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Sample records for relationship analysis showed

  1. City shows gratitude for Fermilab relationship

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierce, Gala

    2006-01-01

    "Part of last week Batavia Chamber of Commerce celebration wasn't just to salute one of Batavia's heroes - Carla Hill - but to commemorate a 40-year relationship between the city and Fermilab" (1 page)

  2. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  3. Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, C; Rolstad, S; Petrovic, P; Ekman, C-J; Sparding, T; Ingvar, M; Landén, M

    2018-06-15

    Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects. Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160). We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions. Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes. © 2018 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  5. Analysis of audiometric database shows evidence of employee fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdreich, John

    2003-10-01

    Following a lengthy strike, several hundred delivery drivers filed workers compensation claims for occupational hearing loss. We were asked to evaluate the noise exposure of the drivers during their in-plant tasks. In-plant exposures were not predictive of any hearing loss. A comparison of audiometric data for the claimants revealed consistent hearing loss independent of duration of employment or age. These discrepancies between observations and common understanding of dose-response relationships between noise exposure and hearing loss led to further investigation, ultimately resulting in the dismissal of all claims against the employer who then filed an action against the claimant's attorneys and physician under the Racketeering in Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). The details of the legal complaint, which reads like a detective novel, can be found at the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York [93 Civ. 7222 (LAP)].

  6. Advertising Discourse Analysis of FES stores: Killing Love, Cowards Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Venegas Ahumada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control and makes advertising a way to homogenize subjectivity of masses to consume. Recognition conditions demonstrate that this advertising discourse of symbolic violence means a type of violation of Men and Women Rights. An action like this requires commitment of Psychology in order to promote the social humanizing change, by means of university teaching and professional tasks.

  7. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  8. The first sequenced carnivore genome shows complex host-endogenous retrovirus relationships.

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    Álvaro Martínez Barrio

    Full Text Available Host-retrovirus interactions influence the genomic landscape and have contributed substantially to mammalian genome evolution. To gain further insights, we analyzed a female boxer (Canis familiaris genome for complexity and integration pattern of canine endogenous retroviruses (CfERV. Intriguingly, the first such in-depth analysis of a carnivore species identified 407 CfERV proviruses that represent only 0.15% of the dog genome. In comparison, the same detection criteria identified about six times more HERV proviruses in the human genome that has been estimated to contain a total of 8% retroviral DNA including solitary LTRs. These observed differences in man and dog are likely due to different mechanisms to purge, restrict and protect their genomes against retroviruses. A novel group of gammaretrovirus-like CfERV with high similarity to HERV-Fc1 was found to have potential for active retrotransposition and possibly lateral transmissions between dog and human as a result of close interactions during at least 10.000 years. The CfERV integration landscape showed a non-uniform intra- and inter-chromosomal distribution. Like in other species, different densities of ERVs were observed. Some chromosomal regions were essentially devoid of CfERVs whereas other regions had large numbers of integrations in agreement with distinct selective pressures at different loci. Most CfERVs were integrated in antisense orientation within 100 kb from annotated protein-coding genes. This integration pattern provides evidence for selection against CfERVs in sense orientation relative to chromosomal genes. In conclusion, this ERV analysis of the first carnivorous species supports the notion that different mammals interact distinctively with endogenous retroviruses and suggests that retroviral lateral transmissions between dog and human may have occurred.

  9. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  10. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  11. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  12. USING DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS IN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Iacob Catoiu; Mihai Èšichindelean; Simona Vinerean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe and apply discriminant analysis withina relationship marketing context. The paper is structured into two parts; the first part contains aliterature review regarding the value chain concept and the dimensions it is built on, while thesecond part includes the results of applying discriminant analysis on several value chaindimensions. The authors have considered the client-company relationships of the gas-station marketas proper for studying the di...

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations at the Sydney (Australia) Royal Easter Show from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Nathan; Mo, Shirley; Ong, Leon; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Wei, Daniel; Fahey, David; Liu, Jia Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Comprehensive studies on the relationship between patient demographics and subsequent treatment and disposition at a single mass-gathering event are lacking. The Sydney Royal Easter Show (SRES; Sydney Olympic Park, New South Wales, Australia) is an annual, 14-day, agricultural mass-gathering event occurring around the Easter weekend, attracting more than 800,000 patrons per year. In this study, patient records from the SRES were analyzed to examine relationships between weather, crowd size, day of week, and demographics on treatment and disposition. This information would help to predict factors affecting patient treatment and disposition to guide ongoing training of first responders and to evaluate the appropriateness of staffing skills mix at future events. Hypothesis Patient demographics, environmental factors, and attendance would influence the nature and severity of presentations at the SRES, which would influence staffing requirements. A retrospective analysis of 4,141 patient record forms was performed for patients who presented to St John Ambulance (Australian Capital Territory, Australia) at the SRES between 2012 and 2014 inclusive. Presentation type was classified using a previously published minimum data set. Data on weather and crowd size were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and the SRES, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v22 (IBM; Armonk, New York USA). Between 2012 to 2014, over 2.5 million people attended the SRES with 4,141 patients treated onsite. As expected, the majority of presentations were injuries (49%) and illnesses (46%). Although patient demographics and presentation types did not change over time, the duration of treatment increased. A higher proportion of patients were discharged to hospital or home compared to the proportion of patients discharged back to the event. Patients from rural/regional locations (accounting for 15% of all patients) were

  14. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  15. Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Kåre; Korneliussen, Tor

    2010-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to eval...

  16. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Childhood central adiposity at ages 5 and 9 shows consistent relationship with that of the maternal grandmother but not other grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R; Khalil, H; Segurado, R; Mehegan, J; Viljoen, K; Heinen, M; Murrin, C; Kelleher, C C

    2018-05-09

    The importance of a life course approach to childhood obesity has been emphasized; however, few studies can prospectively investigate relationships in three-generation families. To prospectively investigate the relationship between grandparental and grandchild waist circumference (WC) at ages 5 and 9 down maternal and paternal lines. At baseline in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort, 1094 children were born to 1082 mothers; 585 were examined at age 5 and 298 at age 9. Of the total 589 children with measured WC, data were also available from 745 grandparents. Child WC was standardized for age and sex, and theory-based hierarchical linear regression was used. Maternal grandmother (MGM) WC was predictive of grandchild WC at both time points. At age 5, grandchild's standardized birth weight (B = 0.266, p = 0.001), mother's means tested eligibility for free medical care (B = 1.029, p = 0.001) and grandchild seeing maternal grandparents daily (B = 0.312, p = 0.048) were significant alongside MGM WC (B = 0.015, p = 0.019). At age 9, only MGM WC (B = 0.022, p = 0.033) and mother's WC (B = 0.032, p = 0.005) were significant. Mediation analysis with mother's WC showed significant direct relationship of MGM and grandchild WC. This prospective cross-generational cohort shows consistent patterns of association between MGM and grandchild WC, not seen in other grandparental lineages. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Proteome Analysis of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Monilinia laxa Showing Host Specificity

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    Olja Bregar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot fungus Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl. Honey is an important plant pathogen in stone and pome fruits in Europe. We applied a proteomic approach in a study of M. laxa isolates obtained from apples and apricots in order to show the host specifity of the isolates and to analyse differentially expressed proteins in terms of host specifity, fungal pathogenicity and identification of candidate proteins for diagnostic marker development. Extracted mycelium proteins were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE and visualized by Coomassie staining in a non-linear pH range of 3–11 and Mr of 14–116 kDa. We set up a 2-DE reference map of M. laxa, resolving up to 800 protein spots, and used it for image analysis. The average technical coefficient of variance (13 % demonstrated a high reproducibility of protein extraction and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE PAGE, and the average biological coefficient of variance (23 % enabled differential proteomic analysis of the isolates. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis discriminated isolates from two different hosts, providing new data that support the existence of a M. laxa specialized form f. sp. mali, which infects only apples. A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, yielding 41 positive identifications. The identified mycelial proteins were functionally classified into 6 groups: amino acid and protein metabolism, energy production, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, fatty acid metabolism and other proteins. Some proteins expressed only in apple isolates have been described as virulence factors in other fungi. The acetolactate synthase was almost 11-fold more abundant in apple-specific isolates than in apricot isolates and it might be implicated in M. laxa host specificity. Ten proteins identified only in apple isolates are potential candidates for the development of M. laxa host-specific diagnostic markers.

  19. The Relationship between Paraphrasing and Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Cepeda Islas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of paraphrasing in the process of comprehension for college students, this study assessed the level of implementation of text analysis and paraphrases the response of a sample of senior students of the career psychology. We selected a group of freshmen to the Psychology course, which was asked to answer a questionnaire and carry out the summary of an empirical article. The results showed that participants have a low level of text analysis, at the same time had low levels of paraphrasing. It was seen that the predominant textual copy. They envision some possibilities for the structure of a training workshop not only paraphrasing but on the analysis of text.

  20. Urine proteome analysis in Dent's disease shows high selective changes potentially involved in chronic renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Anglani, Franca; Bruschi, Maurizio; Tosetto, Enrica; Cremasco, Daniela; Murer, Luisa; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Scaloni, Andrea; Petretto, Andrea; Caridi, Gianluca; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Definition of the urinary protein composition would represent a potential tool for diagnosis in many clinical conditions. The use of new proteomic technologies allows detection of genetic and post-trasductional variants that increase sensitivity of the approach but complicates comparison within a heterogeneous patient population. Overall, this limits research of urinary biomarkers. Studying monogenic diseases are useful models to address this issue since genetic variability is reduced among first- and second-degree relatives of the same family. We applied this concept to Dent's disease, a monogenic condition characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria that is inherited following an X-linked trait. Results are presented here on a combined proteomic approach (LC-mass spectrometry, Western blot and zymograms for proteases and inhibitors) to characterise urine proteins in a large family (18 members, 6 hemizygous patients, 6 carrier females, and 6 normals) with Dent's diseases due to the 1070G>T mutation of the CLCN5. Gene ontology analysis on more than 1000 proteins showed that several clusters of proteins characterised urine of affected patients compared to carrier females and normal subjects: proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodelling were the major group. Specific analysis on metalloproteases and their inhibitors underscored unexpected mechanisms potentially involved in renal fibrosis. Studying with new-generation techniques for proteomic analysis of the members of a large family with Dent's disease sharing the same molecular defect allowed highly repetitive results that justify conclusions. Identification in urine of proteins actively involved in interstitial matrix remodelling poses the question of active anti-fibrotic drugs in Dent's patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dioscorea alata tuber proteome analysis shows over thirty dioscorin isoforms and novel tuber proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Ravi; Deswal, Renu

    2017-05-01

    In Dioscorea, dioscorin (31 kDa) is the major storage protein constituting 85% of the total tuber proteins. An integrated proteomic and biochemical approach was used to understand the physiological role of dioscorin in the two contrasting growth stages (germinating and mature tuber). HPLC analysis showed 3 fold reduction in mannitol and 12.88 and 1.24 fold increase in sucrose and maltose in the germinating tuber. A 1.8 and 3 fold increase in sucrose phosphate synthase and mannitol dehydrogenase activity respectively was observed in the germinating tuber while a 2 fold higher invertase probably lowers the sucrose accumulation in the mature tuber. SDS-PAGE and 2-D maps of the mature and germinating tubers confirmed depletion (more than 50%) of dioscorin on germination. Dioscorin was purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 43.32 fold purification and 38.16 yield. Out of a trail of 35 spots at 31 kDa only 12 spots (identified as dioscorin isoforms) were present in the 2D gel of the purified fraction. To search for other tuber proteins besides dioscorin, the unbound fractions of DEAE column were analysed by 2DGE. DREB 1A, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and Rab-1 small GTP binding protein were identified perhaps for the first time in the Dioscorea proteome. The interactome analysis revealed these to be involved in oxidative stress, carotenoid synthesis and vesicular transport. This is perhaps the first attempt to identify tuber proteome (although limited) and to understand the physiological significance of these proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of adolescent psychotic-like experiences shows genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Lu, Yi; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl. siblings = 6,297-10,098). A mega-genome-wide association study (mega-GWAS) for each psychotic-like experience domain was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of each psychotic-like experience domain was estimated using genomic-relatedness-based restricted maximum-likelihood (GREML) and linkage disequilibrium- (LD-) score regression. Genetic overlap between specific psychotic-like experience domains and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression was assessed using polygenic risk score (PRS) and LD-score regression. GREML returned SNP-heritability estimates of 3-9% for psychotic-like experience trait domains, with higher estimates for less skewed traits (Anhedonia, Cognitive Disorganization) than for more skewed traits (Paranoia and Hallucinations, Parent-rated Negative Symptoms). Mega-GWAS analysis identified one genome-wide significant association for Anhedonia within IDO2 but which did not replicate in an independent sample. PRS analysis revealed that the schizophrenia PRS significantly predicted all adolescent psychotic-like experience trait domains (Paranoia and Hallucinations only in non-zero scorers). The major depression PRS significantly predicted Anhedonia and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms in adolescence. Psychotic-like experiences during adolescence in the community show additive genetic effects and partly share genetic influences with clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and

  4. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Systems level analysis of systemic sclerosis shows a network of immune and profibrotic pathways connected with genetic polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a rare systemic autoimmune disease characterized by skin and organ fibrosis. The pathogenesis of SSc and its progression are poorly understood. The SSc intrinsic gene expression subsets (inflammatory, fibroproliferative, normal-like, and limited are observed in multiple clinical cohorts of patients with SSc. Analysis of longitudinal skin biopsies suggests that a patient's subset assignment is stable over 6-12 months. Genetically, SSc is multi-factorial with many genetic risk loci for SSc generally and for specific clinical manifestations. Here we identify the genes consistently associated with the intrinsic subsets across three independent cohorts, show the relationship between these genes using a gene-gene interaction network, and place the genetic risk loci in the context of the intrinsic subsets. To identify gene expression modules common to three independent datasets from three different clinical centers, we developed a consensus clustering procedure based on mutual information of partitions, an information theory concept, and performed a meta-analysis of these genome-wide gene expression datasets. We created a gene-gene interaction network of the conserved molecular features across the intrinsic subsets and analyzed their connections with SSc-associated genetic polymorphisms. The network is composed of distinct, but interconnected, components related to interferon activation, M2 macrophages, adaptive immunity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell proliferation. The network shows extensive connections between the inflammatory- and fibroproliferative-specific genes. The network also shows connections between these subset-specific genes and 30 SSc-associated polymorphic genes including STAT4, BLK, IRF7, NOTCH4, PLAUR, CSK, IRAK1, and several human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. Our analyses suggest that the gene expression changes underlying the SSc subsets may be long-lived, but mechanistically interconnected

  7. Analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, O. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon is presented. A model to present entire process, dynamical Transit Analysis is developed. It is found that knowledge of past-strain history is significant in modeling activities.

  8. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  9. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  10. Radiographic analysis of odontogenic cysts showing displacement of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2003-01-01

    To assess the radiographic findings of odontogenic cysts showing displacement of the mandibular canal using computed tomographic (CT) and panoramic images. CT and panoramic images of 63 odontogenic cysts (27 dentigerous, 16 odontogenic keratocysts, and 20 radicular cysts) were analyzed to evaluate the following parameters: the dimension and shape of the cysts, and the effect of the cysts on the mandibular canal and cortical plates. Of the 63 cysts examined in the study, 35 (55.6%) showed inferior displacement of the mandibular canal and 46 (73.0%) showed perforation of the canal. There were statistically significant differenced between CT and panoramic images in depicting displacement and perforation of the mandibular canal. Cortical expansion was seen in 46 cases (73.0%) and cortical perforation in 23 cases (36.5%). The radicular cysts showed cortical expansion and perforation less frequently than the other cyst groups. Large cysts of mandible should be evaluated by multiplanar CT images in order to detect the mandibular canal and cortical bone involvement.

  11. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  12. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  13. Can Automated Facial Expression Analysis Show Differences Between Autism and Typical Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, Zsófia; Gyori, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory analyses of emotional expressions using a commercially available facial expression recognition software are reported, from the context of a serious game for screening purposes. Our results are based on a comparative analysis of two matched groups of kindergarten-age children (high-functioning children with autism spectrum condition: n=13; typically developing children: n=13). Results indicate that this technology has the potential to identify autism-specific emotion expression features, and may play a role in affective diagnostic and assistive technologies.

  14. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-04-24

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or 'hotspots' of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001. Copyright © 2014, Bejon et al.

  15. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... tertiles). The difference observed in the average score in each tertile in active vs placebo-treated patients was assessed. This allowed an estimation of the efficacy that could be achieved in patients from sites where symptoms were high during the pollen season. Results:  An increased treatment effect...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  16. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Vikram, Prashant; Dixit, Shalabh; Ahmed, H U; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-06-16

    In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative

  17. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln; Pager, Devah; Hexel, Ole; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2017-10-10

    This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos ( n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends since 1989 ( n = 24 studies), when field experiments became more common and improved methodologically. Since 1989, whites receive on average 36% more callbacks than African Americans, and 24% more callbacks than Latinos. We observe no change in the level of hiring discrimination against African Americans over the past 25 years, although we find modest evidence of a decline in discrimination against Latinos. Accounting for applicant education, applicant gender, study method, occupational groups, and local labor market conditions does little to alter this result. Contrary to claims of declining discrimination in American society, our estimates suggest that levels of discrimination remain largely unchanged, at least at the point of hire.

  18. Global Trend Analysis of Multi-decade Soil Temperature Records Show Soils Resistant to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Jennings, K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil temperature is an important determinant of many subterranean ecological processes including plant growth, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Soils are expected to warm in response to increasing global surface temperatures; however, despite the importance of soil temperature to ecosystem processes, less attention has been given to examining changes in soil temperature over time. We collected long-term (> 20 years) soil temperature records from approximately 50 sites globally, many with multiple depths (5 - 100 cm), and examined temperature trends over the last few decades. For each site and depth we calculated annual summer means and conducted non-parametric Mann Kendall trend and Sen slope analysis to assess changes in summer soil temperature over the length of each time series. The mean summer soil temperature trend across all sites and depths was not significantly different than zero (mean = 0.004 °C year-1 ± 0.033 SD), suggesting that soils have not warmed over the observation period. Of the subset of sites that exhibit significant increases in temperature over time, site location, depth of measurement, time series length, and neither start nor end date seem to be related to trend strength. These results provide evidence that the thermal regime of soils may have a stronger buffering capacity than expected, having important implications for the global carbon cycle and feedbacks to climate change.

  19. Analysis of nonlocal phonon thermal conductivity simulations showing the ballistic to diffusive crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip B.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations [e.g., X. W. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 115201 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115201] show nonlocal effects of the ballistic/diffusive crossover. The local temperature has nonlinear spatial variation not contained in the local Fourier law j ⃗(r ⃗) =-κ ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) . The heat current j ⃗(r ⃗) depends not just on the local temperature gradient ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) but also on temperatures at points r⃗' within phonon mean free paths, which can be micrometers long. This paper uses the Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory in nonlocal form to analyze the spatial variation Δ T (r ⃗) . The relaxation-time approximation (RTA) is used because the full solution is very challenging. Improved methods of extrapolation to obtain the bulk thermal conductivity κ are proposed. Callaway invented an approximate method of correcting RTA for the q ⃗ (phonon wave vector or crystal momentum) conservation of N (Normal as opposed to Umklapp) anharmonic collisions. This method is generalized to the nonlocal case where κ (k ⃗) depends on the wave vector of the current j ⃗(k ⃗) and temperature gradient i k ⃗Δ T (k ⃗) .

  20. Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubert Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

  1. Causal Relationships in the Balanced Scorecard: A Path Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Perlman

    2013-01-01

    We use path analysis to identify causal relationships between different performance measures in each of the four perspectives defined in the balanced scorecard and examine the influence of time lag on relationships between perspectives. We analyze performance data from a real high-tech company. Our results point to a direct relationship between leading measures in the learning and growth perspective and lagging measures in the financial perspective. Our findings also support the existence of ...

  2. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the Anticonvulsant ... Two types of molecular descriptors, including the 2D autocorrelation ..... It is based on the simulation of natural .... clustering anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and.

  3. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  4. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Renchu; Yang, Chen; Marchese, Maurizio; Liang, Yanchun; Shi, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP) to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  5. The ethnographic method and its relationship with the domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Romero Quesada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the theoretical and conceptual relationship of the ethnographic method with domain analysis. A documentary analysis was performed, exploring the categories of domain analysis and ethnographic method.It was obtained as a result: the analysis of the points of contact between domain analysis and the ethnographic method from an epistemological, methodological and procedural terms. It is concluded that the ethnographic method is an important research tool to scan the turbulent socio-cultural scenarios that occur within discursive communities that constitute the domains of knowledge.

  6. A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Cell Sharing, Staff-Prisoner Relationships, and Prisoners' Perceptions of Prison Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Toon; van Ginneken, Esther F J C

    2015-09-01

    Prisons worldwide operate under crowded conditions, in which prisoners are forced to share a cell. Few studies have looked at the relationship between cell sharing and the quality of prison life in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap with a multilevel analysis on the link between cell sharing and quality of prison life, using results from a Dutch prisoner survey. Findings show that cell sharing is associated with lower perceived prison quality, which is partially mediated by reduced quality of staff-prisoner relationships. Cell sharing thus undermines the Dutch penological philosophy, which considers staff-prisoner relationships to be at the heart of prisoner treatment and rehabilitation. It is recommended that prisoners are held in single rather than double cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Faulkner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as performative writing offers a valuable addition to interpersonal communication research through the poeticizing of relational dissolution as an everyday relational challenge.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of the Relationships Between Modularity in Design and Modularity in Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubota, Flávio Issao; Hsuan, Juliana; Cauchick-Miguel, Paulo Augusto

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between modularity in design (MID) and modularity in production (MIP) in the automotive industry in terms of how automotive companies obtain benefits and/or drawbacks through MID/MIP relationships. A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify...... the possible relationships between MID and MIP as well as the concepts behind these connections. Sixty-one papers were identified to portray relationships between modular product architecture and modular production systems. Results show a representation of MID and MIP relationships by illustrating that many...... propositions are offered for future field research. Finally, relationships between MID and MIP might be connected with modularity’s maturity level in companies. This is a literature review paper; therefore, empirical evidence is needed to further support current findings. Future studies could analyze...

