0.004 resulting in a number needed to read to obtain 1 relevant study ranging from 16 (simple free-text search in CINAHL) to 239 (broad-based search in EMBASE). Qualitative search strategies using 3 broad terms were more sensitive than long complex searches. The controlled vocabulary for qualitative research in CINAHL was particularly effective. Furthermore, results indicate that MEDLINE and EMBASE offer little benefit for locating qualitative dementia research if CINAHL and PSYCINFO are also searched. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Relationship between infertility-related stress and emotional distress and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Jakubowska, Sylwia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive effects of infertility-related stress on psychological distress and marital satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a nonrecursive model hypothesizing the impact of infertility-related stress on both emotional distress and marital dissatisfaction, which were supposed to have a reciprocal influence on each other. The model was estimated using data from a sample of 150 infertile patients (78 males and 72 females). Findings confirmed the predictive effects of infertility-related stress on both emotional and marital distress. However, infertility-related stress was found to have more impact on emotional distress than on marital satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF ROAD DISTRESSES AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SLOPE FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOR A. M. NASIR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A road is a medium that a person uses to move from one destination to another. A good road can provide comfort and safety to users, however, poor maintenance of a road might cause danger to them. Therefore, a road maintenance management system needs to be carried out to ensure the effectiveness as well as the efficiency of road maintenance itself. In this era, there are so many systems created in order to help data storage and analysis. One of the systems is the Geographic Information System (GIS. Other than getting the location of distresses, GIS also can help to classify the severity level of distresses and to correlate the distresses occurring in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM with the slope gradient. Road distress data was collected using GPS applications supported by Supersurv 3 software. The study shows that the GIS method helps to produce a good spatial database. The road gradient factor is related to the level of road damage.

  19. Distress and worry as mediators in the relationship between psychosocial risks and upper body musculoskeletal complaints in highly automated manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, Fiona; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Leonard W

    2018-03-15

    As a result of changes in manufacturing including an upward trend in automation and the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, the requirement for supervisory monitoring and consequently, cognitive demand has increased in automated manufacturing. The incidence of musculoskeletal disorders has also increased in the manufacturing sector. A model was developed based on survey data to test if distress and worry mediate the relationship between psychosocial factors (job control, cognitive demand, social isolation and skill discretion), stress states and symptoms of upper body musculoskeletal disorders in highly automated manufacturing companies (n = 235). These constructs facilitated the development of a statistically significant model (RMSEA 0.057, TLI 0.924, CFI 0.935). Cognitive demand was shown to be related to higher distress in employees, and distress to a higher incidence of self-reported shoulder and lower back symptoms. The mediation model incorporating stress states (distress, worry) as mediators is a novel approach in linking psychosocial risks to musculoskeletal disorders. Practitioners' Summary With little requirement for physical work in many modern automated manufacturing workplaces, there is often minimal management focus on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) as important occupational health problems. Our model provides evidence that psychosocial factors are important risk factors in symptoms of WRMSD and should be managed.

  20. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Nielsen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  1. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Christensen, Jan O; Finne, Live B; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership - role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates' perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  2. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B.; Christensen, Jan O.; Finne, Live B.; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace. PMID:29467702

  3. A meta-analytic review of the relationship of cancer coping self-efficacy with distress and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Andrea; Lucidi, Fabio; Merluzzi, Thomas; Alivernini, Fabio; Laurentiis, Michelino De; Botti, Gerardo; Giordano, Antonio

    2017-05-30

    Self-efficacy for coping with cancer is a specific construct that refers to behaviors that occur in the course of dealing with a cancer diagnosis, cancer treatments, and transitioning to survivorship. One of the more widely used measures of self-efficacy for coping strategies with cancer is the Cancer Behavior Inventory. The following general questions provide a framework for this research: 1. Is self-efficacy for coping with cancer related to distress and quality of life of a cancer patient?. 2. Do self-efficacy for coping with cancer and the target psychological outcomes (i.e., distress and quality of life) change in longitudinal studies, with or without intervention? One-hundred eighty studies cited the different versions of the Cancer Behavior Inventory and 47 used the scale. Result showed an inverse relationship between self-efficacy for coping with cancer and distress, and a positive relationship between self-efficacy for coping with cancer and Quality of Life, both with a large effect size. The strong relationship of self-efficacy and outcomes, resulted of the specificity of the instrument, which targets specific coping strategies that are closely aligned with positive outcomes in adjusting to cancer. However, the results are consistent with the theory, which states that compared to those with low efficacy, highly efficacious people demonstrate less anxiety and better adjustment in stressful situations and consistent with prior results in which self-efficacy is positively related to quality of life.

  4. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  5. The relationship between unmet needs and distress amongst young people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Gavin J; Thompson, Kate; Palmer, Susan; Thomas, David M; Schofield, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Most psychosocial research in cancer has been restricted to paediatric or older adult populations. This study aimed to explore psychological distress and unmet needs in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and identify predictors of distress among demographic and illness characteristics and supportive care needs. Fifty-three patients between 16 and 30 years completed a cross-sectional survey, administered shortly after presentation to an AYA oncology service and within 4 months of diagnosis. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State Form (STAI-S) and the Supportive Care Needs Survey. Level of distress-related sypmtomatology in this population was based on previous work, whereby a cut-off score of 4 or greater was used for the BDI-FS, and one standard deviation above the sample population mean was used for the STAI-S. Prevalence of distress (25%) was lower than that found previously in AYA with cancer. Physical and daily living needs were the most frequently unmet needs overall, followed by psychological needs, health system and information needs and care and support needs. Lastly, being pre-treatment predicted increased depression and state anxiety, while having treatment post-surgery predicted reduced state anxiety. After controlling for treatment status, however, the main predictors of depression and state anxiety were physical and daily living needs and health system and information needs, respectively. Lower levels of distress and unmet psychological needs were related to the few participants (17%) in this study who were pre-treatment, when distress was most likely. However, physical needs and information needs, which are almost inevitable throughout treatment and beyond, were more important predictors of distress. Further exploration must consider the psychosocial difficulties underlying this association and the needs of AYA at transitions between critical periods in their cancer journey

  6. Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: sexual interest, sexual arousal, relationships and sexual distress in older Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of

  7. Just world beliefs moderate the relationship of pain intensity and disability with psychological distress in chronic pain support group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Joanna L; Knussen, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The impact of pain beliefs on coping and adjustment is well established. However, less is known about how beliefs unrelated to pain might impact upon this experience. In particular, just world beliefs could impact upon and be influenced by chronic pain, given that pain is not experienced in a vacuum but instead is experienced in a social context where justice issues are potentially salient. The focus of this study was the ability of personal and general just world beliefs to moderate the relationships psychological distress held with pain intensity and disability in chronic pain. The sample (N=95) was recruited from members of arthritis and fibromyalgia support groups to investigate these social beliefs in a controlled community pain context. A cross-sectional, questionnaire design was adopted. The personal just world belief was endorsed significantly more than the general just world belief, and endorsement of the personal just world belief was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability and psychological distress, while the general just world belief was unrelated to these variables. When interaction terms relating to personal and general just world beliefs were entered simultaneously into regression analyses, the personal just world belief did not predict psychological distress. However, pain intensity positively predicted psychological distress at low but not high levels of the general just world belief, while disability predicted psychological distress at low and high levels of this belief. This suggests that a strong general just world belief has implications for psychological well-being in chronic pain, and as such this belief may occupy a potential coping function in this context.

  8. Authenticity, life satisfaction, and distress: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Waits, J Brandon; Felix, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reciprocal relationships between authenticity and measures of life satisfaction and distress using a 2-wave panel study design. Data were collected from 232 college students attending 2 public universities. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that after controlling for temporal stability, initial authenticity (Time 1) predicted later distress and life satisfaction (Time 2). Specifically, higher levels of authenticity at Time 1 were associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased distress at Time 2. Neither distress nor life satisfaction at Time 1 significantly predicted authenticity at Time 2. However, the relationship between Time 1 distress and Time 2 authenticity was not significantly different from the relationship between Time 1 authenticity and Time 2 distress. Results are discussed in light of humanistic-existential theories and the empirical research on well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Quality of recipient-caregiver relationship and psychological distress are correlates of self-care agency after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients' levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low- or high-self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower-self-care agency. Mean (SD) score for self-care agency (scale range, 53-265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest-self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low-self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-09-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents' level of acute subjective distress was assessed within the first month after the burn event with the Impact of Event Scale. Mothers and fathers held comparable views of their child's emotional and behaviour problems, which were generally within the normal limits. Parents' own acute stress reactions were significantly related to parent-rated child behaviour problems at 3 and 12 months postburn. A substantial part of mothers' and fathers' worries about the child concerned physical and emotional aspects of the burn trauma, and potential future social problems. Parents with high acute stress scores more often reported burn-related concerns about their child at 3 and 12 months postburn. Health-care professionals should be informed that parents' distress in the subacute phase of their child's burn event may be related to subsequent worries about their child and to (parent-observed) child emotional and behaviour problems. The authors recommend a family perspective, with particular attention for the interplay between parents' distress and parent-reported child behaviour problems and worries, in each phase of paediatric burn care.

  12. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study.

  13. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Mohamadirizi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students.

  14. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  15. Distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress predict women's problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-06-01

    Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic growth, cognitive processing, psychological distress, and social constraints in a sample of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Fay; Gourounti, Kleanthi; Kolokotroni, Filippa; Efstathiou, Vasia; Mellon, Robert; Papastylianou, Dona; Niakas, Dimitris; Potamianos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (the perception of positive life changes after an encounter with a trauma) often occurs among breast cancer patients and can be influenced by certain demographic, medical, and psychosocial parameters. Social constraints on disclosure (the deprivation of the opportunity to express feelings and thoughts regarding the trauma) and the cognitive processing of the disease seem to be involved in the development of posttraumatic growth. Through the present study the authors aim to: investigate the levels of posttraumatic growth in a sample of 202 women with breast cancer in Greece, explore the relationships between posttraumatic growth and particular demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables according to a proposed model, and test the role of social constraints in the relationship between automatic and deliberate cognitive processing of the trauma. The results showed that posttraumatic growth was evident in the majority of the sample and was associated inversely with age at diagnosis (β = -0.174, p psychological distress (β = -0.394, p = .001), directly with time since diagnosis (β = 0.181, p psychological distress, through reflective rumination (β = 0.323, p = .001). Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between intrusions and reflective rumination. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  17. The relationship between mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.

  18. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina

    2013-03-01

    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between psychological distress and baseline sports-related concussion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher M; Samples, Hillary L; Broshek, Donna K; Freeman, Jason R; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effect of psychological distress on neurocognitive performance measured during baseline concussion testing. Archival data were utilized to examine correlations between personality testing and computerized baseline concussion testing. Significantly correlated personality measures were entered into linear regression analyses, predicting baseline concussion testing performance. Suicidal ideation was examined categorically. Athletes underwent testing and screening at a university athletic training facility. Participants included 47 collegiate football players 17 to 19 years old, the majority of whom were in their first year of college. Participants were administered the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), an internet-based neurocognitive test designed to monitor and manage both at-risk and concussed athletes. Participants took the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), a self-administered inventory designed to measure clinical syndromes, treatment considerations, and interpersonal style. Scales and subscales from the PAI were utilized to determine the influence psychological distress had on the CRI indices: simple reaction time, complex reaction time, and processing speed. Analyses revealed several significant correlations among aspects of somatic concern, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and CRI performance, each with at least a moderate effect. When entered into a linear regression, the block of combined psychological symptoms accounted for a significant amount of baseline CRI performance, with moderate to large effects (r = 0.23-0.30). When examined categorically, participants with suicidal ideation showed significantly slower simple reaction time and complex reaction time, with a similar trend on processing speed. Given the possibility of obscured concussion deficits after injury, implications for premature return to play, and the need to target psychological distress outright, these findings heighten the clinical

  20. The Longitudinal Causal Directionality between Body Image Distress and Self-Esteem among Korean Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woochul; Epstein, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-esteem and body image distress, as well as the moderating effect of relationships with parents, among adolescents in Korea, using nationally representative prospective panel data. Regarding causal direction, the findings supported bi-directionality for girls, but for boys the…

  1. Relationship of social factors including trust, control over life decisions, problems with transport and safety, to psychological distress in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine; Gill, Tiffany K; Winefield, Helen; Baum, Fran; Hiller, Janet E; Goldney, Robert; Tucker, Graeme; Hugo, Graeme

    2012-03-01

    Psychological distress encompasses anxiety and depression with the previous studies showing that psychological distress is unequally distributed across population groups. This paper explores the mechanisms and processes which may affect the distribution of psychological distress, including a range of individual and community level socioeconomic determinants. Representative cross-sectional data was collected for respondents aged 16+ from July 2008 to June 2009, as a part of the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Univariate and multivariate analyses (n = 5,763) were conducted to investigate the variables that were associated with psychological distress. The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 8.9%. In the multivariate model, females, those aged 16-49, respondents single with children, unable to work or unemployed, with a poorer family financial situation, earning $20,000 or less, feeling safe in their home some or none of the time, feeling as though they have less then total control over life decisions and sometimes experiencing problems with transport, were significantly more likely to experience psychological distress. This paper has demonstrated the relationship between low-income, financial pressure, less than optimal safety and control, and high-psychological distress. It is important that the groups highlighted as vulnerable be targeted in policy, planning, and health promotion and prevention campaigns.

  2. Adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs: Relationship with demographic features, psychological distress, well-being and health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana

    2015-10-01

    There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and subjective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors: role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; Awick, Elizabeth A; McAuley, Edward

    2017-09-01

    Many breast cancer survivors report cancer and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change. However, very little is known about the relationship between physical activity and subjective memory impairment (SMI) in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical activity and SMI and longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress as potential mediators. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 1477) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, distress (depression, concerns about recurrence, perceived stress, anxiety), fatigue and SMI at baseline and 6-month follow-up. A subsample (n = 362) was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences SMI via exercise self-efficacy, distress and fatigue. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good fit in the full sample (χ 2  = 1462.5, df = 469, p = exercise self-efficacy and reduced distress and fatigue. Higher levels of physical activity, lower levels of fatigue and distress and higher exercise self-efficacy may play an important role in understanding SMI in breast cancer survivors across time. Future research is warranted to replicate and explore these relationships further. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Relationships between psychosocial distress and diet during pregnancy and infant birthweight in a lower-middle income country: 'healthy mothers, healthy communities' study in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomer, Alysa; Buffa, Giavana; Taleo, Fasihah; Sizemore, J Hunter; Tokon, Apisai; Taleo, George; Tarivonda, Len; Chan, Chim W; Kaneko, Akira; Dancause, Kelsey N

    2018-05-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with birth outcomes, including birthweight. Exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy provides a model to study these relationships. However, few studies assess both stress and diet, which might have interactive effects. Furthermore, most are conducted in high-income countries. Patterns might differ in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To study relationships between stress and diet during pregnancy, and infant birthweight, following a natural disaster in a lower-middle income country. In 2015, the island nation of Vanuatu suffered a Category 5 cyclone. Three months later, the authors assessed hardship due to the cyclone, distress, and dietary diversity among 900 women, including 187 pregnant women. Of these, 70 had birth records available. Multivariate linear regression was used to analyse relationships between cyclone exposure and infant birthweight among this sub-sample. Neither hardship nor dietary diversity predicted birthweight. Distress was a robust predictor, explaining 8.5% of variance (p = 0.012). There were no interactive relationships between distress and other exposure variables. Maternal distress following a natural disaster has important implications for maternal and child health. In LMICs, low birthweight remains a pressing public health concern. Distress during pregnancy might represent one underlying risk factor.

  5. The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships against Peer Victimization and Psychosocial Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Simmons, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-student relationships protect against peer victimization and its negative psychosocial effects (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). Additionally, the influence of teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and students' perceptions of school order and discipline was investigated as these variables…

  6. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  8. Relationships between perceived diagnostic disclosure, patient characteristics, psychological distress and illness perceptions in Indian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Mahati; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    Non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis is a common practice in many Asian cultures where family-based medical decision making is the norm. The present study sought to compare Indian cancer patients who were aware versus unaware of their cancer diagnosis on a range of patient characteristics, levels of psychological distress and illness perceptions. A sample of 329 Indian cancer patients were interviewed about their understanding of their illness (to assess awareness of a cancer diagnosis) and administered the following measures: the modified Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Demographic and medical details were also obtained. Over half of the sample (54.1%) was unaware of their cancer diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis predicting perceived diagnostic disclosure indicated that awareness of a cancer diagnosis was associated with being involved in medical decisions, receiving multiple treatments, longer treatment durations, greater perceived understanding of one's illness (illness coherence) and citing a cause for one's illness. The results highlight the importance of the context in which decisions about the patient's illness are made (e.g. by whom) as well as illness perceptions relating to patients' understanding of their illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Barriers professional competence and its relationship with job satisfaction of nurses' moral distress and pre-hospital emergency city of Bam and Jiroft in 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadjavad Rahimzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to "protect the health of people" Several organizations have been founded and given its role in saving lives when seconds play, is formed Medical Center Emergency Management Whose duty is satisfactory service in the shortest possible time. Because one of the pre-hospital emergency center nurses work centers and first deal with critical diseases carried by nurses, so they are faced with numerous obstacles which could impact on their job satisfaction has less moral distress. In this study, efficient professional barriers and its relation to moral distress and job satisfaction are studied prehospital emergency nurses. This study is a descriptive - correlation of prehospital emergency personnel Bam on 82 Jiroft who were selected by census was conducted. Data gathering questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, barriers to efficient professional, moral distress, job satisfaction after obtaining the appropriate reliability and validity were used. Analysis of the data in this study using SPSS version 18, using measures of central tendency and dispersion, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and regression analysis were used. According to the non-normal distribution efficiency and moral distress two variables obstacles relationship between these two variables with Spearman nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test other variables and for other variables that were normally distributed parametric tests and ANOVA were used Pearson correlation coefficient. A total of 82 patients with mean age (31.54± 5.66 participated in th e study showed. Results are73.4% married, work experience, most people (% 91.5 were under 15 years old. Most people (52% with traffic and pedestrians as factors impeding efficient professional, fully agreed, the average score of moral distress (o.48 ± 2.13, the level of moral distress was most mid-level and job satisfaction 52. 4% of them were average. The results showed that between moral distress and job

  10. Poor and distressed, but happy: situational and cultural moderators of the relationship between wealth and happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Borrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty –as well as other adverse situations– has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs using data on happiness, wealth and culture from 197 countries, supplemented by a meta-analysis of empirical studies that explore the relationship between wealth and perceptions of happiness, support the hypothesized relationship between adversity and happiness, and the moderating effect that collectivism has on such relationship.

  11. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  12. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  13. Investigating the influence of shame, depression, and distress tolerance on the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating in lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poor and distressed, but happy: situational and cultural moderators of the relationship between wealth and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero, Silvio; Bolena Escobar, Ana; Cortés, Aura María; Maya, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty - as well as other adverse situations- has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) using data on happiness, wealth and cult...

  15. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-09-01

    There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and "addiction" to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon's MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10-15 minute survey. Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site.

  16. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and “addiction” to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Methods Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon’s MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10–15 minute survey. Results Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Discussion Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site. PMID:26551906

  17. The relationship between role preferences in decision-making and level of psychological distress in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Joe; Dhillon, Haryana M; Shepherd, Heather L; Sundaresan, Puma; Milross, Chris; Clark, Jonathan R

    2018-05-28

    Is there a relationship between decision-making preferences and psychological distress? Patients who had received treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) at four institutions within NSW, Australia were invited to complete a single questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety-seven patients completed the questionnaire. The majority of patients (308, 54%) preferred shared decision making. Significant predictors of a preference towards active decision making were education level (OR 2.1 for tertiary, p decision preference (p decision-making. Psychological distress is more likely in patients actively involved in decision making, younger patients, and in females. Patients experienced paternalistic decision-making, but most preferred active or a shared approached. Clinicians need to be aware of potential for psychological distress in active decision-makers and refer patients for psychosocial support. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  19. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  20. The relationship between proxy reported health-related quality of life and parental distress: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Davies, B; Waters, E; Priest, N

    2008-11-01

    Although primary caregiver proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are often used for healthcare decision making when child self-reports are unable to be collected (because of a variety of reasons such as child illness, disability or age), we have little understanding of the correlates of parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental depression and parent-proxy reported QOL for primary caregivers (mothers and fathers), using a multidimensional HRQOL instrument. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would be negatively correlated with maternal reported HRQOL, but that paternal depression would not be correlated with paternal reported HRQOL. Data were from parents of children aged 4-5 years (n = 4983) involved in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A questionnaire assessing parental depression (Kessler-6) and proxy reported HRQOL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) was completed by the primary caregiver. For maternal primary caregivers, maternal depression was negatively correlated with all domains of maternal proxy reports of HRQOL (r = -0.24 to r = -0.36). For paternal primary caregivers, there was no relationship between paternal depression and paternal proxy reports of HRQOL. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that maternal depression was a significant predictor of total HRQOL, accounting for 12% of the variance. For paternal mental health, depression did not predict parent-proxy reported total HRQOL. These results highlight the importance of assessing maternal mental health when measuring proxy reported QOL. Further research is needed in this area to examine the relationship between parental depression and proxy reported HRQOL (including both mothers and fathers, where possible), as well as child self-reported HRQOL.

  1. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-02-01

    This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic control, and to some extent in relation to coping styles and perceived social support. To date, little is known about the relative contribution of clinical indicators, coping styles and perceptions of social support to perceived distress among people with type 2 diabetes. A sample comprising 425 Norwegian adults, aged 30-70, with type 2 diabetes, completed questionnaires assessing coping styles, perceived social support from health professionals and family and diabetes-related distress assessed by the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale. Demographical and clinical data were collected by self-report. Data were collected in October 2008.   Results from the regression analyses showed a greater variance in emotional distress accounted for by coping styles (21·3%) and perceived support (19·7%) than by clinical indicators (5·8%). FINDINGS may indicate that healthcare providers should pay more attention to non-clinical factors such as coping styles and social support, when addressing diabetes-related distress. They should also be aware that interventions based on psychosocial approaches may primarily influence distress, and not necessarily metabolic control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Sexual Identity and HIV Status Influence the Relationship Between Internalized Stigma and Psychological Distress in Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  3. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  4. A Couple-Based Psychological Treatment for Chronic Pain and Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Annmarie; Corley, Angelia M; Clark, Shannon M; Martinez, Sarah C

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain impacts individuals with pain as well as their loved ones. Yet, there has been little attention to the social context in individual psychological treatment approaches to chronic pain management. With this need in mind, we developed a couple-based treatment, "Mindful Living and Relating," aimed at alleviating pain and suffering by promoting couples' psychological and relational flexibility skills. Currently, there is no integrative treatment that fully harnesses the power of the couple, treating both the individual with chronic pain and the spouse as two individuals who are each in need of developing greater psychological and relational flexibility to improve their own and their partners' health. Mindfulness, acceptance, and values-based action exercises were used to promote psychological flexibility. The intervention also targets relational flexibility, which we define as the ability to interact with one's partner, fully attending to the present moment, and responding empathically in a way that serves one's own and one's partner's values. To this end, the intervention also included exercises aimed at applying psychological flexibility skills to social interactions as well as emotional disclosure and empathic responding exercises to enhance relational flexibility. The case presented demonstrates that healthy coping with pain and stress may be most successful and sustainable when one is involved in a supportive relationship with someone who also practices psychological flexibility skills and when both partners use relational flexibility skills during their interactions.

  5. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal

  6. Understanding the Links Between Self-Report Emotional Intelligence and Suicide Risk: Does Psychological Distress Mediate This Relationship Across Time and Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mérida-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to examining psychological resources that might contribute to our understanding of suicide risk. Although Emotional Intelligence (EI is one dimension that has been linked with decreased suicidal ideation and behaviors, we detected several gaps in the literature in this area regarding the research designs and samples involved. In this research, we aimed to test a mediator model considering self-report EI, psychological distress and suicide risk across samples adopting both cross-sectional and prospective designs in two independent studies.Method: In Study 1, our purpose was to examine the potential role of psychological distress as a mediator in the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk in a community sample comprised of 438 adults (270 women; mean age: 33.21 years. In Study 2, we sought to examine the proposed mediator model considering a 2-month prospective design in a sample of college students (n = 330 in T1; n = 311 in T2; 264 women; mean age: 22.22 years.Results: In Study 1, we found that psychological distress partially mediated the effect of self-report EI on suicide risk. More interestingly, findings from Study 2 showed that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk at Time 2.Conclusion: These results point out the role of psychological distress as a mediator in the association between self-report EI and suicide risk. These findings suggest an underlying process by which self-report EI may act as a protective factor against suicidal ideation and behaviors. In line with the limitations of our work, plausible avenues for future research and interventions are discussed.