  9. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...

  10. A Coorientational Analysis of Trial Lawyer and News Reporter Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, Jeremy Harris

    A study considered the relationships of trial lawyers and news reporters, using the coorientation measurement model and Q-methodology, and adapting an analysis of variance experimental design. Sixty statements were constructed and administered to 24 subjects (12 trial lawyers and 12 news reporters) in two large midwestern cities. It was found…

  11. Value Chain Analysis in Interfirm Relationships: A Field Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Interfirm relationships introduce new challenges for management accounting. One such challenge is the provision of information for the coordination and optimization of activities across firms in a value chain. According to the literature, a value chain analysis (VCA) is a useful tool to meet this

  12. Ecological relationship analysis of the urban metabolic system of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengsheng; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhifeng; Liu Hong; Zhang Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Cities can be modelled as giant organisms, with their own metabolic processes, and can therefore be studied using the same tools used for biological metabolic systems. The complicated distribution of compartments within these systems and the functional relationships among them define the system's network structure. Taking Beijing as an example, we divided the city's internal system into metabolic compartments, then used ecological network analysis to calculate a comprehensive utility matrix for the flows between compartments within Beijing's metabolic system from 1998 to 2007 and to identify the corresponding functional relationships among the system's compartments. Our results show how ecological network analysis, utility analysis, and relationship analysis can be used to discover the implied ecological relationships within a metabolic system, thereby providing insights into the system's internal metabolic processes. Such analyses provide scientific support for urban ecological management. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by treating cities as superorganisms. ► We developed an ecological network model for an urban system. ► We studied the system's network relationships using ecological network analysis. ► We developed indices for judging the system's synergism and degree of stability. - Using Beijing as an example of an urban superorganism, we used ecological network analysis to describe the ecological relationships among the urban metabolic system's compartments.

  13. Relationship between alexithymia and dependent personality disorder: a dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Baelde, Olympe; Verrier, Annie

    2015-02-28

    The present study had two aims and used two different samples. The first aim was to determine if alexithymia and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are distinct or overlapping constructs. The second aim was to determine the specificity and the stability of the relationship between alexithymia and DPD. The first study used exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) in a sample of 477 non-clinical subjects who completed three questionnaires measuring alexithymia (Twenty item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, i.e. TAS-20), dependent personality disorder (Dependent Personality Questionnaire, i.e. DPQ) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, i.e. BDI-II). The second study used a sample of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine. The subjects completed (at admission and 3 months later) the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the TAS-20 and the BDI. Multiple regressions were done. For the first study, the PCA yielded a four-factor solution with no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale and with the factors corresponding to their respective construct. For the second study, multiple regressions showed that only avoidant personality disorder was an independent predictor of the TAS-20 scores. Alexithymia is a construct that is distinct and separate from DPD and depression. Alexithymia is not a stable feature of DPD while it is a core feature of avoidant personality disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Shows Constitutive Secretion of MIF and p53-associated Activity of COX-2−/− Lung Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Dave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of two closelyassociated cyclooxygenase isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, exhibited functions beyond eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that COX-1 or COX-2 knockout lung fibroblasts may display altered protein profiles which may allow us to further differentiate the functional roles of these isozymes at the molecular level. Proteomic analysis shows constitutive production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in lung fibroblasts derived from COX-2−/− but not wild-type (WT or COX-1−/− mice. MIF was spontaneously released in high levels into the extracellular milieu of COX2−/− fibroblasts seemingly from the preformed intracellular stores, with no change in the basal gene expression of MIF. The secretion and regulation of MIF in COX-2−/− was “prostaglandin-independent.” GO analysis showed that concurrent with upregulation of MIF, there is a significant surge in expression of genes related to fibroblast growth, FK506 binding proteins, and isomerase activity in COX-2−/− cells. Furthermore, COX-2−/− fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in transcriptional activity of various regulators, antagonists, and co-modulators of p53, as well as in the expression of oncogenes and related transcripts. Integrative Oncogenomics Cancer Browser (IntroGen analysis shows downregulation of COX-2 and amplification of MIF and/or p53 activity during development of glioblastomas, ependymoma, and colon adenomas. These data indicate the functional role of the MIF-COX-p53 axis in inflammation and cancer at the genomic and proteomic levels in COX-2-ablated cells. This systematic analysis not only shows the proinflammatory state but also unveils a molecular signature of a pro-oncogenic state of COX-1 in COX-2 ablated cells.

  15. Genomic analysis of codon usage shows influence of mutation pressure, natural selection, and host features on Marburg virus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Izza; Butt, Azeem M; Tahir, Shifa; Idrees, Muhammad; Tong, Yigang

    2015-08-26

    The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  16. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  17. Systematic analysis of DEMETER-like DNA glycosylase genes shows lineage-specific Smi-miR7972 involved in SmDML1 regulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Li, Caili; Lu, Shanfa

    2018-05-08

    DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs. SmDML1, SmDML2 and SmDML4 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment of 5Aza-dC, a general DNA methylation inhibitor, suggesting involvement of SmDMLs in genome DNA methylation change. SmDML1 was predicted and experimentally validated to be target of Smi-miR7972. Computational analysis of forty whole genome sequences and almost all of RNA-seq data from Lamiids revealed that MIR7972s were only distributed in some plants of the three orders, including Lamiales, Solanales and Boraginales, and the number of MIR7972 genes varied among species. It suggests that MIR7972 genes underwent expansion and loss during the evolution of some Lamiids species. Phylogenetic analysis of MIR7972s showed closer evolutionary relationships between MIR7972s in Boraginales and Solanales in comparison with Lamiales. These results provide a valuable resource for elucidating DNA demethylation mechanism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  18. Analysis of the Relationship between Tourism and Food Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Jiménez-Beltrán; Tomás López-Guzmán; Francisco González Santa Cruz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, gastronomy has established itself as one of the key elements for the enhancement, sustainable and consolidation of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on gastronomic tourism in European countries, specifically in the analysis of the relationship between gastronomy, culture and tourism as the research focuses on the city of Córdoba, Spain. The methodology of this research involved conducting surveys with foreign traveler...

  19. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  20. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions

  1. Multiplex network analysis of employee performance and employee social relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Ying; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    In human resource management, employee performance is strongly affected by both formal and informal employee networks. Most previous research on employee performance has focused on monolayer networks that can represent only single categories of employee social relationships. We study employee performance by taking into account the entire multiplex structure of underlying employee social networks. We collect three datasets consisting of five different employee relationship categories in three firms, and predict employee performance using degree centrality and eigenvector centrality in a superimposed multiplex network (SMN) and an unfolded multiplex network (UMN). We use a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analysis and a regression analysis to demonstrate that the different categories of relationship are mutually embedded and that the strength of their impact on employee performance differs. We also use weighted/unweighted SMN/UMN to measure the predictive accuracy of this approach and find that employees with high centrality in a weighted UMN are more likely to perform well. Our results shed new light on how social structures affect employee performance.

  2. Expression analysis of genes associated with human osteosarcoma tumors shows correlation of RUNX2 overexpression with poor response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Thorner, Paul; Chilton-MacNeill, Susan; Martin, Jeff W; Cervigne, Nilva K; Squire, Jeremy; Zielenska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Human osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric bone tumor. There is limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying osteosarcoma oncogenesis, and a lack of good diagnostic as well as prognostic clinical markers for this disease. Recent discoveries have highlighted a potential role of a number of genes including: RECQL4, DOCK5, SPP1, RUNX2, RB1, CDKN1A, P53, IBSP, LSAMP, MYC, TNFRSF1B, BMP2, HISTH2BE, FOS, CCNB1, and CDC5L. Our objective was to assess relative expression levels of these 16 genes as potential biomarkers of osteosarcoma oncogenesis and chemotherapy response in human tumors. We performed quantitative expression analysis in a panel of 22 human osteosarcoma tumors with differential response to chemotherapy, and 5 normal human osteoblasts. RECQL4, SPP1, RUNX2, and IBSP were significantly overexpressed, and DOCK5, CDKN1A, RB1, P53, and LSAMP showed significant loss of expression relative to normal osteoblasts. In addition to being overexpressed in osteosarcoma tumor samples relative to normal osteoblasts, RUNX2 was the only gene of the 16 to show significant overexpression in tumors that had a poor response to chemotherapy relative to good responders. These data underscore the loss of tumor suppressive pathways and activation of specific oncogenic mechanisms associated with osteosarcoma oncogenesis, while drawing attention to the role of RUNX2 expression as a potential biomarker of chemotherapy failure in osteosarcoma

  3. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-09-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research.

  4. Marmosets, Raree shows and Pulcinelle: an Analysis and Edition of a Hitherto-Unpublished Carnival Play by Antonio de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analyisis, annotation and edition of the Mojiganga del mundinovo (‘The raree show, a carnival play’ by Antonio de Zamora. The play was performed in 1698 Madrid by the troupe of Carlos Vallejo, along with the sacramental one-act play El templo vivo de Dios (‘The living temple of God’. The hitherto unpublished text is based on the only two extant manuscripts, located in archives in Madrid. Despite the play’s title, my analysis argues that the novelty in this play is not so much the raree show, a contraption popularized four decades earlier in Golden Age theater, as the marmosets. The death of two marmosets and the ensuing desolation of their owner, Ms. Estupenda, both trigger the play and provide it with a plot. The marmosets, too, point to a changing mentality in late 17th-century society, regarding the possession among ladies of marmosets and other monkeys as pets.

  5. Show us you are real: the effect of human-versus-organizational presence on online relationship building through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Lee, Hyunmin

    2013-04-01

    This study examined how creating a human presence in organizational online communication affects organization-public relationships and publics' favorable behavioral intentions to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) and dialogic communications. Four hypotheses were tested in the context of Twitter through a 2×2 (presence: human vs. organizational×organization type: nonprofit vs. for-profit) within-subjects design. The results revealed that conversational human voice was perceived to be higher for Twitter pages of organizations with a human presence than for those with an organizational presence. Providing a human presence on social media through the use of social media managers' avatars and names appeared to promote favorable organization-public relationships and positive WOM communication. However, dialogic communication intentions did not significantly differ between organizations incorporating a human presence versus an organizational presence into their Twitter pages. The proposed dynamic role of human presence versus organizational presence adds a new perspective as to how organizations can take better advantage of interpersonal aspects of social media.

  6. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  7. 'If you show your real face, you'll lose 10 000 followers': The gaze of the other and transformations of shame in digitalized relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the significance and transformation of shame in the context of digitalization, in particular, the psychosocial and psychological consequences of shifts in the boundaries between public and private manifest in the contemporary digital world. Moreover, it will examine the dynamic relationships of shame, humiliation and shamelessness as they develop in digital environments characterized by the dissolution of physical and communicative presence, as well as the, in turn, changing functions, ambivalences and affective pitfalls of self-presentation. On the basis of descriptions and commentaries by contemporary adolescents on the significance of social networks and on their own digital self-presentation, it will identify mechanisms for dealing with the imagined, projected or abnegated gaze of the other in the net.

  8. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  9. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jisca S; Zuidersma, Marij; Zuidema, Sytse U; Burgerhof, Johannes Gm; Stolk, Ronald P; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-08-01

    Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between poor social relationships and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched for longitudinal cohort studies examining various aspects of social relationships and cognitive decline in the general population. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were explored and likelihood of publication bias was assessed. We stratified analyses according to three aspects of social relationships: structural, functional and a combination of these. We identified 43 articles. Poor social relationships predicted cognitive decline; for structural (19 studies): pooled OR: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.05-1.11); functional (8 studies): pooled OR: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32); and combined measures (7 studies): pooled OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.24). Meta-regression and subgroup analyses showed that the heterogeneity could be explained by the type of social relationship measurement and methodological quality of included studies. Despite heterogeneity in study design and measures, our meta-analyses show that multiple aspects of social relationships are associated with cognitive decline. As evidence for publication bias was found, the association might be overestimated and should therefore be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to better define the mechanisms underlying these associations. Potential causality of this prognostic association should be examined in future randomized controlled studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. [Relationships between soil and rocky desertification in typical karst mountain area based on redundancy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jian; Liao, Hong-Kai; Li, Juan; Chen, Cai-Yun

    2012-06-01

    Redundancy analysis (RDA) was employed to reveal the relationships between soil and rocky desertification through vegetation investigation and analysis of soil samples collected in typical karst mountain area of southwest Guizhou Province. The results showed that except TP, TK and ACa, all other variables including SOC, TN, MBC, ROC, DOC, available nutrients and basal respiration showed significant downward trends during the rocky desertification process. RDA results showed significant correlations between different types of desertification and soil variables, described as non-degraded > potential desertification > light desertification > moderate desertification > severe desertification. Moreover, RDA showed that using SOC, TN, AN, and BD as soil indicators, 74.4% of the variance information on soil and rocky desertification could be explained. Furthermore, the results of correlation analysis showed that soil variables were significantly affected by surface vegetation. Considering the ecological function of the aboveground vegetation and the soil quality, Zanthoxylum would be a good choice for restoration of local vegetation in karst mountain area.

  11. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  12. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Volker, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  13. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, F.; Gjoelberg, O.; Voelker, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  14. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Md Golam Abbas; Hirotaka eShoji; Shingo eSoya; Mari eHondo; Tsuyoshi eMiyakawa; Takeshi eSakurai

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological stu...

  16. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  17. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen; Ma, Haoli

    2017-10-08

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three ( Physcomitrella patens ) to 63 ( Glycine max ). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  18. Cultural competence and social relationships: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvrin, M; Lorant, V

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the role of social relationships in the sharing of cultural competence by testing two hypotheses: cultural competence is a socially shared behaviour; and central healthcare professionals are more culturally competent than non-central healthcare professionals. Sustaining cultural competence in healthcare services relies on the assumption that being culturally competent is a socially shared behaviour among health professionals. This assumption has never been tested. Organizational aspects surrounding cultural competence are poorly considered. This therefore leads to a heterogeneous implementation of cultural competence - especially in continental Europe. We carried out a social network analysis in 24 Belgian inpatient and outpatient health services. All healthcare professionals (ego) were requested to fill in a questionnaire (Survey on social relationships of health care professionals) on their level of cultural competence and to identify their professional relationships (alter). We fitted regression models to assess whether (1) at the dyadic level, ego cultural competence was associated with alter cultural competence, and (2) health professionals of greater centrality had greater cultural competence. At the dyadic level, no significant associations were found between ego cultural competence and alter cultural competence, with the exception of subjective exposure to intercultural situations. No significant associations were found between centrality and cultural competence, except for subjective exposure to intercultural situations. Being culturally competent is not a shared behaviour among health professionals. The most central healthcare professionals are not more culturally competent than less central health professionals. Culturally competent health care is not yet a norm in health services. Health care and training authorities should either make cultural competent health care a licensing criteria or reward culturally competent health care

  19. Learning motivation and student achievement : description analysis and relationships both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Riswanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is very important for humans, through the education throughout the world will increasingly flourish. However, if faced with the activities within the learning process, not a few men (students who have less motivation in learning activities. This resulted in fewer maximal learning processes and in turn will affect student achievement. This study focuses to discuss matters relating to the motivation to learn and student achievement, with the aim of strengthening the importance of motivation in the learning process so that a clear relationship with student achievement. The method used is descriptive analysis and simple correlation to the 97 students taking the course introduction to Microeconomics and Indonesian. The conclusion from this research is the students have a good record if it has a well and motivated as well, and this study concludes their tie's difference between learning motivation and achievement of students on two different courses.

  20. Analysis of the relationship between food habits and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes nutrition of students, based on the assessment of frequency of consumption of basic food products. The study involved 50 students aged 21-22 years. Set that the nutrition of the majority of students is irrational, in the daily life of young people there is a number of risk factors associated with inadequate intake of healthy food products. Have far-reaching enough food habits due to the consumption of so-called "food waste". The analysis of the correlation relationship between nutrition, mental performance and lifestyle factors, confirmed that a violation of the rules of a healthy diet affects the performance efficiency, increases the likelihood of bad habits. Slow food culture, lack of knowledge of young people on healthy food cause the need for appropriate health education.

  1. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Chambers, Earle C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. PMID:12911254

  2. Neural Progenitors in the Developing Neocortex of the Northern Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri Show a Closer Relationship to Gyrencephalic Primates Than to Lissencephalic Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is the most complex part of the mammalian brain and as such it has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution, especially in primates. The majority of neocortical neurons originate from distinct neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs located in the ventricular and subventricular zone (SVZ. Previous studies revealed that the SVZ thickness as well as the abundance and distribution of NPCs, especially that of basal radial glia (bRG, differ markedly between the lissencephalic rodent and gyrencephalic primate neocortex. The northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri is a rat-sized mammal with a high brain to body mass ratio, which stands phylogenetically mid-way between rodents and primates. Our study provides – for the first time – detailed data on the presence, abundance and distribution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the developing neocortex of the northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri. We show that the developing tree shrew neocortex is characterized by an expanded SVZ, a high abundance of Pax6+ NPCs in the SVZ, and a relatively high percentage of bRG at peak of upper-layer neurogenesis. We further demonstrate that key features of tree shrew neocortex development, e.g., the presence, abundance and distribution of distinct NPCs, are closer related to those of gyrencephalic primates than to those of ferret and lissencephalic rodents. Together, our study provides novel insight into the evolution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the neocortex development of Euarchontoglires and introduces the tree shrew as a potential novel model organism in the area of human brain development and developmental disorders.

  3. The Relationship between Property Rights and Economic Growth: an Analysis of OECD and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydaroğlu Ceyhun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, institutions and institutional structure have become some of the most popular concepts analyzed by economics theory. New growth theories have especially focused on the effects of institutions and institutional structure on a macro level. Property rights are one of the most important elements of this institutional structure. The relationship between property rights and economic growth have drawn the attention of many researchers and policymakers in recent years. The aim of this study, covering the period 2007–2014, is to examine the relationship between property rights and economic growth with the help of PARDL in OECD and EU countries. According to the result of a bounds test, there is cointegration between the variables. The long- and short-term relationships between series were determined and the results taken from the analysis show that there is a positive effect on economic growth in those countries.

  4. COMMITMENT PROCESSES IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS - AN INTERDEPENDENCE ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RUSBULT, CE; BUUNK, BP

    This article employs interdependence theory as a means of understanding how and why some relationships survive difficult times whereas other promising relationships end. Interdependence theory makes important distinctions between satisfaction and dependence. These distinctions are extended in the

  5. Underdeveloped Themes in Qualitative Research: Relationship With Interviews and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.

  6. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  7. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  8. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markholt, Sara; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood...... but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis......) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors...

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of Oculocutaneous Albinism among Non-Hispanic Caucasians Shows that OCA1 Is the Most Prevalent OCA Type

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Saunie M.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with “classical” OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with “classical” OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC...

  10. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  12. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17 , a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 ( Arabidopsis ), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  13. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Weingart, L.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, resultsrevealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  15. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, David R; Champigny, Marc J; Tattersall, Ashley; Dedrick, Jeff; Wong, Chui E; Li, Yong; Labbe, Aurelie; Ping, Chien-Lu; Wang, Yanxiang; Nuin, Paulo; Golding, G Brian; McCarry, Brian E; Summers, Peter S; Moffatt, Barbara A; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that Thellungiella shows

  16. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that

  17. Quantitative Analysis of the Contributing Factors Affecting Specialty Care No-Show Rates at Brooke Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    PHYSICAL THERAPY ,TMC 53 9 14.52% AUDIOLOGY,BAMC 133 22 14.19% OPHTH PEDS,BAMC 28 4 12.50% OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ,BAMC 135 18 11.76% ALLERGY CLINIC,BAMC...for physical therapy and have a total of 4 appointments set up with that clinic. For this study, only the first referral was counted and not the follow...Nephrology. Some of the other low no-show rate clinics were: Pain Management (1.27%), Endocrinology (1.52%), General Surgery (1.83%), Rheumatology (1.89

  18. Analysis of the Relationship between Tourism and Food Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Jiménez-Beltrán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, gastronomy has established itself as one of the key elements for the enhancement, sustainable and consolidation of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on gastronomic tourism in European countries, specifically in the analysis of the relationship between gastronomy, culture and tourism as the research focuses on the city of Córdoba, Spain. The methodology of this research involved conducting surveys with foreign travelers who were lunching or dining at various restaurants in the historic area, and these facilities were characterized by having in their gastronomic menus major typical culinary products of the city using the concept of tapas, i.e., the presentation of gastronomy through small portions of food. The results of the study indicate that the healthy component of the gastronomy represents the main dimension. Based on the detected dimensions, three types of international visitors are established (healthy-cultural tourist, cultural tourist and generic tourist which are considered valid and useful for segmenting the market. This highlights the importance given to gastronomy by tourists as part of the cultural identity of a place and the satisfaction achieved through the gastronomy of the city of Córdoba.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Quantification Methods Shows that Archaea and Bacteria Have Similar Abundances in the Subseafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Megan K.; Kevorkian, Richard T.; Steen, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined “yield” to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly. PMID:24096423

  20. On the dust load and rainfall relationship in South Asia: an analysis from CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Ganguly, Dilip; Dash, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the consistency of the relationship between load of dust and rainfall simulated by different climate models and its implication for the Indian summer monsoon system. Monthly mean outputs of 12 climate models, obtained from the archive of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1951-2004, are analyzed to investigate the relationship between dust and rainfall. Comparative analysis of the model simulated precipitation with the India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rainfall, CRU TS3.21 and GPCP version 2.2 data sets show significant differences between the spatial patterns of JJAS rainfall as well as annual cycle of rainfall simulated by various models and observations. Similarly, significant inter-model differences are also noted in the simulation of load of dust, nevertheless it is further noted that most of the CMIP5 models are able to capture the major dust sources across the study region. Although the scatter plot analysis and the lead-lag pattern correlation between the dust load and the rainfall show strong relationship between the dust load over distant sources and the rainfall in the South Asian region in individual models, the temporal scale of this association indicates large differences amongst the models. Our results caution that it would be pre-mature to draw any robust conclusions on the time scale of the relationship between dust and the rainfall in the South Asian region based on either CMIP5 results or limited number of previous studies. Hence, we would like to emphasize upon the fact that any conclusions drawn on the relationship between the dust load and the South Asian rainfall using model simulation is highly dependent on the degree of complexity incorporated in those models such as the representation of aerosol life cycle, their interaction with clouds, precipitation and other components of the climate system.

  1. Knowledge-based analysis of microarrays for the discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Kaushal, Amit; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2010-01-18

    The large amount of high-throughput genomic data has facilitated the discovery of the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes. While early methods for discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships from microarray data often focused on the high-throughput experimental data alone, more recent approaches have explored the integration of external knowledge bases of gene interactions. In this work, we develop an algorithm that provides improved performance in the prediction of transcriptional regulatory relationships by supplementing the analysis of microarray data with a new method of integrating information from an existing knowledge base. Using a well-known dataset of yeast microarrays and the Yeast Proteome Database, a comprehensive collection of known information of yeast genes, we show that knowledge-based predictions demonstrate better sensitivity and specificity in inferring new transcriptional interactions than predictions from microarray data alone. We also show that comprehensive, direct and high-quality knowledge bases provide better prediction performance. Comparison of our results with ChIP-chip data and growth fitness data suggests that our predicted genome-wide regulatory pairs in yeast are reasonable candidates for follow-up biological verification. High quality, comprehensive, and direct knowledge bases, when combined with appropriate bioinformatic algorithms, can significantly improve the discovery of gene regulatory relationships from high throughput gene expression data.

  2. Relationship Marketing: An Analysis of Relationship Business-To-Business at Multi Brand Retailers From Surfwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pinheiro Lamarca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market environment, a good relationship with clients proves to be an essential item to be worked on maintaining competitive advantages. Especially in  relationships business-to-business, between retailers and their suppliers where transactions have high economic value. The level of difficulty in managing this relationship further increases in multi brand companies, which have high offer from suppliers. Therefore, this article aims to study the degree of satisfaction of multi brand retailers in surfwear apparel segment when it comes to the relationship with their suppliers. The survey was applied to a closed mailing of companies in the sector, and the responses were analyzed to verify the accuracy of the hypotheses raised by the authors, from the previously studied literature. Specific items on the actions of relationship marketing have had higher degree of dissatisfaction, and presented interesting links between the degree of satisfaction of retailers and the years of relationship with the supplier, the number of stores and the volume of purchases effected.

  3. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of oculocutaneous albinism among non-Hispanic caucasians shows that OCA1 is the most prevalent OCA type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Saunie M; Spritz, Richard A

    2008-10-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with "classical" OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with "classical" OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2), the two principal genes associated with syndromic OCA (HPS1, HPS4), and a candidate OCA gene (SILV), in 121 unrelated, unselected non-Hispanic/Latino Caucasian patients carrying the clinical diagnosis of OCA. We identified apparent pathologic TYR gene mutations in 69% of patients, OCA2 mutations in 18%, SLC45A2 mutations in 6%, and no apparent pathological mutations in 7% of patients. We found no mutations of TYRP1, HPS1, HPS4, or SILV in any patients. Although we observed a diversity of mutations for each gene, a relatively small number of different mutant alleles account for a majority of the total. This study demonstrates that, contrary to long-held clinical lore, OCA1, not OCA2, is by far the most frequent cause of OCA among Caucasian patients.

  5. Anatomical Network Analysis Shows Decoupling of Modular Lability and Complexity in the Evolution of the Primate Skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C.; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon’s general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates. PMID:25992690

  6. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  7. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  8. Meta-analysis shows similar re-bleeding rates among Western and Eastern populations after index video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Hassan, Cesare; Toth, Ervin; Zullo, Angelo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the first-line diagnostic procedure for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Different re-bleeding rates following index VCE have been reported among Western and Eastern studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining re-bleeding rates after VCE for OGIB. Meta-analysis assessed the pooled proportion of re-bleeding events after VCE for OGIB according to study's origin (Western vs. Eastern) and according to the length of follow-up (≥24 months vs. Western and 16 Eastern) studies with 5796 patients. Significant heterogeneity was detected among meta-analyzed studies. Overall, the pooled re-bleeding rate was similar between Western (29%; 95% CI: 23-34) and Eastern (21%; 95% CI: 15-27) populations, irrespective of the length of follow-up. The odds of re-bleeding was significantly higher after positive as compared to negative index VCE in Eastern studies (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94). Application of specific treatment after positive index VCE was associated with lower re-bleeding odds in both Western (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.87) and Eastern (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72) populations. Patients undergoing VCE for OGIB have similar re-bleeding rates in the East and the West, regardless of the length of follow-up. However, increased re-bleeding odds after positive index VCE is observed in Eastern studies. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  10. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  11. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Debt maturity and relationship lending: An analysis of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Canovas, G.; Koeter-Kant, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes,

  13. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC. The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges.

  14. Analysis of Relationship Between Personality and Favorite Places with Poisson Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Song Ha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between human personality and preferred locations have been a long conjecture for human mobility research. In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between personality and visiting place with Poisson Regression. Poisson Regression can analyze correlation between countable dependent variable and independent variable. For this analysis, 33 volunteers provided their personality data and 49 location categories data are used. Raw location data is preprocessed to be normalized into rates of visit and outlier data is prunned. For the regression analysis, independent variables are personality data and dependent variables are preprocessed location data. Several meaningful results are found. For example, persons with high tendency of frequent visiting to university laboratory has personality with high conscientiousness and low openness. As well, other meaningful location categories are presented in this paper.

  15. Dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to empirically determine the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction. Dyadic coping is a systemic conceptualization of the processes partners use to cope with stressors, such as stress communication, individual strategies to assist the other partner cope with stress, and partners' strategies to cope together. A total of 72 independent samples from 57 reports with a combined sum of 17,856 participants were included. The aggregated standardized zero-order correlation (r) for total dyadic coping with relationship satisfaction was .45 (p=.000). Total dyadic coping strongly predicted relationship satisfaction regardless of gender, age, relationship length, education level, and nationality. Perceptions of overall dyadic coping by partner and by both partners together were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than perceptions of overall dyadic coping by self. Aggregated positive forms of dyadic coping were a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than aggregated negative forms of dyadic coping. Comparisons among dyadic coping dimensions indicated that collaborative common coping, supportive coping, and hostile/ambivalent coping were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than stress communication, delegated coping, protective buffering coping, and overprotection coping. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). PMID:27681097

  17. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. The Mutual Relationship Between Men's Drinking and Depression: A 4-Year Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Bi; Chung, Sulki; Lee, HaeKook; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K AUDIT-K ≥ 12). An autoregressive cross-lagged modelling analysis was performed to investigate the mutual relationship between problem drinking and depression measured consecutively over time. The results indicated that alcohol drinking and depression were stable over time. In the control group, there was no significant causal relationship between problem drinking and depression while in the problem drinking group, drinking in the previous year significantly influenced depression in the following second, third and fourth years. This study compared normal versus problem drinkers and showed a 4-year mutual causal relationship between depression and drinking. No longitudinal interaction between drinking and depression occurred in normal drinkers, while drinking intensified depression over time in problem drinkers. This study found that problem drinking was a risk factor for development of depression. Therefore, more attention should be given to problem alcohol use in the general population and evaluation of past alcohol use history in patients with depressive disorders.

  19. Are people more prejudiced toward groups that are perceived as coherent? A meta-analysis of the relationship between outgroup entitativity and prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Lovakov, Andrey; Agadullina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between outgroup entitativity and prejudice. A quantitative analysis of 85 effect sizes from 33 independent samples showed a significant positive relationship between entitativity and prejudice (Fisher’s z = .414, 95% CI [.272, .557], p < .0001). Three possible moderators of the relationship between entitativity and prejudice were tested: conceptualization of the entitativity (essence-based entitativity scale, agency-based entitativ...

  20. On the Relationship Between Anxiety and Error Monitoring: A meta-analysis and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eMoser

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Research involving event-related brain potentials has revealed that anxiety is associated with enhanced error monitoring, as reflected in increased amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN. The nature of the relationship between anxiety and error monitoring is unclear, however. Through meta-analysis and a critical review of the literature, we argue that anxious apprehension/worry is the dimension of anxiety most closely associated with error monitoring. Although, overall, anxiety demonstrated a robust, small-to-medium relationship with enhanced ERN (r = -.25, studies employing measures of anxious apprehension show a threefold greater effect size estimate (r = -.35 than those utilizing other measures of anxiety (r = -.09. Our conceptual framework helps explain this more specific relationship between anxiety and enhanced ERN and delineates the unique roles of worry, conflict processing, and modes of cognitive control. Collectively, our analysis suggests that enhanced ERN in anxiety results from the interplay of a decrease in processes supporting active goal maintenance and a compensatory increase in processes dedicated to transient reactivation of task goals on an as-needed basis when salient events (i.e., errors occur.

  1. Analysis of the relationships among perceived service encounter quality, service value, satisfaction and behavioral intention for physical therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Seok; Lee, Won-Hwee

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among perceived service encounter quality, service value, patient satisfaction, and behavioral intention in physical therapy patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 335 patients who received physical therapy treatment at five medical institutions in Jeonju-si, Republic of Korea. This study conducted path analysis on the collected data using Smart PLS 2.0 M3. [Results] The analysis of this study showed that service encounter quality had significantly positive relationship with service value, patient satisfaction, and behavioral intention. Service value had significantly positive relationship with patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Patient satisfaction had significantly positive relationship with behavioral intention. [Conclusion] Improving the perceived quality of service encounters for physical therapy patients increases service value and patient satisfaction, and positively influences behavioral intention.

  2. Teachers' Views on the Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on School Dropout: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Misrecognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…

  3. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-05

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Frogging It: A Poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection…

  5. Analysis of the Relationship between Shared Leadership and Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksoy, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The current study's purpose is: First, to examine the relationship between shared leadership and distributed leadership, which, despite having many similar aspects in theory and practice, are defined as separate concepts. Second, to compare the two approaches and dissipate the theoretical contradictions. In this sense, the main…

  6. Comparative analysis and relationships of six important crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tools using complete chloroplast genomes. Results obtained depict cases of major genome rearrangements, translocation, duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. Members of the poaceae family indicate a close relationship in the nature of conserved sequences while Oryza sativa and. Chlorella vulgaris, which are not ...

  7. Meta-analysis of the relationship between TQM and Business Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad M F; Zakuan N; Jusoh A; Tasir Z; Takala J

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis has been conducted based on 20 previous works from 4,040 firms at 16 countries from Asia, Europe and America. Throughout this paper a meta-analysis, this paper reviews the relationships between TQM and business performance amongst the regions. Meta-analysis result concludes that the average of rc is 0.47; Asia (rc=0.54), America (rc=0.43) and Europe (rc=0.38). The analysis also shows that Asia developed countries have greatest impact of TQM (rc=0.56). However, the analysis of ANOVA and t-test show that there is no significant difference amongst type of country (developed and developing countries) and regions at p=0.05. In addition, the average result of rc 2 is 0.24; Asia (rc 2 =0.33), America (rc 2 =0.22) and Europe (rc 2 =0.15). Meanwhile, rc 2 in developing countries (rc 2 =0.28) are higher than developed countries (rc 2 =0.21).

  8. Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Meta-analysis of the relationship between psychosocial indexes with mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaub Faizy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expansion of studies that done in the demand of effective factors such as social factors on mental health provides the ground work for the combination of these studies. So, this meta-analysis was implemented to determine the summary effect size of the relationship between social indexes and mental health measures Material and Methods: The method used in this study is a Meta-Analysis. To achieve above aim used of quantitative findings from 46 studies, that computed 77 effect sizes from these. The studies that were used in this study collected from databases such as magiran, noormags, Scientific Information Database and proceeding articles that published in the Seminars of college student’s Mental Health. After reviewing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the correlation effect sizes in selected studies were analyzed with the CMA2 software. In this study, were calculated both random and fixed models, that selected random model, according to the results of the heterogeneity analysis of the Q and I2 factors. Results: The results showed that the combinational effect size of the studies obtained 0.139, after eliminated 10 effect sizes. The combined effect size of studies was calculated low based on Cohen's criteria. Also, the results of heterogeneity analysis indicated that there are moderating variables in the studies. The evidence of this meta-analysis associated with prior theoretical and empirical foundations, indicates the relationship between social support and mental health. Conclusion: According to the results of this meta-analysis for successful mental health programs due to cultural and social issues will be necessary.

  10. An Analysis of a supervisor-subordinate trust relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of interpersonal trust as recognized by organizational scholars and the problems associated with the study of trust in organizations, the development of a conceptual model of organizational trust is essential. The aim of this study was to establish empirically the validity of a theoretically sound model of trust in the South African work context. The overall results confirmed a positive relationship between interpersonal trust, trustworthiness and successful trust relationships. The propensity to trust, as well as the length of the supervisorsubordinate relationship, however, did not prove to have a moderating effect on trustworthiness. Opsomming In die lig van die belangrike rol wat navorsers aan vertroue heg en die probleme verbonde aan die bestudering van vertroue in organisasies, is die ontwikkeling van'n konseptuele model van organisatoriese vertroue essensieel. Die doel van hierdie studie was om empiries te bepaal of 'n teoreties gefundeerde model van vertroue in die Suid-Afrikaanse werkskonteks geldig is. In die algemeen bevestig die resultate die bestaan van n beduidend positiewe verband tussen interpersoonlike vertroue, vertrouenswaardigheid en n suksesvolle vertrouensverhouding. Vertrouensgeneigdheid sowel as lengte van toesighouerondergeskikte verhouding het egter nie 'n moderende invloed op vertrouenswaardigheid getoon nie.

  11. Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G

    1985-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.

  12. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONGST 10 Durio SPECIES BASED ON PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS OF TWO CHLOROPLAST GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca J. Santoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven species of Durio have been identified in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, but their relationships have not been studied. This study was conducted to analyse phylogenetic relationships amongst 10 Durio species in Malaysia using PCR-RFLP on two chloroplast DNA genes, i.e. ndhC-trnV and rbcL. DNAs were extracted from young leaves of 11 accessions from 10 Durio species collected from the Tenom Agriculture Research Station, Sabah, and University Agriculture Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers, N1-N2 and rbcL1-rbcL2, were used to flank the target regions ndhC-trnV and rbcL. Eight restriction enzymes, HindIII, BsuRI, PstI, TaqI, MspI, SmaI, BshNI, and EcoR130I, were used to digest the amplicons. Based on the results of PCR-RFLP on ndhC-trnV gene, the 10 Durio species were grouped into five distinct clusters, and the accessions generally showed high variations. However, based on the results of PCR-RFLP on the rbcL gene, the species were grouped into three distinct clusters, and generally showed low variations. This means that ndhC-trnV gene is more reliable for phylogenetic analysis in lower taxonomic level of Durio species or for diversity analysis, while rbcL gene is reliable marker for phylogenetic analysis at higher taxonomic level. PCR-RFLP on the ndhC-trnV and rbcL genes could therefore be considered as useful markers to phylogenetic analysis amongst Durio species. These finding might be used for further molecular marker assisted in Durio breeding program.

  13. The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Capaldi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that contact with nature can be beneficial, for example leading to improvements in mood, cognition, and health. A distinct but related idea is the personality construct of subjective nature connectedness, a stable individual difference in cognitive, affective, and experiential connection with the natural environment. Subjective nature connectedness is a strong predictor of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours that may also be positively associated with subjective well-being. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness. Based on 30 samples (n = 8,523, a fixed-effect meta-analysis found a small but significant effect size (r = .19. Those who are more connected to nature tended to experience more positive affect, vitality, and life satisfaction compared to those less connected to nature. Publication status, year, average age, and percentage of females in the sample were not significant moderators. Vitality had the strongest relationship with nature connectedness (r = .24, followed by positive affect (r = .22 and life satisfaction (r = .17. In terms of specific nature connectedness measures, associations were the strongest between happiness and inclusion of nature in self (r = .27, compared to nature relatedness (r = .18 and connectedness to nature (r = .18. This research highlights the importance of considering personality when examining the psychological benefits of nature. The results suggest that closer human-nature relationships do not have to come at the expense of happiness. Rather, this meta-analysis shows that being connected to nature and feeling happy are, in fact, connected.

  14. Financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction. A relationship study by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu SELVAKUMAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make an attempt to study the relationship between the financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The main objectives of the study are to analyze the financial consumer protection in commercial banks, to examine the customer satisfaction of commercial banks and to identify the factors of financial consumer protection lead customer satisfaction. There are many research work carried out on financial consumer protection in financial literacy, but the identification of factors which lead the financial consumer protection and the relationship between financial consumer protection and the customer satisfaction is very important, Particularly for banks to improve its quality and increase the customer satisfaction. Therefore this study is carried out with the aim of identifying the factors of financial consumer protection and its influence on customer satisfaction. This study is both descriptive and analytical in nature. It covers both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from the customers of commercial banks using pre-tested interview schedule and the secondary data has been collected from standard books, journals, magazines, websites and so on.

  15. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  16. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  17. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  18. Genetic relationship and diversity analysis of Clitoria ternatea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... analysis, cluster analysis of 1-0 bivariate data was carried out; 100 random primers revealed a total of ... white at the base. Its flowering is from August to October. The objectives of this study were to identify the poly- morphism amongst the C. ternatea ... shape, colour, fruit, flower shape, colour, size etc.

  19. Relationships between hormones and aggressive behavior in green anole lizards: an analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Wilczynski, Walter

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior and circulating androgens in the context of agonistic social interaction and examined the effect of this interaction on the androgen-aggression relationship in response to a subsequent social challenge in male Anolis carolinensis lizards. Individuals comprising an aggressive encounter group were exposed to an aggressive conspecific male for 10 min per day during a 5-day encounter period, while controls were exposed to a neutral stimulus for the same period. On the sixth day, their responses to an intruder test were observed. At intervals, individuals were sacrificed to monitor plasma androgen levels. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test three a priori interaction models of the relationship between social stimulus, aggressive behavior, and androgen. Model 1 posits that exposure to a social stimulus influences androgen and aggressive behavior independently. In Model 2, a social stimulus triggers aggressive behavior, which in turn increases circulating levels of androgen. In Model 3, exposure to a social stimulus influences circulating androgen levels, which in turn triggers aggressive behavior. During the 5 days of the encounter period, circulating testosterone (T) levels of the aggressive encounter group followed the same pattern as their aggressive behavioral responses, while the control group did not show significant changes in their aggressive behavior or T level. Our SEM results supported Model 2. A means analysis showed that during the intruder test, animals with 5 days of aggressive encounters showed more aggressive responses than did control animals, while their circulating androgen levels did not differ. This further supports Model 2, suggesting that an animal's own aggressive behavior may trigger increases in levels of plasma androgen. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  20. [Analysis on relationship between regional economic development and sewage disposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Li, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Chao

    2008-03-01

    Based on the relationship between district GDP and sewage disposal, the water environment protection effect in 3 cities, Suzhou, Nanjing and Xuzhou, with different economic development degrees in Jiangsu Province was dynamically analyzed. The economy in Suzhou was well developed, where the foreign capital proportion was in a high level. Its GDP per capita was 53,800 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal grew linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. Nanjing was less developed than Suzhou, and the state-owned enterprises in large and medium sizes were in a high percentage. Its GDP per capita was 37,100 yuan in 2005, while the sewage disposal reduced linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. The economy in Xuzhou is under-developed, where coal-based heavy industry was the most important one. The GDP per capita in this city was 13,200 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal fluctuated when its GDP increased in the study time period. According to the relationship between economic development and sewage disposal in different cities, we suggested that the water environment protection in Suzhou should focus on the control of both water pollutant total emission and emission concentration, the major work in Nanjing should focus on adjusting the industrial structure and meanwhile controlling the total emission of water pollutants, while in Xuzhou the water pollutant emission concentration should be firstly controlled.

  1. The relationship of temporomandibular disorders with headaches: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Nilüfer Cakir; Ozkan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the incidence of the concurrent existence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headaches. Forty patients (36 female, 4 male, mean age: 29.9±9.6 years) clinically diagnosed with TMD were screened. Patient records were analyzed regarding: range of mouth opening, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) noises, pain on palpation of the TMJ and masticatory muscles and neck and upper back muscles, and magnetic resonance imaging of the TMJ. According to patient records, a total of 40 (66.6%) patients were diagnosed with TMD among 60 patients with headache. Thirty-two (53%) patients had TMJ internal derangement (ID), 8 (13%) patients had only myofascial pain dysfunction (MPD) and 25 (41.6%) patients had concurrent TMJ ID/MPD. There were statistically significant relationships between the number of tender masseter muscles and MPD patients (p=0.04) and between the number of tender medial pterygoid muscles and patients with reducing disc displacement (RDD) (p=0.03). The TMJ and associated orofacial structures should be considered as possible triggering or perpetuating factors for headaches, especially tension-type. There might be a significant connection between TMD and headache. However, most medical and dental practitioners are unaware of this relationship. Therefore, a careful evaluation of the TMJ and associated orofacial structures is required for a correct interpretation of the craniofacial pain in headache patients, and these patients should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach.