  7. The relationship between physical functional limitations, and psychological distress: Considering a possible mediating role of pain, social support and sense of mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Flåten Backe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation, and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012 of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520 including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16–44 and ≥ 45 years. Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i climb stairs, ii carry objects, or iii both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD. Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8–14% reported depressive symptoms, 5–7% anxiety symptoms, and 13–28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16–44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16–44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those ≥ 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of

  8. The relationship between physical functional limitations, and psychological distress: Considering a possible mediating role of pain, social support and sense of mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Ingeborg Flåten; Patil, Grete Grindal; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation), and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012) of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520) including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16-44 and ≥ 45 years). Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i) climb stairs, ii) carry objects, or iii) both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD). Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8-14% reported depressive symptoms, 5-7% anxiety symptoms, and 13-28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16-44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16-44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those [Formula: see text] 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of mastery may

  9. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  10. Job strain and other work conditions: relationships with psychological distress among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting

  11. Association between age, distress, and orientations to happiness in individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Müller, Rachel; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ipsen, Catherine; Ravesloot, Craig

    2015-02-01

    To determine how age and distress are associated in individuals with disabilities, and how happiness and its components (meaning, pleasure, and engagement) mediate or moderate this relationship. These were cross-sectional analyses of survey data from 508 community-dwelling adults with a variety of self-reported health conditions and functional disabilities. Measures included the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire and items from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System. Greater distress was associated with lower global happiness in both mediation and moderation models. The mediation model showed that middle-aged participants (age: 45-64) scored lowest in global happiness, and the effect of age on distress was partially mediated by happiness. None of the happiness components mediated the relationship of age on distress. The moderation model showed a significant interaction effect for age and global happiness on distress, where younger participants low on happiness were significantly more distressed. Of the three happiness components, only meaning was significantly associated with distress. There was a significant interaction between age and meaning, where participants who were younger and scored low on the meaning scale reported significantly higher distress. Findings from this study lay groundwork for the development of clinical interventions to address distress in individuals with functional disabilities. Middle-aged and younger people with disabilities may be particularly affected by lower levels of happiness and might benefit from psychological interventions that focus on increasing overall well-being and providing meaning and purpose in life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Using the Kannada version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale to assess resilience and its relationship with psychological distress among adolescent girls in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidheek, K P Fasli; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Sowmya, H R; Chandra, Prabha S

    2017-12-01

    A widely used and accepted scale for assessing resilience is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The aim of the present study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the scale and assess the relationship between resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls living in low-income settings. Data was obtained from a sample of 606 adolescent girls studying in a college meant for women from a socio-economically disadvantaged setting. The CD- RISC (25 item) was used to assess resilience and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was used to assess psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four stable factors instead of the original five factors. Similar results have been obtained in other factor-analytic studies. A significant negative correlation was found between psychological distress and resilience. Our study shows that the CD-RISC is a valuable measure to assess resilience among adolescents in low-income settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived impact of cancer among adolescents and young adults: Relationship with health-related quality of life and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, O; Zebrack, B J

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether perceptions of the impact of cancer are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress among survivors of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). One hundred seventy-three AYA cancer survivors (aged 18-35 and 15-29 years at time of diagnosis) completed a mailed survey assessing impact of cancer (IOC-AYA), HRQoL (SF-36), and distress (BSI-18). Hierarchical linear regression models analyzed the independent effects of perceived impacts of cancer on HRQoL and distress after controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analyses also examined the extent to which positive and negative perceptions attenuated the effects of control variables on HRQoL and distress. Being unemployed or not in school, and self-reported health problems were significantly associated with worse physical HRQoL. Mental HRQoL and psychological distress appeared as a function of reporting both positive and negative impacts of cancer; mental health outcomes were better in AYAs reporting more positive and less negative impact of cancer in their lives. Perceived impact of cancer, in both positive and negative ways, attenuated the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors on mental HRQoL and psychological distress. Results suggest that mental HRQoL and psychological distress, but not physical HRQoL, are a function of survivors' perceptions of how cancer has affected them and continues to affect them in both positive and negative ways. Findings suggest that opportunities for AYA cancer survivors to reframe or better understand the context of cancer in their lives may result in improved mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Somatic distress among Kosovar civilian war survivors:relationship to trauma exposure and the mediating role of experiential avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ford, J.D.; Risch, A.K.; Morina, B.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of somatic distress (SD) in the aftermath of war, and the role of a process hypothesized to contribute to posttraumatic stress: experiential avoidance. Methods: Civilian war survivors (n = 163) from Kosovo were assessed in structured

  15. Perceived impact of cancer among adolescents and young adults: Relationship with health-related quality of life and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Zebrack, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether perceptions of the impact of cancer are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress among survivors of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). METHODS: One hundred seventy-three AYA cancer survivors (aged 18-35 and 15-29 years

  16. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score >/=15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients' well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital.

  17. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. Material and Methods: A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Results: Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score ≥15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Discussion: Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients’ well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital. PMID:20628652

  18. The role of social capital in the relationship between physical constraint and mental distress in older adults: a latent interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sok; Jang, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    Building upon the widely known link between physical and mental health, the present study explored the buffering effects of social capital (indicated by social cohesion, social ties, and safety) in the relationship between physical constraint (indicated by chronic conditions and functional disability) and mental distress (indicated by symptoms of depression and anxiety). Using data from 2,264 community-dwelling older adults in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 2 (M age = 74.51, SD = 6.67), a latent interaction model was tested. The model of mental distress, including both the main effect of physical constraint and social capital and their latent interaction, presented an excellent fit. The latent constructs of physical constraint (β = .54, p social capital (β = -.11, p interaction was also significant (β = -.26, p social capital had a heightened vulnerability to mental distress when faced with physical constraint, whereas the group with a high level of social capital demonstrated resilience. Findings call attention to ways to enhance older individuals' social capital in efforts to promote their health and well-being.

  19. Psychological distress as a mediator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sleep quality in adolescence: results from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Meghan L; Weiss, Jonathan A; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents an important public health concern, as it is often associated with a host of negative outcomes across development. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine the link between negative health-related behaviors and history of childhood maltreatment. The current study considers the relationship between history of childhood maltreatment and sleep disturbances in adolescence. Further, the role of psychological distress is considered as an explanatory link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sleep disturbances. The current study is a secondary analysis using a subsample (N=73) of child welfare-involved youth who participated in the initial and 2-year time-point of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study on the variables of interest. Youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances, in addition to the other measures administered as part of the larger MAP study protocol. More severe childhood maltreatment was related to increased sleep disturbances during adolescence, and psychological distress was a significant mediator of the childhood maltreatment-adolescent sleep disturbance association. The results demonstrate that a history of childhood maltreatment represents a risk factor for sleep disturbances in adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of inquiring about health-related behaviors in child welfare youth and the need to promote psychological well-being within this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between work engagement and psychological distress of hospital nurses and the perceived communication behaviors of their nurse managers: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunie, Keiko; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Yonekura, Yuki; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2017-06-01

    Communication between nurse managers and nurses is important for mental health of hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between managers' communication behaviors toward nurses, and work engagement and psychological distress among hospital nurses using a multilevel model. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were nurses working at three hospitals in Japan. A total of 906 nurses from 38 units participated in the present study. The units with small staff sizes and participants with missing entries in the questionnaire were excluded. The data for 789 nurses from 36 questionnaire survey units were analyzed. A survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire asked staff nurses about communication behaviors of their immediate manager and their own levels of work engagement, psychological distress, and other covariates. Three types of manager communication behaviors (i.e., direction-giving, empathetic, and meaning-making language) were assessed using the Motivating Language scale; and the scores of the respondents were averaged for each unit to calculate unit-level scores. Work engagement and psychological distress were measured using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the K6 scale, respectively. The association of communication behaviors by unit-level managers with work engagement and psychological distress among nurses was analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling. The unit-level scores for all three of the manager communication behaviors were significantly and positively associated with work engagement among nurses (pwork environment. The individual levels of all three of the manager communication behaviors were also significantly and positively associated with work engagement (p0.05). Motivating language by unit-level managers might be positively associated with work engagement among hospital nurses, which is mediated through the better

  1. Assessing the relationships among stress, god-mediated control, and psychological distress/well-being: Does the level of education matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2018-01-24

    One of the primary functions of religion is to help people cope with stressful life events. The purpose of the current study is to see if God-mediated control beliefs perform this stress-buffering function. God-mediated control refers to the belief that people work together with God to reduce the effects of unwanted stressors in their lives. An effort is made to probe this relationship more deeply by seeing whether the stress moderating function of God-mediated control beliefs varies across levels of educational attainment. Findings from a recent nationwide survey suggest that strong God-mediated control beliefs reduce the magnitude of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms, anxiety, happiness, and hope, but only among more highly educated study participants. In contrast, God-mediated control beliefs do not appear to influence the relationship between stress and distress/well-being among study participants with lower levels of educational attainment.

  2. Relationship Between the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.

  3. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  4. Relationships between mental health distress and work-related factors among prefectural public servants two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.

  5. The Relationship between Starting to Drink and Psychological Distress, Sleep Disturbance after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Orui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from 37,687 pre-disaster non-drinkers who participated in the 2012 and 2013 surveys conducted in Fukushima. We defined newly-started drinkers as those who did not drink before the disaster but who began drinking after the disaster, based on information collected retrospectively. In 2012, 9.6% of non-drinkers began drinking, of which the prevalence of heavy drinkers was 18.4%. The prevalence of continued drinking among newly-started drinkers in 2013 was 53.8%. Logistic regression analyses revealed post-disaster newly-started drinking was significantly associated with being male, less than 65 years old, sleep dissatisfaction and psychological distress (Kessler 6 ≤ 13 when this model was adjusted for disaster-related experience and perceived radiation risk. Moreover, psychological distress and heavy drinking were significant risk factors for continued drinking among newly-started drinkers. Newly-started drinkers might use alcohol to cope with disaster-related stress. Thus, they may be targeted for disaster-related health services. Moreover, early intervention should encourage responsible drinking, since post-disaster heavy drinkers were likely to continue heavy drinking.

  6. Attachment style, relationship quality, and psychological distress in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures versus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Becky; Norman, Paul; Reuber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathology levels are elevated in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. However, patients with PNES report higher rates of trauma and neglect, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and an increased prevalence of insecure attachment. We examined to what extent attachment style and relationship quality with their main informal carer impact on levels of HRQoL, depression, and anxiety in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy. Consecutive patients with PNES (N=23) and epilepsy (N=72) completed questionnaires about attachment style, quality of their relationship with their main informal carer, seizure severity, HRQoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients with PNES reported higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower HRQoL than those with epilepsy. PNES: No significant correlations were found with HRQoL but depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict, and negatively with relationship depth and support. Epilepsy: HRQoL correlated negatively with seizure severity, depression, anxiety, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with seizure severity, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Correlations between measures of relationship quality and anxiety were stronger in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy (zs=2.66 to 2.97, ps<0.004). Attachment style and relationship quality explained larger amounts of variance in depression (45%) and anxiety (60%) in the patients with PNES than those with epilepsy (16% and 13%). Levels of anxiety and depression were higher in patients with PNES than those with epilepsy. Interpersonal problems were much more closely associated with anxiety and depression in

  7. Analysis of 40 sporadic or familial neonatal and pediatric cases with severe unexplained respiratory distress: relationship to SFTPB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredano, Mohammed; Griese, Matthias; de Blic, Jacques; Lorant, Tifenn; Houdayer, Claude; Schumacher, Silja; Cartault, François; Capron, Frédérique; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Renolleau, Sylvain; Delaisi, Bertrand; Elion, Jacques; Couderc, Rémy; Bahuau, Michel

    2003-06-15

    We have analyzed surfactant protein B (SP-B) and its encoding gene (SFTPB, MIM 178640) in 40 unrelated pediatric patients with unexplained respiratory distress (URD). There was high consanguinity (eight kindreds) and an underlying autosomal recessive trait could be inferred in most cases, with overall high sex ratio (32/17) suggesting proband's gender to impact on penetrance. The clinical/biological presentations fitted into three major nosologic frameworks. I: SP-B deficiency (nine probands), complete or incomplete, with homozygous/compoundly heterozygous mutations identified (six probands), including one from the population isolate of Réunion Island (496delG). In addition, there was a consanguineous kindred in which incomplete deficiency was unambiguously unlinked to SFTPB. II: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP, 19 probands), with typical storage of PAS-positive material within the alveoli with foamy macrophages and variable interstitial reaction, which was diagnosed in most patients from Réunion Island. In contrast to previously published findings, mutation and/or segregation analyses excluded SFTPB as a disease locus, although slight metabolic derangement related to SP-B and/or mild SFTPB changes could somehow contribute to disease. III: URD without evidence for SP-B deficiency or PAP (12 probands), equally unlinked to SFTPB, although a single patient had a possibly causal, maternally-derived, heterozygous genetic change (G4521A). The population frequency of five known and four novel SNPs was studied, providing as many potential markers for pulmonary disease related to SFTPB. Overall, URD was found to be heterogeneous, both phenotypically and genetically, even in population isolates where a founder effect might have been expected. When disease loci are identified, patient genotyping will be crucial as a diagnostic aid, for devising proper treatment, and as a basis for genetic counseling. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  9. Improvements in closeness, communication, and psychological distress mediate effects of couple therapy for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Mitchell, Alexandra; Georgia, Emily J; Biesen, Judith N; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Empirically based couple therapy results in significant improvements in relationship satisfaction for the average couple; however, further research is needed to identify mediators that lead to change and to ensure that improvements in mediators predict subsequent-not just concurrent-relationship satisfaction. In addition, given that much of the current literature on couple therapy examines outcomes in a research environment, it is important to examine mediators in a treatment-as-usual setting. To address these questions, 161 heterosexual couples (322 individuals) received treatment-as-usual couple therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers (M = 5.0 and 13.0 sessions at the two sites) and were assessed before every session. The majority of couples were married (85%) and had been together for a median of 7.8 years (SD = 13). Participants were primarily White, non-Hispanic (69%), African American (21%), and White, Hispanic/Latino (8%). Individuals' own self-reported improvements in communication, emotional closeness, and psychological distress (but not frequency of behaviors targeted in treatment) mediated the effect of treatment on their subsequent relationship satisfaction. When all significant mediators were examined simultaneously, improvements in men's and women's emotional closeness and men's psychological distress independently mediated subsequent relationship satisfaction. In contrast, improvements in earlier relationship satisfaction mediated the effect of treatment only on subsequent psychological distress. This study identifies unique mediators of treatment effects and shows that gains in mechanisms predict subsequent relationship satisfaction. Future investigations should focus on the role of emotional closeness and psychological distress-constructs that have often been neglected-in couple therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The roles of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrant college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Treatment-seeking college students with disabilities: Presenting concerns, protective factors, and academic distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R; Edwin, Mary; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-02-01

    Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities. Results indicated that students with disabilities have many similar treatment concerns with their peers, but showed greater concerns in depression and self-harm; academic performance; anxiety and obsessions/compulsions; and fewer concerns in relationship problems. Significant predictors of academic distress for students with disabilities included attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and self-harm, trauma or victimization, stress and academic performance, and social support from family and peers. These results suggest the importance of several factors in understanding the presenting concerns of treatment-seeking students with disabilities and mitigating academic distress for this population. Additional areas for research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia. This project investigated distress intolerance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient’s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  13. The reciprocal relationship between sickness presenteeism and psychological distress in response to job stressors: evidence from a three-wave cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi

    2017-11-25

    Sickness presenteeism (SP) is postulated as workers' response to their general state of health; hence, SP is expected to affect workers' future health. In the present study, we examined the reciprocal relationship between SP and health in response to job stressors, with specific reference to psychological distress (PD) as workers' state of health. We conducted mediation analysis, using data from a three-wave cohort occupational survey conducted at 1-year intervals in Japan; it involved 1,853 employees (1,661 men and 192 women) of a manufacturing firm. We measured SP and PD, using the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Kessler 6 score, respectively. For job stressors, we considered job demands and control, effort and reward, and procedural and interactional justice. PD mediated 11.5%-36.2% of the impact of job control, reward, and procedural and interactional justice on SP, whereas SP mediated their impact on PD, albeit to a much lesser extent in the range of 3.4%-11.3%. Unlike in the cases of these job stressors related to job resources, neither SP nor PD mediated the impact of job demands or effort. Our results confirmed the reciprocal relationship between SP and PD in response to selected types of job stressors, emphasizing the need for more in-depth analysis of the dynamics of these associations.

  14. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  15. Psychological distress of cancer patients with children under 18 years and their partners-a longitudinal study of family relationships using dyadic data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Heide; Friedrich, Michael; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Mehnert, Anja; Ernst, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    With increasing age at pregnancy, the likelihood of cancer affecting a family with children under 18 is rising and the issue of parents with cancer is gaining importance. Here, we examined the level of anxiety and depression, social support, and partnership satisfaction of cancer patients with children under 18 years and their partners as well as the dyadic patient-partner relationship concerning psychological distress and predictor variables. We used a longitudinal survey, recruiting patients with children under legal age and their partners (t1 = post therapy, t2 = 6 months after t1, t3 = 12 months after t1). Patients and partners completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Oslo 3-item Social Support Scale (OSS-3), and the Abbreviated Dyadic Adjustment Scale (ADAS). We surveyed 161 cancer patients and 115 partners by mail (t1). Anxiety and depression were compared to German normative data. Dyadic relationships of three variables (social support, partnership satisfaction, and employment) and the psychological distress of 81 patient-partner dyads were analyzed with a structural equation model to estimate the actor-partner interdependence model. After cancer therapy, 28.3 % of the patients and 46.2 % of their partners had moderate to high levels of anxiety and 17.9 % and 23.1 % had moderate to high levels of depression, respectively. Partners' levels of anxiety (p = 0.002) and depression (p = 0.018) had decreased significantly over the 1-year period post therapy. We found no changes in patients' anxiety (p = 0.444) and depression (p = 0.636) over time. Anxiety and depression did not differ on pair level (p = 0.120-0.928). The level of anxiety in patients and partners was significantly higher than that in the general population (p family is a large burden for both patients and partners, highlighting the high incidence of anxiety. The results indicate that couples coping with cancer tend to react as an emotional system rather than

  16. Relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, objective neuropsychological test performance and psychological distress in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K S; Gibson, S J; Georgiou-Karistianis, N; Giummarra, M J

    2018-03-01

    Persons with chronic pain often report problems with cognitive abilities, such as memory or attention. There is limited understanding of whether objective performance is consistent with subjective reports, and how psychological factors contribute. We aimed to investigate these relationships in a group of patients expressing cognitive concerns, and evaluate the utility of self-report tools for pain management settings. Participants with chronic pain (n = 41) completed standardized neuropsychological tests, and self-report measures of cognitive functioning, pain, mood and sleep, as part of a broader study investigating cognitive performance in pain. Average neuropsychological test performance was subtly below normative means (within one standard deviation). Twenty-five percent of the sample scored substantially below age-adjusted norms on one or more objective tests. There were moderate-to-large associations between objective performance (e.g. Trail-Making B) and subjective cognitive complaints (e.g. Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised), controlling for age and education level. This was moderated by anxiety, such that subjective-objective relationships were particularly strong in those with higher anxiety. Poorer test performance was associated with higher pain intensity and catastrophizing. Subjective-objective cognition relationships remained after controlling for catastrophizing. Patients' self-reported cognitive concerns concurred with objectively measured performance, independent of age, education and catastrophizing. Moreover, those with severe anxiety were more accurate in predicting their cognitive performance. The findings highlight some interesting cognition-mood relationships, and suggest that easy-to-administer questionnaires, such as the Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version, may be useful to capture cognitive concerns in clinical settings. Cognitive concerns in chronic pain

  17. The relationship between parental catastrophizing about child pain and distress in response to medical procedures in the context of childhood cancer treatment: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Line; Goubert, Liesbet; Devos, Patricia; Verlooy, Joris; Benoit, Yves; Vervoort, Tine

    2014-08-01

    Children with leukemia frequently undergo invasive medical procedures, such as lumbar punctures (LPs) and bone marrow aspirations (BMAs). To date, cross-sectional evidence indicates that LP/BMA procedures continue to elicit distress over the course of treatment in children and parents. The current study used prospective analyses investigating in 28 children diagnosed with leukemia, the course of parental and child distress when confronted with consecutive LP/BMA procedures and potential moderation by catastrophic thinking. Parents' level of catastrophic thoughts was assessed before the first treatment-related LP/BMA, while child and parent distress was reported on after each LP/BMA procedure. Whereas parental distress decreased over time among low catastrophizing parents, LP/BMA procedures remained highly distressing for high catastrophizing parents. Child distress during LP/BMA procedures increased over time and was positively related with parental distress. These findings stress the importance of targeting child and parent distress as early as possible in treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....

  19. The 'Thinking a Lot' Idiom of Distress and PTSD: An Examination of Their Relationship among Traumatized Cambodian Refugees Using the 'Thinking a Lot' Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinton, D.E.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.

    2015-01-01

    "Thinking a lot" (TAL)—also referred to as "thinking too much"—is a key complaint in many cultural contexts, and the current article profiles this idiom of distress among Cambodian refugees. The article also proposes a general model of how TAL generates various types of distress that then cause

  20. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  1. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  2. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  3. The impact of coping and emotional intelligence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder from past trauma, adjustment difficulty, and psychological distress following divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol

    2017-08-01

    Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.

  4. The occurrence of early impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury and its relationship with emotional distress and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Megan; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    To describe the occurrence of impaired self-awareness (ISA) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with emotional distress and psychosocial functioning following discharge. Prospective cohort design with data collection at discharge and 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up. 81 adults with TBI. Self-awareness was measured using a discrepancy score generated from the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) Ability subscale, and significant other's ratings of Item 20 on the MPAI-4. Other measures were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Sydney Psychosocial and Reintegration Scale. The discrepancy score method identified more cases of ISA than the single-item rating by significant others. Using discrepancy scores, the occurrence of ISA was 69.1% at discharge, and for those remaining in the study 6 months later, it was 54.3%. Better self-awareness was associated with greater anxiety at discharge, and stress at discharge, 3 and 6 months later, and better psychosocial functioning at all time points. Participants with ISA had significantly poorer relationships at 6 months post-discharge after controlling for injury severity. Whilst self-awareness is associated with greater stress in patients with TBI, it is also associated with better outcomes, indicating the importance of targeting ISA in rehabilitation.

  5. Delayed small intestinal transit in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus: investigation of the relationships with clinical features, gastric emptying, psychological distress, and nutritional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mariza; Pavin, Elizabeth João; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Brunetto, Sérgio Quirino; Ramos, Celso Dario; Pavan, Célia Regina; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Studies on small intestinal transit in type 1 diabetes mellitus have reported contradictory results. This study assessed the orocecal transit time (OCTT) in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relationships with gastrointestinal symptoms, glycemic control, chronic complications of diabetes, anthropometric indices, gastric emptying, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and psychological distress. Twenty-eight patients with long-standing (>10 years) type 1 diabetes mellitus (22 women, six men; mean age, 39 ± 9 years) participated in the study. The lactulose hydrogen breath test was used to determine OCTT and the occurrence of SIBO. The presence of anxiety and depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Gastric emptying was measured by scintigraphy. Anthropometric indices included body mass index, percentage body fat, midarm circumference, and arm muscle area. There was a statistically significant increase in OCTT values in diabetes patients (79 ± 41 min) in comparison with controls (54 ± 17 min) (P=0.01). Individual analysis showed that OCTT was above the upper limit (mean+2 SD) in 30.8% of patients. All anthropometric parameters were significantly decreased (Pdiabetic retinopathy, glycated hemoglobin, delayed gastric emptying, SIBO, anxiety, or depression. Small bowel transit may be delayed in about one-third of patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. This abnormality seems to have a negative effect on nutritional status in these patients.