  2. Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands: Gap Analysis of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    contracts. - 76 - In step 9, maintaining momentum in supplier management , the relationship between the customer and supplier continues to develop...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life... Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands Gap Analysis of Best Practices Nancy Y. Moore, Amy G. Cox, Clifford A. Grammich

  3. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an ..... of the current genetic relations among the breeds, and con- tribute to ... sis of the genetic structure of the Canary goat populations using.

  4. Analysis of genetic relationships of mulberry (Morus L.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Analysis of genetic ... Key words: Mulberry, molecular marker, genetic diversity, SRAP. ... Europe, North and South America, and Africa, and it is cultivated ... Xingjiang autonomous region, China.

  5. French-Armenian Privileged Relationships: an Attempt to Use Applied Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anatolievich Khachaturyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available France takes a priority position in the foreign policy of Armenia. Bilateral relations are at high level and both countries characterize them as privileged relationships. To clarify the structure of relations between the countries, the author realizes a content analysis of the activity reports of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, quantitative analysis of the bilateral visits and meetings, friendship groups at the parliament of France, decentralized cooperation, as well as vote in the UN General Assembly and cooperation at the PACE are analyzed. Armenian-French privileged relationships correspond to the coincidence of more than half of the voting of the countries in the UN General Assembly. Regular visits of the President, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Diaspora of Armenia to France show the important French vector in foreign policy of Armenia. Due to the activities of the Armenian community of France, Armenia can rely on the group of supporters not only in the French Parliament, but, respectively, in the PACE, the European Parliament, etc., and decentralized co-operation with France develops dynamically and is not inferior to the interaction of Armenia with other countries in this area.

  6. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  7. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  8. Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of seven concatenated fragments of nuclear-encoded housekeeping genes indicate that Lophotrochozoa is monophyletic, i.e., the lophophorate groups Bryozoa, Brachiopoda and Phoronida are more closely related to molluscs and annelids than to Deuterostomia or Ecdysozoa. Lophophorates themselves, however, form a polyphyletic assemblage. The hypotheses that they are monophyletic and more closely allied to Deuterostomia than to Protostomia can be ruled out with both the approximately unbiased test and the expected likelihood weights test. The existence of Phoronozoa, a putative clade including Brachiopoda and Phoronida, has also been rejected. According to our analyses, phoronids instead share a more recent common ancestor with bryozoans than with brachiopods. Platyhelminthes is the sister group of Lophotrochozoa. Together these two constitute Spiralia. Although Chaetognatha appears as the sister group of Priapulida within Ecdysozoa in our analyses, alternative hypothesis concerning chaetognath relationships could not be rejected.

  9. Towards Semantic Analysis of Training-Learning Relationships within Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    In this article First-Order Predicate Logic (FOL) is employed for analysing some relationships between human beings and machines. Based on FOL, I will be conceptually and logically concerned with semantic analysis of training-learning relationships in human-machine interaction. The central focus...

  10. International Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis on the Internationalization and Performance Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwens, Christian; Zapkau, F.B.; Bierwerth, Michael; Isidor, Rodrigo; Knight, Gary; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    The article conducts a meta-analysis on the relationship between internationalization and firm performance in international entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence from 15,648 internationalizing entrepreneurial firms nested in 43 independent samples reveals a positive relationship between degree and

  11. Analysis of genetic relationships of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from Zimbabwe, using microsatellites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and indigenous farmer given names. Analysis was done by PAGE stained with ethidium bromide. Simple matching coefficients were compared and the genetic relationships between genotypes were clarified on dendrograms by unweighted pair-group averages (UPGMA). Two...

  12. The Relationship Between Parenting and Delinquency: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  13. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  14. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(16), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper. Analysis of ... academic attention in the economics literature. The .... In this study, the forest products industry in Turkey and the EU countries have ...

  15. #13ReasonsWhy Health Professionals and Educators are Tweeting: A Systematic Analysis of Uses and Perceptions of Show Content and Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K; Burns, Kelli

    2018-04-27

    This study is a content analysis of health professionals' and educators' tweets about a popular Netflix show that depicts teen suicide: 13 Reasons Why. A content analysis of 740 tweets was conducted to determine the main themes associated with professionals' and educators' tweets about the show, as well as the valence of the tweets. Additionally, a thematic analysis of linked content in tweets (n = 178) was conducted to explore additional content shared about the show and modeling outcomes. Results indicated the largest percentage of tweets was related to social learning, particularly about outcomes that could occur from viewing the show. The valence of the tweets about outcomes was more positive than negative. However, linked materials commonly circulated in tweets signified greater concern with unintended learning outcomes. Some of the linked content included media guidelines for reporting on suicide with recommendations that entertainment producers follow the guidelines. This study emphasizes the importance of including social learning objectives in future typologies of Twitter uses and demonstrates the importance of examining linked content in Twitter studies.

  16. Demonstration Analysis of Relationship Between R&D Investment and GDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bo-tang; LIU Bai-shan; CHEN Keng

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative relationship between research and development (R&D) investment and gross domestic product (GDP) in China, we have demonstrated and analyzed the relationship between R&D investment and science and technology (S&T) progress, and based on a mount of S&T statistical data, have proceeded demonstration research of the relationship between R&D investment and GDP in China with Solow and vector auto regression (VAR) models. Cubic curve fitting and cross-correlation analysis of them with SPSS have shown that there is a strong synchronic relationship between R&D investment and GDP.

  17. Analysis of Pressure-Volume Relationship for Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Rai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between compression (V/V0 and pressure have been studied for five bulk metallic glasses (BMGs viz. Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni9Be22.5C1, Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24, (Zr0.59Ti0.06Cu0.22Ni0.1385.7Al14.3 and SiO2.TiO2 in the compression ranges of V/V0 =1.00 to V/V0 = 0.10. Six forms of equation of state reported in the literature have been used in the present study to calculate pressure corresponding to different values of compressions. The comparison of graph plotted between the logarithms of calculated value of pressure to logarithm of calculated value of compression (V/V0 reveals that the agreement of Brennan-Stacey equation of state (EOS and Poirier-Tarantolla equation of state are not good. It has been found that the assumptions, on which these equations are based, do not satisfy well in case of given BMGs.

  18. Genetic diversity and relationship analysis of Gossypium arboreum accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zhou, Z L; Wang, C Y; Wang, Y H; Cai, X Y; Wang, X X; Zhang, Z S; Wang, K B

    2015-11-19

    Simple sequence repeat techniques were used to identify the genetic diversity of 101 Gossypium arboreum accessions collected from India, Vietnam, and the southwest of China (Guizhou, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces). Twenty-six pairs of SSR primers produced a total of 103 polymorphic loci with an average of 3.96 polymorphic loci per primer. The average of the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 0.59, 0.2835, and 0.4361, respectively. The diversity varied among different geographic regions. The result of principal component analysis was consistent with that of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis. The 101 G. arboreum accessions were clustered into 2 groups.

  19. Analysis of Relationships between Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Educational Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ismail; Celik, Ismail; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz; Aydin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between preservice teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and their self-efficacy beliefs in educational Internet use. Findings show statistically significant relationships among the knowledge domains in technology, pedagogy, content, and their intersections. Also, results from the…

  20. Comparative empirical analysis of temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ahmadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of policymakers believe that investments in construction infrastructure would boost the economy of the United States (U.S.. They also assume that construction investment in infrastructure has similar impact on the economies of different U.S. states. In contrast, there have been studies showing the negative impact of construction activities on the economy. However, there has not been any research attempt to empirically test the temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the U.S. states, to determine the longitudinal impact of construction investment on the economy of each state. The objective of this study is to investigate whether Construction Value Added (CVA is the leading (or lagging indicator of real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP for every individual state of the U.S. using empirical time series tests. The results of Granger causality tests showed that CVA is a leading indicator of state real GDP in 18 states and the District of Columbia; real GDP is a leading indicator of CVA in 10 states and the District of Columbia. There is a bidirectional relationship between CVA and real GDP in 5 states and the District of Columbia. In 8 states and the District of Columbia, not only do CVA and real GDP have leading/lagging relationships, but they are also cointegrated. These results highlight the important role of the construction industry in these states. The results also show that leading (or lagging lengths vary for different states. The results of the comparative empirical analysis reject the hypothesis that CVA is a leading indicator of real GDP in the states with the highest shares of construction in the real GDP. The findings of this research contribute to the state of knowledge by quantifying the temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the U.S. states. It is expected that the results help policymakers better understand the impact of construction investment

  1. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

    2008-04-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice.

  2. Relationships of role stressors with organizational citizenship behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, Erin M; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Miloslavic, Stephanie A; Johnson, Russell E

    2011-05-01

    Several quantitative reviews have documented the negative relationships that role stressors have with task performance. Surprisingly, much less attention has been directed at the impact of role stressors on other aspects of job performance, such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The goal of this study was to therefore estimate the overall relationships of role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity, conflict, and overload) with OCB. A meta-analysis of 42 existing studies indicated that role ambiguity and role conflict were negatively related to OCB and that these relationships were moderated by the target of OCB, type of organization, OCB rating source, and publication status. As expected, role conflict had a stronger negative relationship with OCB than it did with task performance. Finally, we found support for a path model in which job satisfaction mediated relationships of role stressors with OCB and for a positive direct relationship between role overload and OCB.

  3. The Relationship of Frailty and Hospitalization Among Older People: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Cheng, Chih-Ling

    2018-06-06

    This research explored the relationship between the stages of frailty and risk for hospitalization in older adults and evaluated the risk for hospitalization among the elderly in relation to various frailty assessment indexes. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were carried out. A total of 32,998 older people, 8,666 of whom were hospitalized, were included in this study. Two of the researchers independently collected and reviewed the literature. The key search terms used were "frailty" or "frail," "hospitalization," and "older people" or "older" or "geriatric" or "senior." Data were recorded from January 2001 to July 2016. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted for quality assessment. A systematic search was carried out using Embase and Scopus to analyze the collected literature. A meta-analysis was conducted on eight studies that discussed the relationship between frailty and hospitalization risk in older adults 65 years of age or older. The results showed that frail older people exhibited the highest risk for hospitalization, following by prefrail and robust older people. Next, different frailty assessment indicators were used to predict the risk for hospitalization among older people. All of these indexes also showed that older persons with frailty had the highest risk for hospitalization, followed by prefrail older people. Frailty is a vital issue in geriatric care and is a crucial factor in the hospitalization of older people. Frail older people were at the highest risk for hospitalization, following by prefrail and robust older people. Assessing frailty as early as possible can reduce the hospitalization risk among older people. Professional nursing staff should use frailty indicators in a timely fashion to assess the status of frailty in older people and should effectively develop frailty prevention strategies to decrease the risk for hospitalization and to enhance quality of life

  4. Impact of functional and structural social relationships on two year depression outcomes: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra K; Dowrick, Christopher F; Gunn, Jane M

    2016-03-15

    High rates of persistent depression highlight the need to identify the risk factors associated with poor depression outcomes and to provide targeted interventions to people at high risk. Although social relationships have been implicated in depression course, interventions targeting social relationships have been disappointing. Possibly, interventions have targeted the wrong elements of relationships. Alternatively, the statistical association between relationships and depression course is not causal, but due to shared variance with other factors. We investigated whether elements of social relationships predict major depressive episode (MDE) when multiple relevant variables are considered. Data is from a longitudinal study of primary care patients with depressive symptoms. 494 participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a depression measure (PHQ-9) two years later. Baseline measures included functional (i.e. quality) and structural (i.e. quantity) social relationships, depression, neuroticism, chronic illness, alcohol abuse, childhood abuse, partner violence and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used to estimate the association between social relationships and MDE. Both functional and structural social relationships predicted MDE in univariate analysis. Only functional social relationships remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.79-0.97; p=0.01). Other unique predictors of MDE were baseline depression severity, neuroticism, childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. We did not assess how a person's position in their depression trajectory influenced the association between social relationships and depression. Interventions targeting relationship quality may be part of a personalised treatment plan for people at high risk due of persistent depression due to poor social relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Discourse analysis and the doctor-patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, W B

    This article describes a system of discourse analysis, called a "taxonomy of verbal response modes," which can be applied to medical interviews. The taxonomy identifies eight basic categories: disclosure, question, edification, acknowledgement, advisement, interpretation, confirmation, and reflection, which are defined by three principles of classification. The categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Each mode conveys a particular interpersonal intent and also has a characteristic grammatical form. With eight forms and eight intents, the taxonomy includes sixty-four possible verbal response modes, eight "pure modes," in which form and intent coincide, and fifty-six "mixed modes," in which form and intent differ. The taxonomy has yielded fine-grained descriptions of patient-physician interaction and has identified particular types of utterances and verbal exchanges that are associated with patients' satisfaction with their medical interviews. The system provides a detailed descriptive vocabulary that may be useful for teaching interviewing skills.

  6. An innovation model of alumni relationship management: Alumni segmentation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthawat Rattanamethawong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to cluster alumni into segments to better understand the alumni's characteristics, lifestyles, types of behavior, and interests. A sample of 300 university alumni records was used to obtain their respective attribute values consisting of demographics, preferred communication channels, lifestyle, activities/interests, and expectation from university, needed information, donation willingness, and frequency of contact. The researcher used logistic regression and the k-mean clustering technique to analyze the data from the survey. Five segments could be derived from the analysis. Segment 3, the so-called “Mid Age Religious” contained the highest portion while segment 5, the so-called “Elaborate Cohort” had the least portion. Most of the population under these two segments was female. Differences were identified in age, marital status, education, occupation, position, income, experience, and field of work. The Elaborate Cohort segment represented young females having a bachelor degree, with low experience and low income, working for their first employer, and still enjoying being single. Another segment with similar values of attributes as the Elaborate Cohort was segment 1, the so-called “Activist Mainstreamer” whose field of work was computer technology. The segment called “Senior League” consisted of members older than 41 years like the Mid Age Religious segment, however all members were male. The last segment, the so-called “Passionate Learner” had members aged between 31 and 40 years. In conclusion, the results of this study can assist in formulating strategic marketing by alumni associations to satisfy and engage their alumni. Keywords: cluster, data mining, segmentation analysis, university alumni

  7. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.

  8. Relationship between nanotopographical alignment and stem cell fate with live imaging and shape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter; Galenano-Niño, Jorge Luis; Graney, Pamela; Razal, Joselito M.; Minett, Andrew I.; Ribas, João; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Biro, Maté; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.

  9. Symbiotic relationship analysis of predominant bacteria in a lab-scale anammox UASB bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Hu, Xiaomin; Jiang, Binhui; Song, Zhenhui; Ma, Yongguang

    2016-04-01

    In order to provide the comprehensive insight into the key microbial groups in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, high-throughput sequencing analysis has been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) anammox bioreactor. Results revealed that 109 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; out of 14,820 reads) were identified and a domination of anammox bacteria of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis (OTU474, 35.42 %), along with heterotrophs of Limnobacter sp. MED105 (OTU951, 14.98 %), Anerolinea thermophila UNI-1 (OTU465 and OTU833, 6.60 and 3.93 %), Azoarcus sp. B72 (OTU26, 9.47 %), and Ignavibacterium sp. JCM 16511 (OTU459, 8.33 %) were detected. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that Candidatus K. stuttgartiensis encountered gene defect in synthesizing a series of metabolic cofactors for growth, implying that K. stuttgartiensis is auxotrophic. Coincidentally, the other dominant species severally showed complete metabolic pathways with full set gene encoding to corresponding cofactors presented in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, it was likely that the survival of heterotrophs in the autotrophic system indicates the existence of a symbiotic and mutual relationship in anammox system.

  10. Analysis of Static and Dynamic E-Reference Content at a Multi-Campus University Shows, that Updated Content is Associated with Greater Annual Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover whether there is a difference in use over time between dynamically updated and changing subscription e-reference titles and collections, and static purchased e-reference titles and collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A multi-campus Canadian university with 9,200 students enrolled in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Subjects – E-reference book packages and individual e-reference titles. Methods – The author compared data from individual e-reference books and packages. First, individual subscription e-reference books that periodically added updated content were compared to individually purchased e-reference books that remained static after purchase. The author then compared two e-reference book packages that provided new and updated content to two static e-reference book packages. The author compared data from patron usage to new content added over time using regression analysis. Main Results – As the library acquired e-reference titles, dynamic title subscriptions added to the collection were associated with 2,246 to 4,635 views per subscription while static title additions were associated with 8 to 123 views per purchase. The author also found that there was a strong linear relationship between views and dynamic titles added to the collection (R2=0.79 and a very weak linear relationship (R2=0.18 with views when static titles are added to the collection. Regression analysis of dynamic e-reference collections revealed that the number of titles added to each collection was strongly associated with views of the material (R2=0.99, while static e-reference collections were less strongly linked (R2=0.43. Conclusion – Dynamic e-reference titles and collections experienced increases in usage each year while static titles and collections experienced decreases in usage. This indicates that collections and titles that offer new content to users each year will continue to see growth in usage while static

  11. [Meta-analysis of relationship between extranodal tumor deposits and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianxiang; Shao, Shihong; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Maoshen; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between extranodal tumor deposits and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The literatures on extranodal tumor deposits and postoperative survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer published at home and abroad from 1990 to 2014 were retrieved in 15 English literature databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals(DOAJ), SpringerLink and Chinese literature databases such as Chinese Biomedical Literature Database CD-ROM, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database with the internet platform of Yonsei University Library. After screening for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment, meta-analysis was conducted by the Review Manager 5.3 software. There were 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The total sample size of the studies was 4 068 cases with ENTD(+) 727 cases, while ENTD(-) 3 341 cases. Meta analysis showed that 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year relapse-free survival rate were significantly lower in ENTD(+) group than those in ENTD(-) group (OR 0.27, 0.23; 95% CI:0.18 to 0.43, 0.16 to 0.34 respectively, both P=0.000); the 5-year overall survival rates were both significantly lower in ENTD(+) group as compared to ENTD(-) group for patients with N0 and N(+) colorectal cancer (both P<0.05). Extranodal tumor deposits is a poor prognostic factor of patients with colorectal cancer.

  12. Analysis of pramipexole dose–response relationships in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying Wang,1 Sheng-Gang Sun,2 Sui-Qiang Zhu,3 Chun-Feng Liu,4 Yi-Ming Liu,5 Qing Di,6 Hui-Fang Shang,7 Yan Ren,8 Wei Xiang,9 Sheng-Di Chen1 1Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Neurology, Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 3Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 4Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 5Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 6Department of Neurology, Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, 7Department of Neurology, West China Hospital Affiliated to Sichuan University, Chengdu, 8Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 9Medical Department, Boehringer Ingelheim (China Investment Co., Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Pramipexole (PPX, a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist, is a first-line treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD. A critical dose level above which a better benefit-to-harm ratio exists has not been examined.Methods: Chinese PD patients (n=464 were retrospectively analyzed by PPX maintenance dose, PD stage, combined levodopa dose, and baseline tremor contribution. The sum score of Baseline Activities of Daily Living (part II and Motor Examination (III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II+III was used as a covariate for final score adjustment.Results: Sustained-release (SR and immediate-release (IR PPX showed similar efficacy based on score changes at 18 weeks, with comparable tolerability. Approximately two-third of patients received PPX at ≥1.5 mg/d, and one fourth of patients had ≥20% tremor contribution to UPDRS II+III. After treatment, patients receiving PPX ≥1.5 mg/d showed

  13. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  14. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  15. International Comparisons through Simultaneous and Conjunct Analysis: A Search for General Relationships across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Petra

    1996-01-01

    The six chapters of this theme issue explore data collected by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement to investigate crucial issues in reading comprehension. Simultaneous analysis and conjunct analysis are used to examine models as structured combinations of factors in the search for relationships among…

  16. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  17. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  18. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r−/− Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Md. G.; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r−/− mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r−/− mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety. PMID:26696848

  19. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-04

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  1. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  2. [Preliminary analysis of the relationship between peripheral arterial disease and other atherosclerosis markers and diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, José; Moreno, Tamara; Coca, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Villodres, Manuel; Rodríguez-Morata, Alejandro; Valdivielso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    To determine lipid serum levels, lipoproteins and other markers related to nephropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a type 2 diabetes population stratified according to their level of renal dysfunction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 72 type 2 diabetic patients followed-up in outpatient clinics. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g) (eGFR > 60 and ACR 60 and ACR > 30 [n = 12], eGFR30-60 [n = 23] and eGFR < 30 [n = 14]). Clinical and anthropometric characteristic of all patients were recorded. Fasting lipids and apolipoproteins, as well as renal and hematology parameters were measured. Finally, a multivariate Wald stepwise logistic regression statistic analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with the presence of renal dysfunction. The univariate statistical analysis showed that the higher renal dysfunction, the higher the prevalence of hypertension, smoking habit and triglycerides levels, and the lower hemoglobin levels (P < .05). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that only triglycerides levels (OR: 1.019, 95% CI: 1.004-1.034) and hemoglobin levels (OR: 0.516 95% CI: 0.292-0.914) were independently associated to the presence of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min.). The further inclusion of the presence of PAD in the statistical model did not modify those associations. The results confirm the relationship between triglycerides levels and diabetic nephropathy, independently of the presence of PAD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between the energy consumption and macro economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1997-01-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship between the consumption of certain types of energy and the realized Bruto Domestic Product according to current prices. In the analysis of conditions in the energy sector in the past period, and in the analysis of expected conditions in the future, exceptionally important are correlations between the consumption of certain types of energy and the macro-economic parameters in the state. (author)