  6. The relationship between reproductive work and sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in regard to psychological distress in men and women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that some sociodemographic factors, such as marital status, employment status or social class, can affect mental health in different ways for each gender. However, up until now, few research projects have tried to ascertain if the role that reproductive work or psychosocial factors play in mental health is different for men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the differences between men and women in terms of how reproductive work, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors are linked to psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional study of 29,478 male and female adults using data gathered for the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 was carried out. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12. The independent variables analyzed were: sociodemographic, psychosocial (family functionality and functional social support) and those related to reproductive work (living with or being in charge of different types of people needing care and number of hours devoted to caregiver tasks). Different independent logistic regression models were developed for men and women. In general, with the exception of men who were more prone to psychological distress if they were signed off work for 3 months or more, no major differences were observed regarding the effect of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics on psychological distress. With regard to reproductive work, the likelihood of psychological distress doubles in both sexes when the person lives with someone who needs care. In women, a greater number of hours devoted to caring for another person is associated with an increase in distress. Men play a less frequent role in caregiving, but the impact on psychological distress is similar to that in women. Women experienced more psychological distress when they had to live with or be in charge of a disabled person or different types of persons needing care, while men were not affected by this. Major differences have been identified in

  7. Unplanned pregnancy and subsequent psychological distress in partnered women: a cross-sectional study of the role of relationship quality and wider social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Katherine; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A; Carson, Claire

    2017-01-26

    Research into the impact of unintended pregnancy on the wellbeing of women tends to focus on pregnancies ending in either termination or lone motherhood. Unintended pregnancy is common in partnered women, but little is known about the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety in this group. Poor relationship quality and lack of social support are considered risk factors for psychological distress (PD). We examined the association between unplanned motherhood and subsequent PD in partnered women, for whom evidence is sparse, accounting for the role of relationship quality and social support. Data for 12,462 partnered mothers were drawn from the first survey of Millennium Cohort Study, completed at 9 months postpartum. Women reported whether their baby was planned, and how they felt when they discovered that they were pregnant. Pregnancy intention is categorised as "planned", "unplanned/happy", "unplanned/ambivalent" and "unplanned/unhappy". PD was assessed using the modified 9-item Rutter Malaise Inventory. Social support was measured by a composite score for perceived support, and a measure of actual support from friends and family. Relationship quality was assessed using a modified Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State. The effect of pregnancy intention on the odds of PD at 9 months was estimated, adjusting for potential confounding factors. All analyses were weighted for response and design effects. In total 32.8%(weighted) (4343/12462) of mothers reported an unplanned pregnancy: 23.3 wt% (3087) of mothers felt happy, 3.5 wt% (475) ambivalent, and 6.0 wt% (781) unhappy upon discovery. Unplanned pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased odds of PD compared to planned (OR 1.73 (95%CI: 1.53, 1.95)). This was more pronounced among women who reported negative or ambivalent feelings in early pregnancy (OR 2.72 (95%CI:2.17, 3.41) and 2.56 (95%CI:1.95, 3.34), respectively), than those

  8. Assessment of sleep disturbance in lung cancer patients: relationship between sleep disturbance and pain, fatigue, quality of life, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Mare; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sleep disturbance and psychological distress in lung cancer patients. We also examined the association between sleep disturbance and psychological distress, pain, fatigue, and quality of life in the same population. Fifty lung cancer patients were evaluated. Sleep disturbance was assessed using the Athens Sleep Insomnia Scale (AIS) and psychological distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Quality of life (QOL), pain, and fatigue were assessed employing the European Organization of Research and Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire-Cancer 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). We observed that 56% of lung cancer patients had sleep disturbance (AIS score ≥6) and 60% had psychological distress (total HADS score ≥11). Patients with sleep disturbance had a HADS score of 14.6 ± 5.8, a fatigue score of 45.3 ± 22.0, and a pain score of 27.2 ± 26.2. In contrast, patients without sleep disturbance had a lower HADS score of 9.9 ± 8.1 (p psychological distress. Additionally, the type of sleep disturbance was related to other patient factors, including whether or not they received chemotherapy.

  9. Idioms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Geetha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2017-08-01

    The presentations of psychosocial distress and cultural conflicts are often bodily symptoms, especially in traditional societies and village backgrounds. These might not meet the criteria of the current psychiatric diagnostic systems. Sociocultural milieu contributes to the unique presentations of the stress in the form of idioms of distress. The latter are alternative modes of expressing distress and indicate manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning. Health professionals often consider these as hysterical, functional or having functional overlays, and abnormal illness behaviors. Management of idioms of distress would need cultural competence and sensitivity. This article highlights the common idioms of distress in India with specific focus on bodily symptoms.

  10. Distress associated with patients' symptoms and depression in a sample of Mexican caregivers of individuals with MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Tara; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Macias, Miguel Ángel; Aguayo, Adriana; Villaseñor, Teresita

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this quantitative correlational study were to: (a) determine the frequency and level of distress associated with patients' symptoms as reported by caregivers of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), (b) determine the prevalence of depression in these caregivers, and (c) examine the relationship between these caregivers' total symptom distress and depression after controlling for patient, caregiver, and illness characteristics. In this quantitative correlational study, data from 79 caregivers of individuals with MS in Mexico were analyzed. The patient symptoms with the highest average level of distress for caregivers were depression, difficulty talking, difficulty hearing, becoming upset easily, and upsetting other people. Patient symptoms with the lowest average level of distress for caregivers included difficulty learning, seizures, trouble reading, difficulty eating, and difficulty writing. Forty percent of the caregivers met the criteria for probable major depressive disorder. Results of a multivariate regression analysis showed that caregiver total symptom distress was significantly related to caregiver depression, after controlling for patient marital status, caregiver gender, caregiver relationship to patient, caregiver current employment, and months spent caregiving. These findings have implications for MS patients and caregivers as well as larger society, as depression in caregivers often results in the institutionalization of individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities, which is costly for both individuals and society. In addition, there might be increased expenditures associated with the caregivers' own declining health. For these reasons, it is important to develop a better understanding of its risk factors to identify caregivers who might benefit from intervention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  12. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  13. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strine, Tara W; Edwards, Valerie J; Dube, Shanta R; Wagenfeld, Morton; Dhingra, Satvinder; Prehn, Angela Witt; Rasmussen, Sandra; McKnight-Eily, Lela; Croft, Janet B

    2012-07-13

    Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  14. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  15. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.

  16. Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces. Preliminary Findings From a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Kliem, Sören; Zimmermann, Peter; Kowalski, Jens

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Fathers' postnatal distress, parenting self-efficacy, later parenting behavior, and children's emotional-behavioral functioning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Distress risk and leverage puzzles: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Cheng Ho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial distress has been invoked in the asset pricing literature to explain the anomalous patterns in the cross-section of stock returns. The risk of financial distress can be measured using indexes. George and Hwang (2010 suggest that leverage can explain the distress risk puzzle and that firms with high costs choose low leverage to reduce distress intensities and earn high returns. This study investigates whether this relationship exists in the Taiwan market. When examined separately, distress intensity is found to be negatively related to stock returns, but leverage is found to not be significantly related to stock returns. The results are the same when distress intensity and leverage are examined simultaneously. After assessing the robustness by using O-scores, distress risk puzzle is found to exist in the Taiwan market, but the leverage puzzle is not

  19. Stressors, resources, and distress among homeless persons: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L; Piliavin, I

    2001-04-01

    Relations among stressors, resources, and psychological distress were examined using two waves of data obtained from a probability sample of homeless persons (N = 430) residing in a large, demographically diverse county in North California. The focus of research was to examine whether and how social resources and housing resources directly affect distress and mediate the impact of stress factors on depressive symptoms. Path analysis results revealed that levels of psychological distress were responsive to change in objective housing circumstances, with the attainment of domicile status being associated with fewer distress symptoms. Our findings, however, indicated only modest effects of social resources on psychological distress through direct effects and mediating effects of life stressors on distress. Overall, the study suggests that the relationships among stressors, resources, and distress for homeless persons may be understood within the same analytical framework for the general population.

  20. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A Comparison of High- and Low-Distress Marriages that End in Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2007-01-01

    We used data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. A cluster analysis of 509 couples who divorced between waves revealed that about half were in high-distress relationships and the rest in low-distress relationships. These 2 groups were not artifacts of…

  2. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  3. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  4. Psychopathic traits, victim distress and aggression in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baardewijk, Y.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Bushman, B.J.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression.

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in emotionally distressed individuals referred for a depression prevention intervention: relationship to problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  7. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  8. Perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaee, Navideh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Baghestani, Ahmadreza; Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh

    2018-01-01

    Moral distress is prevalent in the health care environment at different levels. Nurses in all roles and positions are exposed to ethically challenging conditions. Development of supportive climates in organizations may drive nurses towards coping moral distress and other related factors. This study aimed at determining the level of perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses and investigating the relationship between the two variables. This was a correlational-descriptive study. A total of 120 nurses were selected using random quota sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, Survey of Perceived Organizational Support, and Moral Distress Scale were used to collect the data which were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests in SPSS20. The mean perceived organizational support was low (2.63 ± 0.79). The mean moral distress was 2.19 ± 0.58, which shows a high level of moral distress. Moreover, Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between perceived organizational support and moral distress ( r  = 0.01, p  = 0.86). Given the low level of perceived organizational support and high moral distress among nurses in this study, it is necessary to provide a supportive environment in hospitals and to consider strategies for diminishing moral distress.

  9. Family caregiving in schizophrenia: domains and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; van Wijngaarden, B.; Koeter, M. W.

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on (1) the dimensionality of the caregiving concept; (2) the relation between the identified caregiving dimensions and characteristics of the patient, the caregiver, and their relationship; and (3) the relation between caregiving dimensions and caregiver distress. Findings are

  10. Spiritual well-being and moral distress among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Panarello, Bianca; Win, Ma Thin Mar

    2016-06-16

    Moral distress is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting healthcare professionals, especially nurses. If not addressed, it may create job dissatisfaction, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of patient care, or even encourage one to leave the profession. Spiritual well-being is a concept which is considered when dealing with problems and stress relating to a variety of issues. This research aimed to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress among a sample of Iranian nurses and also to study the determinant factors of moral distress and spiritual well-being in nurses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed to collect data from 193 nurses using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. Mean scores of spiritual well-being and moral distress were 94.73 ± 15.89 and 109.56 ± 58.70, respectively. There was no significant correlation between spiritual well-being and moral distress (r = -.053, p = .462). Marital status and job satisfaction were found to be independent predictors of spiritual well-being. However, gender and educational levels were found to be independent predictors for moral distress. Age, working in rotation shifts, and a tendency to leave the current job also became significant after adjusting other factors for moral distress. This study could not support the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress. However, the results showed that moral distress is related to many elements including individual ideals and differences as well as organizational factors. Informing nurses about moral distress and its consequences, establishing periodic consultations, and making some organizational arrangement may play an important role in the identification and management of moral distress and

  11. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  12. It could have been me: vicarious victims and disaster-focused distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A

    2004-04-01

    College students who had experienced no personal bereavement in the September 11 terrorist attacks completed questionnaires between 3 and 5 weeks after the attacks and 5 months later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation model (SEM) analyses revealed that general distress and disaster-focused distress are discernable reactions following a collective loss. Both types of distress were higher among women and by those reporting social strain. General distress was associated with previous stressful events and mental health issues. Perceived similarity to the victims predicted disaster-focused distress and mediated the relationship between attending to media accounts of victims and disaster-focused distress. Only the disaster-focused distress reactions of survivor guilt and grief were associated with collective helping behaviors after the attacks and, for women, these behaviors were associated with greater reductions in these distress reactions over time. Discussion focuses on the importance of examining disaster-focused distress reactions following collective loss.

  13. Adolescent identity development and distress in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel E; Berman, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of identity development and identity distress to psychological adjustment within adolescents affected by psychological problems. Participants included 88 adolescents (43.2% female) ranging from 11 to 20 years of age who were receiving services from a community mental health center. A high proportion of the participants (22.7%) met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria for Identity Problem. Regression analyses found psychopathology symptom score was associated with identity distress, identity exploration, and identity commitment, while identity distress was only related to psychopathology symptom score and not the other two identity variables. Adolescents with a clinical diagnosis may report significant levels of identity distress. Given that the relationship between psychopathology and identity distress may be reciprocal, assessing for identity issues might be prudent when conducting clinical diagnostic interviews and useful in treatment planning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  15. The role of social and cognitive processes in the relationship between fear network and psychological distress among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gajda, Tina Marie

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether cognitive and social processing variables mediated the relationship between fear network and depression among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Parents whose children were initiating HSCT (N = 179) completed survey measures including fear network, Beck Depression Inventory, cognitive processing variables (positive reappraisal and self-blame) and social processing variables (emotional support and holding back from sharing concerns). Fear network was positively correlated with depression (p fear network and depression. Together they accounted for 34.3% of the variance in the relationship between fear network and depression. Positive reappraisal and emotional support did not have significant mediating effects. Social and cognitive processes, specifically self-blame and holding back from sharing concerns, play a negative role in parents' psychological adaptation to fears surrounding a child's HSCT.

  16. Spirituality and distress in palliative care consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Judith; Paice, Judith A; Cameron, Jacqueline R; Shott, Susan

    2005-08-01

    One's spirituality or religious beliefs and practices may have a profound impact on how the individual copes with the suffering that so often accompanies advanced disease. Several previous studies suggest that negative religious coping can significantly affect health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between spirituality, religious coping, and symptoms of distress among a group of inpatients referred to the palliative care consult service. Pilot study. The study was conducted in a large academic medical center with a comprehensive Palliative Care and Home Hospice Program. (1) National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Management Assessment Tool; (2) Pargament Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE); (3) Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp); (4) Puchalski's FICA; and (5) Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF). The 31 subjects surveyed experienced moderate distress (5.8 +/- 2.7), major physical and psychosocial symptom burden, along with reduced function and significant caregiving needs. The majority (87.2%) perceived themselves to be at least somewhat spiritual, with 77.4% admitting to being at least somewhat religious. Negative religious coping (i.e., statements regarding punishment or abandonment by God) was positively associated with distress, confusion, depression, and negatively associated with physical and emotional well-being, as well as quality of life. Palliative care clinicians should be alert to symptoms of spiritual distress and intervene accordingly. Future research is needed to identify optimal techniques to address negative religious coping.

  17. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  19. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  20. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  1. The career distress scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creed, Peter; Hood, Michelle; Praskova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    distress items for model fit, item bias, location dependency, dimensionality, reliability, suitability of response options, and construct validity. Three of the 12 items examined were removed from consideration as they did not fit the Rasch model or were not invariant across groups. The remaining 9 items...

  2. Emotional distress in partners of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broek, Krista C; Habibović, Mirela; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2010-01-01

    on psychological distress in partners of ICD patients and recommendations for future research. PubMed and PsycInfo were searched in March 2010 using a priori defined search terms. This search and the additional hand search resulted in 22 studies, of which 13 were quantitative and eight qualitative. Sample sizes...... studies reported no impact of ICD shocks on distress levels or quality of life in partners. ICD indication as well as comorbid conditions, age, and the psychological profile of the partner were related to distress and quality of life. Domains of concern emerging from qualitative studies were related...... to care of the ICD patient, helplessness and uncertainties related to shocks, role changes, sexual activities, overprotectiveness, and driving. Partner levels of distress may be as high as that of ICD patients. Research with large samples is needed to further investigate the course and determinants...

  3. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  4. Hearts and minds: Agency and discourse on distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork in south Bristol, United Kingdom, and on the south Atlantic island of St Helena. It addresses the relationship between the experience of psychosocial distress, the language used to express such distress and the socio-cultural constraints on both language and experience. Accounts of emotional distress were obtained from interviews with 36 informants in south Bristol and with 40 informants on St Helena. Informants in both settings shared a Euro-American discourse on the self in which emotional distress is conceived as a breakdown in human agency. This discourse is linked to narrative as a way of depicting and re-affirming individual agency. A prototypical concept of narrative is used in this paper to interpret accounts of emotional distress. This interpretation demonstrates the usefulness of the idea of narrative for understanding such experiences.

  5. Moral distress: a review of the argument-based nursing ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joan; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the ways in which the concept of moral distress has been delineated and deployed in the argument-based nursing ethics literature. It adds to what we already know about moral distress from reviews of the qualitative and quantitative research. CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Academic Search Complete, PsycInfo, Philosophers' Index and Socindex. A total of 20 argument-based articles published between January 1984 and December 2013 were analysed. We found that like the empirical literature, most authors in this review draw on Jameton's original definition and describe moral distress in psychological-emotional-physiological terms. They also agree that moral distress is linked to the presence of some kind of constraint on nurses' moral agency, and that it is best understood as a two-staged process that can intensify over time. There is also consensus that moral distress has an important normative meaning, although different views concerning the normative meaning of moral distress are expressed. Finally, the authors generally agree that moral distress arises from a number of different sources and that it (mostly) affects negatively on nurses' personal and professional lives and, ultimately, harms patients. However, despite this consensus, many authors take issue with the way in which moral distress is conceptualized and operationalized. Moreover, while some worry that identifying nurses as a group of health professionals whose voices are ignored or marginalized might disempower nurses and encourage them to avoid their moral responsibilities, others take situations involving moral distress as indicative of more fundamental, structural inequities at the heart of contemporary healthcare provision. We conclude that research on moral distress in nursing is timely and important because it highlights the specifically moral labour of nurses. However, we suggest that significant concerns about the conceptual fuzziness and

  6. Impact of ethical climate on moral distress revisited: multidimensional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabay, Gülem; Çangarli, Burcu Güneri; Penbek, Şebnem

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is a major problem in nursing profession. Researchers identified that the stronger the ethical basis of the organization, the less moral distress is reported. However, different ethical climates may have different impacts on moral distress. Moreover, conceptualization of moral distress and ethical climate as well as their relationship may change according to the cultural context. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between different types of ethical climate as described in Victor and Cullen's framework, and moral distress intensity among nurses in Turkish healthcare settings. An online survey was administrated to collect data. Questionnaires included moral distress and ethical climate scales in addition to demographic questions. Data were collected from registered nurses in Turkey. In all, 201 of 279 nurses completed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 72%. Ethical approval was obtained from the university to which the authors were affiliated, after a detailed investigation of the content and data collection method. Factor analyses showed that moral distress had three dimensions, namely, organizational constraints, misinformed and over-treated patients, and lack of time and resources, while ethical climate had four types, namely, rules, well-being of stakeholders, individualism, and organizational interests. Positive correlations were identified between certain types of ethical climate (rules, individualism, or organizational interests) and moral distress intensity. Factor distribution of the scales shows some commonalities with the findings of previous research. However, context-specific dimensions and types were also detected. No particular ethical climate type was found to have a negative correlation with moral distress. Recommendations were made for reducing the negative impact of ethical climate on moral distress. These include solving the nursing-shortage problem, increasing autonomy, and improving physical

  7. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  9. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.I. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  11. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  12. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.

  13. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  14. Cross-border ties as a source of risk and resilience: Do cross-border ties moderate the relationship between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M.; Alcántara, Carmela; Rudolph, Kara E.; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between health and the cross-border ties that migrants maintain with their family members in communities of origin. We draw on theory related to social ties, ethnic identity, and mental health to examine cross-border ties as potential moderators of the association between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, we find that remittance sending is associated with significantly lower levels of psychological distress for Cuban migrants, and difficulty visiting home is associated with significantly greater psychological distress for Puerto Rican migrants. There were significant associations between migration-related stressors and psychological distress, although these associations fell to non-significance after accounting for multiple testing. We found little evidence that cross-border ties either buffer or exacerbate the association between migration-related stressors and psychological distress. We consider the findings within the current political and historical context of cross-border ties and separation. PMID:27803264

  15. Cross-border Ties as Sources of Risk and Resilience: Do Cross-border Ties Moderate the Relationship between Migration-related Stress and Psychological Distress for Latino Migrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Alcántara, Carmela; Rudolph, Kara E; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between health and the cross-border ties that migrants maintain with their family members in communities of origin. We draw on theory related to social ties, ethnic identity, and mental health to examine cross-border ties as potential moderators of the association between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, we find that remittance sending is associated with significantly lower levels of psychological distress for Cuban migrants, and difficulty visiting home is associated with significantly greater psychological distress for Puerto Rican migrants. There were significant associations between migration-related stressors and psychological distress, although these associations fell to nonsignificance after accounting for multiple testing. We found little evidence that cross-border ties either buffer or exacerbate the association between migration-related stressors and psychological distress. We consider the findings within the current political and historical context of cross-border ties and separation. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  16. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  17. Psychological distress in remote mining and construction workers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jennifer; Lo, Johnny; Miller, Peta; Mawren, Daveena; Jones, Brooklyn

    2018-05-21

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a sample of remote mining and construction workers in Australia. Design, setting: A cross-sectional, anonymous Wellbeing and Lifestyle Survey at ten mining sites in South Australia and Western Australia, administered at meetings held during 2013-2015. 1124 employees at remote construction, and open cut and underground mining sites completed the survey. General psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K10) and self-reported overall mental health status; work, lifestyle and family factors correlated with level of psychological distress. The final sample comprised 1124 workers; 93.5% were men, 63% were aged 25-44 years. 311 respondents (28%) had K10 scores indicating high/very high psychological distress, compared with 10.8% for Australia overall. The most frequently reported stressors were missing special events (86%), relationship problems with partners (68%), financial stress (62%), shift rosters (62%), and social isolation (60%). High psychological distress was significantly more likely in workers aged 25-34 years (v ≥ 55 years: odds ratio [OR], 3.2; P = 0.001) and workers on a 2 weeks on/1 week off roster (v 4 weeks on/1 week off: OR, 2.4; P mental health problems were at the greatest risk of high/very high psychological distress (v not stressed: OR, 23.5; P mental ill health in these workers need to be addressed, and the stigma associated with mental health problems reduced.

  18. New Perspective on Psychosocial Distress in Patients with Dysphonia: The Moderating Role of Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Stephanie; Meredith, Liza; Peterson, Carol B; Frazier, Patricia A

    2016-03-01

    Although an association between psychosocial distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and perceived stress) and voice disorders has been observed, little is known about the relationship between distress and patient-reported voice handicap. Furthermore, the psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Perceived control plays an important role in distress associated with other medical disorders. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the relationship between distress and patient-reported voice handicap and (2) examine the role of perceived control in this relationship. This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care academic voice clinic. Distress, perceived stress, voice handicap, and perceived control were measured using established assessment scales. Association was measured with Pearson correlation coefficients; moderation was assessed using multiple hierarchical regression. A total of 533 patients enrolled. Thirty-four percent of the patients met criteria for clinically significant distress (ie, depression, anxiety, and/or somatization). A weak association (r = 0.13; P = 0.003) was observed between severity of psychosocial distress and vocal handicap. Present perceived control was inversely associated with distress (r = -0.41; P moderated by perceived control (b for interaction term, -0.15; P moderated by perceived control. Vocal handicap was more related to distress among those with low perceived control; targeting this potential mechanism may facilitate new approaches for improved care. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mindfulness and parenting distress among parents of children with disabilities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for management of parenting distress in parents of children with disabilities. A narrative review was conducted. A search protocol was conducted using Google Scholar, EBSCO, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid, and PsycINFO databases up to September 1, 2016. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including MBIs and combined mindfulness and other interventions. Targeted outcomes included in this review were parenting stress and psychological distress. Most of the reviewed papers reported positive role of MBIs to manage parenting distress. The results of this first review on the topic provide preliminary support for the efficacy of MBIs for supporting parents of children with disabilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Linkages between spouses' psychological distress and marital conflict in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2007-09-01

    To elucidate the processes that underlie the established association between psychopathology and marital functioning, researchers have given attention to how symptomatic individuals manage their interpersonal contexts, particularly during the handling of disagreements. In the current study, the authors evaluate the role of marital conflict strategies in relation to wives' and husbands' psychological distress levels. A sample of 100 community-based couples completed assessments of psychological distress and diaries describing marital conflict that occurred at home during a 15-day reporting period. Findings from multilevel modeling of dyadic data revealed associations between both spouses' psychological distress and multiple behavioral and emotional conflict expressions in the home. Psychological symptoms uniquely predicted the occurrence of certain conflict expressions, even when accounting for global negative marital sentiments. The findings encourage subsequent consideration of marital conflict expressions and resolution strategies when studying processes involved in the marriage-psychological adjustment link. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  1. [Resilience, spirituality, distress and tactics for battered women's conflict resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Vélez, Diva E; Ospina-Muñoz, Doris E; Cabarcas-Iglesias, Germán; Humphreys, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Determining the relationship of resilience and spirituality in battered women to distress, the frequency and intensity of mistreatment and the severity of injury. A sample was taken of 199 women who consulted Comisarías de Familia de Medellín, Colombia (family police/counselling stations). Resilience scales (RS), spiritual perspective (SPS), SCL-90R and conflict tactics (CTS) were used. Internal consistency, correlation and main exploratory components were measured. The scales revealed internal consistency. Resilience was positively correlated to spirituality (r = 0.22; p = 0.0015) and negatively correlated to total positive distress symptoms (PST) (r = -0.39; p spirituality, a lower number of positive distress symptoms and less distress.

  2. Distress tolerance as a predictor of risky and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Ali, Bina; Daughters, Stacey B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between distress tolerance and risky and aggressive driving. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was hypothesized to be related negatively to aggressive driving and risky driving. An anonymous, web-based survey of 769 college students was conducted at a large East Coast university. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, year in school, grade point average, and driving frequency, distress tolerance was significantly inversely related to reported risky driving and aggressive driving. College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving.

  3. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... radiotelephone distress call consists of: (1) The distress signal MAYDAY spoken three times; (2) The words THIS IS; (3) The call sign (or name, if no call sign assigned) of the mobile station in distress, spoken...

  4. Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social

  5. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  6. Caregiving-specific worry, affiliate stigma, and perceived social support on psychological distress of caregivers of children with physical disability in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gloria Y K; Mak, Winnie W S

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested a model on the relationship between functional status of children with physical disability, caregiving-specific worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress among their caregivers. One hundred thirty-one caregivers of children with physical disability in Hong Kong completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling showed that the final model had good fit to the data: χ2 = 102.05, (df = 83, p = .08), comparative fit index = .98, nonnormed fit index = .98, standardized root mean square residual = .08, root mean square error of approximation = .04. Caregivers whose children had a lower functional status reported more caregiving-specific worry. Affiliate stigma had significant and positive indirect effect on psychological distress through increasing worry. Results also supported the direct and indirect effects of perceived social support in ameliorating worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress. Findings suggested that health care and social service providers should consider the functional impairment of each child when designing stress reduction interventions for their caregivers. Findings implicate the importance of establishing barrier-free environment and public facilities in the society. Caregivers are encouraged to distinguish those worries that are actionable and convert them into problem solving plans and to actively engage in peer support and social activities to reduce their affiliate stigma. To truly promote inclusion and well-being of individuals with disability and their caregivers, the scope and targets of social services and stigma reduction programs by the government should include not only the persons with disabilities, but also their caregivers and family members who play essential roles in the rehabilitation journey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deasy

    Full Text Available Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students.This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire of a total sample (n = 1557 of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59 provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping.A significant percentage (41.9% of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity.The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also

  8. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McAlpine, Donna D; Henning-Smith, Carrie E

    2014-11-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008-2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability.

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  10. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  12. A Latent Class Regression Analysis of Men's Conformity to Masculine Norms and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi

    2012-01-01

    How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse…

  13. The Role of Enculturation and Acculturation on Latina College Student Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of acculturation, enculturation, and White attitudinal marginalization with distress among 214 Latina college students. Results showed that 12% of the variance in perceived distress was accounted for by all predictor variables with only behavioral enculturation and White attitudinal marginalization being…

  14. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  15. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates...

  16. Moral distress in undergraduate nursing students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Bianchi, Monica; Bressan, Valentina; Carnevale, Franco

    2016-08-01

    Nurses and nursing students appear vulnerable to moral distress when faced with ethical dilemmas or decision-making in clinical practice. As a result, they may experience professional dissatisfaction and their relationships with patients, families, and colleagues may be compromised. The impact of moral distress may manifest as anger, feelings of guilt and frustration, a desire to give up the profession, loss of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. The purpose of this review was to describe how dilemmas and environmental, relational, and organizational factors contribute to moral distress in undergraduate student nurses during their clinical experience and professional education. The research design was a systematic literature review. The search produced a total of 157 articles published between 2004 and 2014. These were screened with the assessment sheet designed by Hawker and colleagues. Four articles matched the search criteria (one quantitative study and three qualitative), and these were separately read and analyzed by the researchers. The process of review and analysis of the data was supervised by a colleague experienced in moral distress who provided an independent quality check. Since this was a systematic review, no ethical approval was required. From the analysis, it emerged that inequalities and healthcare disparities, the relationship with the mentor, and students' individual characteristics can all impact negatively on the decisions taken and the nursing care provided, generating moral distress. All these factors condition both the clinical experience and learning process, in addition to the professional development and the possible care choices of future nurses. Few studies dealt with moral distress in the setting of nurse education, and there is a knowledge gap related to this phenomenon. The results of this review underline the need for further research regarding interventions that can minimize moral distress in undergraduate nursing students.

  17. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  18. Review of a Parent's Influence on Pediatric Procedural Distress and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erin A; De Young, Alexandra; Kimble, Roy; Kenardy, Justin

    2018-06-01

    Understanding how parents influence their child's medical procedures can inform future work to reduce pediatric procedural distress and improve recovery outcomes. Following a pediatric injury or illness diagnosis, the associated medical procedures can be potentially traumatic events that are often painful and distressing and can lead to the child experiencing long-term physical and psychological problems. Children under 6 years old are particularly at risk of illness or injury, yet their pain-related distress during medical procedures is often difficult to manage because of their young developmental level. Parents can also experience ongoing psychological distress following a child's injury or illness diagnosis. The parent and parenting behavior is one of many risk factors for increased pediatric procedural distress. The impact of parents on pediatric procedural distress is an important yet not well-understood phenomenon. There is some evidence to indicate parents influence their child through their own psychological distress and through parenting behavior. This paper has three purposes: (1) review current empirical research on parent-related risk factors for distressing pediatric medical procedures, and longer-term recovery outcomes; (2) consider and develop existing theories to present a new model for understanding the parent-child distress relationship during medical procedures; and (3) review and make recommendations regarding current assessment tools and developing parenting behavior interventions for reducing pediatric procedural distress.

  19. Prevalence and occupational predictors of psychological distress in the offshore petroleum industry: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of psychological distress and stressors in the work environment as prospective predictors of distress, among employees in the offshore petroleum industry. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to examine longitudinal relationships between stressors and distress in a randomly drawn sample of 741 employees from the Norwegian petroleum offshore industry. Time lag between baseline and follow-up was 6 months. Work environment stressors included safety factors, leadership, and job characteristics. The prevalence of psychological distress was 9 % at baseline and 8 % at follow-up. All investigated work environment factors correlated with subsequent distress. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, caseness of distress was predicted by baseline distress, near miss accidents, risk perception, poor safety climate, tyrannical leadership, laissez-faire leadership, job demands, and workplace bullying. After adjustment for baseline distress, control variables, and other predictors, laissez-faire leadership (OR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.54) and exposure to bullying (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI: 1.07-2.10) emerged as the most robust predictors of subsequent distress. The findings show that the prevalence of psychological distress is lower among offshore employees than in the general population. Although offshore workers operate in a physically challenging context, their mental health is mainly influenced by stressors in the psychosocial work environment. This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry.

  20. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  1. Resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.

  2. Board diversity in the perspective of financial distress: Empirical evidence from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Santen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between board diversity (in gender and in nationality and financial distress. A summary of the theory behind board diversity precedes an overview of the empirical evidence on the relationship between diversity and company performance. The paper presents empirical research on the relationship between a negative performance measure, financial distress, and diversity on the board. The results show a positive relationship between the presence of foreign non-executive directors and financial distress. It is suggested that this is caused by negative communication and misunderstandings. No relationship is found between the gender of a director and financial distress. On a micro-level, the data do not show evidence for the glass cliff hypothesis.

  3. Distress disclosure and psychological functioning among Taiwanese nationals and European Americans: The moderating roles of mindfulness and nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H; Wei, Meifen; Su, Jenny C; Han, Suejung; Strojewska, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Research using Western samples shows that talking about unpleasant emotions-distress disclosure-is associated with fewer psychological symptoms and higher well-being. These benefits of distress disclosure may or may not be observed in East Asia where emotional control is valued. Instead, mindfulness may be more relevant to emotion regulation in East Asia (e.g., Taiwan). In the present study, cultural context (Taiwanese nationals vs. European Americans) and mindfulness were examined as moderators of the relation between distress disclosure and both depression symptoms and life satisfaction. A sample of 256 Taiwanese college students and a sample of 209 European American college students completed self-report measures in their native language. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed significant interaction effects of mindfulness and distress disclosure on both depression symptoms and life satisfaction for Taiwanese participants but not for European Americans. Specifically, distress disclosure was negatively associated with depression symptoms and positively associated with life satisfaction for Taiwanese low in mindfulness but not for Taiwanese high in mindfulness. For European Americans, distress disclosure was not associated with depression symptoms but was associated with higher life satisfaction, regardless of one's level of mindfulness. These findings suggest that the potential benefits of disclosing distress are a function of one's cultural context as well as, for those from Taiwan, one's mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.

  5. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  6. Diabetes-related emotional distress instruments: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Moon, Seung Hei

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify all available diabetes-related emotional distress instruments and evaluate the evidence regarding their measurement properties to help in the selection of the most appropriate instrument for use in practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched systematically for articles on diabetes-related emotional distress instruments. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the identified studies. The quality of results with respect to the measurement properties of each study was evaluated using Terwee's quality criteria. An ancillary meta-analysis was performed. Of the 2345 articles yielded by the search, 19 full-text articles evaluating 6 diabetes-related emotional distress instruments were included in this study. No instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) was the most frequently studied and the best validated of the instruments. Pooled summary estimates of the correlation coefficient between the PAID and serum glycated hemoglobin revealed a positive but weak correlation. No diabetes-related emotional distress instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. No instrument was better than another, although the PAID was the best validated and is thus recommended for use. Further psychometric studies of the diabetes-related emotional distress instruments with rigorous methodologies are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  8. Somatosensory amplification mediates sex differences in psychological distress among cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating in...

  9. Patterns of electronic cigarette use and level of psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults.A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use.Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6, (b current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7, (c former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8 and (d current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6.These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use.

  10. Discrimination and psychological distress among recently released male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this article, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), are used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate that (a) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (b) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (c) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals.

  11. Monitoring mechanisms and financial distress of public listed companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Kazemian; Noor Azura Ahmad Shauri; Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi; Amrizah Kamaluddin; Shuhaida Mohamed Shuhidan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between financial distress and financial ratio (liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend) among public listed companies, using the Altman Z-Score to determine the financial distress levels among public listed companies in Malaysia. Five-year data has been collected (2010 to 2014) from the annual financial statements and from Data Stream of public listed companies in Malaysia. The findings indicate significant relationships betw...

  12. Terrorism, distress, and drinking: vulnerability and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Cloninger, Lea

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated effects of 9/11 on distress and drinking outcomes in individuals directly affected and indirectly affected across the United States. Fewer studies have addressed vulnerability and protective factors shown to moderate the effects of stress exposure. We report findings from a Midwestern workplace cohort study. Respondents to a 6 wave longitudinal mail survey completed questionnaires prior to September 11, 2001 and again in 2003 and 2005. Regression analyses encompassed measures of terrorism-related beliefs and fears, workplace stressors (sexual harassment, generalized abuse and low decision latitude), marital and parental status, and perceived social support in 2003, and distress and deleterious drinking outcomes in 2005. Analyses showed that terrorism-related fears significantly interacted with workplace stressors and interpersonal social relationships in predicting distress, drinking or both, controlling for pre-9/11 distress and drinking. Gender differences were also found. This article suggests that certain individuals may be at heightened risk for distressful reactions to and/or deleterious drinking resulting from terrorism-related issues and fears due to additional risk factors involving workplace stressors and inadequate interpersonal bonds. However, limitations of the study were noted and future research was recommended.

  13. Toward interventions to address moral distress: navigating structure and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A; Vanderheide, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The concept of moral distress has been the subject of nursing research for the past 30 years. Recently, there has been a call to move from developing an understanding of the concept to developing interventions to help ameliorate the experience. At the same time, the use of the term moral distress has been critiqued for a lack of clarity about the concepts that underpin the experience. Some researchers suggest that a closer examination of how socio-political structures influence healthcare delivery will move moral distress from being seen as located in the individual to an experience that is also located in broader healthcare structures. Informed by new thinking in relational ethics, we draw on research findings from neuroscience and attachment literature to examine the reciprocal relationship between structures and agents and frame the experience of moral distress. We posit moral distress as a form of relational trauma and subsequently point to the need to better understand how nurses as moral agents are influenced by-and influence-the complex socio-political structures they inhabit. In so doing, we identify this reciprocity as a framework for interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Narcissistic personality disorder: relations with distress and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, whereas sample 2 (n = 151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. Narcissistic personality disorder was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychologic distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. Narcissistic personality disorder was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact.

  15. Stigma: a Unique Source of Distress for Family Members of Individuals with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Lucksted, Alicia; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n = 437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences. Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services.

  16. Symptom Endorsement and Sociodemographic Correlates of Postnatal Distress in Three Low Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal mental illness has been implicated in adverse child development outcomes. Factors such as context and culture may influence experiences of maternal distress and explain differences in outcomes across settings. Methods. We analyzed baseline data from 5,647 mothers in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh, and Vietnam participating in an ongoing cohort study (Young Lives to compare symptom endorsement and sociodemographic correlates of distress. Maternal distress was assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 Items (cutoff: ≥8. Logistic regressions were stratified by sample to identify correlates of distress. Results. Symptom endorsement was similar among distressed women, particularly with regard to feeling unhappy (76%, 80%, and 79%. Notable differences were observed in three items assessing Depressive Thoughts, which were most highly endorsed in Ethiopia (49%–56%. Having a child experiencing a life-threatening event was correlated with distress in all three samples. A variety of correlates were unique to only one sample. Conclusions. There were multiple similarities but also notable differences across sites in the expression and correlates of maternal distress. Feeling unhappy appears to be a hallmark feature of distress. Correlates highlight the relationship between distress and indicators of poverty, child wellbeing, and economic shocks. Differences demonstrate the value of further exploration of cross-cultural differences.

  17. Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries have been subjected to highly stressful and extensive social change associated with the transition out of communism. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (n = 10,406) in November 2001. Distress was measured by 12 psychological distress symptoms. Health lifestyles focused on measures of alcohol consumption, smoking and diet. We found that females carried a much heavier burden of psychological distress than males, but this distress did not translate into greater alcohol consumption and smoking for these women or for men. The greatest influence of distress on health lifestyle practices was on daily diets in that both less distressed females and males consumed a more balanced diet than more distressed persons. Our findings suggest that it is the normative demands of a particular lifestyle, rather than distress, that principally shapes the pattern of heavy male drinking. This is an important finding as some sources indicate heavy drinking is largely responsible for the health crisis in the former socialist states.

  18. Hypersexual behavior in an online sample of males: associations with personal distress and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spenhoff, Miriam; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Kobs, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The population of individuals reporting hypersexual behavior is heterogeneous. Prior research has implicated the importance of personal distress and functional impairment, as both may serve as indicators of problem severity and relevance. Still, little is known about associations with distress and impairment following hypersexuality. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal distress and functional impairment in a community sample of male self-identified "sex addicts" and to explore the associations with related variables. Three hundred forty-nine men completed an online survey that included questions about personal distress, functional impairment, motivation for behavior change, type of hypersexual behaviors, time spent on sexual behavior, and progression of sexual urges. The survey included the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) core. Specific survey questions about personal distress and functional impairment in six life areas were used to assess these variables. Chi-square and P-values were calculated to explore the interrelations among them. There were 75.3% (N = 253) who reported feeling distressed due to hypersexual behavior. Functional impairment in at least one life area was specified by 77.4% (N = 270), and most participants (56.2%) reported impairment regarding partner relationships. Personal distress and functional impairment in three areas were associated with a strong motivation for behavior change. Distress was associated with online pornography use, masturbation, and/or sexual contact with changing partners. The progression of sexual urges was related to distress, while time spent on sexual behavior was not. There were 92.9% of the distressed participants who scored above the SAST-R core scale cut-off, but also 59.0% of the participants with little or no distress scored in this range. Results underline the particular role of problems in social or intimate relationships in association with hypersexuality. Clustering

  19. Moral distress and burnout in Iranian nurses: The mediating effect of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoudani, Fardin; Baghaei, Rahim; Lotfi, Mojgan

    2018-01-01

    Moral distress and workplace bullying are important issues in the nursing workplace that appear to affect nurse's burnout. To investigate the relationship between moral distress and burnout in Iranian nurses, as mediated by their perceptions of workplace bullying. Ethical considerations: The research was approved by the committee of ethics in research of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences. This is a correlation study using a cross-sectional design with anonymous questionnaires as study instruments (i.e. Moral Distress Scale-Revised, Maslach Burnout Inventory and The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised). Data were collected from 278 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Urmia, the capital of Western Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran. Structural equation modeling and bootstrapping procedures were employed to recognize the mediating role of their perceptions of workplace bullying. The mean score of moral distress, burnout, and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised Scale among the participants were 91.02 ± 35.26, 79.9 ± 18.27, and 45.4 ± 15.39, respectively. The results confirmed our hypothesized model. All the latent variables of study were significantly correlated in the predicted directions. The moral distress and bullying were significant predictors of burnout. Perception of bullying partially mediated the relationship between moral distress and burnout. The mediating role of the bullying suggests that moral distress increases burnout, directly and indirectly. Nursing administrators should be conscious of the role of moral distress and bullying in the nursing workplace in increasing burnout.

  20. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Occhipinti

    Full Text Available The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.

  4. Estimation of Mental Distress from Photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zangróniz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of a new wearable photoplethysmography (PPG sensor and its assessment for mental distress estimation. In our design, a PPG sensor obtains blood volume information by means of an optical plethysmogram technique. A number of temporal, morphological and frequency markers are computed using time intervals between adjacent normal cardiac cycles to characterize pulse rate variability (PRV. In order to test the efficiency of the developed wearable for classifying distress versus calmness, the well-known International Affective Picture System has been used to induce different levels of arousal in forty-five healthy participants. The obtained results have shown that temporal features present a single discriminant power between emotional states of calm and stress, ranging from 67 to 72%. Moreover, a discriminant tree-based model is used to assess the possible underlying relationship among parameters. In this case, the combination of temporal parameters reaches 82.35% accuracy. Considering the low difficulty of metrics and methods used in this work, the algorithms are prepared to be embedded into a micro-controller device to work in real-time and in a long-term fashion.

  5. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  6. Why Do Distressed Firms Acquire?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Zhang (Quxian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAcquisitions made by distressed firms in recent years are economically important. This paper explores the rationale behind such acquisitions using a natural experiment. Exploiting a recent tax change which reduces debt restructuring costs for certain creditors and decreases bankruptcy

  7. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  8. The relationship between help-seeking attitudes and masculine norms among monozygotic male twins discordant for sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In general, heterosexual men are less favorable to asking for help compared to women and gay men. This can be problematic if a man avoids professional help when he is experiencing significant psychological distress. Yet, it is unclear to what degree such attitudes among men are due to innate differences or social environments. Studying twins provides one avenue for teasing apart these relationships. We recruited 38 pairs of monozygotic male twins (Mage = 35.87 years, SD = 9.52) raised together and who were discordant for sexual orientation. They completed measures of psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), positive attitudes toward psychological help-seeking behavior, and emphasis with fulfilling traditional masculine norms. Contrary to predictions, the heterosexual twins expressed more symptoms of specific distress-hostility (r = .30), paranoid ideation (r = .26), and psychoticism (r = .24)-than their gay cotwins. As predicted, heterosexual men were less favorable to seeking help (r = .25) and expressed greater emphasis on masculine norms (r = .26) than their cotwins. Within each group of men, unique aspects of masculine norms were significantly related to attitudes toward psychological help-seeking behavior. The findings lend credence to the hypothesis that social environments influence attitudes and behaviors that are stereotypically masculine and potentially detrimental to men's health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Improving Distress in Dialysis (iDiD):A tailored CBT self-management treatment for dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere is significant psychological distress in adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, psychological treatments tailored to address the unique challenges of kidney failure are absent. We identified psychological correlates of distress in ESKD to develop a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment protocol that integrates the mental health needs of patients alongside their illness self-management demands.MethodsStudies which examined relationships between distress a...

  10. Development and psychometric testing of a new tool for detecting moral distress: the Moral Distress Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Weaver, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting. Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools. Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress. These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  12. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C

    2017-06-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  13. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be

  14. Intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and sexual distress in vulvodynia couples: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Brassard, Audrey; Sadikaj, Gentiana

    2016-06-01

    Vulvodynia is a prevalent idiopathic pain condition with deleterious consequences for the sexuality of affected women and their spouses. Intimacy has been identified as a facilitator of adjustment to health difficulties in couples. Two components of intimacy were examined among couples with vulvodynia-empathic response and disclosure-in relation to their sexual satisfaction and sexual distress. Using an observational design, 50 women (Mage = 24.50 years, SD = 4.03) diagnosed with vulvodynia and their spouses (Mage = 26.10 years, SD = 5.70) participated in a filmed discussion focusing on the impact of vulvodynia on their lives. Empathic response and disclosure were assessed by a trained observer and self-reported by participants after engaging in the discussion. The actor-partner interdependence model guided the data analyses. Women's and spouses' higher observed and perceived empathic responses were associated with their own and their partners' greater sexual satisfaction. Women's and spouses' higher perceived disclosures were associated with their own and their partners' greater sexual satisfaction. Women's and spouses' higher observed empathic responses were associated with their own lower sexual distress. Women's higher observed empathic responses were associated with their spouses' lower sexual distress. Women and spouses' perceived greater empathic responses were associated with their own lower sexual distress. Women's and spouses' greater perceived disclosures during the discussion were associated with their own and their partners' lower sexual distress. Promoting empathic response and disclosure through couple interventions may buffer against the sexual distress and sexual dissatisfaction of couples coping with vulvodynia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Seeking help for perinatal psychological distress: a meta-synthesis of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  16. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Kingston

    Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  17. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    There is minimal research exploring moral distress and its relationship to ethical climate among nurses working in acute care settings. Objectives of the study were to explore moral distress, moral residue, and perception of ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center and develop interventions to address study findings. A mixed-methods design was used. Two versions of Corley and colleagues' Moral Distress Scale, adult and pediatric/neonatal, were used in addition to Olson's Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. Participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. This article reports the results for those nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. The sample (N = 225) was predominantly female (80%); half held a bachelor of science in nursing or higher, were aged 30 to 49 years, and staff nurses (77.3%). The mean item score for moral distress intensity ranged from 3.79 (SD, 2.21) to 2.14 (SD, 2.42) with mean item score frequency ranging from 2.86 (SD, 1.88) to 0.23 (SD, 0.93). The mean score for total Hospital Ethical Climate Survey was 94.39 (SD, 18.3) ranging from 23 to 130. Qualitative comments described bullying, lateral violence, and retribution. Inadequate staffing and perceived incompetent coworkers were the most distressing items. Almost 22% left a previous position because of moral distress and perceived the current climate to be less ethical compared with other participants. Findings may potentially impact nurse retention and recruitment and negatively affect the quality and safety of patient care. Interventions developed focus on the individual nurse, including ethics education and coping skills, intraprofessional/interprofessional approaches, and administrative/policy strategies.

  18. Corporate governance effect on financial distress likelihood: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Manzaneque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some mechanisms of corporate governance (ownership and board characteristics in Spanish listed companies and their impact on the likelihood of financial distress. An empirical study was conducted between 2007 and 2012 using a matched-pairs research design with 308 observations, with half of them classified as distressed and non-distressed. Based on the previous study by Pindado, Rodrigues, and De la Torre (2008, a broader concept of bankruptcy is used to define business failure. Employing several conditional logistic models, as well as to other previous studies on bankruptcy, the results confirm that in difficult situations prior to bankruptcy, the impact of board ownership and proportion of independent directors on business failure likelihood are similar to those exerted in more extreme situations. These results go one step further, to offer a negative relationship between board size and the likelihood of financial distress. This result is interpreted as a form of creating diversity and to improve the access to the information and resources, especially in contexts where the ownership is highly concentrated and large shareholders have a great power to influence the board structure. However, the results confirm that ownership concentration does not have a significant impact on financial distress likelihood in the Spanish context. It is argued that large shareholders are passive as regards an enhanced monitoring of management and, alternatively, they do not have enough incentives to hold back the financial distress. These findings have important implications in the Spanish context, where several changes in the regulatory listing requirements have been carried out with respect to corporate governance, and where there is no empirical evidence regarding this respect.