  4. A comparison of genotyping-by-sequencing analysis methods on low-coverage crop datasets shows advantages of a new workflow, GB-eaSy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Daniel P; Battu, Gopal; Hudson, Karen A; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2017-12-28

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a method to identify genetic variants and quickly genotype samples, reduces genome complexity by using restriction enzymes to divide the genome into fragments whose ends are sequenced on short-read sequencing platforms. While cost-effective, this method produces extensive missing data and requires complex bioinformatics analysis. GBS is most commonly used on crop plant genomes, and because crop plants have highly variable ploidy and repeat content, the performance of GBS analysis software can vary by target organism. Here we focus our analysis on soybean, a polyploid crop with a highly duplicated genome, relatively little public GBS data and few dedicated tools. We compared the performance of five GBS pipelines using low-coverage Illumina sequence data from three soybean populations. To address issues identified with existing methods, we developed GB-eaSy, a GBS bioinformatics workflow that incorporates widely used genomics tools, parallelization and automation to increase the accuracy and accessibility of GBS data analysis. Compared to other GBS pipelines, GB-eaSy rapidly and accurately identified the greatest number of SNPs, with SNP calls closely concordant with whole-genome sequencing of selected lines. Across all five GBS analysis platforms, SNP calls showed unexpectedly low convergence but generally high accuracy, indicating that the workflows arrived at largely complementary sets of valid SNP calls on the low-coverage data analyzed. We show that GB-eaSy is approximately as good as, or better than, other leading software solutions in the accuracy, yield and missing data fraction of variant calling, as tested on low-coverage genomic data from soybean. It also performs well relative to other solutions in terms of the run time and disk space required. In addition, GB-eaSy is built from existing open-source, modular software packages that are regularly updated and commonly used, making it straightforward to install and maintain

  5. A Content Analysis of How Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Health are Being Portrayed on Primetime Television Shows Being Watched by Teens and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Glik, Deborah; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Malan, Hannah; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Wainwright, Nicole; Papp-Green, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Television is a leading source of sexual education for teens and young adults, thus it is important to understand how sexual behavior and reproductive health are portrayed in popular primetime programming. This study is a media content analysis of the 19 top-rated scripted English-language primetime television shows aired between January 1, 2015 and May 31, 2015, and viewed by American youth audiences 12-24 years of age. The purpose of this study is to assess how sex/sexuality and reproductive health are being portrayed in a popular medium that reaches many adolescent and young adult audiences. Themes used for this analysis include youth pregnancy/parenting, mentoring/guidance of youth regarding sexual behavior, sex/sexuality, body image/identity, sexual violence/abuse/harassment, gender identity/sexual orientation, and reproductive health. Themes have been classified in one of the following six categories: visual cues, brief mentions, dialogue, minor storylines, major storylines, and multi-episode storylines. Our findings indicate that narratives providing educational information regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior were missing from the television shows we analyzed and that storylines promoting low risk sexual behavior were rare. Sexual violence and abuse, casual sex among adults, lack of contraception use, or no portrayal of consequences of risky behaviors were common. Compared to prior research, we found an emergent theme normalizing non-heterosexual gender identity and sexual orientation. Our findings have important implications as exposure to popular media shapes the perceptions and behaviors of teens and young adults. This study has the potential to shed light on the need to create stories and narratives in television shows watched by American teens and young adults with educational messages regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior.

  6. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  7. Relationship between harmonic analysis on SU(2) and on SL(2,C)/SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, D.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A topic of interest in harmonic analysis is the comparison of Fourier transforms on compact and noncompact spaces. The Poisson summation formula provides a classical example of this idea by providing an explicit relationship between harmonic analysis on the real line R and on the circle S 1 . This dissertation provides a new geometric proof of this formula, and then generalizes this approach to obtain a relationship between Fourier transforms on Upsilon, the space of positive matrices in SL(2,C), and Fourier transforms on SU(2)

  8. Data driven analysis of rain events: feature extraction, clustering, microphysical /macro physical relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djallel Dilmi, Mohamed; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent; Chazottes, Aymeric

    2017-04-01

    The study of rain time series records is mainly carried out using rainfall rate or rain accumulation parameters estimated on a fixed integration time (typically 1 min, 1 hour or 1 day). In this study we used the concept of rain event. In fact, the discrete and intermittent natures of rain processes make the definition of some features inadequate when defined on a fixed duration. Long integration times (hour, day) lead to mix rainy and clear air periods in the same sample. Small integration time (seconds, minutes) will lead to noisy data with a great sensibility to detector characteristics. The analysis on the whole rain event instead of individual short duration samples of a fixed duration allows to clarify relationships between features, in particular between macro physical and microphysical ones. This approach allows suppressing the intra-event variability partly due to measurement uncertainties and allows focusing on physical processes. An algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organising Maps (SOM) is developed to obtain a parsimonious characterisation of rain events using a minimal set of variables. The use of self-organizing map (SOM) is justified by the fact that it allows to map a high dimensional data space in a two-dimensional space while preserving as much as possible the initial space topology in an unsupervised way. The obtained SOM allows providing the dependencies between variables and consequently removing redundant variables leading to a minimal subset of only five features (the event duration, the rain rate peak, the rain event depth, the event rain rate standard deviation and the absolute rain rate variation of order 0.5). To confirm relevance of the five selected features the corresponding SOM is analyzed. This analysis shows clearly the existence of relationships between features. It also shows the independence of the inter-event time (IETp) feature or the weak dependence of the Dry percentage in event (Dd%e) feature. This confirms

  9. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  10. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  11. Analysis of albedo versus cloud fraction relationships in liquid water clouds using heuristic models and large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Graham; Balsells, Joseph; Glassmeier, Franziska; Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Kazil, Jan; McComiskey, Allison

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between the albedo of a cloudy scene A and cloud fraction fc is studied with the aid of heuristic models of stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. Existing work has shown that scene albedo increases monotonically with increasing cloud fraction but that the relationship varies from linear to superlinear. The reasons for these differences in functional dependence are traced to the relationship between cloud deepening and cloud widening. When clouds deepen with no significant increase in fc (e.g., in solid stratocumulus), the relationship between A and fc is linear. When clouds widen as they deepen, as in cumulus cloud fields, the relationship is superlinear. A simple heuristic model of a cumulus cloud field with a power law size distribution shows that the superlinear A-fc behavior is traced out either through random variation in cloud size distribution parameters or as the cloud field oscillates between a relative abundance of small clouds (steep slopes on a log-log plot) and a relative abundance of large clouds (flat slopes). Oscillations of this kind manifest in large eddy simulation of trade wind cumulus where the slope and intercept of the power law fit to the cloud size distribution are highly correlated. Further analysis of the large eddy model-generated cloud fields suggests that cumulus clouds grow larger and deeper as their underlying plumes aggregate; this is followed by breakup of large plumes and a tendency to smaller clouds. The cloud and thermal size distributions oscillate back and forth approximately in unison.

  12. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Munkee

    2016-02-11

    Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P ≤ .001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P ≤ .001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P ≤ .001), and population growth rate (P ≤ .001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P ≤ .001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query.

  13. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  14. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystectomy with Extracorporeal Urinary Diversion Does Not Show a Benefit over Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan

    Full Text Available The number of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC procedures is increasing despite the lack of Level I evidence showing any advantages over open radical cystectomy (ORC. However, several systematic reviews with meta-analyses including non-randomised studies, suggest an overall benefit for RARC compared to ORC. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the perioperative morbidity and efficacy of RARC compared to ORC in patients with bladder cancer.Literature searches of Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov databases up to 10th March 2016 were performed. The inclusion criteria for eligible studies were RCTs which compared perioperative outcomes of ORC and RARC for bladder cancer. Primary objective was perioperative and histopathological outcomes of RARC versus ORC while the secondary objective was quality of life assessment (QoL, oncological outcomes and cost analysis.Four RCTs (from 5 articles met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 239 patients all with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics of RARC and ORC patients were evenly matched. There was no significant difference between groups in perioperative morbidity, length of stay, positive surgical margin, lymph node yield and positive lymph node status. RARC group had significantly lower estimated blood loss (p<0.001 and wound complications (p = 0.03 but required significantly longer operating time (p<0.001. QoL was not measured uniformly across trials and cost analysis was reported in one RCTs. A test for heterogeneity did highlight differences across operating time of trials suggesting that surgeon experience may influence outcomes.This study does not provide evidence to support a benefit for RARC compared to ORC. These results may not have inference for RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion. Well-designed trials with appropriate endpoints conducted

  15. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  17. [Analysis of the Injury-disease Relationship between Spondylolysis and Trauma in 26 Forensic Identifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L X; Zhu, G L; Qi, L Q; Sheng, Y Y

    2016-12-01

    To expound the injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma for the points of forensic identification. Total 26 cases of spondylolysis were collected and the characteristics of this disease such as age, accompanied symptoms, treatment and injury manner were discussed. The causal relationship existed between trauma and injury consequence in 2 appraised individuals and both of them aged less than 50 years old. The injury manners of both were high-energy injury with combined injury and these 2 patients were treated by operation. The analysis of injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma should be paid attention in the middle-young age under 50 years old. More importantly, the injury-disease relationship should be analyzed in the patients who chose operative treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  18. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  19. Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level and Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Dian-Zhong

    2018-05-10

    This research sought to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between serum zinc level and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched up to October 2017 for observational studies on the association between serum zinc level and MetS. The standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of the serum zinc level for MetS versus control participants were calculated. In addition, the pooled odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) of MetS for the highest versus lowest category of serum zinc level, as well as their corresponding 95% CI, were also calculated. A total of 11 observational studies (8 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 2 cohort studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The combined SMD demonstrated that the serum zinc level in MetS was higher than that in control participants (SMD = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.19; p = 0.009). Moreover, the overall multivariable-adjusted RR showed that the increased serum zinc level was associated with a higher risk of MetS (RR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.33-2.50; p level and MetS (OR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; p = 0.841). Although the serum zinc level in participants with MetS was significantly higher than that in control ones, the existing evidence was still insufficient to conclude a definite relationship between serum zinc level and MetS. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to elaborate the concerned issues further.

  20. Meta-analysis of the relationship between multiple sclerosis and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpoor, Julia; Handel, Adam E; Giovannoni, Gavin; Dobson, Ruth; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating a proposed association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and migraine have produced conflicting results and a great range in the prevalence rate of migraine in MS patients. By meta-analysing all available data we aimed to establish an overall estimate of any association in order to more accurately inform clinicians and care-givers about a potential association between MS and migraine. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to identify suitable studies. Studies were included if they were a case-control study or cohort study in which controls were not reported to have another neurological condition, were available in English, and specified migraine as a headache sub-type. The odds ratio (OR) of migraine in MS patients vs. controls was calculated using the inverse variance with random effects model in Review Manager 5.1. Eight studies were selected for inclusion, yielding a total of 1864 MS patients and 261563 control subjects. We found a significant association between migraine and MS (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.12-6.04), although there was significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis showed that migraine without aura was associated with MS OR = 2.29 (95% CI 1.14-4.58), with no significant heterogeneity. MS patients are more than twice as likely to report migraine as controls. Care providers should be alerted to ask MS patients about migraine in order to treat it and potentially improve quality of life. Future work should further investigate the temporal relationship of this association and relationship to the clinical characteristics of MS.

  1. Meta-analysis of the relationship between multiple sclerosis and migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pakpoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies investigating a proposed association between multiple sclerosis (MS and migraine have produced conflicting results and a great range in the prevalence rate of migraine in MS patients. By meta-analysing all available data we aimed to establish an overall estimate of any association in order to more accurately inform clinicians and care-givers about a potential association between MS and migraine. METHODS: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to identify suitable studies. Studies were included if they were a case-control study or cohort study in which controls were not reported to have another neurological condition, were available in English, and specified migraine as a headache sub-type. The odds ratio (OR of migraine in MS patients vs. controls was calculated using the inverse variance with random effects model in Review Manager 5.1. RESULTS: Eight studies were selected for inclusion, yielding a total of 1864 MS patients and 261563 control subjects. We found a significant association between migraine and MS (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.12-6.04, although there was significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis showed that migraine without aura was associated with MS OR = 2.29 (95% CI 1.14-4.58, with no significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: MS patients are more than twice as likely to report migraine as controls. Care providers should be alerted to ask MS patients about migraine in order to treat it and potentially improve quality of life. Future work should further investigate the temporal relationship of this association and relationship to the clinical characteristics of MS.

  2. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  3. Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Bruce; Watson, Susannah; Mackay, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy

    2013-09-01

    There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.

  4. Analysis of the relationship between water level fluctuation and seismicity in the Three Gorges Reservoir (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir is a good site for the further researches on reservoir induced seismicity due to decades' seismic monitoring. After the first water impounding in 2003, seismic activity becomes more frequent than that before water impoundment. In order to quantitatively study, the relationship between the water level fluctuation and earthquakes in TGR, we introduced statistical methods to attain the goal. First of all, we relocated the earthquakes in TGR region with double difference method and divided the earthquakes into 5 clusters with clustering analysis method. Secondly, to examine the impacts of water level fluctuation in different water filling stages on the seismic activity in the 5 clusters, a series of statistical analyses are applied. Pearson correlation results show that only the 175 m water level fluctuation has significantly positive impacts on the seismic activity in clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ with correlation coefficients of 0.44, 0.38, 0.66 and 0.63. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that 0, 1, 0 and 0 month time delay separately for the clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ exists. It illustrated the influences of the water loading and pore pressure diffusion on induced earthquakes. Cointegration tests and impulse response analysis denoted that the 175 m water level only had long term and significant effects just on the seismic events in the intersection region of the Fairy Mount Fault and Nine-brook Fault. One standard deviation shock to 175 m water level increased the seismic activity in cluster Ⅴ for the first 3 months, and then the negative influence was shown. After 7 months, the negative impulse response becomes stable. The long-term effect of the 175 m water impoundment also proved the important role of pore pressure diffusion in RIS with time.

  5. Relationship satisfaction and interpartner agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, José Luis; Cuenca, María Luisa; Redondo, Natalia

    2017-08-15

    To analyze, in a multilevel context, the impact of individual-level relationship satisfaction on couples' mean reports of aggression and agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression. We conducted a quota sampling method to recruit a community sample of 2.988 heterosexual adult couples from the Region of Madrid (Spain). The percentages of intimate partner aggression considering the highest report of aggression in the couple were around 60% of psychological aggression and 15% of physical aggression. Couples that used aggressive tactics showed low to moderate levels of agreement about physical and psychological aggression. Multilevel models confirm that women's relationship satisfaction had a significant influence on the level of agreement about acts of psychological aggression, but the same pattern of results was not observed for men. On the other hand, men and women's relationship satisfaction had no significant influence on the level of agreement about physical aggression. Psychological aggression plays a more relevant role in women's relationship satisfaction than physical aggression.

  6. Exploring Peer Relationships, Friendships and Group Work Dynamics in Higher Education: Applying Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2018-01-01

    This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students' voice. In doing so, the views…

  7. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  8. Multivariate quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationships (QSPKR) analysis of adenosine A(1) receptor agonists in rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaf, PH; Nilsson, J; Van Schaick, EA; Danhof, M

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationships (QSPKR) method based on contemporary three-dimensional (3D) molecular characterization and multivariate statistical analysis. For this purpose, the programs SYBYL/CoMFA, GRID, and

  9. A Feminist Analysis of Self-Help Bestsellers for Improving Relationships: A Decade Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Holm, Kristen E.; Starrels, Marjorie E.

    2001-01-01

    Content analysis was conducted of the top eleven relationship self help books on the New York Times Bestseller List over ten years to determine the degree to which they support a feminist approach to therapy. Results indicated the number of feminist and nonfeminist approach books is about equal and that bestsellers have become less feminist…

  10. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic

  11. High frequency analysis of lead-lag relationships between financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Nijman, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    High frequency data are often observed at irregular intervals, which complicates the analysis of lead-lag relationships between financial markets. Frequently, estimators have been used that are based on observations at regular intervals, which are adapted to the irregular observations case by

  12. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  13. Relationship between color and tannin content in sorghum grain: application of image analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sedghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sorghum grain color and tannin content was reported in several references. In this study, 33 phenotypes of sorghum grain differing in seed characteristics were collected and analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. A computer image analysis method was used to determine the color characteristics of all 33 sorghum phenotypes. Two methods of multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN models were developed to describe tannin content in sorghum grain from three input parameters of color characteristics. The goodness of fit of the models was tested using R², MS error, and bias. The computer image analysis technique was a suitable method to estimate tannin through sorghum grain color strength. Therefore, the color quality of the samples was described according three color parameters: L* (lightness, a* (redness - from green to red and b* (blueness - from blue to yellow. The developed regression and ANN models showed a strong relationship between color and tannin content of samples. The goodness of fit (in terms of R², which corresponds to training the ANN model, showed higher accuracy of prediction of ANN compared with the equation established by the regression method (0.96 vs. 0.88. The ANN models in term of MS error showed lower residuals distribution than that of regression model (0.002 vs. 0.006. The platform of computer image analysis technique and ANN-based model may be used to estimate the tannin content of sorghum.

  14. Relationship between HCO_3"- concentration to weight of C_6H_6 of environmental isotop "1"4C analysis and its relationship with sampling in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Rasi Prasetio

    2016-01-01

    It has been done the groundwater sampling process of deep aquifer in Jakarta and surrounding areas for the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C. Groundwater sampling was preceded by calculating the concentration of HCO_3"- (bicarbonate ion) through titration in the field. The number of repetitions of sampling is determined by the concentration data of HCO_3"- which obtained. The Repetition of this sampling will determine the acquisition of a solution of C_6H_6 (benzene) during the synthesis process benzene. In the field, the sampling is done by extracting of 60 liters of water to precipitate BaCO_3. The sampling process is repeated based on data from the bicarbonate ion concentration. The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- to the weights C_6H_6 which obtained in the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C and evaluate the number of repetitions of the sampling that should be done. Based on the analysis of titration in the field, shows that concentration HCO_3"- ranged between 180 - 600 ppm with the acquisition of benzene between 1.84 to 4.5 grams. There is a strong relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- and C_6H_6 weights obtained in the process of synthesis of benzene with a correlation of about 0.900. This correlation can be improved by measuring the concentration of HCO_3"- in advance in the laboratory tend to be more accurate than in the field. (author)

  15. The Relationship between Logistics and Economic Development in Indonesia: Analysis of Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between logistics and economic development in Indonesia using time series data on traffic volume and economic growth for the period from 1988 to 2010. Literature reviews were conducted to find the most applicable econometric model. The data of cargo volume that travels through sea, air and rail is used as the logistics index, while GDP is used for the economic index. The time series data was tested using stationarity and co-integration tests. Granger causality tests were employed, and then a proposed logistic model is presented. This study showed that logistics plays an important role in supporting and sustaining economic growth, in a form where the economic growth is the significant demand-pull effect towards logistics. Although the model is developed in the context of Indonesia, the overall statistical analysis can be generalized to other developing economies. Based on the model, this paper presented the importance of sustaining economic development with regards continuously improving the logistics infrastructure.

  16. Mining author relationship in scholarly networks based on tripartite citation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Yang, Siluo

    2017-01-01

    Following scholars in Scientometrics as examples, we develop five author relationship networks, namely, co-authorship, author co-citation (AC), author bibliographic coupling (ABC), author direct citation (ADC), and author keyword coupling (AKC). The time frame of data sets is divided into two periods: before 2011 (i.e., T1) and after 2011 (i.e., T2). Through quadratic assignment procedure analysis, we found that some authors have ABC or AC relationships (i.e., potential communication relationship, PCR) but do not have actual collaborations or direct citations (i.e., actual communication relationship, ACR) among them. In addition, we noticed that PCR and AKC are highly correlated and that the old PCR and the new ACR are correlated and consistent. Such facts indicate that PCR tends to produce academic exchanges based on similar themes, and ABC bears more advantages in predicting potential relations. Based on tripartite citation analysis, including AC, ABC, and ADC, we also present an author-relation mining process. Such process can be used to detect deep and potential author relationships. We analyze the prediction capacity by comparing between the T1 and T2 periods, which demonstrate that relation mining can be complementary in identifying authors based on similar themes and discovering more potential collaborations and academic communities. PMID:29117198

  17. Mining author relationship in scholarly networks based on tripartite citation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available Following scholars in Scientometrics as examples, we develop five author relationship networks, namely, co-authorship, author co-citation (AC, author bibliographic coupling (ABC, author direct citation (ADC, and author keyword coupling (AKC. The time frame of data sets is divided into two periods: before 2011 (i.e., T1 and after 2011 (i.e., T2. Through quadratic assignment procedure analysis, we found that some authors have ABC or AC relationships (i.e., potential communication relationship, PCR but do not have actual collaborations or direct citations (i.e., actual communication relationship, ACR among them. In addition, we noticed that PCR and AKC are highly correlated and that the old PCR and the new ACR are correlated and consistent. Such facts indicate that PCR tends to produce academic exchanges based on similar themes, and ABC bears more advantages in predicting potential relations. Based on tripartite citation analysis, including AC, ABC, and ADC, we also present an author-relation mining process. Such process can be used to detect deep and potential author relationships. We analyze the prediction capacity by comparing between the T1 and T2 periods, which demonstrate that relation mining can be complementary in identifying authors based on similar themes and discovering more potential collaborations and academic communities.

  18. Analysis of Relationship between Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management with Customer Knowledge Management (Case Study At Azaran Valve Co.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Mohsen Allameh; Arash Shahin; Babak Tabanifar

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) and customer relationship management (CRM) are both emphasized on the allocation of resources to business supportive activities in order to gain competitive advantages.. Merging the two concepts of knowledge management and customer relationship management in customer knowledge management (CKM) model can promote the benefits of employing each of them and reduce the risk of implementation failure. This study sought to analyze the relationship between knowledge manageme...