  19. Psychological distress in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, Shunichi; Saito, Seiichi; Arai, Yoichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Numata, Isao; Ioritani, Naomasa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate: the level of psychological distress; and the relationships between the level of psychological distress and general or disease-specific HRQOL of Japanese men with localized prostate cancer following surgery or radiotherapy. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional survey of 253 men with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and 87 with external beam radiotherapy were collected. The measures used four questionnaires including: the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey; The University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index; International Prostate Symptom Score; and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Mean anxiety and depression scores were 4.0 and 4.7, respectively (standard deviation, 3.3 and 3.7). On the anxiety section of HADS, 291 patients (85%) scored 7 points or less; and on the depression scale, 183 (54%) patients scored 4 points or less. Those 'cases' (HADS total, >10) with psychological distress scored lower in all domains of the general and disease related health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than the 'non-cases' (HADS total, ≤10) except for sexual domains. Logistic regression modeling suggested that the men who tended to experience moderate to high distress suffered from worse urinary and bowel symptoms. Most patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer experienced low levels of psychological distress after treatment. However, men who were experiencing urinary and bowel symptoms tended to suffer from moderate to higher distress compared with men reporting no or fewer such symptoms. (author)

  20. Predicting financial distress in publicly-traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fontaine Rezende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several models for forecasting bankruptcy have been developed over the years, one of the reasons for which is the important part it plays in decision-making. However, forecasting a company’s bankruptcy leaves a very short time for stakeholders to change the situation. It is in this context that this paper arises in order to develop a model for predicting financial distress, which is identified as a step prior to bankruptcy. The predictive model uses the logistic regression technique with panel data and a sample of Brazilian publicly-traded companies with shares listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange between 2001 and 2014. As well as financial variables, the final model includes market expectations (macroeconomic and sector variables. These variables are statistically tested and the hypothesis is confirmed that they improve the accuracy of the model. The research identified the existence of financial distress in 96% of the companies that went bankrupt. In addition, the relationship between the phenomena of bankruptcy and financial distress is verified, using financial and macroeconomic explanatory variables. The results demonstrate that most (83% of the explanatory variables in the model for predicting bankruptcy are also present in the model for predicting the phenomenon of financial distress. The expected gross domestic product variables and the quick ratio, asset turnover, and net equity over total liabilities financial variables are statistically significant in predicting both phenomena. With this evidence, the study suggests the use of the concept of financial distress as a stage prior to bankruptcy and provides a model for predicting financial distress with 89% accuracy when applied to publicly-traded companies in Brazil in the period examined.

  1. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  2. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Moral sensitivity, moral distress, and moral courage among baccalaureate Filipino nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Chua, Rowena L

    2018-06-01

    Moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage among healthcare professionals have been explored considerably in recent years. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring these topics among baccalaureate nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The research employed a descriptive-correlational design to explore the relationships between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate nursing students. Participants and research context: A total of 293 baccalaureate Filipino nursing students who have been exposed to various clinical areas participated in the study. Ethical considerations: Institutional review board approval was sought prior to the conduct of the study. Self-determination was assured and anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed to all participants. Results indicate that a majority of the nursing students in the clinical areas encounter morally distressing situations that compromise quality patient care. However, despite the fact that they want to do what is in the best interest of their patients, their perception of being the inexperienced among the healthcare team drives the majority of them to ignore morally distressing situations to avoid conflict and confrontation. Another interesting finding is that 79.20% of the respondents hardly consider quitting the nursing profession even if they frequently encounter morally distressing situations. Analysis also shows associations between moral distress intensity and frequency ( r = 0.13, p < 0.05) and moral distress intensity and moral sensitivity ( r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The dimensions of moral courage are also related to both moral distress and moral sensitivity. Results of the study imply that moral distress is a reality among all healthcare professionals including nursing students and requires more

  4. Intimacy processes and psychological distress among couples coping with head and neck or lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Badr, Hoda

    2010-09-01

    Couples coping with head and neck and lung cancers are at increased risk for psychological and relationship distress given patients' poor prognosis and aggressive and sometimes disfiguring treatments. The relationship intimacy model of couples' psychosocial adaptation proposes that relationship intimacy mediates associations between couples' cancer-related support communication and psychological distress. Because the components of this model have not yet been evaluated in the same study, we examined associations between three types of cancer-related support communication (self-disclosure, perceived partner disclosure, and protective buffering), intimacy (global and cancer-specific), and global distress among patients coping with either head and neck or lung cancer and their partners. One hundred and nine patients undergoing active treatment and their partners whose average time since diagnosis was 15 months completed cross-sectional surveys. For both patients and their partners, multilevel analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model showed that global and cancer-specific intimacy fully mediated associations between self- and perceived partner disclosure and distress; global intimacy partially mediated the association between protective buffering and distress. Evidence for moderated mediation was found; specifically, lower levels of distress were reported as a function of global and cancer-specific intimacy, but these associations were stronger for partners than for patients. Enhancing relationship intimacy by disclosing cancer-related concerns may facilitate both partners' adjustment to these illnesses. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Industry specific financial distress modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Sayari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates uncertainty levels of various industries and tries to determine financial ratios having the greatest information content in determining the set of industry characteristics. It then uses these ratios to develop industry specific financial distress models. First, we employ factor analysis to determine the set of ratios that are most informative in specified industries. Second, we use a method based on the concept of entropy to measure the level of uncertainty in industries and also to single out the ratios that best reflect the uncertainty levels in specific industries. Finally, we conduct a logistic regression analysis and derive industry specific financial distress models which can be used to judge the predictive ability of selected financial ratios for each industry. The results show that financial ratios do indeed echo industry characteristics and that information content of specific ratios varies among different industries. Our findings show diverging impact of industry characteristics on companies; and thus the necessity of constructing industry specific financial distress models.

  6. Work-Family Conflict, Resources, and Role Set Density: Assessing Their Effects on Distress among Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Liberman, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationships between the experience of work-family conflict and levels of distress in the family and at work among a sample of 227 Israeli working mothers. We also examined how role set density (RSD, the number of roles they perform) and personal and environmental resources are related to the women's experience of distress.…

  7. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  8. [The Life Style Index: correlations with psychological distress and hostility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  10. Monitoring mechanisms and financial distress of public listed companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between financial distress and financial ratio (liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend among public listed companies, using the Altman Z-Score to determine the financial distress levels among public listed companies in Malaysia. Five-year data has been collected (2010 to 2014 from the annual financial statements and from Data Stream of public listed companies in Malaysia. The findings indicate significant relationships between liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend with the financial distress levels among the companies in question. This study also examines the interaction effects of financial ratios and the year after implementation of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG in 2012 on financial distress levels. The results suggest that only liquidity and firm’s performance have stronger effects on financial distress levels in two years after MCCG implementation. This indicates that after the implementation of the Code, liquidity and firms’ performance ratios had strong and significant effect on financial distress levels. Overall, this study could help investors, creditors as well as external regulators in monitoring companies from being classified as financially distressed companies.

  11. The impact of borderline personality pathology on mothers' responses to infant distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Gratz, Kim L; Moore, Sarah Anne; Latzman, Robert D; Tull, Matthew T

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to extend extant research on the association between borderline personality (BP) pathology and at-risk parenting by examining the dynamic nature of parenting in response to infant distress in mothers with and without clinically relevant levels of BP pathology. Findings revealed that mothers with clinically relevant levels of BP pathology were less likely than those without BP pathology to display positive affect in response to infant distress. There were no differences in the overall likelihood of insensitive parenting behaviors as a function of BP pathology, either in general or in response to infant distress. However, consistent with literature emphasizing the transactional nature of parent-child relationships, findings revealed that the likelihood of insensitive parenting behaviors among mothers with clinically relevant levels of BP pathology changed over time, increasing significantly as infant distress persisted for longer durations (a pattern not present for mothers without BP pathology). Moreover, maternal responses to infant distress were found to influence infant distress, with the likelihood of infant distress decreasing after maternal positive affect and increasing after maternal insensitive behaviors. The implications of findings for understanding the mechanisms of risk for children of mothers with BP pathology, as well as the transactional nature of mother-infant relationships in general, are discussed.

  12. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  13. Acculturation, perceived discrimination, and psychological distress: Experiences of South Asians in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Kareen N; Tse, Samson; Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-02-01

    Although migration itself may not compromise the mental health of immigrants, the acculturative process can involve highly stressful factors that are specific to immigrant and minority status. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relations between acculturation orientations, perceived discrimination, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 229 Pakistani and 218 Nepalese migrants living in Hong Kong. Although the initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model with good fit indices showed that acculturation orientation mediated the relationships of perceived discrimination and acculturative stress with psychological distress. Of all the factors in the model, acculturative stress had the strongest association with psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. X-ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, B.K.; Ana'ev, V.M.; Kiseleva, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    X-Ray picture of the respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung) in 78 patients exposed to high temperature as a result of gas condensate explosion is analyzed. X-ray and morphologic fundings in these patients are compared to those in 13 similar patients in whom acute respiratory failure developed because of other causes. Morphologic basis of the4 majority of x-ray signs of acute respiratory distress has been investigated. A relationship between respiratory distress syndrome development and changes in the heart size has been revealed, which may serve the prediction criterion

  15. Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin

    2018-05-25

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual

  16. Interpersonal relationship quality mediates the association between military-related posttraumatic stress and academic dysfunction among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Marshall, Amy D; Le, Yunying; Aronson, Keith R; Perkins, Daniel F; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2018-05-03

    Large numbers of United States service members and veterans are enrolling in colleges and universities. Many are experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms secondary to their military service, and these symptoms are associated with academic dysfunction. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which posttraumatic stress increases risk for academic difficulties. The goal of the current study was to evaluate perceived interpersonal relationship quality as a mediator of this association. The current study investigated the indirect effect of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction through three indices of perceived interpersonal relationship quality (i.e., family distress, family support, and social network support) in a clinical sample of 2,120 student service members and veterans. Participants were further divided into four groups based on relationship status and gender (i.e., partnered women, nonpartnered women, partnered men, and nonpartnered men), and moderation by group was examined. For all four groups, there were significant indirect effects of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction through greater family distress and lower social network support. Further, the overall indirect effect of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction was stronger for partnered women compared with the three other groups and was attributable to the stronger path from family distress to academic dysfunction for partnered women. Poor perceived relationship quality may be a modifiable risk factor for academic dysfunction among student service members and veterans experiencing military-related posttraumatic stress. Partnered women may be especially well-suited to interventions that enhance the interpersonal context of posttraumatic stress as a way to optimize academic outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effect of Social Intolerance on Psychological Distress in Cardiac Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonash, R.; Arouj, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The patients with diverse cardiac issues and physical illness experience different levels of social intolerance, depression, anxiety and stress. Objectives: To explore the relationship between social intolerance and psychological distress among cardiac patients and investigate the effect of different type of cardiac illness, its duration and physical symptoms on social intolerance and psychological distress. Study design, settings and duration: Cross-sectional study, conducted at Benazir Bhutto Hospital (BBH), Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology (RIC), Hearts International Hospital (HIH) and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) from September-December, 2014. Patients and Methods: The sample size of 180 adult cardiac patients was collected. These patients were selected from the cardiac units of 4 hospitals of Rawalpindi using purposive sampling. Social intolerance was assessed using Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), distress was assessed using depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) Results: Out of 180 patients, 53.3 percent were males and 46.7 percent females. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. Results revealed significant discomfort intolerance, (p < 0.01) entitlement (p < 0.05) and emotional intolerance (p < 0.01) in these patients. There was 45 percent variance in depression, while discomfort intolerance (p < 0.01) and achievement frustration (p< 0.01) showed 35 percent variance in anxiety. Conclusion: Cardiac patients suffer from major emotional distress.(author)

  18. Maternal distress and parenting in the context of cumulative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.

  19. Attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender: Examining their associations with distress disclosure tendencies and event-specific disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Julia I; Cox, Daniel W; Kahn, Jeffrey H; Wu, Amery D

    2018-01-01

    Distress disclosure has been linked with reduced psychological distress, increased wellbeing, and successful psychotherapeutic outcome. Because of the importance of distress disclosure, researchers have worked to develop and improve theoretical models of disclosure to facilitate counseling practices that reduce impediments to disclosure. Presently, we conducted a 2-part study to investigate distress disclosure's associations with attachment avoidance, gender, and alexithymia-3 constructs frequently linked with disclosure. In Part 1, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted general disclosure tendencies. In Part 2, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted event-specific disclosure. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N = 178 in Part 1; N = 108 in Part 2). In Part 1, alexithymia partially mediated the association between attachment avoidance and disclosure tendencies, and the link between attachment avoidance and alexithymia was stronger for men than women. In Part 2, the association between distress intensity and event-specific disclosure was weaker for people with high levels of alexithymia. Implications for counseling theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  1. Job-related tension, self-esteem and psychological distress in rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, R; Biggs, H; Alpass, F

    1995-06-01

    We examined perceptions of job-related tension among a non-random sample of 52 New Zealand rehabilitation service providers. We considered the relations between job tension and psychological distress and the extent to which feelings of self-esteem moderated this relationship. Major findings are that (a) there is a consistent positive relationship between job tension and general psychological distress; (b) there is a consistent negative relationship between self-esteem and both job tension and general distress; (c) self-esteem moderates the effect of job tension on general distress in that high levels of job tension were associated with increases in psychological distress among respondents with low self-esteem while among respondents with high-self esteem, job-related tension had little negative impact on feelings of psychological distress. Despite a number of limitations, the findings have a number of important implications for professional functioning among rehabilitation service providers and highlight the need for appropriate staff development and training initiatives which focus specifically on service provider wellbeing.

  2. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Results: Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Conclusions: Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine. PMID:27616579

  3. Workplace bullying and mental distress - a prospective study of Norwegian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Knardahl, Stein; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-07-01

    Using a prospective design, the objective of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace bullying and mental distress. Altogether, 1971 Norwegian employees, recruited from 20 organizations, answered questions regarding workplace bullying and mental distress at both baseline and follow-up. Baseline data were gathered between 2004-2006, and follow-up data were gathered between 2006-2009. The time-lag between baseline and follow-up was approximately two years for all the respondents in all the organizations. The factors measured in the study were individual characteristics, mental distress measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10), self-reported workplace bullying measured with a single item from the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPSNordic) and job demands and job control assessed by QPSNordic. A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for mental distress, sex, age, job demands and job control at baseline [β=0.05, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.03-0.17] and a repeated measures ANOVA adjusted for sex and age [F(3,1965)=38.37; partial η (2)=0.06] showed that workplace bullying predicted mental distress. Furthermore, a multiple binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for bullying, sex, age, job demands and job control at baseline [odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% CI 1.43-3.69] showed that mental distress was a predictor of bullying. We found support for the notion that self-reported workplace bullying is a predictor of mental distress two years later. Bullying had an independent effect on mental distress after adjusting for job demands and job control. Mental distress was also found to be a predictor of bullying, indicating that the reverse relationship is also important.

  4. Psychological Distress and Lifestyle of Malay Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Ramli Zafirah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Medical education is a laborious program which may give negative consequences on the physical and psychological health of medical students. The aims of this study were to evaluate psychological distress among Malay medical students and to assess its relationship with their lifestyle.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 221 Malay medical students. Psychological distress and lifestyle were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII respectively.Results: About 30.8% of Malay medical students had mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms, 62.9 % showed mild to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 34.9% of them had mild to extremely severe stress. The depressive subscale was significantly higher among female than male students (Z=-2.613, P=0.009. There was a significant negative correlation between total psychological distress and spiritual growth (r=-0.217, P=0.001. Depression was found not only negatively correlated with spiritual growth (r =-0.328, P=0.000 but also interpersonal relationship (r=-0.161, P=0.016. Stress was inversely correlated with physical activity (r =-0.172, P=0.011. Preclinical students had significantly better scores in health responsibility (Z=-2.301, P=0.021, interpersonal relationship (Z=-2.840, P=0.005, stress management (Z=-2.339, P=0.019, spiritual growth (Z=-2.483, P=0.013 and nutrition and diet (Z =-2.456, P=0.014 than clinical students.Conclusions: Malay medical students had significant symptoms that indicate psychological distress that related to their lifestyle. This warrants further psychiatric evaluation and management for them to be good and safe future doctors. Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Lifestyle, Medical Students

  5. A longitudinal study of psychological distress and exposure to trauma reminders after terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: (1) to examine the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported by survivors 2.5 years after a terrorist attack; (2) to examine whether frequency of exposure to trauma reminders is associated with psychological distress and level of functioning; and (3) to compare the worst trauma reminders reported by the same survivors at 2 different time points. Participants were 261 survivors (52.1% male; Mage = 22.1 years, SD = 4.76) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, who were interviewed face-to-face 14-15 and 30-32 months postterror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced various trauma reminders in the past month, which reminder was the worst, and how distressing it was. Current posttraumatic reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index and an 8-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and the most distressing. Frequency of exposure to trauma reminders was positively correlated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, as well as negatively correlated with level of functioning, over time. Almost 20% of the survivors reported being very distressed by their worst reminder 2.5 years postterror. Less than half reported the same worst reminder at both time points. Trauma reminders, especially auditory reminders, are prevalent and distressing for years after a terrorist attack. Exposure to reminders may be important not only in the development and maintenance of PTSD but also in a broader conceptualization of posttraumatic reactions and functioning. Which reminder survivors appraise as the worst may fluctuate over time. It is important to help survivors identify and cope with reminders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Clinical events in coronary patients who report low distress: adverse effect of repressive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Martens, Elisabeth J; Nyklícek, Ivan; Conraads, Viviane M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who report low distress are considered to be at low psychological risk for clinical events. However, patients with a repressive coping style may fail to detect and report signals of emotional distress. The authors hypothesized that repressive CAD patients are at risk for clinical events, despite low self-rated distress. This was a prospective 5- to 10-year follow-up study, with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. At baseline, 731 CAD patients filled out Trait-Anxiety (distress), Marlowe-Crowne (defensiveness), and Type D scales; 159 patients were classified as "repressive," 360 as "nonrepressive," and 212 as "Type D." The primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality or myocardial infarction (MI); the secondary endpoint was cardiac mortality/MI. No patients were lost to follow-up; 91 patients had a clinical event (including 35 cardiac death and 32 MI). Repressive patients reported low levels of anxiety, anger and depression at baseline, but were at increased risk for death/MI (21/159 = 13%) compared with nonrepressive patients (22/360 = 6%), p = .009. Poor systolic function, poor exercise tolerance, 3-vessel disease, index MI and Type-D personality--but not depression, anxiety or anger--also independently predicted clinical events. After controlling for these variables, repressive patients still had a twofold increased risk of death/MI, OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.10-4.08, p = .025). These findings were replicated for cardiac mortality/MI. CAD patients who use a repressive coping style are at increased risk for clinical events, despite their claims of low emotional distress. This phenomenon may cause an underestimation of the effect of stress on the heart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Romito, P; Ancel, P Y; Lelong, N

    2000-03-01

    To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth. Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994. In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas. Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey. Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations. Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important that social regulations protecting employment during and after pregnancy are adequately applied. Employers

  8. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes-related distress over the course of illness: results from the Diacourse study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Vries, L. de; Puffelen, A.L. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, M.; Vos, R.C.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between diabetes duration and diabetes-related distress and to examine the impact of micro- and macrovascular complications and blood glucose-lowering treatment on this relationship. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in people with Type 2 diabetes who

  10. Enhancing need satisfaction to reduce psychological distress in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Khabbaz, Farah; Legate, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Becoming a refugee is a potent risk factor for indicators of psychological distress such as depression, generalized stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though research into this vulnerable population has been scant, with even less work focusing on interventions. The current study applied principles from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to develop and test an intervention aimed at increasing need-satisfying experiences in refugees of Syrian civil unrest. Forty-one refugees who fled Syria during the past 24 months and resettled in Jordan participated in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or a neutral comparison. The 1-week-long intervention alleviated some of the need frustration likely associated with refugee status, a major aim of the intervention, and also lowered refugees' self-reported symptoms of depression and generalized stress as compared to the comparison condition, though it did not reduce symptoms of PTSD. Discussion focuses on how these findings speak to the universal importance of need satisfaction for mental health, and how need-satisfying experiences can help buffer against the profound stress of being a refugee. Avenues for longer-term or more intensive interventions that may target more severe outcomes of refugee experiences, such as PTSD symptoms, are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Social Context of Depressive Distress in Aging Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and mental health in aging transgender adults. Survey responses from 61 transgender adults above 50 ( M age = 57.7, SD = 5.8; 77.1% male-to-female; 78.7% White non-Hispanic) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relationship between gender- and age-related discrimination, number of everyday discrimination experiences, and past-week depressive distress, adjusting for social support, sociodemographics, and other forms of discrimination. The most commonly attributed reasons for experiencing discrimination were related to gender (80.3%) and age (34.4%). More than half of participants (55.5%) met criteria for past-week depressive distress. In an adjusted multivariable model, gender-related discrimination and a greater number of everyday discrimination experiences were associated with increased odds of past-week depressive distress. Additional research is needed to understand the effects of aging and gender identity on depressive symptoms and develop interventions to safeguard the mental health of this vulnerable aging population.

  12. Social Context of Depressive Distress in Aging Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Reisner, Sari L.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and mental health in aging transgender adults. Survey responses from 61 transgender adults above 50 (Mage = 57.7, SD = 5.8; 77.1% male-to-female; 78.7% White non-Hispanic) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relationship between gender- and age-related discrimination, number of everyday discrimination experiences, and past-week depressive distress, adjusting for social support, sociodemographics, and other forms of discrimination. The most commonly attributed reasons for experiencing discrimination were related to gender (80.3%) and age (34.4%). More than half of participants (55.5%) met criteria for past-week depressive distress. In an adjusted multivariable model, gender-related discrimination and a greater number of everyday discrimination experiences were associated with increased odds of past-week depressive distress. Additional research is needed to understand the effects of aging and gender identity on depressive symptoms and develop interventions to safeguard the mental health of this vulnerable aging population. PMID:28380703

  13. Psychological distress and the asylum process: a longitudinal study of forced migrants in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dermot A; Benson, Ciarán A; Dooley, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    Although asylum seeking has become a major political issue in the Western world, research on its psychological impact is still in its infancy. This study examined levels and predictors of distress among a community sample of persons who have sought asylum in Ireland. A key aim was to provide a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between legal status security and psychological distress. Distress was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised at Time 1 (N = 162) and its shorter version (the Brief Symptom Inventory) at Time 2 (N = 70). Levels of severe distress were high at both baseline (46%) and follow-up (36%). The only persons to show a decrease in distress were those who had obtained a secure legal status (e.g., refugee status or residency) between the study phases. Distress risk factors included female gender, an insecure legal status, separation from children, discrimination, and postmigration stress. Protective factors were social support (Time 1) and the presence of a partner. The findings suggest that asylum seekers are a high-risk group for distress. This risk can be reduced by appropriate policy changes and interventions to increase social resources.

  14. Work time, work interference with family, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Virginia Smith; Klein, Katherine J; Ehrhart, Mark G

    2002-06-01

    Despite public concern about time pressures experienced by working parents, few scholars have explicitly examined the effects of work time on work-family conflict. The authors developed and tested a model of the predictors of work time and the relationships between time, work interference with family (WIF). and psychological distress. Survey data came from 513 employees in a Fortune 500 company. As predicted, several work and family characteristics were significantly related to work time. In addition, work time was significantly, positively related to WIF, which in turn was significantly, negatively related to distress. The results suggest that work time fully or partially mediates the effects of many work and family characteristics on WIF.

  15. Role of femininity and masculinity in distressed couples' communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, S L; Baucom, D H

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between sex role identity and marital communication of maritally distressed couples was examined. Interactional behavior of 60 maritally distressed couples was coded with the Marital Interaction Coding System and examined in relation to the level of femininity and masculinity of the spouses. Base-rate analyses indicated that femininity was positively related to greater rates of negative behavior among husbands and wives. As predicted, sequential analyses supported that wives' femininity was associated with greater negative reciprocity of the wives. Men's femininity was associated with husbands' tendency to terminate fewer negative sequences of behavior in comparison with their wives. High masculinity of the wives was associated with shorter sequences of negative behavior. Implications of the findings and future directions for research are discussed.