  19. Analysis of Relationships among Burnout, Academic Achievement, and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Erdinç; Duru, Sibel; Balkis, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among burnout, academic achievement, and self-regulation with two structural models. The participants were 383 undergraduates with different majors in a university in the western part of Turkey. The results showed that academic achievement was negatively associated with three dimensions of burnout and was…

  20. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P Mycotoxins also altered (P effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers.

  1. Accurate measurement of the orientation relationship of lath martensite and bainite by electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takayama, N.; Furuhara, T.

    2009-01-01

    A new method to determine the orientation relationship between martensite and bainite with the parent austenite is developed based on electron backscatter diffraction analysis. This method can determine the orientation relationship accurately without the presence of retained austenite, and is applicable to lath martensite and bainite in low-alloyed carbon steels. The angles between close-packed directions are about 3 o for lath martensite regardless of the carbon content, while the angles between close-packed planes become smaller with increasing carbon content.

  2. The relationship between epicardial fat and indices of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-02-01

    Epicardial fat (epicardial adipose tissue, EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EAT and generalized obesity, central or visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the components of the metabolic syndrome--systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)--that are linked to CAD. A systematic review of the literature, following meta-analysis guidelines, was conducted until May, 2013, using the search strategy "Obesity" OR "abdominal obesity" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "metabolic syndrome X" AND "epicardial fat". Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria. There was a highly significant (Pcorrelation between EAT and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or VAT. The correlation between EAT and VAT was significantly (Pcorrelation between EAT and WC, which in turn was significantly greater than the correlation between EAT and BMI. Overall, EAT was 7.5 ± 0.1 mm in thickness in the metabolic syndrome (n=427) compared to 4.0 ± 0.1 mm in controls (n=301). EAT correlated significantly (PHDL, and FBG, but the strength of the association was less than one-half of the relationship of EAT to indices of obesity. The results of multivariate analysis were less consistent but show a relationship between EAT and metabolic syndrome independent of BMI. In summary, the very strong correlation between EAT and VAT suggests a relationship between these two adipose tissue depots. Measurement of EAT can be useful to indicate VAT. Whereas EAT correlates significantly with each of the components of the metabolic syndrome- SBP, TGs, HDL, or FBG-the magnitude of the relationship is considerably and significantly less than the relationship of EAT to BMI. These data show the strong relationship between EAT and BMI but especially with WC and VAT. They also demonstrate the smaller magnitude of the

  3. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  4. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  5. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  6. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r−/− Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Md. G.; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological st...

  9. Relationship Between Maternal Characteristics and Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Aysegul; Komurcu, Nuran

    2017-12-06

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in low-income countries and the primary cause of approximately one of every four maternal deaths worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the antenatal risk factors of PPH and its effects. The literature from nine databases was reviewed, and studies published between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed using terms such as "postpartum hemorrhage," "prevention of postpartum hemorrhage," and "management of postpartum hemorrhage." The full text of 1,061 articles was reviewed, and 29 studies were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Studies that determined bias using the funnel plot test were excluded, and 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and comprehensive meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included five studies and 1,286,752 women for maternal age, six studies and 607,822 women for body mass index, and six studies and 1,118,490 women for parity. The results of the analysis showed that body mass index ≥ 25.00 kg/m (OR = 1.43, 95% CI [1.40, 1.47]), primiparity of mothers (OR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.35, 1.40]), and hypertensive disorder in mothers (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.43, 1.61]) are risk factors for the development of PPH. No rela-tionship was found between maternal age ≥ 35 years and PPH (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.99, 1.04]). Midwives, obstetric nurses, and obstetricians should carefully evaluate mothers for the risk factors of PPH during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Moreover, at-risk pregnant women should give birth in a unit with emergency initiative options. Future studies should examine relevant personal characteristics of mothers, as familiarity with the risk factors facilitates the management and treatment of PPH. Finally, meta-analyses should review more studies to detect risk factors more comprehensively.

  10. The Relationship Between Osteomyelitis Complication and Drug-Resistant Infection Risk in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Ding, Hui; Wu, Hua; Chen, Hong-Lin

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between osteomyelitis complications and drug-resistant infection risk in diabetic foot ulcer. Searches of MEDLINE and ISI databases were performed for the studies. Odds ratios (ORs) for drug-resistant infection incidence were calculated for diabetic foot ulcer patients with or without osteomyelitis complications. Eleven studies (12 cohorts) with 1526 patients were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the summary OR was 3.343 (95% CI = 2.355-4.745; Z = 6.75, P analysis by only pooled the adjusted ORs showed that the result was robust (the summary OR = 4.081, 95% CI = 2.471-6.739). Subgroup analysis by drug-resistant type showed that the summary OR was 4.391 (95% CI = 2.287-8.394) for methicillin-resistant infection subgroup, and 2.693 (95% CI = 1.882-3.851) for multidrug-resistant infection subgroup. The meta-regression showed that drug-resistant incidence ( t = -0.90, P = .389) and published year ( t = -0.11, P = .913) were not related with the OR changes. In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicates that osteomyelitis complications are related with drug-resistant infection risk in diabetic foot ulcer. We suggest bone culture-based narrow-spectrum antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis for prevention drug-resistant infection in diabetic foot ulcer.

  11. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  12. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  13. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  14. Analysis of factors associated with same-sex relationships (gays and lesbians in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego Villa, Oscar Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the same sex couple relationships in Bogota’s context by comparing a group of people with current partner and one without a partner. Using a non-probabilistic convenience sampling through a snowball design a in-depth interview was a applied to a sample of 60 homosexual (30 men, 30 women. They were asked about aspects of the affective experience (formation of the relationship, satisfaction, conflict management. The results show the participants have a positive view of their couple’s life, without significant differences in the perception of the two groups in the aspects evaluated

  15. Water pollution and income relationships: A seemingly unrelated partially linear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahesh; Paudel, Krishna P.

    2016-10-01

    We used a seemingly unrelated partially linear model (SUPLM) to address a potential correlation between pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved oxygen and mercury) in an environmental Kuznets curve study. Simulation studies show that the SUPLM performs well to address potential correlation among pollutants. We find that the relationship between income and pollution follows an inverted U-shaped curve for nitrogen and dissolved oxygen and a cubic shaped curve for mercury. Model specification tests suggest that a SUPLM is better specified compared to a parametric model to study the income-pollution relationship. Results suggest a need to continually assess policy effectiveness of pollution reduction as income increases.

  16. [Genetic relationship analysis of Ephedra intermedia from different habitat in Gansu by ISSR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-Tian; Jin, Ling; Du, Tao; Cui, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Wu, Di

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the genetic relationship of Ephedra intermedia from different habitats in Gansu. The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of E. intermedia from different habitats in Gansu were studied by ISSR molecular marker technique. Twelve ISSR primers were selected from 70 ISSR primers and used for ISSR amplification. Total 112 loci were amplified, in which 81 were polymorphic loci, the average percentage of polymorphie bands (PPB) was 72.32%. Clustering results indicated that the wild species and cultivating species were clustered into different group. The wild species, which had closer distance, were clustered into a group. E. intermedia of different habitats in Gansu have rich genetic diversities among species, it is the reason that E. intermedia has strong adaptability and wide distribution. Further, the genetic distance of E. intermedia is associated with geographical distance, the further distance can hinder the gene flow.

  17. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  18. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, Ak; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships.

  19. The relationship between job satisfaction and health: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragher, E B; Cass, M; Cooper, C L

    2005-02-01

    A vast number of published studies have suggested a link between job satisfaction levels and health. The sizes of the relationships reported vary widely. Narrative overviews of this relationship have been published, but no systematic meta-analysis review has been conducted. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 485 studies with a combined sample size of 267 995 individuals was conducted, evaluating the research evidence linking self-report measures of job satisfaction to measures of physical and mental wellbeing. The overall correlation combined across all health measures was r = 0.312 (0.370 after Schmidt-Hunter adjustment). Job satisfaction was most strongly associated with mental/psychological problems; strongest relationships were found for burnout (corrected r = 0.478), self-esteem(r = 0.429), depression (r = 0.428), and anxiety(r = 0.420). The correlation with subjective physical illness was more modest (r = 0.287). Correlations in excess of 0.3 are rare in this context. The relationships found suggest that job satisfaction level is an important factor influencing the health of workers. Organisations should include the development of stress management policies to identify and eradicate work practices that cause most job dissatisfaction as part of any exercise aimed at improving employee health. Occupational health clinicians should consider counselling employees diagnosed as having psychological problems to critically evaluate their work-and help them to explore ways of gaining greater satisfaction from this important aspect of their life.

  20. Relationship between insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre

    2017-12-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia has been associated with executive dysfunction and deficits in general cognitive ability. The overall outcome of available neurocognitive studies suggests that there is a significant but modest relationship between cognitive deficits and poor insight in schizophrenia. However, social cognitive abilities, particularly, theory of mind (ToM), might also play a role in poor insight in schizophrenia. A novel meta-analysis of the relationship between ToM and insight in schizophrenia was conducted. Current meta-analysis included 16 studies including 1085 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. There was a significant association between ToM and clinical insight (r=0.28, CI=0.20-0.36). By contrast, there was no significant relationship between ToM and cognitive insight. Current findings suggest that there is a small but significant relationship between ToM and clinical insight in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is one of the factors contributing to poor insight in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Analysis of the Relationship of Military Affiliation to Demographics, New Sailor Survey Responses, and Boot Camp Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pond, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    .... Recruits' military affiliation showed no significant relationship with AFQT scores, age, bonus amounts, college level, graduation rate from boot camp, number of dependents, boot camp pay grade, race...

  2. Relationships between each part of the spinal curves and upright posture using Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sebastien; Boudot, Elsa; Houel, Nicolas

    2016-05-03

    Back pain is a common reason for consultation in primary healthcare clinical practice, and has effects on daily activities and posture. Relationships between the whole spine and upright posture, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between each spinal curve and centre of pressure position as well as velocity for healthy subjects. Twenty-one male subjects performed quiet stance in natural position. Each upright posture was then recorded using an optoelectronics system (Vicon Nexus) synchronized with two force plates. At each moment, polynomial interpolations of markers attached on the spine segment were used to compute cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle curves. Mean of centre of pressure position and velocity was then computed. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the position and velocity of centre of pressure associated with each part of the spinal curves were defined as best predictors of the lumbar lordosis angle (R(2)=0.45; p=1.65*10-10) and the thoracic kyphosis angle (R(2)=0.54; p=4.89*10-13) of healthy subjects in quiet stance. This study showed the relationships between each of cervical, thoracic, lumbar curvatures, and centre of pressure's fluctuation during free quiet standing using non-invasive full spinal curve exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND EFFECTIVENESS OF HEART MEDICINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomori Gergo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many research dealing with the food consumer behavior and its relationship with health status of population, thus the demand of pharmaceutical market. It is well known that cardiovascular diseases such as ischaemic heart diseases are the most common cause of the early and suddenly mortality. The higher level of pharmaceutical preventive technologies may result partly that fewer people need to consume heart medicines due to the healthy diet, on the other hand that the therapies can keep low the heart mortality rate inside of all mortality. Effectiveness of medicine treating heart diseases is not same in the examined OECD countries, which can also be traced back to different food consumption due to the same forms of treatment and the risks of the disease between regions. The examined OECD countries were selected based on consumer data availability. The target of analysis is to research the relationship between the „ineffectiveness” of heart medicine consumption (via the heart mortality data and the health awareness in food consumption that also shows the subjective utility of preventive health services. During the examination of preventive services market it could be consider only costumer decisions those motivate effort to realize and maximize health utility that can obtain by reducing the objective likelihood of later illness (prevention defined by the reduction of influenced risk factors. For this it has to be eliminated the impact of all factors in consumption those are not associated with health consciousness – calculation of price and income flexibility serve it. Every nutritional culture considered unhealthy or incorrect, which exceeds the critical values expressed in dietetics recommendations. The data described in a 2 dimensional diagrams, and between diagrams the distances from reference country data to data of another country examine with correlation coefficient. It can conclude there is a strongest connection between the

  4. Genetic variation analysis and relationships among environmental strains of Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanwa Wongsuk

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex is an emerging filamentous fungi that has been isolated from environment. It can cause a wide range of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to study the genetic variation and relationships between 48 strains of S. apiospermum sensu stricto isolated from soil in Bangkok, Thailand. For PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we used the following genes: actin; calmodulin exons 3 and 4; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II; ß-tubulin exon 2-4; manganese superoxide dismutase; internal transcribed spacer; transcription elongation factor 1α; and beta-tubulin exons 5 and 6. The present study is the first phylogenetic analysis of relationships among S. apiospermum sensu stricto in Thailand and South-east Asia. This result provides useful information for future epidemiological study and may be correlated to clinical manifestation.

  5. Relationship between microhardness and fluorine contents on tooth enamel determined by PIGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.S.; Paik, D.I.; Park, D.Y.; Moon, H.S.; Chang, Y.I.; Kim, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    The remineralization effect of fluoride has been measured by surface microhardness on tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between microhardness and fluorine concentration on tooth enamel. Twelve sound bovine enamel specimens were prepared and immersed in 0.05% NaF solution for 1, 3, 6, 24 and 36 hours, respectively. The concentration of fluorine in specimens were measured by PIGE analysis and surface microhardness of each specimen was measured by surface microhardness tester. Fluorine concentration was increased by immersing time. There was no change in microhardness of each specimen by fluorine content. The results of this study suggest that there was no relationship between the fluorine concentration and surface microhardness in sound tooth enamel. PIGE analysis can be used effectively to assess the remineralization effect of fluorine content in tooth enamel. (author)

  6. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method is descriptive-correlational. By random sampling and offline method, we have selected a sample consisting of 120 persons from Dubai coffee net users with different native languages, 74males and 46 females, aged at least 18 years old and proficient in the English language. Research tools were young internet addiction test (IAT with reliability α=0.88, Beck depression inventory with reliability α=0.84, Sinha social adjustment with reliability α=0.92 and Eysenck self esteem inventory with reliability α= 0.87. The data was analyzed with path analysis method.Results: The results from analysis showed that the data has goodness of fit with the presented model (χ2=3.17; df=3; P=0.36; GFI= 0.99; AGFI= 0.96; CFI= 1.00; NFI= 0.97; RMSEA=0.02. Scales means in internet addiction was 47.69±17.75; depression 21.29 ± 11.12; social adjustment 19.75±7.91 and self esteem was 15.16±4.16. Path coefficient showed that depression (β= 0.57; t=7.61, social adjustment (β= -0.55; t=13.1 and self esteem (β= -0.32; t=14.8 have significantly predicted internet addiction Conclusion: Internet is an important means in the today’s world, but we have to be fully aware of its dangers .In order to avoid the risks of internet use, vast national and international culture-building activities should be done. The results of our research proved the above-mentioned hypothesis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:41-48

  7. Gender Differences in and the Relationships Between Social Anxiety and Problematic Internet Use: Canonical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloğlu, Mustafa; Özteke Kozan, Hatice İrem; Kesici, Şahin

    2018-01-24

    The cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposes that psychological well-being is associated with specific thoughts and behaviors on the Internet. Hence, there is growing concern that PIU is associated with psychological impairments. Given the proposal of gender schema theory and social role theory, men and women are predisposed to experience social anxiety and engage in Internet use differently. Thus, an investigation of gender differences in these areas is warranted. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of PIU, social anxiety is associated with specific cognitions and behaviors on the Internet. Thus, an investigation of the association between social anxiety and PIU is essential. In addition, research that takes into account the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and PIU is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore multivariate gender differences in and the relationships between social anxiety and PIU. Participants included 505 college students, of whom 241 (47.7%) were women and 264 (52.3%) were men. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 22 years, with a mean age of 20.34 (SD=1.16). The Social Anxiety Scale and Problematic Internet Use Scale were used in data collection. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and canonical correlation analysis were used. Mean differences between men and women were not statistically significant in social anxiety (λ=.02, F3,501=2.47, P=.06). In all three PIU dimensions, men scored higher than women, and MANOVA shows that multivariate difference was statistically significant (λ=.94, F3,501=10.69, Psocial anxiety levels between men and women. We found that men showed more difficulties than women in terms of running away from personal problems (ie, social benefit), used the Internet more excessively, and experienced more interpersonal problems with significant others due to Internet use. We conclude that men are under a greater risk of social impairments due to PIU. Our overall

  8. Relationship of Source Selection Methods to Contract Outcomes: an Analysis of Air Force Source Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    some occasions, performance is terminated early; this can occur due to either mutual agreement or a breach of contract by one of the parties (Garrett...Relationship of Source Selection Methods to Contract Outcomes: an Analysis of Air Force Source Selection December 2015 Capt Jacques Lamoureux, USAF...on the contract management process, with special emphasis on the source selection methods of tradeoff and lowest price technically acceptable (LPTA

  9. The relationship between adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S.; Field, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  11. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  12. Linkage analysis in nuclear families. 2: Relationship between affected sib-pair tests and lod score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M; Seuchter, S A; Baur, M P

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that the main advantage of affected sib-pair tests is that their application requires no information about the underlying genetic mechanism of the disease. However, here it is proved that the mean test, which can be considered the most prominent of the affected sib-pair tests, is equivalent to lod score analysis for an assumed recessive mode of inheritance, irrespective of the true mode of the disease. Further relationships of certain sib-pair tests and lod score analysis under specific assumed genetic modes are investigated.

  13. Genetic Structure and Relationship Analysis of an Association Population in Jute (Corchorus spp. Evaluated by SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwu Zhang

    Full Text Available Population structure and relationship analysis is of great importance in the germplasm utilization and association mapping. Jute, comprised of white jute (C. capsularis L and dark jute (C. olitorius L, is second to cotton in its commercial significance in the world. Here, we assessed the genetic structure and relationship in a panel of 159 jute accessions from 11 countries and regions using 63 SSRs. The structure analysis divided the 159 jute accessions from white and dark jute into Co and Cc group, further into Co1, Co2, Cc1 and Cc2 subgroups. Out of Cc1 subgroup, 81 accessions were from China and the remaining 10 accessions were from India (2, Japan (5, Thailand, Vietnam (2 and Pakistan (1. Out of Cc2 subgroup, 35 accessions were from China, and the remaining 3 accessions were from India, Pakistan and Thailand respectively. It can be inferred that the genetic background of these jute accessions was not always correlative with their geographical regions. Similar results were found in Co1 and Co2 subgroups. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 81% molecular variation between groups but it was low (19% within subgroups, which further confirmed the genetic differentiation between the two groups. The genetic relationship analysis showed that the most diverse genotypes were Maliyeshengchangguo and Changguozhongyueyin in dark jute, BZ-2-2, Aidianyehuangma, Yangjuchiyuanguo, Zijinhuangma and Jute 179 in white jute, which could be used as the potential parents in breeding programs for jute improvement. These results would be very useful for association studies and breeding in jute.

  14. Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine H Kresse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30% cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between

  15. A meta-analysis of the relationship between general mental ability and nontask performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mulé, Erik; Mount, Michael K; Oh, In-Sue

    2014-11-01

    Although one of the most well-established research findings in industrial-organizational psychology is that general mental ability (GMA) is a strong and generalizable predictor of job performance, this meta-analytically derived conclusion is based largely on measures of task or overall performance. The primary purpose of this study is to address a void in the research literature by conducting a meta-analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the correlation of GMA with 2 dimensions of nontask performance: counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Overall, the results show that the true-score correlation between GMA and CWB is essentially 0 (-.02, k = 35), although rating source of CWB moderates this relationship. The true-score correlation between GMA and OCB is positive but modest in magnitude (.23, k = 43). The 2nd purpose of this study is to conduct meta-analytic relative weight analyses to determine the relative importance of GMA and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in predicting nontask and task performance criteria. Results indicate that, collectively, the FFM traits are substantially more important for CWB than GMA, that the FFM traits are roughly equal in importance to GMA for OCB, and that GMA is substantially more important for task and overall job performance than the FFM traits. Implications of these findings for the development of optimal selection systems and the development of comprehensive theories of job performance are discussed along with study limitation and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Relationships between bone strength and bone quality. Three-dimensional imaging analysis in ovariectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Suguru; Sakurai, Takashi; Kashima, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Low-energy trauma resulting in fractures of the distal femur is often observed in elderly patients with osteoporosis; such fractures are often associated with treatment difficulties and poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that affect the bone strength of the distal femur. We used ovariectomized mice to demonstrate bone quality factors associated with deterioration of the strength of the distal femur. Ten-week old ICR-strain mice were ovariectomized or sham-ovariectomized. Total bone mineral density (BMD), total bone area, cortical BMD, cortical thickness, and trabecular BMD were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the distal metaphyseal region of the femora. As three-dimensional architectural parameters, the trabecular number, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation, and connectivity density were measured in the same region by micro-computed tomography. The maximum load measured by compression testing of the distal metaphyseal region was regarded as the bone strength of each sample. No significant differences in total bone area or in cortical BMD were found between the groups. Bone strength showed the closest relationship with total BMD (r=0.834). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that total BMD greatly depended on cortical thickness. The addition of Tb.Th to trabecular BMD markedly reflected bone strength (R=0.857), suggesting that Tb.Th affected bone strength more significantly than trabecular BMD. These findings suggested that deterioration of bone strength of the distal femur (metaphysis) was not caused by a reduction in cortical BMD, but was related to reduced cortical thickness, which reduced total BMD, and to trabecular BMD and architecture, in particular to reduced Tb.Th. (author)

  17. Analysis of the relationship between the monthly temperatures and weather types in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Nicola, Cortesi; José Carlos, González-Hidalgo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between the atmospheric circulation and weather types and the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula is modeled (period 1950-2010). The temperature data used were obtained from a high spatial resolution (10km x 10km) dataset (MOTEDAS dataset, Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). In addition, a dataset of Portuguese temperatures was used (obtained from the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere). The weather type classification used was the one developed by Jenkinson and Collison, which was adapted for the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The analysis of the behaviour of monthly temperatures based on the weather types was carried out using a stepwise regression procedure of type forward to estimate temperatures in each cell of the considered grid, for each month, and for both maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. The model selects the weather types that best estimate the temperatures. From the validation model it was obtained the error distribution in the time (months) and space (Iberian Peninsula). The results show that best estimations are obtained for minimum temperatures, during the winter months and in coastal areas. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298

  18. Study of relationship between MUF correlation and detection sensitivity of statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiaki; Ihara, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Ikawa, Koji

    1989-11-01

    Various kinds of statistical analysis are proposed to NRTA (Near Real Time Materials Accountancy) which was devised to satisfy the timeliness goal of one of the detection goals of IAEA. It will be presumed that different statistical analysis results will occur between the case of considered rigorous error propagation (with MUF correlation) and the case of simplified error propagation (without MUF correlation). Therefore, measurement simulation and decision analysis were done using flow simulation of 800 MTHM/Y model reprocessing plant, and relationship between MUF correlation and detection sensitivity and false alarm of statistical analysis was studied. Specific character of material accountancy for 800 MTHM/Y model reprocessing plant was grasped by this simulation. It also became clear that MUF correlation decreases not only false alarm but also detection probability for protracted loss in case of CUMUF test and Page's test applied to NRTA. (author)

  19. Psychological Trauma in the Context of Familial Relationships: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobel, Sophie; Goodyear, Melinda; Foster, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Many forms of psychological trauma are known to develop interpersonally within important relationships, particularly familial. Within the varying theoretical constructs of psychological traumas, and distinct from the processes of diagnosis, there is a need to refine the scope and definitions of psychological traumas that occur within important familial relationships to ensure a cohesive evidence base and fidelity of the concept in application to practice. This review used a philosophical inquiry methodology of concept analysis to identify the definitions, antecedents, characteristics, and consequences of the varying conceptualizations of psychological trauma occurring within important relationships. Interactions between concepts of interpersonal trauma, relational trauma, betrayal trauma, attachment trauma, developmental trauma, complex trauma, cumulative trauma, and intergenerational trauma are presented. Understanding of the discrete forms and pathways of transmission of psychological trauma between individuals, including transgenerationally within families, creates opportunities for prevention and early intervention within trauma-focused practice. This review found that concepts of psychological trauma occurring within familial relationships are not exclusive of each other but overlap in their encompassment of events and circumstances as well as the effect on individuals of events in the short term and long term. These traumas develop and are transmitted in the space between people, both purposefully and incidentally, and have particularly profound effects when they involve a dependent infant or child. Linguistic and conceptual clarity is paramount for trauma research and practice.

  20. Structural and reliability analysis of quality of relationship index in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousson-Gélie, Florence; de Chalvron, Stéphanie; Zozaya, Carole; Lafaye, Anaïs

    2013-01-01

    Among psychosocial factors affecting emotional adjustment and quality of life, social support is one of the most important and widely studied in cancer patients, but little is known about the perception of support in specific significant relationships in patients with cancer. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI) by evaluating its factor structure and its convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 388 patients completed the QRI. Convergent validity was evaluated by testing the correlations between the QRI subscales and measures of general social support, anxiety and depression symptoms. Discriminant validity was examined by testing group comparison. The QRI's longitudinal invariance across time was also tested. Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation identified three factors accounting for 42.99% of variance: perceived social support, depth, and interpersonal conflict. Estimates of reliability with McDonald's ω coefficient were satisfactory for all the QRI subscales (ω ranging from 0.75 - 0.85). Satisfaction from general social support was negatively correlated with the interpersonal conflict subscale and positively with the depth subscale. The interpersonal conflict and social support scales were correlated with depression and anxiety scores. We also found a relative stability of QRI subscales (measured 3 months after the first evaluation) and differences between partner status and gender groups. The Quality of Relationship Inventory is a valid tool for assessing the quality of social support in a particular relationship with cancer patients.

  1. Identifying the oil price-macroeconomy relationship. An empirical mode decomposition analysis of US data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to filter cyclical components of US quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) and quarterly average oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI). The method is adaptive and applicable to non-linear and non-stationary data. A correlation analysis of the resulting components is performed and examined for insights into the relationship between oil and the economy. Several components of this relationship are identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run component of the oil price has a negative relationship with the main cyclical component of the GDP. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging, demand-driven component and a long-run component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identifies a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent oil price and economic decline following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply losses. (author)

  2. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of the particle dose- and size-response relationship of silica particles-induced toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaoyan; Jin Tingting; Jin Yachao; Wu Leihong; Hu Bin; Tian Yu; Fan Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between particle size and toxicity of silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm, which is essential to the safe design and application of SP. Data obtained from histopathological examinations suggested that SP of these sizes can all induce acute inflammation in the liver. In vivo imaging showed that intravenously administrated SP are mainly present in the liver, spleen and intestinal tract. Interestingly, in gene expression analysis, the cellular response pathways activated in the liver are predominantly conserved independently of particle dose when the same size SP are administered or are conserved independently of particle size, surface area and particle number when nano- or submicro-sized SP are administered at their toxic doses. Meanwhile, integrated analysis of transcriptomics, previous metabonomics and conventional toxicological results support the view that SP can result in inflammatory and oxidative stress, generate mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually cause hepatocyte necrosis by neutrophil-mediated liver injury. (paper)

  4. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  5. Innovation Analysis Approach to Design Parameters of High Speed Train Carriage and Their Intrinsic Complexity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Ne; Wang, Ming-Meng; Hu, Guang-Zhong; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problem that it's difficult to accurately grasp the influence range and transmission path of the vehicle top design requirements on the underlying design parameters. Applying directed-weighted complex network to product parameter model is an important method that can clarify the relationships between product parameters and establish the top-down design of a product. The relationships of the product parameters of each node are calculated via a simple path searching algorithm, and the main design parameters are extracted by analysis and comparison. A uniform definition of the index formula for out-in degree can be provided based on the analysis of out-in-degree width and depth and control strength of train carriage body parameters. Vehicle gauge, axle load, crosswind and other parameters with higher values of the out-degree index are the most important boundary conditions; the most considerable performance indices are the parameters that have higher values of the out-in-degree index including torsional stiffness, maximum testing speed, service life of the vehicle, and so on; the main design parameters contain train carriage body weight, train weight per extended metre, train height and other parameters with higher values of the in-degree index. The network not only provides theoretical guidance for exploring the relationship of design parameters, but also further enriches the application of forward design method to high-speed trains.

  6. The relationship between cost estimates reliability and BIM adoption: SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. A. A.; Idris, N. H.; Ramli, H.; Rooshdi, R. R. Raja Muhammad; Sahamir, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the usage of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach in analysing the effects of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology adoption in improving the reliability of cost estimates. Based on the questionnaire survey results, SEM analysis using SPSS-AMOS application examined the relationships between BIM-improved information and cost estimates reliability factors, leading to BIM technology adoption. Six hypotheses were established prior to SEM analysis employing two types of SEM models, namely the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model and full structural model. The SEM models were then validated through the assessment on their uni-dimensionality, validity, reliability, and fitness index, in line with the hypotheses tested. The final SEM model fit measures are: P-value=0.000, RMSEA=0.0790.90, TLI=0.956>0.90, NFI=0.935>0.90 and ChiSq/df=2.259; indicating that the overall index values achieved the required level of model fitness. The model supports all the hypotheses evaluated, confirming that all relationship exists amongst the constructs are positive and significant. Ultimately, the analysis verified that most of the respondents foresee better understanding of project input information through BIM visualization, its reliable database and coordinated data, in developing more reliable cost estimates. They also perceive to accelerate their cost estimating task through BIM adoption.

  7. Reliability analysis for cementless hip prosthesis using a new optimized formulation of yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharmanda, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy

  8. Analysis on the relationship between economic development and water environment pollution in Shandong province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengxian

    2018-02-01

    With the continuous development of the economy of the Shandong Province watershed, a large number of pollutant emission, resulting in water quality of the basin has undergone significant changes. To study the Shandong Province watershed economic development and the relationship between the discharge of pollutants, in this paper, the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions in the Shandong Province watershed was established by Shandong Province watershed in 2002-2015 per capita GDP and wastewater, COD, ammonia nitrogen(AN) pollutant emissions. The data were analyzed by software such as SPSS, and the cubic equation model between various pollutants and economic indexes was fitted. To further make the relationship between pollutants and economic development map to study the conventional pollutant emissions and economic development trends. It is found that only the relationship between industrial wastewater discharge and per capita GDP is most coordinated, that is, industrial wastewater emissions with the continuous development of the basin economy, showing a tendency to rise first and then fall. Finally, ultimately based on the results of the study of the water environment and economic development proposals were proposed.

  9. The relationship of chromophoric dissolved organic matter parallel factor analysis fluorescence and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in natural surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijia; Chen, Ya'nan; Zhang, Jiquan; Song, Kaishan; Mu, Guangyi; Sun, Caiyun; Ju, Hanyu; Ji, Meichen

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a large group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have caused wide environmental pollution and ecological effects. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which consists of complex compounds, was seen as a proxy of water quality. An attempt was made to understand the relationships of CDOM absorption parameters and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) components with PAHs under seasonal variation in the riverine, reservoir, and urban waters of the Yinma River watershed in 2016. These different types of water bodies provided wide CDOM and PAHs concentration ranges with CDOM absorption coefficients at a wavelength of 350 nm (a CDOM (350)) of 1.17-20.74 m -1 and total PAHs of 0-1829 ng/L. CDOM excitation-emission matrix (EEM) presented two fluorescent components, e.g., terrestrial humic-like (C1) and tryptophan-like (C2) were identified using PARAFAC. Tryptophan-like associated protein-like fluorescence often dominates the EEM signatures of sewage samples. Our finding is that seasonal CDOM EEM-PARAFAC and PAHs concentration showed consistent tendency indicated that PAHs were un-ignorable pollutants. However, the disparities in seasonal CDOM-PAH relationships relate to the similar sources of CDOM and PAHs, and the proportion of PAHs in CDOM. Overlooked and poorly appreciated, quantifying the relationship between CDOM and PAHs has important implications, because these results simplify ecological and health-based risk assessment of pollutants compared to the traditional chemical measurements.

  10. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  11. A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Yeung, K L; Chan, W C; Kwok, C C H; Leung, S L; Wu, C; Chan, E Y Y; Yu, I T S; Yang, X R; Tse, L A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to sum up evidence of the associations between different aspects of night shift work and female breast cancer using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We systematicly searched all cohort and case-control studies published in English on MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCInfo, APC Journal Club and Global Health, from January 1971 to May 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; odd ratio, OR; or hazard ratio, HR) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. A log-linear dose-response regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between various indicators of exposure to night shift work and breast cancer risk. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and breast cancer was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35]. Further meta-analyses on dose-response relationship showed that every 5-year increase of exposure to night shift work would correspondingly enhance the risk of breast cancer of the female by 3% (pooled RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05; Pheterogeneity night shifts would result in a 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21; Pheterogeneity = 0.06) increase in breast cancer risk. This systematic review updated the evidence that a positive dose-response relationship is likely to present for breast cancer with increasing years of employment and cumulative shifts involved in the work.

  12. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.; AbuElela, Ayman; Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-01-01

    -selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein

  13. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  14. The Relationships of Intergroup Ideologies to Ethnic Prejudice: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E; Webster, Gregory D

    2018-04-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members' endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit ( g. = -0.26) and implicit prejudice ( g. = -0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = -0.07). Multiculturalism was more closely associated with low prejudice than colorblindness ( g. = 0.15). Effect sizes varied as a function of methodology (experimental vs. correlational), country in which research was conducted (United States vs. other countries), and, in experimental studies of multiculturalism, type of prime used (abstract vs. concrete). Discussion points include methodological issues, groups used as targets of prejudice, national diversity norms, additional issues raised in the studies reviewed, and directions for future research.

  15. An examination of the relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.

  16. The photosynthesis - leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Peterson; J. Timothy Ball; Yiqi Luo; Christopher B. Field; Peter B. Reich; Peter S. Curtis; Kevin L. Griffin; Carla S Gunderson; Richard J. Norby; David T. Tissue; Manfred Forstreuter; Ana Rey; Christoph S. Vogel; CMEAL collaboration

    1998-09-25

    Estimation of leaf photosynthetic rate (A) from leaf nitrogen content (N) is both conceptually and numerically important in models of plant, ecosystem and biosphere responses to global change. The relationship between A and N has been studied extensively at ambient CO{sub 2} but much less at elevated CO{sub 2}. This study was designed to (1) assess whether the A-N relationship was more similar for species within than between community and vegetation types, and (2) examine how growth at elevated CO{sub 2} affects the A-N relationship. Data were obtained for 39 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient CO{sub 2} and 10 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. A regression model was applied to each species as well as to species pooled within different community and vegetation types. Cluster analysis of the regression coefficients indicated that species measured at ambient CO{sub 2} did not separate into distinct groups matching community or vegetation type. Instead, most community and vegetation types shared the same general parameter space for regression coefficients. Growth at elevated CO{sub 2} increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency for pines and deciduous trees. When species were pooled by vegetation type, the A-N relationship for deciduous trees expressed on a leaf-mass bask was not altered by elevated CO{sub 2}, while the intercept increased for pines. When regression coefficients were averaged to give mean responses for different vegetation types, elevated CO{sub 2} increased the intercept and the slope for deciduous trees but increased only the intercept for pines. There were no statistical differences between the pines and deciduous trees for the effect of CO{sub 2}. Generalizations about the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on the A-N relationship, and differences between pines and deciduous trees will be enhanced as more data become available.

  17. Working relationships between obstetric care staff and their managers: a critical incident analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, Effie; Bradley, Susan; Chimwaza-Manda, Wanangwa; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2016-08-26

    Malawi continues to experience critical shortages of key health technical cadres that can adequately respond to Malawi's disease burden. Difficult working conditions contribute to low morale and frustration among health care workers. We aimed to understand how obstetric care staff perceive their working relationships with managers. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in health facilities in Malawi between October and December 2008. Critical Incident Analysis interviews were done in government district hospitals, faith-based health facilities, and a sample of health centres' providing emergency obstetric care. A total of 84 service providers were interviewed. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8 software. Poor leadership styles affected working relationships between obstetric care staff and their managers. Main concerns were managers' lack of support for staff welfare and staff performance, lack of mentorship for new staff and junior colleagues, as well as inadequate supportive supervision. All this led to frustrations, diminished motivation, lack of interest in their job and withdrawal from work, including staff seriously considering leaving their post. Positive working relationships between obstetric care staff and their managers are essential for promoting staff motivation and positive work performance. However, this study revealed that staff were demotivated and undermined by transactional leadership styles and behavior, evidenced by management by exception and lack of feedback or recognition. A shift to transformational leadership in nurse-manager relationships is essential to establish good working relationships with staff. Improved providers' job satisfaction and staff retentionare crucial to the provision of high quality care and will also ensure efficiency in health care delivery in Malawi.

  18. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D || ], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pFourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive detection of microstructural alterations in the hippocampus proper. These alterations may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis

  19. The relationship between quality of life and methods of delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nazanin; Tavalaee, Zahra; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Daliri, Salman

    2018-04-01

    Some physical, emotional and social changes arise in mothers during the postpartum periods which can affect the quality of life (QOL) of the mother and family. Given the importance of the quality of life in the postpartum period and its influencing factors such as method of delivery, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the quality of life and methods of delivery in the world, using a systematic review and meta-analysis method. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between aspects of quality of life and method of delivery in the world conducted in Persian and English language articles published by the end of 2015. For this purpose, the databases of Medlib, SID, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar, Irandoc, Magiran and Iranmedex were searched using key words and their compounds. The results of studies were combined using the random effects model in the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I2 index and Cochran test and data were analyzed using STATA Version 11.1 and SPSS Version 16. Based on the results of the meta-analysis of studies, the aspect of physical functioning had the highest quality of life mean score in women with vaginal delivery: 74.37 (95% CI: 67.7-81) and mental health had the highest QOL mean score in women with cesarean delivery: 65.8 (95% CI: 62.7-69). Also, based on the time elapsed since delivery, mental health had the highest mean score in less than 1 month, 2 months and 4 months' postpartum. Physical pain had the highest mean score 6 months after giving birth, and mental functioning in 8 months after giving birth. The results of the present meta-analysis showed that the mean scores for most dimensions of quality of life in women with vaginal delivery were higher than in women with cesarean delivery.

  20. 'You want to show you're a valuable employee': A critical discourse analysis of multi-perspective portrayals of employed women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Margaret; MacEachen, Ellen; MacNeill, Margaret; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2018-06-01

    Background Advice on fibromyalgia, a chronic illness primarily affecting women, often presents it as incompatible with work and rarely covers how to remain employed. Yet many women do. Objectives We aimed to understand how these women, their family members, and workmates portrayed employees with fibromyalgia, and how these portrayals helped women retain employment. Methods We interviewed 22 participants, comprising five triads and three dyads of people who knew each other. Using the methodology of critical discourse analysis, we analysed the interview data within and across the triads/dyads through coding, narrative summaries, and relational mapping. Results Participants reported stereotypes that employees with fibromyalgia are lazy, malingering, and less productive than healthy workers. Countering these assumptions, participants portrayed the women as normal, valuable employees who did not 'give in' to their illness. The portrayals drew on two discourses, normalcy and mind-controlling-the-body, and a related narrative, overcoming disability. We propose that participants' portrayals helped women manage their identities in competitive workplaces and thereby remain employed. Discussion Our findings augment the very sparse literature on employment with fibromyalgia. Using a new approach, critical discourse analysis, we expand on known job-retention strategies and add the perspectives of two key stakeholders: family members and workmates.

  1. Friends With Performance Benefits: A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship Between Friendship and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seunghoo; Lount, Robert B; Park, Hee Man; Park, Ernest S

    2018-01-01

    The current article examines if, and under which conditions, there exists a positive relationship between working with friends and group performance. To do so, using data from 1,016 groups obtained from 26 studies, we meta-analyzed comparisons of the performance of friendship groups versus acquaintance groups. Results show that friendship has a significant positive effect on group task performance (Cohen's d = 0.31). Furthermore, this relationship was moderated by group size (i.e., the positive effect of friendship on performance increased with group size) and task focus (i.e., friendship groups performed better than acquaintance groups on tasks requiring a high quantity of output, whereas there was no performance benefit on tasks requiring a single or high-quality output). These results help to reconcile mixed findings and illustrate when friendship groups are more likely to perform better than acquaintance groups.

  2. The relationship between pain, disability, guilt and acceptance in low back pain: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2017-08-01

    Pain-related guilt is a common yet unexplored psychological factor in low back pain (LBP). It has recently been linked to greater depression, anxiety and disability in LBP, hence an understanding of how it can be managed in the presence of pain and disability is necessary. Since acceptance of pain has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes in chronic pain, we examined whether it might also help reduce guilt in people with LBP. To this end, a series of mediation analyses were conducted on data from 287 patients with chronic LBP, in which acceptance of pain was tested as a mediator of the relationship between pain/disability and guilt. Results showed that acceptance of pain reduced the impact of pain/disability on pain-related guilt in all mediation analyses. Pain-related guilt might be a potential target for acceptance based interventions, thus this relationship should be further tested using longitudinal designs.

  3. Analysis of S gene mutation of the hepatitis B virus in adult liver transplant recipients showing resistance to hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G-C; Hwang, S; Ahn, C-S; Kim, K-H; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Jung, D-H; Shin, Y W; Kim, S-H; Chang, K-H; Namgoong, J-M; Park, C-S; Park, H-W; Park, Y-H; Kang, S-H; Jung, B-H; Lee, S-G

    2013-10-01

    A considerable proportion of recipients of liver transplantations who are presented hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis develop HBIG resistance. In this study, we investigated the mutation patterns in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of amino acid sequences 100 to 160. Using the gene sequence analyzer for amino acid sequences 0 to 226 in the S/pre-S region we analyzed blood samples of 15 patients showing HBIG resistance after high-dose HBIG prophylaxis. Various mutations in the MHR were observed in 14/15 samples: Gly145Arg mutation in 8/13 Adr subtype and 1/2 Ayw subtype samples (60%). The next most common mutation was Gly165Trp in 8/13 Adr subtype but neither of 2 Ayw subtype samples (53.3%). Concurrent antiviral resistance was noted in 5 patients: lamivudine (n = 5), or entecavir (n = 3), but not adefovir, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous, antiviral cross-resistances. Two patients underwent retransplantation due to the progression of HBV infection despite vigorous antiviral therapy. At diagnosis of HBV recurrence, the mean HBV DNA load was 6.5 × 10(6) copies/mL; 4 patients showed paradoxical coexistence of anti-HBs and HBsAg. Currently, 2 subjects show low-level HBV DNA replication in peripheral blood, although the other 12 had no DNA replication after prolonged antiviral therapy. This study suggested that various mutations in the "a" determinant were associated with HBIG resistance. Since treatment failure to rescue antiviral therapy was often associated with delayed detection of HBV recurrence rather than concurrent antiviral resistance, frequent HBV surveillance using more sensitive screening tests, such as HBeAg and HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction assay, seems to be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C.

    2009-01-01

    study; and additional type 2 diabetic patients and glucose-tolerant individuals. The case-control studies involved 4,093 type 2 diabetic patients and 5,302 glucose-tolerant individuals. RESULTS: Single-variant analyses demonstrated allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 0.98-1.11) to 1.33 (95% CI...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  5. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-01-01

    Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used to predict the residues...