  16. The Impact of Relationship Quality on Health-Related Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients and Informal Family Caregivers: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Grigsby, Megan E; Riegel, Barbara; Bekelman, David B

    2015-01-01

    Relationships can have positive and negative impacts on health and well-being. Dyadic relationships between heart failure (HF) patients and their informal family caregivers may affect both patient and caregiver outcomes. The aim of this study is to synthesize the literature to date on the associations between HF patient-caregiver relationship quality and communication and patient and caregiver health outcomes. An integrative review of the literature was conducted. Computerized literature searches in Medline, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, and EMBASE yielded 13 articles of HF patients and caregivers. Included articles were reviewed and double-coded by 2 independent coders. Included articles measured relationship quality or aspects of communication within an HF patient-caregiver dyad and used both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Results of the longest prospective study suggested that better relationship quality between HF patients and their informal family caregivers was related to a reduced risk for mortality in patients. Results of 11 of the 12 other studies were consistent to the reference study, suggesting that better relationship quality and communication were related to reduced mortality, increased health status, less distress, and lower caregiver burden. Relationship quality and communication seem to matter in the health and well-being of both HF patients and their informal family caregivers. More research is needed to elucidate mechanisms and to design effective relationship-focused interventions.

  17. Improving Distress in Dialysis (iDiD): A tailored CBT self-management treatment for patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    There is significant psychological distress in adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, psychological treatments tailored to address the unique challenges of kidney failure are absent. We identified psychological correlates of distress in ESKD to develop a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment protocol that integrates the mental health needs of patients alongside their illness self-management demands. Studies which examined relationships between distress and psychological factors that apply in the context of ESKD including: health threats, cognitive illness representations and illness management behaviours were narratively reviewed. Review findings were translated into a CBT formulation model to inform the content of a renal-specific seven session CBT treatment protocol, which was commented on and refined by patient representatives. Health threats related to distress were grouped into four themes including: acute ESKD events, loss of role, uncertainty and illness self-management. Having pessimistic illness and treatment perceptions were associated with elevated distress. Non-adherence and avoidance behaviours were related to feelings of distress, whereas cognitive reappraisal, acceptance, social support and assertiveness were associated with less distress. The dialysis-specific CBT formulation identifies the importance of targeting ESKD-specific correlates of distress to allow the delivery of integrated mental and physical health care. The 'Improving Distress in Dialysis (iDiD)' treatment protocol now requires further evaluation in terms of content, feasibility and potential efficacy. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress: A promising transdiagnostic approach to treating disaster survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblen, Jessica L; Norris, Fran H; Symon, Kerry A; Bow, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress (CBT-PD) is a transdiagnostic intervention that has been used following major disasters such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina. In this study, we report findings from a community-based treatment program that offered CBT-PD to individuals who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Eight trained community therapists delivered CBT-PD to 342 adults who had been exposed to Hurricane Sandy. Participants were assessed at referral, pretreatment, intermediate treatment, posttreatment and 5-month follow-up. The overall prepost effect size was 1.41, indicating large improvement pre to posttreatment. Gains were maintained at follow-up. Timing of the intervention did not affect outcome. Participants who received the intervention early (i.e., 10 to 15 months after Sandy) had the same improvement as those who received it later (i.e., 21 to 26 months after Sandy). Similarly, there was no difference in outcome between individuals with severe as compared with moderate distress at pretreatment. Results suggest that CBT-PD is appropriate for a range of individuals with moderate to severe distress and that it has benefit both early on as well as two years postdisaster. Findings add to growing literature that CBT-PD should be considered as one important component of a larger disaster response system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or mistakes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema

    2017-03-01

    Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tei index in neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Anwer Attia Khattab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular compromise is a common complication of neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Tei index is a Doppler-derived index for the assessment of overall left ventricular function that combines systolic and diastolic time intervals. Aim: Assess the role of MPI versus cardiac troponin I as early indicator of hypoxic cardiac damage in neonates with respiratory distress or perinatal asphyxia. The present work was conducted on forty neonates, 15 with neonatal respiratory distress (group I, 15 with perinatal asphyxia (group II, and 10 apparently healthy neonates as a control (group III. All have: Detailed history-thorough clinical examination-Plain X-ray-ECG-Two dimensional, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic examination with the measurement of both myocardial performance index (MPI of the right and left ventricle-Serum cardiac troponin I. Results: There was statistically significant increase in serum cardiac troponin I in groups I and II than group III. Left and right ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI were increased in group I and II than the control group. No correlation between Tei index and each of postnatal age, apgar score at 5-min, heart rate, serum cardiac troponin I, ejection fraction and fractional shortening, but there was direct relationship between MPI and LVEDD and inverse relationship between MPI and each of EF% and FS%. But there was significant correlation between L.V. MPI and gestational age. Conclusion: Tei index was higher in neonates with respiratory distress and neonates with perinatal asphyxia than in normal neonates despite normal or even increased ejection fraction which indicates that these patients may have subclinical ventricular dysfunction which should be followed up carefully.

  1. Self-reported discrimination, diabetes distress, and continuous blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with continuous glucose levels and variability in individuals with diabetes, and whether diabetes distress mediated these associations. Seventy-four Black and White women with type 2 diabetes completed the Experience of Discrimination scale, a measure of lifetime racial discrimination, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes, a measure of diabetes distress. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor for 24 h after 8 h of fasting, a standard meal, and a 4-h run in period. Higher discrimination predicted higher continuous mean glucose and higher standard deviation of glucose. For both mean and standard deviation of glucose, a race × discrimination interaction indicated a stronger relationship between discrimination and glucose for Whites than for Blacks. Diabetes distress mediated the discrimination-mean glucose relationship. Whites who report discrimination may be uniquely sensitive to distress. These preliminary findings suggest that racial discrimination adversely affects glucose control in women with diabetes, and does so indirectly through diabetes distress. Diabetes distress may be an important therapeutic target to reduce the ill effects of racial discrimination in persons with diabetes.

  2. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  3. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  4. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. On Swedish women's distressing sexual dysfunctions: some concomitant conditions and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Katarina; Sjögren Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin

    2005-03-01

    To explore the associations between women's distressing sexual dysfunctions and different aspects of life satisfaction together with women's concomitant socio-psychological characteristics. Thus, this descriptive article does not discuss causalities. A nationally representative sample of sexually active Swedish women aged 18-65 years in a heterosexual steady partner relationship participated in 1996 in a combined structured interview/questionnaire investigation. Personal sexual distress caused by low sexual interest, insufficient lubrication, orgasm dysfunction, dyspareunia, and vaginism was classified as manifest and mild. Concomitant conditions explored were perceived health, stability of domestic situation, perception of male partner's sexual functions/dysfunctions per se, and some socio-demographic factors. Satisfaction with life as a whole and with 10 different domains of life were reported by using the LiSat-11 checklist. Main results were that a multitude of the independent variables were univariately associated with manifest and, to a lesser extent, mild distressing sexual dysfunctions. This was particularly true for satisfaction with partner relationship and for male's sexual dysfunctions. By performing multiple logistic regressions, the numbers were markedly reduced. The resulting statistical models still contained sexual partner's sexual dysfunctions and satisfaction with partner relationship as dominant covariants of most distressing sexual dysfunctions. Reported low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and male sexual dysfunctions per se are likely to co-occur with manifest but, to a lesser extent, mild distressing sexual dysfunctions in Swedish women aged 18-65 years.

  7. Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eGiorgi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.

  8. Detrimental Effects of Workplace Bullying: Impediment of Self-Management Competence via Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress. PMID:26913013

  9. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  10. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  11. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  12. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  14. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  15. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  16. Trust, attachment, and mindfulness influence intimacy and disengagement during newlyweds' discussions of relationship transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Chandra E; Barry, Robin A

    2016-08-01

    Discussions of relationship transgressions-violations of relationship norms-are often difficult for couples to successfully navigate. Nevertheless, engaging in and resolving these discussions should promote intimacy. Drawing on the risk regulation model, individuals' experiences of disengagement and intimacy during transgression discussions should depend on their trust in their partner regarding the transgression and how they regulate distress related to lower trust. Attachment style represents individual differences in emotion regulation in close relationship contexts and is indicated by the risk regulation model. In contrast, mindfulness also improves interpersonal emotion regulation but is not reflected in the model. The present study proposed that the effect of trust on the experience of intimacy and disengagement during transgression discussions would depend on individuals' attachment style or mindfulness. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 81 heterosexual newlywed couples. Trust was positively associated with intimacy for individuals with higher attachment avoidance, but not for individuals with lower attachment avoidance. Trust was negatively associated with disengagement for individuals with either lower mindfulness or higher attachment avoidance. Trust was not associated with disengagement for individuals with higher mindfulness or lower attachment avoidance. Implications for theory and clinical interventions focused on increasing intimacy and decreasing disengagement in couple relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Adverse Life Experience and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation and Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Hasking, Penelope A; Martin, Graham

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether emotion regulation and rumination moderated and/or mediated the relationship between accumulated adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence. In class, Australian high school students (n = 2637, 12-18 years, 68% female) from 41 schools completed well-validated measures of adverse life experience, emotion regulation, rumination and psychological distress, and were followed up 1 year later (n = 1973, 75% retention rate). Adjusting for age, gender and baseline psychological distress, adverse life experience predicted psychological distress 1 year later. Expressive suppression and rumination were positively associated with psychological distress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with psychological distress and moderated the relationship between adverse life experience and psychological distress. This relationship was also partially mediated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and rumination. Promoting cognitive reappraisal and minimizing expressive suppression and rumination may be useful strategies to improve mental health for adolescents who have experienced adverse life events. Future research should examine whether adolescents who have experienced adverse life events can be trained in effective emotion regulation strategies and whether this training can prevent development of psychological maladjustment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Religiousness and Psychological Distress in Jewish and Christian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Joseph C; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Morin, Ruth T; Graber, Liat S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore how the association between religiousness and psychological distress varies by religious affiliation. Prior work has shown that the association between religious belief and psychological distress is stronger for Christians than Jews, while religious activity is associated with lower psychological distress for both groups. Interviews were conducted using a community sample of 143 Christian and Jewish older adults, ages 65 and over. Quantitative measures were used to assess levels of organizational and intrinsic religiosity, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Christians who are highly involved in the organizational aspects of their religion report fewer depressive symptoms than Jews who have high levels of organizational religiosity, and the opposite is the case at lower levels of organizational religiosity. No significant group differences were found in the relationship between religiousness and anxiety. The results of this study indicate a difference between Jews and Christians in the reasons that they turn to their respective religious services, particularly in late life.

  19. The moderating impact of interacting with distressed families of decedents on trauma exposure in medical examiner personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Delahanty, Douglas L; Schwartz, Joseph; Murani, Kristina; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Prior research has examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress stemming from either direct or indirect trauma exposure in employees of high-risk occupations. However, few studies have examined the contribution of both direct and indirect trauma exposure in high-risk groups. One particularly salient indirect trauma often endorsed as the most stressful by many occupational groups is interacting with distressed family members of victims of crime, illness, or accidents. The present study examined the extent to which interacting with distressed families moderated the impact of cumulative potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 245 employees of medical examiner (ME) offices. Employees from 9 ME office sites in the United States participated in an online survey investigating the frequency of work place PTE exposures (direct and indirect) and mental health outcomes. Results revealed that cumulative PTE exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms (PTSS) for employees who had higher frequency of exposure to distressed family members. After controlling for cumulative and direct PTE exposure, gender, and office site, exposure to distressed families was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, but not PTSS. Findings of our research underscore the need for training employees in high-risk occupations to manage their reactions to exposure to distraught family members. Employee training may buffer risk for developing PTSD and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Female sexual distress in infertile Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. 
 Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.

  2. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  3. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim.

  4. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  5. Distress in cancer patients and their caregivers and association with the caregivers' perception of dyadic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Sklenarova, Halina; Brechtel, Anette; Herzog, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies within cancer-affected couples can disrupt security within the dyadic relationship during cancer treatment. This study investigated the patients' and caregivers' distress and associations between the caregivers' perception of the patients' degree of open communication and their distress. In a cross-sectional survey, 189 pairs of cancer patients (31% gastrointestinal, 34% lung, 35% urological cancers) and their partners were assessed for distress (QSC-R10), depression and anxiety (PHQ-2/GAD-2). The caregivers also reported their perception of the patients' degree of disclosure regarding cancer-relevant topics (CCAT-F Disclosure subscale), caregiver strain (CSI), and unmet needs (SCNS-P&C). Prevalences of clinically significant distress were calculated. Associations were calculated between the caregivers' and the patients' ratings and between the caregivers' distress and their perception of the patients' degree of disclosure. 33% of the caregivers and 25% of the patients exhibited significant anxiety, with a tendency towards a higher frequency in the caregivers (p = 0.10). The prevalence of depression was lower but equally high in caregivers and patients. The caregivers' perceived non-disclosure by the patients was primarily associated with their anxiety (r = 0.31), disease-specific distress (r = 0.32), and psychological/emotional needs (r = 0.35). The identification of caregivers reporting problems in communicating with patients should be pursued in clinical practice as this might indicate that caregivers are particularly burdened. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Perceived ethnic discrimination, acculturation, and psychological distress in women of Turkish origin in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichberger, Marion C; Bromand, Zohra; Rapp, Michael A; Yesil, Rahsan; Montesinos, Amanda Heredia; Temur-Erman, Selver; Heinz, Andreas; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination is linked to various health problems, including mental disorders like depression and also has a negative effect on the access to mental health care services. Little is known about factors mitigating the association between ethnic discrimination and mental distress. The present study examined the extent of the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and psychological distress among women of Turkish origin residing in Berlin, and explored whether this association is moderated by acculturation strategies while controlling for known predictors of distress in migrant populations. A total of 205 women of Turkish origin participated in the study. 55.1% of the participants reported some degree of ethnic discrimination. The degree of reported discrimination varied according to acculturation. The highest level of ethnic discrimination was found in the second generation separated group and both generations of the marginalized group. Further, the results indicate an association between ethnic discrimination and distress while adjusting for known socio-demographic predictors of distress, migration-related factors, and neuroticism (B = 5.56, 95% CI 2.44-8.68, p acculturation strategy, showing an association only in the separated group. The findings highlight the effects of ethnic discrimination beyond the influence of known risk factor for psychological distress in migrants, such as unemployment, being single, having a limited residence permit or the presence of personality structures that may increase vulnerability for stress responses and mental disorders.

  7. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p Psychological distress at the end of a full-term pregnancy and in the postpartum period occurs frequently and was associated mainly with stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  8. Grandparents of children with cancer: a controlled study of distress, support, and barriers to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Drew, Donna; Ellis, Sarah J; Doolan, Emma L; McLoone, Jordana K; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    For families under stress, positive grandparental relationships provide a valued 'safety net'. However, coping with family stressors can place a heavy burden on older individuals who may be experiencing declining health/energy themselves. This mixed-methods study assessed the prevalence of distress in grandparents of children with, and without, cancer, aiming to identify predictors of grandparental distress and quantify their barriers to care. Two hundred twenty-one grandparents [87 cancer group; 134 controls; mean age 65.47 years (SD = 6.97); 33.5% male] completed self-report questionnaires assessing distress, anxiety, depression, anger, 'need for help', support use, and barriers to psychosocial care. A higher proportion of grandparents in the cancer group reported clinically relevant distress (32.9% vs. 12.7%; p depression (24.4% vs. 6.0%; p siblings. Grandparents rarely accessed evidence-based psychosocial support (<5% in both groups), although grandparents of children with cancer were more likely to seek religious/spiritual support. Barriers to help seeking included lack of knowledge and rurality. Grandparents of children with cancer qualitatively described undisclosed feelings of uncertainty and helplessness and provided advice to other grandparents to facilitate their coping. Grandparents of children with cancer were clearly more distressed than controls. Grandparents' capacity to support their families may be limited by their own, untreated, distress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Religiousness, religious coping methods and distress level among psychiatric patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasikin, M S; Khatijah, L A; Aini, A; Ramli, M; Aida, S A; Zainal, N Z; Ng, C G

    2013-06-01

    Patients having psychiatric diagnoses often experience high level of distress. Religiousness is often used by them as part of their coping mechanism and problem-solving strategies. To determine the level of religious commitment and coping methods in psychiatric patients and its relationship with distress level. Religious commitment and coping patterns were measured with the Duke University Religious Index (DUREL) and Brief RCOPE, respectively. Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and distress level was assessed with the Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Social support and experiences of recent threatening events were measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Life Threatening Events (LTE). A total of 228 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 40.2 years. The majority were male, Malay, Muslim, single and with psychotic disorder. The subjects had a high level of religious commitment and had used more positive coping methods. Negative religious coping, psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depression were significantly associated with high distress level. Higher religious commitment was significantly associated with lower distress (p depression were associated with higher distress.

  10. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  11. Return to work and its relation to financial distress among Iranian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Mostafa; Rahmani, Azad; Davoodi, Arefeh; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Ziaeei, Jamal Evazie; Abri, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Return to work after treatment completion is important for both cancer survivors and society. Financial distress is one of the factors that may influence the return to work in cancer survivors. However, this relationship has not been well investigated. This study aimed to determine the rate of return to work and its relation to financial distress among Iranian cancer survivors. This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 165 cancer survivors who completed their initial treatments and had no signs of active cancer. The Return to Work questionnaire and Financial Distress/Financial Well-Being Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. After initial treatments, 120 cancer survivors (72%) had returned to work, of which 50 patients (42%) had returned to full-time work and 70 (58%) reduced their work hours and returned to part-time work. Cancer survivors also reported high levels of financial distress. In addition, the financial distress was lower among patients who had returned completely to work, in comparison to patients who had quit working for cancer-related reasons (p=0.001) or returned to work as part-time workers (p=0.001). The findings showed that a high percent of Iranian cancer survivors had not returned to their jobs or considerably reduced working hours after treatment completion. Accordingly, due to high levels of financial distress experienced by participants and its relation to return to work, designing rehabilitation programs to facilitate cancer survivor return to work should be considered.

  12. The protective role of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Correlates and consequences of the disclosure of pain-related distress to one's spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Annmarie; Leong, Laura E M; Williams, Amy M; May, Dana K K; Lutz, Jillian R

    2012-12-01

    The communication of pain has received a great deal of attention in the pain literature; however, one form of pain communication--emotional disclosure of pain-related distress (e.g., sadness, worry, anger about pain)--has not been studied extensively. This study examined the extent to which this form of pain communication occurred during an observed conversation with one's spouse and also investigated the correlates and consequences of disclosure. Individuals with chronic pain (ICP) and their spouses (N=95 couples) completed several questionnaires regarding pain, psychological distress, and relationship distress as well as video recorded interactions about the impact of pain on their lives. Approximately two-thirds of ICPs (n=65) disclosed their pain-related distress to their spouses. ICPs who reported greater pain severity, ruminative catastrophizing and affective distress about pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to disclose their distress to their spouses. Spouses of ICPs who disclosed only once or twice were significantly less likely to invalidate their partners whereas spouses of ICPs who disclosed at a higher rate were significantly more likely to validate their partners. Furthermore, spouses were more likely to engage in invalidation after attempting more neutral or validating responses, suggesting an erosion of support when ICPs engaged in high rates of disclosure. Correlates of spousal invalidation included both spouses' helplessness catastrophizing, ICPs' affective distress about pain, and spouses' anxiety, suggesting that both partners' distress are implicated in maladaptive disclosure-response patterns. Findings are discussed in light of pain communication and empathy models of pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates and consequences of the disclosure of pain-related distress to one’s spouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Annmarie; Leong, Laura E. M.; Williams, Amy M.; May, Dana K. K.; Lutz, Jillian R.

    2012-01-01

    The communication of pain has received a great deal of attention in the pain literature; however, one form of pain communication—emotional disclosure of pain-related distress (e.g., sadness, worry, anger about pain)—has not been studied extensively. The current study examined the extent to which this form of pain communication occurred during an observed conversation with one’s spouse and also investigated the correlates and consequences of disclosure. Individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) and their spouses (N = 95 couples) completed several questionnaires regarding pain, psychological distress, and relationship distress as well as video recorded interactions about the impact of pain on their lives. Approximately two-thirds of ICPs (n = 65) disclosed their pain-related distress to their spouses. ICPs who reported greater pain severity, ruminative catastrophizing and affective distress about pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to disclose their distress to their spouses. Spouses of ICPs who disclosed only once or twice were significantly less likely to invalidate their partners whereas spouses of ICPs who disclosed at a higher rate were significantly more likely to validate their partners. Furthermore, spouses were more likely to engage in invalidation after attempting more neutral or validating responses, suggesting an erosion of support when ICPs engaged in high rates of disclosure. Correlates of spousal invalidation included both spouses’ helplessness catastrophizing, ICPs’ affective distress about pain, and spouses’ anxiety, suggesting that both partners’ distress are implicated in maladaptive disclosure-response patterns. Findings are discussed in light of pain communication and empathy models of pain. PMID:23059054

  15. Who is Distressed Applying the Diabetes Related Distress Scale in a Diabetes Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    59 MDW /SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 7APR 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Who is Distressed? Applying the Diabetes -Related Distress...Scale in A Diabetes Clinic presented at/published to American Diabetes Association 2017 Meeting, San Francisco, CA (National Conference), 9-16 June...as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MOW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.) Using the Diabetes -Related Distress Scale in

  16. Financial distress prediction and operating leases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether including operating lease commitments in financial distress prediction models would increase the classification accuracy of these models. Classification accuracy measures the percentages of correctly classified companies in either of the two categories (healthy or

  17. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Unsympathetic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez-Lavin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system.

  18. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    ( 4000 g). I also find evidence that the collapse reduced the sex ratio, indicating selection in utero due to maternal prenatal stress exposure. My results imply large welfare losses from financial distress that have hitherto been ignored...

  19. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  20. Young Children Sympathize Less in Response to Unjustified Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three-year-old children saw an adult displaying the exact same distress in 3 different conditions: (a) the adult's distress was appropriate to a genuine harm, (b) the adult's distress was an overreaction to a minor inconvenience, and (c) there was no apparent cause for the adult's distress. Children who witnessed the adult being appropriately…

  1. Mind-Body Skills Training to Improve Distress Tolerance in Medical Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with

  2. Colorectal Cancer in the Family: Psychosocial Distress and Social Issues in the Years Following Genetic Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiker Eveline MA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined: (1 levels of cancer-specific distress more than one year after genetic counselling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; (2 associations between sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors and levels of distress; (3 the impact of genetic counselling on family relationships, and (4 social consequences of genetic counselling. Methods In this cross-sectional study, individuals who had received genetic counselling for HNPCC during 1986–1998 completed a self-report questionnaire by mail. Results 116 individuals (81% response rate completed the questionnaire, on average 4 years after the last counselling session. Of all respondents, 6% had clinically significant levels of cancer-specific distress (Impact of Event Scale, IES. Having had contact with a professional psychosocial worker for cancer risk in the past 10 years was significantly associated with higher levels of current cancer specific distress. Only a minority of the counselees reported any adverse effects of genetic counselling on: communication about genetic counselling with their children (9%, family relationships (5%, obtaining life insurance (8%, choice or change of jobs (2%, and obtaining a mortgage (2%. Conclusion On average, four years after genetic counselling for HNPCC, only a small minority of counselled individuals reports clinically significant levels of distress, or significant family or social problems.

  3. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  4. Living with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: coping and psychological distress - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Dheyauldeen, Sinan; Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Heimdal, Ketil

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies measured by Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Scale (COPE) and psychological distress measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Becks Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in individuals living with Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and to examine if coping strategies might have a mediating role between experienced illness and psychological distress. HHT is mainly caused by mutations in the ENG- or ALK1-genes and associated with a shorter life span. 90% of patients have recurrent nosebleeds. 66 individuals affected of HHT participated in this cross-sectional study, completing questions due to demographic variables, Experience of illness, COPE, BHS and HADS. X(2) test, bivariate correlations with Pearson r and hierarchical multiple regression were used using PASW 18. Experience of illness made the highest variance in anxiety, depression and hopelessness and the coping strategy "behavioral disengagement" seems to have a mediating role between nose bleedings, being afraid of complications, satisfied with life and psychological distress. Experience of illness is of big importance in psychological distress in individuals affected of HHT, and behavioral disengagement explained the actual relationship between experience of illness and psychological distress.

  5. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS......: With a cut-off of 3 on the distress thermometer, 77% of women with breast cancer reported distress, whereas when the cut-off was 7, 43% were distressed. The mean distress score was 5.4 (SD, 3.1). The most frequently reported problems were worry (77%) and nervousness (71%). Distress was significantly...

  6. Self-Esteem as a Moderator between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was investigated within a social comparison theory framework. Predictions of a variant of social comparison theory--relative deprivation theory--as well as predictions from the stress-buffering literature pertaining to the moderating effects of self-esteem were tested…

  7. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Silencing and Psychological Distress in Informal Cancer Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M.; Perz, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-silencing, the relationship between self-silencing and psychological distress, and reasons for self-silencing in informal cancer carers (329 women, 155 men), using a mixed-method design. Men reported greater self-silencing than women on the Silencing the Self Scale; however, women reported higher…

  9. Perceived Interpersonal Burdensomeness as a Mediator between Nightmare Distress and Suicidal ideation in Nightmare Sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Suh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have supported the significant association between nightmares and suicidal ideation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness as mediators in the relationship between nightmare distress and suicidal ideation. This sample consisted of 301 undergraduate students who endorsed experiencing nightmares (mean age 21.87 ± 2.17, 78.1% female. All participants completed questionnaires on nightmare distress (Nightmare Distress Questionnaire, unmet interpersonal needs (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, and suicidal ideation (Depressive Symptom Inventory - Suicidality Subscale. Analyses were performed using multiple mediation regression. Results indicated that nightmare distress was associated with perceived burdensomeness (r = .17, p < .001 and suicidal ideation (r = .24, p < .001, but was not related to thwarted belongingness (r = .10, p = .06. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that perceived burdensomeness partially mediated the relationship between nightmares and suicidal ideation, but thwarted belongingness did not. Additionally, this mediating relationship for perceived burdensomeness was moderated by gender, being significant only for females. These findings highlight the important role of interpersonal factors in the relationship between nightmares and suicidal ideation.

  10. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  11. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  12. Acculturation and psychological distress among non-Western muslim migrants: a population-based survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassaert, T.; de Wit, M.A.S.; Tuinebreijer, W.C.; Knipscheer, J.W.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Political and social developments point at increasing marginalization of Muslim migrants, but little is known about its consequences for the mental health of this particular group. Aim: To explore the relationship between acculturation and psychological distress among first-generation

  13. Factors associated with psychological distress amongst outpatient chemotherapy patients: An analysis of depression, anxiety and stress using the DASS-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michelle; Lau, Peter K H; Taylor, Scott; McTigue, Joseph; Cook, Angus; Bamblett, Marion; Hasani, Arman; Johnson, Claire E

    2018-04-01

    This study sought to identify clinical, demographic and service-related factors associated with psychological distress amongst outpatient chemotherapy patients. Distress in cancer patients leads to increased risk of psychological comorbidity, contributing to sub-optimal treatment adherence and potentially leading to poorer health outcomes. Screening and recognition of distress and risk factors is an important aspect of holistic care within a multidisciplinary team environment. Data were obtained via survey and chart review of ambulatory chemotherapy patients at three public tertiary referral hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. The DASS-21 was used to screen for psychological distress. Regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between distress and a range of cancer, socioeconomic and treatment factors. Patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score≤80 (OR 3.8, 95% CI [1.7, 78.7]) and average waiting time (between oncology outpatient appointment and commencement of chemotherapy infusion) >60min (OR 2.4, 95% CI [1.04, 5.5]) were at increased risk of moderate-severe distress. Patients with a household income between $AU 50-75,000 p.a. had a lower risk of distress compared to 25,000 p.a. (OR 0.05, 95% CI [0.01, 0.52]). On sub-scale analysis, depression and anxiety contributed more to overall distress than the stress subscales. Performance status, waiting times and household income were key predictors of distress. Findings could assist clinicians to identify higher-risk population subsets that could benefit from targeted screening and additional psychological and social work support. Findings could also assist administrators to consider the contribution of modifiable factors such as waiting times to patient distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  15. Thirst distress and interdialytic weight gain: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.

  16. Longitudinal Influence of Paternal Distress on Children’s Representations of Fathers, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsons, Kari L.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Sabatelli, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    A parent’s distress is known to color children’s experiences of their families. Studies, however, have rarely focused on the levels of distress experienced by fathers, and in particular, as they affect the emotional experiences of their children. We examine the impact that fathers’ experience of distress throughout their children’s early years has on children’s emerging narrative representations of father-child relationships and of family conflict and cohesion. In this longitudinal investigation, fathers of young children reported their distress on two occasions in relation to self, the marital relationship, and the family climate. Fathers also concurrently reported on their children’s temperament, specifically negative emotionality. Children responded to story stem beginnings about challenging situations in the family and their narratives were scored for dysregulated negative-disciplinary and positive parental behaviors of fathers, family conflict themes, and family harmony themes. It was hypothesized that children of more distressed fathers would represent greater dysregulated fathering and higher levels of family conflict, and lower levels of positive fathering and family harmony than children of less distressed fathers. Further, the study examined whether this effect was mediated through the fathers’ reports of their children’s negative emotionality. Results partially supported the hypothesized direct and indirect effects. Children’s narratives of negative-disciplinary fathering and family conflict were more common in boys when fathers reported greater distress, and temperament ratings fully mediated this effect. However, their narratives of positive fathering and family harmony were not significantly affected. That positive family features were preserved in children’s narratives even in the face of greater father distress suggests that families may be able to build resilience to internalized distress through these positive narrative

  17. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  18. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trauma and psychological distress in Latino citizen children following parental detention and deportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Flores, Lisseth; Clements, Mari L; Hwang Koo, J; London, Judy

    2017-05-01

    The mental health impact of parental detention and deportation on citizen children is a topic of increasing concern. Forced parent-child separation and parental loss are potentially traumatic events (PTEs) with adverse effects on children's mental health. This study examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress among 91 Latino U.S.-born children (ages 6 to 12), living in mixed-status families with a least 1 undocumented parent at risk for detention or deportation. Multiagent (child, parent, teacher, clinician) and standardized assessments were conducted at baseline to assess for child trauma and psychological distress. Analyses indicate that PTSD symptoms as reported by parent were significantly higher for children of detained and deported parents compared to citizen children whose parents were either legal permanent residents or undocumented without prior contact with immigration enforcement. Similarly, findings revealed differences in child internalizing problems associated with parental detention and deportation as reported by parent as well as differences in overall child functioning as reported by clinician. In addition, teachers reported higher externalizing for children with more exposure to PTEs. These findings lend support to a reconsideration and revision of immigration enforcement practices to take into consideration the best interest of Latino citizen children. Trauma-informed assessments and interventions are recommended for this special population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Psychological distress and in vitro fertilization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Lauri A; Gregorich, Steven E; Katz, Patricia K; Millstein, Susan G; Nachtigall, Robert D; Bleil, Maria E; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Five community and academic fertility practices. Two hundred two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months' follow-up. IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. In a binary logistic model including covariates (woman's age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pretreatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. In linear regression models including covariates (woman's age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  2. Understanding psychological distress among pediatric cancer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gina E; Warner, Echo L; Morreall, Deborah K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined distress in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. We evaluated the association of socioeconomic, demographic, and patient clinical factors on caregivers' self-reported psychological distress associated with having a child with cancer. N = 366 pediatric cancer caregivers completed a self-administered questionnaire from July 2010 to July 2012. The Impact of Event Scale (IES), along with two subscales "intrusion" and "avoidance" measured caregiver cancer-specific distress, with higher scores indicating greater distress. Multivariable linear regression models were used to calculate coefficients (β) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of IES by socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors. Average caregiver IES score was 31.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, range 0-75). Mean intrusion score was 18.1 (SD 9.8, range 0-35) and avoidance score was 12.8 (SD 9.0, range 0-40). Caregivers with household incomes psychological distress for caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. These findings underscore the importance of developing and testing interventions aimed at evaluating and addressing the psychosocial needs for high-risk caregivers in addition to those of patients.

  3. Distress screening using distress thermometer in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and evaluation of causal factors predicting occurrence of distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distress is commonly seen in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Causal factors of distress are multifactorial; which encompasses physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential factors with complex interrelationship among the factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy were included in the study. Patients were screened for pain scores, distress scores, physical and psychological symptoms, and spiritual and emotional distress. Results: Significant increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and on completion of radiotherapy treatment (all P′s < 0.001 compared to pretreatment. Those who had chemotherapy (CT along with radiation had significantly greater pain score (t = 5.54, P = 0.03 and distress score (t = 3.9, P = 0.05 at 2 weeks into radiotherapy compared to those who did not receive CT. There was significantly higher grade of skin toxicity in those with spiritual distress (Somers′ d = 0.36, P = 0.02 and higher grade of mucositis in those with existential distress (d = 0.34, P = 0.02 at 4 weeks into radiotherapy. Conclusion: Positive correlation between distress score and pain score and occurrence of physical symptoms. Increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and completion of radiotherapy treatment compared to pretreatment. Increase in distress score in those with existential and spiritual distress.

  4. Psychological distress negatively affects self-assessment of shoulder function in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael Q; Wylie, James D; Greis, Patrick E; Burks, Robert T; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2014-12-01

    warranted to clarify the relationship between distress and self-perceived disability and the effect of distress on postoperative outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Level I, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipimo Peter J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was

  6. Effects of work-family conflict and job insecurity on psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K

    2017-12-02

    Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: contributions of parental distress and psychosocial family risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, N M; Khu, M; Reynolds, K; Guilcher, G M T; Schulte, F S M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of poor quality of life and social-emotional outcomes following treatment. The relationship between parent psychological distress and child adjustment in pediatric cancer survivors has been well established. However, limited research has examined the factors that may buffer this association. The current study examined the associations between psychosocial family risk factors, parental psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (hrql) in pediatric cancer survivors. Fifty-two pediatric cancer survivors (34 males, 18 females, mean age = 11.92) and their parents were recruited from a long-term cancer survivor clinic. Children and their parents who consented to participate completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Parents completed a demographic information form, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (pat 2.0) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (bsi). The Intensity of Treatment Rating (itr-3) was evaluated by the research team. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental psychological distress negatively predicted parent-reported hrql, while treatment intensity, gender, and psychosocial risk negatively predicted parent and child-reported hrql. Psychosocial risk moderated the association between parent psychological distress and parent-reported child hrql ( p = 0.03), whereby parents with high psychological distress but low levels of psychosocial risk reported their children to have higher hrql. Low levels of family psychosocial risk buffer the impact of parent psychological distress on child hrql in pediatric cancer survivors. The findings highlight the importance of identifying parents and families with at-risk psychological distress and psychosocial risk in order to provide targeted support interventions to mitigate the impact on hrql.

  8. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2018-07-01

    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  9. The influence of social support on psychological distress in Canadian adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christie D; Fowler, Ken; Speed, David; Walsh, Anna

    2018-05-08

    Individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) are at higher risk for experiencing high levels of psychological distress and low levels of social support. The primary objectives of this study were to examine perceived social support and psychological distress among Canadian adults with self-reported BD-I or BD-II as diagnosed by a health professional and explore the relationship between types of social support and psychological distress within this sample. Using a cross-sectional, national datafile, 563 Canadian male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported being diagnosed with BD-I or BD-II were investigated using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). It was observed that while the BD-I or BD-II sample had significantly lower SPS scores and significantly higher K10 scores than the overall Canadian sample, age and support in the form of reassurance of worth and social integration were associated with decreased psychological distress. Further, a diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II was found to moderate the effect of social support on psychological distress. Despite the limitations, which include self-reported diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II and potential exclusion of those who are not diagnosed but have BD-I or BD-II, these findings suggest that reassurance of worth and social integration may act as protective factors for psychological distress among individuals with BD-I or BD-II.

  10. Generational Differences in Internalized Transnegativity and Psychological Distress Among Feminine Spectrum Transgender People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Kasey B; Dolezal, Curtis; Bockting, Walter O

    2018-01-01

    This study examined internalized transnegativity and psychological distress in two age groups of transgender individuals who identified their gender identity on the feminine spectrum (rather than congruent with their male sex assigned at birth). Due to greater visibility and acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, we hypothesized that internalized transnegativity would be lower in the younger compared with the older group, and that the younger generation would, therefore, report lower levels of psychological distress than the older generation. The study sample consisted of trans-feminine individuals (N = 440) who completed a online survey of the U.S. transgender population and comprised a younger group aged 18-24 years (n = 133) and an older group aged 40 years and older (n = 307). Internalized transnegativity was assessed using the Transgender Identity Survey, and psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18. We used regression and mediation analysis to examine differences between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the older group reported significantly lower levels of both internalized transnegativity and psychological distress compared with the younger group. Internalized transnegativity partially mediated the relationship between age group and psychological distress. Despite greater visibility of transgender people and increasing acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, the younger trans-feminine individuals reported more psychological distress than the older transfeminine individuals, which was, in part, related to internalized transnegativity. Trans-feminine individuals may benefit from culturally sensitive and clinically competent mental health services to alleviate internalized transnegativity and psychological distress.

  11. Psychological distress after employment transitions: the role of subjective financial position as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non-employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89,264 person-years of observation from 14,686 individuals aged > or =16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress.

  12. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Attachment styles and personal growth following romantic breakups: the mediating roles of distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Marshall

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of attachment anxiety and avoidance with personal growth following relationship dissolution, and to test breakup distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound with new partners as mediators of these associations. Study 1 (N = 411 and Study 2 (N = 465 measured attachment style, breakup distress, and personal growth; Study 2 additionally measured ruminative reflection, brooding, and proclivity to rebound with new partners. Structural equation modelling revealed in both studies that anxiety was indirectly associated with greater personal growth through heightened breakup distress, whereas avoidance was indirectly associated with lower personal growth through inhibited breakup distress. Study 2 further showed that the positive association of breakup distress with personal growth was accounted for by enhanced reflection and brooding, and that anxious individuals' greater personal growth was also explained by their proclivity to rebound. These findings suggest that anxious individuals' hyperactivated breakup distress may act as a catalyst for personal growth by promoting the cognitive processing of breakup-related thoughts and emotions, whereas avoidant individuals' deactivated distress may inhibit personal growth by suppressing this cognitive work.

  14. The symbolic power of money: reminders of money alter social distress and physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-06-01

    People often get what they want from the social system, and that process is aided by social popularity or by having money. Money can thus possibly substitute for social acceptance in conferring the ability to obtain benefits from the social system. Moreover, past work has suggested that responses to physical pain and social distress share common underlying mechanisms. Six studies tested relationships among reminders of money, social exclusion, and physical pain. Interpersonal rejection and physical pain caused desire for money to increase. Handling money (compared with handling paper) reduced distress over social exclusion and diminished the physical pain of immersion in hot water. Being reminded of having spent money, however, intensified both social distress and physical pain.

  15. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress Among Older Asian Immigrants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.

  16. Advanced Cancer Patients' Perceptions of Dignity: The Impact of Psychologically Distressing Symptoms and Preparatory Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Papazoglou, Irene; Zygogianni, Anna; Galanos, Antonis; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2018-04-01

    The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS). Moderate to strong statistically significant correlations were found between the 4 subscales of PDI-Gr (psychological distress, body image and role identity, self-esteem, and social support) with G-HADS, G-SAHD, and PGAC ( P dignity among patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians should assess and attend to dignity-distressing factors in the care of patients with advanced cancer.

  17. Self-construal, mental distress, and family relations: a mediated moderation analysis with Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Freda F; Goto, Sharon G

    2007-04-01

    The interactive effects between interdependent and independent self-construal on family cohesion and mental distress were examined. Survey responses from 153 Asian American high school students supported the hypothesized moderation of interdependence by independence on family cohesion, which was found to further mediate the relationship between self-construal and mental distress. Specifically, interdependence was positively associated with family cohesion when independence was high and negatively associated with family cohesion when independence was low. Accounting for the mediator effects of family cohesion, mental distress was positively associated with interdependence and more so for those low on independence than those high on independence. The benefits of biculturalism and research implications for the bidimensional conceptualization of self-construal for ethnic minority populations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...

  19. Women's experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard

    2014-10-14

    Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as

  20. The premarital communication roots of marital distress and divorce: the first five years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-06-01

    Using data from 210 couples who provided data across the first 5 years of marriage, we examined how premarital communication quality was related to divorce and later distress. The results showed that premarital observed negative and positive communication nearly reached significance as predictors of divorce, while self-reported negative communication was significantly associated with divorce. In terms of marital adjustment, we found that both premarital observed and self-reported negative premarital communication (but not observed positive communication) were associated with lower adjustment during the first 5 years of marriage. The most important questions addressed in this study pertain to how positive and negative dimensions of communication change over time and how these changes are related to being distressed or nondistressed after 5 years of marriage. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine the changes in communication over time that are so central to theories of the development of marital distress and for research-based interventions. We found that all couples showed decreases in negative communication over time, but the nondistressed group declined significantly more than the distressed group in negative communication, suggesting they are handling negative emotions better. Implications for future research on the development of relationship distress and for enhancing research-based couples' intervention programs are provided. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Trait emotional intelligence and mental distress: the mediating role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  2. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  3. Alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine use and symptom distress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamera, E; Schneider, J K; Deviney, S

    1995-09-01

    The high prevalence of substance use, e.g., alcohol and illegal and nonprescribed drugs, in schizophrenia is widely recognized. One explanation for this high prevalence is that substance use may be a self-initiated method for managing symptoms. To test whether the intake of four substances--alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine--would increase with increases in symptom distress, daily self-reports of symptom distress and substance intake over 12 weeks were analyzed with pooled time series analyses. Compliance with neuroleptic medication was added to the analyses to control for any changes in prescribed medication compliance while using nonprescribed drugs or alcohol. Of the four substances studied, only nicotine was significantly related to symptom distress. Higher distress with prodromal symptoms was related to decreases in nicotine use. Analysis of caffeine did not meet the criteria for significance but does provide direction for further research. Higher distress, with neurotic symptoms, was related to increases in caffeine use. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between nicotine and symptoms.

  4. Value congruence and depressive symptoms among critical care clinicians: The mediating role of moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiani, Giulia; Dordoni, Paola; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2018-02-01

    Clinicians working in intensive care units are often exposed to several job stressors that can negatively affect their mental health. Literature has acknowledged the role of value congruence and job control in determining clinicians' psychological well-being and depressive symptoms. However, potential mediators of this association have been scarcely examined. This study aimed to test the mediating role of moral distress in the relationship between value congruence and job control, on the one hand, and depression, on the other hand. A cross-sectional study involving physicians, nurses, and residents working in 7 intensive care units in the north of Italy was conducted. Clinicians were administered in the Italian Moral Distress Scale-Revised, the value and control subscales of the Areas of Worklife Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model. Analysis on 170 questionnaires (response rate 72%) found no relations between job control and moral distress. A total indirect effect of value congruence on depression through moral distress (β = -.12; p = .02) was found. Moral distress contributes to the development of depressive symptoms among critical care clinicians who perceive a value incongruence with their organization and therefore should be addressed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Using the SRQ–20 Factor Structure to Examine Changes in Mental Distress Following Typhoon Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Tran, Trinh Luong; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Aggen, Steven H.; Berenz, Erin C.; Trung, Lam Tu; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research is limited regarding postdisaster assessment of distress in developing nations. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ–20) before and after an acute trauma, Typhoon Xangsane, in order to examine changes in mental health symptoms in an epidemiologic sample of Vietnamese adults. The study examined a model estimating individual item factor loadings, thresholds, and a latent change factor for the SRQ–20's single “general distress” common factor. The covariates of sex, age, and severity of typhoon exposure were used to evaluate the disaster-induced changes in SRQ–20 scores while accounting for possible differences in the relationship between individual measurement scale items and the latent mental health construct. Evidence for measurement noninvariance was found. However, allowing sex and age effects on the pre-typhoon and post-typhoon factors accounted for much of the noninvariance in the SRQ–20 measurement structure. A test of no latent change failed, indicating that the SRQ–20 detected significant individual differences in distress between pre- and post-typhoon assessment. Conditioning on age and sex, several typhoon exposure variables differentially predicted levels of distress change, including evacuation, personal injury, and peri-event fear. On average, females and older individuals reported higher levels of distress than males and younger individuals, respectively. The SRQ–20 is a valid and reasonably stable instrument that may be used in postdisaster contexts to assess emotional distress and individual changes in mental health symptoms. PMID:24512425

  6. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Why is impaired sexual function distressing to women? The primacy of pleasure in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Eighty-seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Measure of Sexual Consequences. Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Factors influencing maternal distress among Dutch women with a healthy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; Van Limbeek, Evelien; De Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Maternal distress is a public health concern. Assessment of emotional wellbeing is not integrated in Dutch antenatal care. Midwives need to understand the influencing factors in order to identify women who are more vulnerable to experience maternal distress. To examine levels of maternal distress during pregnancy and to determine the relationship between maternal distress and aetiological factors. A cross-sectional study including 458 Dutch-speaking women with uncomplicated pregnancies during all trimesters of pregnancy. Data were collected with questionnaires between 10 September and 6 November 2012. Demographic characteristics and personal details were obtained. Maternal distress was measured with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). Behaviour was measured with Coping Operations Preference Enquiry-Easy (COPE-Easy). Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were used. Just over 20 percent of the women in our sample (21.8%) had a heightened score on one or more of the EDS, STAI or PRAQ. History of psychological problems (B=1.071; p=.001), having young children (B=2.998; p=.001), daily stressors (B=1.304; p=birth (B=.636; p=order to give adequate advice about how to best cope with this condition. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of Home Care Services Use by Older Adults on Family Caregiver Distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Hongsoo

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between utilization of home care services under the national long-term care insurance system and family caregiver distress. A secondary data analysis was conducted in this study using data collected in 2011 and 2012 from the Korean version of International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI) Home Care assessment system. The study sample included 228 clients receiving community based home care and their family caregivers in Korea. Descriptive statistics, χ² test, t-test, and Heckman selection model analysis were conducted using SAS 9.3. Presence of family caregiver distress was significantly associated with days of nurse visits (β=-.89, p=caregiver distress was also significantly associated with days of nurse visits (β=-.66, p=.028). Other factors which were significantly associated with caregiver distress were depression, cognitive function, inadequate pain control, social support for older adult, and caregiver relationship to the older adult. The results of this study show that visiting nurse service and appropriate support programs for Older Adults and family caregivers experiencing caregiver distress should be developed and provided to families based on the health care needs of older adults and their family caregivers for effective and sustainable home care.

  10. Preventing empathic distress and social stressors at work through nonviolent communication training: A field study with health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Renata; Dziobek, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    One major source of mental health problems in health professionals are personally demanding encounters at work. Thus, a crucial prevention focus is the development of emotional and social skills necessary to effectively manage interactions with clients, colleagues, and supervisors. The aim of our pre-post intervention field study was to evaluate an employee training in nonviolent communication (NVC) within a public health organization. A training group participated in a 3-day NVC training and completed questionnaires before and 3 months after training. Changes in NVC skills, empathic distress, empathy, and social stressors at work were compared with data from a control group without training. Additionally, we observed NVC-trained participants' communication behavior immediately before and after the intervention. We found a promotion of communication skills in training participants as evidenced by increased emotion verbalization behavior and enhanced use of NVC at work. Empathic distress declined, and an increase of social stressors at work was prevented by enhanced emotion verbalization. The findings demonstrate that NVC training can be an effective means to foster emotional and interpersonal skills and to prevent empathic distress and social stressors at work in individuals working in socioemotionally challenging settings. Possible causal mechanisms explaining the training effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Social class and gender patterning of insomnia symptoms and psychiatric distress: a 20-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Espie, Colin A; Benzeval, Michael

    2014-05-25

    Psychiatric distress and insomnia symptoms exhibit similar patterning by gender and socioeconomic position. Prospective evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between psychiatric distress and insomnia symptoms so similarities in social patterning may not be coincidental. Treatment for insomnia can also improve distress outcomes. We investigate the extent to which the prospective patterning of distress over 20 years is associated with insomnia symptoms over that period. 999 respondents to the Twenty-07 Study had been followed for 20 years from approximately ages 36-57 (73.2% of the living baseline sample). Psychiatric distress was measured using the GHQ-12 at baseline and at 20-year follow-up. Gender and social class were ascertained at baseline. Insomnia symptoms were self-reported approximately every five years. Latent class analysis was used to classify patterns of insomnia symptoms over the 20 years. Structural Equation Models were used to assess how much of the social patterning of distress was associated with insomnia symptoms. Missing data was addressed with a combination of multiple-imputation and weighting. Patterns of insomnia symptoms over 20 years were classified as either healthy, episodic, developing or chronic. Respondents from a manual social class were more likely to experience episodic, developing or chronic patterns than those from non-manual occupations but this was mostly explained by baseline psychiatric distress. People in manual occupations experiencing psychiatric distress however were particularly likely to experience chronic patterns of insomnia symptoms. Women were more likely to experience a developing pattern than men, independent of baseline distress. Psychiatric distress was more persistent over the 20 years for those in manual social classes and this effect disappeared when adjusting for insomnia symptoms. Irrespective of baseline symptoms, women, and especially those in a manual social class, were more likely than men to

  13. Mediating and moderating effects of work-home interference upon farm stresses and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.

  14. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  15. Coping and emotional distress in relation to health-related quality of life in Slovene patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Žagar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Managing emotional distress triggers different coping strategies for coping with stress in cancer patients. Effective coping affects health – related quality of life and psychosocial adaptation. This study was performed to determine coping strategies, and their connectedness to emotional distress (anxiety and depression and health – related quality of life in cancer patients. Study was carried out on 70 cancer patients, in inpatient and outpatient setting. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory BDI-SH, anxiety with State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI-1, coping strategies with Coping Response Inventory CRI and health – related quality of life with Quality of Life Questionnaire QOLQ- 30. A negative, statistically important relationship was found between active strategies, emotional distress and quality of life. Recognition of emotional distress and ways of coping in cancer patients are important for quality of health care.

  16. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.

  17. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  18. Systematic review of depression, anxiety, and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Thomas, Matthew R; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2006-04-01

    To systematically review articles reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Medline and PubMed were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between January 1980 and May 2005 reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Searches used combinations of the Medical Subject Heading terms medical student and depression, depressive disorder major, depressive disorder, professional burnout, mental health, depersonalization, distress, anxiety, or emotional exhaustion. Reference lists of retrieved articles were inspected to identify relevant additional articles. Demographic information, instruments used, prevalence data on student distress, and statistically significant associations were abstracted. The search identified 40 articles on medical student psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, burnout, and related mental health problems) that met the authors' criteria. No studies of burnout among medical students were identified. The studies suggest a high prevalence of depression and anxiety among medical students, with levels of overall psychological distress consistently higher than in the general population and age-matched peers by the later years of training. Overall, the studies suggest psychological distress may be higher among female students. Limited data were available regarding the causes of student distress and its impact on academic performance, dropout rates, and professional development. Medical school is a time of significant psychological distress for physicians-in-training. Currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions on the causes and consequences of student distress. Large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify personal and training-related features that influence depression, anxiety, and burnout among students and explore relationships between distress and competency.

  19. Maternal stress and distress and child nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondó, P H C; Rezende, G; Lemos, J O; Pereira, J A

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between maternal stress and distress in pregnancy and 5-8 years postpartum and child nutritional status. Longitudinal cohort study carried out in Jundiai city, Southeast Brazil, involving 409 women followed throughout pregnancy to 5-8 years postpartum, and respective children. Measures of stress and distress were obtained three times in pregnancy (at gestational ages lower than 16 weeks, from 20 to 26 weeks and from 30 to 36 weeks) and 5-8 years postpartum by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI). The nutritional status of the children was assessed by the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) z-score for age. The relationship between child BMI z-score for age and scores of the PSS, GHQ and STAI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression, controlling for confounding variables. BMI z-score for age of the children was negatively associated with maternal scores of the PSS 5-8 years postpartum and scores of the GHQ in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMI of the children was positively associated with maternal BMI and birthweight (R(2)=0.13). There was -0.04 (confidence interval -0.07 to -0.9 × 10(-2)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the PSS increase, and -0.09 (confidence interval -0.18 to -0.6 × 10(-3)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the GHQ increase. This study detected a relationship between maternal mental and nutritional status and child nutritional status, implying that if the mother is not physically or mentally well, her capacity for caring for her child may be impaired.

  20. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  1. Dataset on genetic and physiological adults׳ responses to social distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassi, Andrea; Ghilardi, Tommaso; Truzzi, Anna; Cataldo, Ilaria; Azhari, Atiqah; Setoh, Peipei; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-08-01

    Both expectations towards interactions with conspecifics, and genetic predispositions, affect adults׳ social behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report data to investigate the interaction between genetic factors, (oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms), and adult interactional patterns in shaping physiological responses to social distress. During the presentation of distress vocalizations (cries of human female, infants and bonobos) we assessed participants׳ ( N = 42 males) heart rate (HR) and peripheral nose temperature, which index state of arousal and readiness to action. Self-reported questionnaires were used to evaluate participants' interactional patterns towards peers (Attachment Style Questionnaire, Feeney et al., 1994[1]), and the quality of bond with intimate partners (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, Fraley et al., 2000 [2]). To assess participants׳ genetic predispositions, the OXTR gene (regions rs53576, and rs2254298) and the 5-HTTLPR gene (region SLC6A4) were genotyped. The data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  2. Dataset on genetic and physiological adults׳ responses to social distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonassi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both expectations towards interactions with conspecifics, and genetic predispositions, affect adults׳ social behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report data to investigate the interaction between genetic factors, (oxytocin receptor (OXTR and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, and adult interactional patterns in shaping physiological responses to social distress. During the presentation of distress vocalizations (cries of human female, infants and bonobos we assessed participants׳ (N = 42 males heart rate (HR and peripheral nose temperature, which index state of arousal and readiness to action. Self-reported questionnaires were used to evaluate participants’ interactional patterns towards peers (Attachment Style Questionnaire, Feeney et al., 1994 [1], and the quality of bond with intimate partners (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, Fraley et al., 2000 [2]. To assess participants׳ genetic predispositions, the OXTR gene (regions rs53576, and rs2254298 and the 5-HTTLPR gene (region SLC6A4 were genotyped. The data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  3. Love flows downstream: mothers' and children's neural representation similarity in perceiving distress of self and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to capture empathy processing in an interpersonal context. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 22) each completed an empathy task during fMRI, in which they imagined the target person in distressing scenes as either themselves or their family (i.e. child for the mother, mother for the child). Using multi-voxel pattern approach, we compared neural pattern similarity for the self and family conditions and found that mothers showed greater perceptual similarity between self and child in the fusiform face area (FFA), representing high self-child overlap, whereas adolescents showed significantly less self-mother overlap. Adolescents' pattern similarity was dependent upon family relationship quality, such that they showed greater self-mother overlap with higher relationship quality, whereas mothers' pattern similarity was independent of relationship quality. Furthermore, adolescents' perceptual similarity in the FFA was associated with increased social brain activation (e.g. temporal parietal junction). Mediation analyses indicated that high relationship quality was associated with greater social brain activation, which was mediated by greater self-mother overlap in the FFA. Our findings suggest that adolescents show more distinct neural patterns in perceiving their own vs their mother's distress, and such distinction is sensitive to mother-child relationship quality. In contrast, mothers' perception for their own and child's distress is highly similar and unconditional. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Diabetes distress and related factors in South African adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Behavioural Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of ... Keywords: adults, depression, diabetes-related distress, glycaemic index, South Africa ... self-care and glycaemic control.7,8 Diabetes-related distress is.

  5. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  6. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  7. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  8. Diabetes distress among type 2 diabetic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes distress, HbA1c, glycaemic status ... [3] The management of diabetes mellitus and the ... morbidity and mortality risks associated with ... appropriate policy for prevention, control and ..... Mellitus and its Association Risk Indicators in a ... collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and.

  9. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  10. Distress classification measures in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carapeto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates distress classification measures in the banking sector. The power of ten different accounting measures is tested using media coverage as the benchmark for a sample of 1,175 banks which participated in merger and acquisitions or divestiture deals over the past 22 calendar years. According to the results of the study, a bank should be defined as distressed if the ratio of its non-performing loans to total loans is in the two highest deciles of the industry, using a three-year moving average. This measure is typically favored by practitioners, who maintain that other common measures, e.g., those involving provisions for loan losses, are not as accurate as they express only a managerial forecast. Interestingly, measures that capture capital adequacy too often depict the bank as healthy even if it is de facto distressed, while measures of asset quality, though highly correlated with each other, tend to overestimate the number of distressed banks.

  11. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  12. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  13. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  14. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    of distress-related items, the Personal Health Schema (PHS), having yes/no responses, together with a general IQ test, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP). The rate of endorsement of the PHS items was low, ranging between 3% and 29% with a median of two/three items. The Pearson correlation between the two variables...

  15. Psychological distress amongst undergraduate students of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health among university students represents an important public health concern and the health of university students has been the subject of increasing focus in recent years. Available evidence suggests that there are significantly more students experiencing high levels of distress compared with the ...

  16. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  17. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  18. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to ... psychological distress, and subjective quality of life among obese and ... kg/m2, not receiving any medication, no special training .... Emotional role ..... Questionnaire (MBSRQ) showed positive improvement.

  19. Infertility, psychological distress, and coping strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...

  20. How Does Distress Acquisition Incentivized by Government Purchases of Distressed Loans Affect Bank Default Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jiuan Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of bank default risk in connection with government bailouts has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question of how a bank’s default risk is affected by a distress acquisition is investigated. Specifically, the government provides a bailout program of distressed loan purchases for a strong bank to acquire a bank in distress. The acquirer bank may likely refuse the acquisition with a bailout when the amount of distressed loan purchases is large or the knock-out value of the acquired bank is high. When the acquirer bank realizes acquisition gains, the default risk in the consolidated bank’s equity return is negatively related to loan purchases, but positively to the knock-out value of the acquired bank. The government bailout, as such, in large part contributes to banking stability.

  1. Burnout and distress among internal medicine program directors: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Swenson, Sara L; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Physician burnout and distress has been described in national studies of practicing physicians, internal medicine (IM) residents, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. However, no comparable national data exist for IM residency program directors. To assess burnout and distress among IM residency program directors, and to evaluate relationships of distress with personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) regulations. The 2010 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) Annual Survey, developed by the APDIM Survey Committee, was sent in August 2010 to the 377 program directors with APDIM membership, representing 99.0 % of the 381 United States categorical IM residency programs. The 2010 APDIM Annual Survey included validated items on well-being and distress, including questions addressing quality of life, satisfaction with work-life balance, and burnout. Questions addressing personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of ACGME regulations were also included. Of 377 eligible program directors, 282 (74.8 %) completed surveys. Among respondents, 12.4 % and 28.8 % rated their quality of life and satisfaction with work-life balance negatively, respectively. Also, 27.0 % reported emotional exhaustion, 10.4 % reported depersonalization, and 28.7 % reported overall burnout. These rates were lower than those reported previously in national studies of medical students, IM residents, practicing physicians, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. Aspects of distress were more common among younger program directors, women, and those reporting greater weekly work hours. Work-home conflicts were common and associated with all domains of distress, especially if not resolved in a manner effectively balancing work and home responsibilities. Associations with program characteristics

  2. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijantini, Wijantini

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported opera...

  3. Moderating Effects of Resilience on Depression, Psychological Distress, and Suicidal Ideation Associated With Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-12-01

    Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.

  4. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  5. Social class and mental distress in Greek urban communities during the period of economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissi, Anastasia; Stalidis, George

    2017-08-01

    This study draws on old and well-established evidence that economic change, and especially recession, affects people's lives, behavior and mental health. Even though the literature is rich on the relationship between unemployment and mental distress, there is a renewed research interest on the link between socio-economic inequalities and psychological health. The study investigates the relationship of social class with mental distress during the hard times of persistent and severe economic crisis in Greece by conducting a comparative, community study in the country's second largest city, Thessaloniki. A face-to-face structured interview covering living conditions, life events, chronic stressors and coping strategies was employed to 300 residents of socio-economically contrasting neighborhood areas. Social class was operationalized by Erik Olin Wright's social class position typology, based on ownership and control over productive assets. The method of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was also applied to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that mental distress was significantly differentiated across social classes and in each residential area. Unemployed and unskilled workers were the most vulnerable groups in terms of psychological health. Chronic stress arose in this study as a risk factor for poor mental health outcomes and it was associated to low marital quality, intense economic burden and impoverished housing conditions. Those who face income loss, job loss and disability are at high risk for poverty and marginalization, suffering from greater psychological distress.

  6. EEG oscillatory power dissociates between distress- and depression-related psychopathology in subjective tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Grest, Angelina; Hemsley, Colette; Weidt, Steffi; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2017-05-15

    Recent research has used source estimation approaches to identify spatially distinct neural configurations in individuals with chronic, subjective tinnitus (TI). The results of these studies are often heterogeneous, a fact which may be partly explained by an inherent heterogeneity in the TI population and partly by the applied EEG data analysis procedure and EEG hardware. Hence this study was performed to re-enact a formerly published study (Joos et al., 2012) to better understand the reason for differences and overlap between studies from different labs. We re-investigated the relationship between neural oscillations and behavioral measurements of affective states in TI, namely depression and tinnitus-related distress by recruiting 45 TI who underwent resting-state EEG. Comprehensive psychopathological (depression and tinnitus-related distress scores) and psychometric data (including other tinnitus characteristics) were gathered. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to unveil independent factors that predict distinct aspects of tinnitus-related pathology. Furthermore, we correlated EEG power changes in the standard frequency bands with the behavioral scores for both the whole-brain level and, as a post hoc approach, for selected regions of interest (ROI) based on sLORETA. Behavioral data revealed significant relationships between measurements of depression and tinnitus-related distress. Notably, no significant results were observed for the depressive scores and modulations of the EEG signal. However, akin to the former study we evidenced a significant relationship between a power increase in the β-bands and tinnitus-related distress. In conclusion, it has emerged that depression and tinnitus-related distress, even though they are assumed not to be completely independent, manifest in distinct neural configurations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations of sense of coherence with psychological distress and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Thiago H; Andreoulakis, Elias; Alves, Gilberto S; Miranda, Hesley L L; Braga, Lúcia L B C; Hyphantis, Thomas; Carvalho, André F

    2015-06-07

    To investigate the relationship between sense of coherence, psychological distress and health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 147 IBD (aged 45.1 ± 14.1 years; 57.1% female) patients recruited from a tertiary gastroenterology service. Sixty-four participants met diagnostic criteria for Crohn's disease, while eighty-three patients had ulcerative colitis. Socio-demographic data (education, age, race, gender, gross monthly income and marital status), disease-related variables (illness activity, relapse rate in past 2 years, history of surgery and time since diagnosis), sense of coherence (Antonovsky's SOC scale), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; WHOQOL-Bref) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are independently associated with psychological distress and HRQoL in patients with IBD and to provide indications for possible moderating or mediating effects. In addition, formal moderation and mediation analyses (Sobel tests) were performed to confirm potential moderators/mediators of the relationship between SOC, psychological distress symptoms and HRQoL. Lower SOC scores (std beta= -0.504; P mediated the association between SOC and satisfaction with health, as well as its relationship with physical, mental, and social relations HRQoL. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between SOC and mental HRQoL. Our data indicated that SOC is an important construct, as it influences psychological distress and has significant albeit indirect effects on several HRQoL domains in IBD.

  8. Predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy | Roos | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is a high incidence of distressing psychological symptoms including anxiety in pregnancy. Nevertheless, predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy have not been well characterized. We determined whether temperament and character, trait anxiety, resilience, and social support predicted distress ...

  9. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  10. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The...

  12. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  13. Maternal psychological distress after preterm birth: Disruptive or adaptive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Ruby A.s.; Hoffenkamp, Hannah N.; Braeken, Johan; Tooten, Anneke; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Van Bakel, Hedwig J.a.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum distress is often construed as a marker of vulnerability to poor parenting. Less is known, however, about the impact of postpartum distress on parenting an infant born prematurely. The present study investigated whether high distress levels, which are particularly

  14. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...... of these findings for auditors and every stakeholder of business firms are considered....

  15. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1115 Transmission...

  16. The spiritual distress assessment tool: an instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalised elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Estelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.

  17. Guarded self-disclosure predicts psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.

  18. Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Pouwer, F; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P H L M

    2010-01-01

    and diabetes-specific emotional distress respectively. Linear regression was performed to examine the mediating effect of diabetes-distress. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 627 outpatients with Type 1 (n = 280) and Type 2 (n = 347) diabetes. Analyses showed that diabetes-distress mediated......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening...... and glycaemic control, diabetes-specific emotional distress appears to be an important mediator. Addressing diabetes-specific emotional problems as part of depression treatment in diabetes patients may help improve glycaemic outcomes....

  19. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  20. Adolescent psychological distress, unemployment, and the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have shown a link between psychological distress in early life and subsequent higher unemployment, but none have used sibling models to account for the unobserved family background characteristics which may explain the relationship. This paper uses the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 data to examine whether adolescent psychological distress in 2000 predicts higher unemployment over 2000-11, whether this relationship changed in the period following the Great Recession, and whether it is robust to adjustment for family effects. 7125 cohort members (2986 siblings) self-reported their mental health in 2000 and employment activities over 2000-11. This association was examined using Probit and ordinary least squares regressions controlling for intelligence, physical health, other sociodemographic characteristics and family background. After adjustment for covariates and compared to those with low distress, highly distressed adolescents were 2.7 percentage points (32%) more likely to be unemployed, 5.1 points (26%) more likely to be unemployed or out of the labor force and experienced 11 weeks (28%) more unemployment. The impact of high distress was similar to a one standard deviation decrease in intelligence, and double the magnitude of having a serious physical health problem, and these estimates were robust to adjustment for family fixed-effects. The highly distressed were also disproportionately more likely to become unemployed or exit the labor force in the years following the Great Recession. These findings provide strong evidence of the unemployment penalty of early-life psychological distress and suggest that this relationship may be intensified during economic recessions. Investing in mental health in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal examination of dyadic distress patterns following a skills intervention for carers of adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Laura; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Family interventions in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been developed to ameliorate maladaptive patterns of patient-carer interaction that can play a role in illness maintenance. The primary aim of this study is to examine the inter-relationship between baseline and post-treatment distress in dyads of carers and patients with AN to examine the interdependence between carers and patients. The secondary aim is to examine whether a carer skills intervention [Experienced Carer Helping Others (ECHO)] impacts on this inter-relationship. Dyads consisting of treatment-seeking adolescents with AN and their primary carer (n = 149; mostly mothers) were randomised to receive a carer skills intervention (ECHO) in addition to treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU alone, as part of a larger clinical trial. Carers and patients completed a standardised measure of psychological distress (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) at baseline and 12 months post-treatment. The Actor Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine longitudinal changes in interdependence by treatment group. As expected, post-treatment levels of distress were related to baseline levels in both groups (actor effects). Moreover, carer distress at 12 months was related to patient distress at baseline for the TAU (partner effects), but not for the ECHO group. Finally, carers' distress change was not a significant predictor of patients' body mass index (BMI) change in the two treatment conditions. These findings are limited to predominantly mother-offspring dyads and may not generalise to other relationships. The ECHO intervention which is designed to teach carers skills in illness management and emotion regulation may be an effective addition to TAU for ameliorating interdependence of distress in patients and their primary carers over time.

  2. Are self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among older adults associated with increased intestinal permeability and psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda Mall, John-Peter; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Algilani, Samal; Rasoal, Dara; Repsilber, Dirk; Brummer, Robert J; V Keita, Åsa; Schoultz, Ida

    2018-03-20

    Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin. Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.

  3. Proactive aggression in early school-aged children with externalizing behavior problems: A longitudinal study on the influence of empathy in response to distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Peter K; Verhulp, Esmee E; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Findings show that low levels of parent-reported empathy at baseline were specifically associated with high parent-reported proactive aggression but not with reactive aggression. Similarly, low teacher-reported empathy was specifically related to high teacher-reported proactive aggression. Furthermore, high parent-reported but not teacher-reported empathy at baseline was associated with low proactive aggression at 12 months after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline. The conclusions support the notion that in the study of the course of aggression in clinical groups, the distinction between proactive and reactive aggression as well as the study of empathy in response to distress is relevant for a better understanding and might be taken into account in the development of future interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Katharine; Burns, Richéal; Violato, Mara

    2018-04-01

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates. Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems. The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother's psychological distress

  6. A model of parental distress and factors that mediate its link with parental monitoring of youth diabetes care, adherence, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2016-12-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescents' diabetes self-care is associated with better adherence and glycemic control (A1c). A number of parent-level factors are associated with higher levels of parental monitoring, including lower levels of parental distress (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety), as well as higher levels of parental self-efficacy for diabetes management and authoritative parenting. Often studied in isolation, these factors may be best considered simultaneously as they are interrelated and are associated with parental monitoring and youth adherence. Structural equation modeling with a cross-sectional sample of 257 parent/youth (aged 11-14) dyads: (a) examined a broad model of parental factors (i.e., parental distress, parental diabetes self-efficacy, authoritative parenting), and (b) assessed their relation to parental monitoring, youth adherence, and A1c. Post hoc analyses of variance (ANOVAs) evaluated clinical implications of daily parental monitoring. Parental distress was not related directly to parental monitoring. Instead less distress related indirectly to more monitoring via higher parental self-efficacy and more authoritative parenting which, in turn, related to better adherence and A1c. Higher parental self-efficacy also related directly to better youth adherence and then to better A1c. Clinically, more parental monitoring related to more daily blood glucose checks and to better A1c (8.48% vs. 9.17%). A broad model of parent-level factors revealed more parental distress was linked only indirectly to less monitoring via lower parental self-efficacy and less authoritative parenting. Behaviorally, more parental monitoring related to better adherence and to clinically better A1c in adolescents. Further study of parent-level factors that relate to parental distress and monitoring of adherence appears warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Intelligence and neuroticism in relation to depression and psychological distress: Evidence from two large population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Ritchie, S J; Chan, S W Y; Kerr, D M; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E H; Porteous, D; Deary, I J; Gale, C R; Batty, G D; McIntosh, A M

    2017-06-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood psychological distress and youth unemployment: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The effect of childhood mental health on later unemployment has not yet been established. In this article we assess whether childhood psychological distress places young people at high risk of subsequent unemployment and whether the presence of economic recession strengthens this relationship. This study was based on 19,217 individuals drawn from two nationally-representative British prospective cohort studies; the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS). Both cohorts contain rich contemporaneous information detailing the participants' early life socioeconomic background, household characteristics, and physical health. In adjusted analyses in the LSYPE sample (N = 10,232) those who reported high levels of distress at age 14 were 2 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 21. In adjusted analyses of the NCDS sample (N = 8985) children rated as having high distress levels by their teachers at age 7 and 11 were 3 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 23. Our examination of the 1980 UK recession in the NCDS cohort found the difference in average unemployment level between those with high versus low distress rose from 2.6 pct points in the pre-recession period to 3.9 points in the post-recession period. These findings point to a previously neglected contribution of childhood mental health to youth unemployment, which may be particularly pronounced during times of economic recession. Our findings also suggest a further economic benefit to enhancing the provision of mental health services early in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  10. Happiness, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, and Distress in Individuals with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.

  11. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623

  12. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The cultural expression of spiritual distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Meged-Book, Tehilah; Mashiach, Tanya; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2018-03-30

    Although spiritual distress is present across cultures, the ways in which patients experience it vary between cultures. Our goal was to examine the cultural expression and key indicators of spiritual distress in Israel. We conducted a structured interview of 202 oncology outpatients in a cross-sectional study. Self-diagnosis of spiritual distress, which is a demonstrated gold standard for identifying its presence, was compared with the Facit-Sp-12 and a number of other items (from the Spiritual Injury Scale and newly developed Israeli items) hypothesized as Israeli cultural expressions of spiritual distress, demographic and medical data, and patient desire to receive spiritual care. Significant variation was found between Israeli cultural expression of spiritual distress and that found in studies from other countries. Key expressions of spiritual distress in this study included lack of inner peace, grief, and an inability to accept what is happening. Items related to faith were not significant, and loss of meaning showed mixed results. Patients requesting spiritual care were more likely to be in spiritual distress. No demographic or medical data correlated with spiritual distress. Specially designed interventions to reduce spiritual distress should address the expressions of the distress specific to that culture. Studies of the efficacy of spiritual care can examine the extent of spiritual distress in general or of its specific cultural expressions.

  15. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

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    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presen