  6. The Relationship between Profit and Productivity in the IT Sector in Romania. Analysis by Panel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Andreea POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of process of globalization and economic integration, the objective of economic politics of every country is strengthening of national competitiveness. To stay competitive in global markets, countries are forced to search for factors, new alternatives stimulating economic development. Productivity is among quantities reflecting the level of competitiveness. This paper has three parts. The first part consists of introduction and literature review. In the second part is found analyzing the relationship of dependence between net income and labor productivity and the last part is an analysis of the IT services sector.

  7. Correlation Relationship of Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) for Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bheka, M. Khumalo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    At TMI-2, operators permitted thousands of gallons of water to escape from the reactor plant before realizing that the coolant pumps were behaving abnormally. The coolant pumps were then turned off, which in turn led to the destruction of the reactor itself as cooling was completely lost within the core. Human also plays a role in many aspects of complex systems e.g. in design and manufacture of hardware, interface between human and system and also in maintaining such systems as well as for coping with unusual events that place the NPP system at a risk. This is why human reliability analysis (HRA) - an aspect of risk assessments which systematically identifies and analyzes the causes and consequences of human decisions and actions - is important in nuclear power plant operations. It either upgrades or degrades human performance; therefore it has an impact on the possibility of error. These PSFs can be used in various HRA methods to estimate Human Error Probabilities (HEPs). There are many current HRA methods who propose sets of PSFs for normal operation mode of NPP. Some of these PSFs in the sets have some degree of dependency and overlap. Overlapping PSFs introduce error in HEP evaluations due to the fact that some elements are counted more than once in data; this skews the relationship amongst PSF and masks the way that the elements interact to affect performance. This study uses a causal model that represents dependencies and relationships amongst PSFs for HEP evaluation during normal NPP operational states. The model is built taking into consideration the dependencies among PSFs and thus eliminating overlap. The use of an interdependent model of PSFs is expected to produce more accurate HEPs compared to other current methods. PSF sets produced in this study can be further used as nodes (variables) and directed arcs (causal influence between nodes) in HEP evaluation methods such as Bayesian belief (BN) networks. This study was done to estimate the relationships

  8. Knowledge sharing Network analysis and its relationship with the experience and education of librarians at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As human resources are important resources in organization, it is important for organizations to use knowledge organization of human resources. Thus managing and sharing knowledge in organizations is so important. Libraries as well service-oriented and knowledge-based organizations, librarians’ contribution of knowledge management is important. The study tries to determine Ferdowsi University of Mashhad librarians’ participation in the process of knowledge sharing by knowledge sharing network analysis method. The application used for social network analysis is UCINET6. Determining the degree of centralization in the network of knowledge sharing can also help to detect factors may influence it. In this study, the degree of centralization in the network of knowledge sharing communicating with the librarians' qualifications and work experiences were tested. It is also determined the degree centralization of the whole of the knowledge sharing network with 26.76% that is not so satisfactory.  The results show that despite the positive relationship between level of education and the centrality of people, the experience no significant relationship. Statistically, there is also no significant difference between men and women in knowledge sharing degrees of librarians in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. At the end, according to the results of this research some suggestions are given to increase degrees of knowledge sharing of librarians and generally knowledge sharing degree of the network knowledge sharing.

  9. The Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Prices Relationship between Cotton Spot Market and Futures Market in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the causal relationship between the cotton spot,and the tendency and impact of prices of futures markets in Xinjiang by using ADF test,co-integration analysis,Granger causality test and other econometric methods in order to discuss the interacted relationship between futures market prices of cotton and spot market prices since the futures of cotton in Xinjiang go public.The results of empirical analysis show that the spot market prices of cotton and the futures market prices in Xinjiang fluctuate prominently in the short run and tend to counterpoise in the long run;the futures market of cotton plays the role of leading the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang,while the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang impacts little on the futures market prices.The corresponding countermeasures are put forward.The government should continuously perfect the construction of the futures market of cotton in Xinjiang,so as to exert the function of price discovery and the function of hedging,and promote the development of cotton industry in Xinjiang.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of relationship between relative orientation and motion modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shijie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Target motion modes have a close relationship with the relative orientation of missile-to-target in three-dimensional highly maneuvering target interception. From the perspective of relationship between the sensor coordinate system and the target body coordinate system, a basic model of sensor is stated and the definition of relative angular velocity between the two coordinate systems is introduced firstly. Then, the three-dimensional analytic expressions of relative angular velocity for different motion modes are derived and simplified by analyzing the influences of target centroid motion, rotation around centroid and relative motion. Finally, the relationships of the relative angular velocity directions and values with motion modes are discussed. Simulation results validate the rationality of the theoretical analysis. It is demonstrated that there are significant differences of the relative orientation in different motion modes which include luxuriant information about motion modes. The conclusions are significant for the research of motion mode identification, maneuver detection, maneuvering target tracking and interception using target signatures.

  11. The income-pollution relationship and the role of income distribution: An analysis of Swedish household data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Ghalwash, Tarek [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between pollution and income at household level. The study is motivated by the recent literature emphasizing the importance of income distribution for the aggregate relation between pollution and income. The main findings from previous studies are that if the individual pollution-income relationship is non-linear, then aggregate pollution for, say, a whole country, will depend not only on average income, but also on how income is distributed. To achieve our objective we formulate a model for determining the choice of consumption of goods in different types of household. Furthermore we link the demand model to emission functions for various goods. The theoretical analysis shows that without imposing very restrictive assumptions on preferences and the emission functions, it is not possible to determine a priori the slope or the curvature of the pollution-income relation. The empirical analysis shows that, given the model used, the pollution-income relation has a positive slope in Sweden and is strictly concave for all three pollutants under study (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}), at least in the neighbourhood of the observed income for an average household. We also show that altering the prevailing income distribution, holding average income constant, will affect aggregate emissions in the sense that an equalization of incomes will give rise to an increase in emissions. One implication is then that the development of aggregate pollution due to growth depends not only on the income level, but also on how growth is distributed. (author)

  12. Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and Beach Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.

    2006-12-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a beach is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB beach monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a beach without point source loads and also to improve beach health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly beach monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat Beach on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby beaches monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat Beach is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat Beach, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other beaches the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only beach allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this beach facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the

  13. Proceedings of a NEA workshop on probabilistic structure integrity analysis and its relationship to deterministic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This workshop was hosted jointly by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKi) and the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). It was sponsored by the Principal Working Group 3 (PWG-3) of the NEA CSNI. PWG-3 deals with the integrity of structures and components, and has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. The sub-group dealing with metal components has three mains areas of activity: non-destructive examination; fracture mechanics; and material degradation. The topic of this workshop is primarily probabilistic fracture mechanics, but probabilistic integrity analysis includes NDE and materials degradation also. Session 1 (5 papers) was devoted to the development of probabilistic models; Session 2 (5 papers) to the random modelling of defects and material properties; Session 3 (8 papers) to the applications of probabilistic modelling to nuclear components; Sessions 4 is a concluding panel discussion

  14. Proceedings of a NEA workshop on probabilistic structure integrity analysis and its relationship to deterministic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This workshop was hosted jointly by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKi) and the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). It was sponsored by the Principal Working Group 3 (PWG-3) of the NEA CSNI. PWG-3 deals with the integrity of structures and components, and has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. The sub-group dealing with metal components has three mains areas of activity: non-destructive examination; fracture mechanics; and material degradation. The topic of this workshop is primarily probabilistic fracture mechanics, but probabilistic integrity analysis includes NDE and materials degradation also. Session 1 (5 papers) was devoted to the development of probabilistic models; Session 2 (5 papers) to the random modelling of defects and material properties; Session 3 (8 papers) to the applications of probabilistic modelling to nuclear components; Sessions 4 is a concluding panel discussion

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of familial male breast cancer shows under representation of the HER2 and basal subtypes in BRCA-associated carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Jene, Nicholas; Fox, Stephen B

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and relatively uncharacterised disease accounting for <1% of all breast cancers. A significant proportion occurs in families with a history of breast cancer and in particular those carrying BRCA2 mutations. Here we describe clinicopathological features and genomic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status in a large cohort of familial MBCs. Cases (n=60) included 3 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 mutation carries, and 32 non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAX) carriers with strong family histories of breast cancer. The cohort was examined with respect to mutation status, clinicopathological parameters including TNM staging, grade, histological subtype and intrinsic phenotype. Compared to the general population, MBC incidence was higher in all subgroups. In contrast to female breast cancer (FBC) there was greater representation of BRCA2 tumours (41.7% vs 8.3%, p=0.0008) and underrepresentation of BRCA1 tumours (5.0% vs 14.4%, p=0.0001). There was no correlation between mutation status and age of onset, disease specific survival (DSS) or other clincopathological factors. Comparison with sporadic MBC studies showed similar clinicopathological features. Prognostic variables affecting DSS included primary tumour size (p=0.003, HR:4.26 95%CI 1.63-11.11), age (p=0.002, HR:4.09 95%CI 1.65-10.12), lymphovascular (p=0.019, HR:3.25 95%CI 1.21-8.74) and perineural invasion (p=0.027, HR:2.82 95%CI 1.13-7.06). Unlike familial FBC, the histological subtypes seen in familial MBC were more similar to those seen in sporadic MBC with 46 (76.7%) pure invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST), 2 (3.3%) invasive lobular carcinomas and 4 (6.7%) invasive papillary carcinoma. A further 8 (13.3%) IDC-NST had foci of micropapillary differentiation, with a strong trend for co-occurrence in BRCA2 carriers (p=0.058). Most tumours were of the luminal phenotype (89.7%), with infrequent HER2 (8.6%) and basal (1.7%) phenotype tumours seen. MBC in BRCA1/2 carriers and BRCAX families is

  16. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  17. Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284,375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70,102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.

  18. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  19. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  20. Seasonality shows evidence for polygenic architecture and genetic correlation with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a meta-analysis of genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Raheja, Uttam; Stephens, Sarah H.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan V.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Youssufi, Hassaan; Gehrman, Philip R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Nelson, Elliot C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Australian and Amish populations in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered. The total sample size was 4,156 individuals. Genetic risk scores based on results from prior large GWAS studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) were calculated to test for overlap in risk between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Results The most significant association was with rs11825064 (p = 1.7 × 10−6, β = 0.64, S.E = 0.13), an intergenic SNP found on chromosome 11. The evidence for overlap in risk factors was strongest for SCZ and seasonality, with the SCZ genetic profile scores explaining 3% of the variance in log-transformed GSS. BD genetic profile scores were also significantly associated with seasonality, although at much weaker levels, and no evidence for overlap in risk was detected between MDD and seasonality. Conclusions Common SNPs of very large effect likely do not exist for seasonality in the populations examined. As expected, there was overlapping genetic risk factors for BD (but not MDD) with seasonality. Unexpectedly, the risk for SCZ and seasonality had the largest overlap, an unprecedented finding that requires replication in other populations, and has potential clinical implications considering overlapping cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorders and SCZ PMID:25562672

  1. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  2. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Ronggang; Wei Yiming; Jiao Jianlin; Fan Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index

  3. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Jiao, Jian-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing...... index and some oil companies. Some “important” oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain...

  4. The Analysis And Design Of Customer Relationship Management Model At STMIK STIKOM BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Deriani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of an organization can be seen from the organization's ability to compete in the business world today is increasingly more competition. The competition should be used as well as possible in order to retain customers by providing the best service. one way to provide the best service is the provision of means in the form of comprehensive information systems and integrated. CRM is an integrated system that is useful for both of the organization and of course for the customer. In this research, design analysis model of CRM approach from the perspective Planner and owner of Zachman framework. Design analysis using DFD, ERD and conceptual database. The expected outcome of this research is a form of planning the Customer Relationship Management system model as a reference for the managers in the development of an integrated system in the future.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic (FISH and genome analysis of diploid wheatgrasses and their phylogenetic relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Linc

    Full Text Available This paper reports detailed FISH-based karyotypes for three diploid wheatgrass species Agropyron cristatum (L. Beauv., Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul.&Rayss A. Löve, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh A. Löve, the supposed ancestors of hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth & D.R.Dewey, compiled using DNA repeats and comparative genome analysis based on COS markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with repetitive DNA probes proved suitable for the identification of individual chromosomes in the diploid JJ, StSt and PP genomes. Of the seven microsatellite markers tested only the (GAAn trinucleotide sequence was appropriate for use as a single chromosome marker for the P. spicata AS chromosome. Based on COS marker analysis, the phylogenetic relationship between diploid wheatgrasses and the hexaploid bread wheat genomes was established. These findings confirmed that the J and E genomes are in neighbouring clusters.

  6. Mass shootings: a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the dose-response theory as it relates to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) following mass shootings. It was hypothesized that greater exposure to a mass shooting would be associated with greater PTSSs. Trauma exposure in the current study was broadly defined as the extent to which a person experienced or learned about a mass shooting. The meta-analysis identified 11 qualifying studies that included 13 independent effect sizes from a total of 8,047 participants. The overall weighted mean effect size, based on a random effects model, was r = .19, p shooting on the relationship between exposure and PTSSs. Because so few studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, the present study also documents that this area of the literature is underresearched. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Relationship between hypothyroidism and the incidence of gestational diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li-Li; Liu, He; Liu, Li-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Hypothyroidism disorders and gestational diabetes are among the most common endocrinopathies during pregnancy. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes risk. Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible publications. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed- or random-effects model. Seven articles described the relationship between hypothyroidism and risk of gestational diabetes. This meta-analysis revealed that overt hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (OR 1.892, 95% CI 1.679-2.132, p hypothyroidism, with the OR of 1.558 (95% CI 1.292-1.877, p hypothyroidism was 1.749 (95% CI 1.586-1.928, p hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High Content Analysis of Hippocampal Neuron-Astrocyte Co-cultures Shows a Positive Effect of Fortasyn Connect on Neuronal Survival and Postsynaptic Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deijk, Anne-Lieke F; Broersen, Laus M; Verkuyl, J Martin; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal and synaptic membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Supplementation with dietary precursors for phospholipid synthesis -docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), uridine and choline- has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis both in vivo and in vitro . A role for multi-nutrient intervention with specific precursors and cofactors has recently emerged in early Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by decreased synapse numbers in the hippocampus. Moreover, the medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect (FC), improves memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease patients, possibly via maintaining brain connectivity. This suggests an effect of FC on synapses, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of FC (consisting of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C and E, and selenium), on synaptogenesis by supplementing it to primary neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, a cellular model that mimics metabolic dependencies in the brain. We measured neuronal developmental processes using high content screening in an automated manner, including neuronal survival, neurite morphology, as well as the formation and maturation of synapses. Here, we show that FC supplementation resulted in increased numbers of neurons without affecting astrocyte number. Furthermore, FC increased postsynaptic PSD95 levels in both immature and mature synapses. These findings suggest that supplementation with FC to neuron-astrocyte co-cultures increased both neuronal survival and the maturation of postsynaptic terminals, which might aid the functional interpretation of FC-based intervention strategies in neurological diseases characterized by neuronal loss and impaired synaptic functioning.

  9. High Content Analysis of Hippocampal Neuron-Astrocyte Co-cultures Shows a Positive Effect of Fortasyn Connect on Neuronal Survival and Postsynaptic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lieke F. van Deijk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal and synaptic membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Supplementation with dietary precursors for phospholipid synthesis –docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, uridine and choline– has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. A role for multi-nutrient intervention with specific precursors and cofactors has recently emerged in early Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by decreased synapse numbers in the hippocampus. Moreover, the medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect (FC, improves memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease patients, possibly via maintaining brain connectivity. This suggests an effect of FC on synapses, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of FC (consisting of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C and E, and selenium, on synaptogenesis by supplementing it to primary neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, a cellular model that mimics metabolic dependencies in the brain. We measured neuronal developmental processes using high content screening in an automated manner, including neuronal survival, neurite morphology, as well as the formation and maturation of synapses. Here, we show that FC supplementation resulted in increased numbers of neurons without affecting astrocyte number. Furthermore, FC increased postsynaptic PSD95 levels in both immature and mature synapses. These findings suggest that supplementation with FC to neuron-astrocyte co-cultures increased both neuronal survival and the maturation of postsynaptic terminals, which might aid the functional interpretation of FC-based intervention strategies in neurological diseases characterized by neuronal loss and impaired synaptic functioning.

  10. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors show different anti-brain metastases efficacy in NSCLC: A direct comparative analysis of icotinib, gefitinib, and erlotinib in a nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianlong; Li, Min; Zhong, Wen; Hu, Chengping; Gu, Qihua; Xie, Yali

    2017-11-17

    Brain metastasis is an increasing problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib, are reported to be effective in patients with brain metastases. However, direct comparative studies of the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of these three drugs in treating brain metastases are lacking. In the present investigation, we found that gefitinib penetrated the blood-tumor barrier and was distributed to brain metastases more effectively than erlotinib or icotinib in a nude mouse model. The 1-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 9.82±1.03%, 4.83±0.25%, and 2.62±0.21%, respectively. The 2-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 15.11±2.00%, 5.73±1.31%, and 2.69±0.31%, respectively. Gefitinib exhibited the strongest antitumor activity ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.005; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.002). Notably, erlotinib exhibited a better treatment efficacy than icotinib ( p =0.037). Consistently, immunohistochemical data showed that TKIs differentially inhibit the proliferation of metastatical tumor cells. Gefitinib and erlotinib markedly inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, while there were more ki-67-positive tumor cells in the icotinib group. Additionally, gefitinib inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR better than the other drugs, whereas pEGFR expression levels in erlotinib groups were lower than levels in the icotinib group ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.995; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.028; p erlotinib vs. icotinib =0.042).Altogether, our findings suggest that gefitinib and erlotinib can inhibit the growth of PC-9-luc brain tumors. Gefitinib demonstrated better antitumor activity and penetration rate in brain metastases than erlotinib or icotinib.

  11. Retrotransposon-centered analysis of piRNA targeting shows a shift from active to passive retrotransposon transcription in developing mouse testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourier Tobias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs bind transcripts from retrotransposable elements (RTE in mouse germline cells and seemingly act as guides for genomic methylation, thereby repressing the activity of RTEs. It is currently unknown if and how Piwi proteins distinguish RTE transcripts from other cellular RNAs. During germline development, the main target of piRNAs switch between different types of RTEs. Using the piRNA targeting of RTEs as an indicator of RTE activity, and considering the entire population of genomic RTE loci along with their age and location, this study aims at further elucidating the dynamics of RTE activity during mouse germline development. Results Due to the inherent sequence redundancy between RTE loci, assigning piRNA targeting to specific loci is problematic. This limits the analysis, although certain features of piRNA targeting of RTE loci are apparent. As expected, young RTEs display a much higher level of piRNA targeting than old RTEs. Further, irrespective of age, RTE loci near protein-coding coding genes are targeted to a greater extent than RTE loci far from genes. During development, a shift in piRNA targeting is observed, with a clear increase in the relative piRNA targeting of RTEs residing within boundaries of protein-coding gene transcripts. Conclusions Reanalyzing published piRNA sequences and taking into account the features of individual RTE loci provide novel insight into the activity of RTEs during development. The obtained results are consistent with some degree of proportionality between what transcripts become substrates for Piwi protein complexes and the level by which the transcripts are present in the cell. A transition from active transcription of RTEs to passive co-transcription of RTE sequences residing within protein-coding transcripts appears to take place in postnatal development. Hence, the previously reported increase in piRNA targeting of SINEs in postnatal testis development

  12. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  13. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Michal; Bohannon, Richard W; Sontakova, Lenka; Tufano, James J; Shiells, Kate; Holmerova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO host , and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.55). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia.

  14. The relationship between visitor spending and repeat visits: An analysis of spectators at the Old Mutual Two Oceans Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kruger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between visitor spending patterns, and previous and planned return visits as well as demographic and trip characteristics of supporters to the Old Mutual Two Oceans Marathon held annually in Cape Town. Problem investigated: Spectator sport is a significant segment of the tourism industry which also has a considerable economic impact on host communities. For this reason, communities and destinations have recognised and attempt to capitalise on hosting large sporting events. In this regard visitor spending is crucial since information concerning the latter can provide sport event organisers to focus their marketing efforts to attract optimal economic benefits. In addition, the relationship of previous visits to a sport event and intended re-visits to visitor spending has received increasing attention since it is believed that repeat visitation is associated with higher levels of expenditure. However limited attention is currently being paid to the relationship between spectator spending patterns and previous and planned return visits in a South African sport spectator context even though the latter has a direct impact on the future sustainability of an event. Methodology: A supporter survey was done for the first time in 2010 (30 March - 2 April 2010 at the event and 430 questionnaires were completed. Factor analysis and regression analysis are used to analyse the data and to identify the relationship between repeat visits and visitor spending patterns. Findings: Results from this study shows that it is predominantly socio-demographic variables that influence travel behaviour. The significant socio-demographic determinants that influence spending per person are gender, language and province of origin while the only behavioural determinant was group size. The results also revealed that there is no significant relationship between spectator spending, repeat attendance and

  15. Individual and Partner Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction and Relationship Happiness in Midlife Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Donahue, Kelly L; Long, J Scott; Heiman, Julia R; Rosen, Raymond C; Sand, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were

  16. Intimacy, identity and relationship in the accounts of Chinese immigrants to Canada: the contribution of narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Christina; Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we use narrative analysis to consider how the discursive resources that come with living 'in between' countries and cultures unfold in personal stories. We do this by presenting a close analysis of two transcripts drawn from a study about the vulnerability to HIV faced by Chinese immigrants to Canada. Our goal is to illustrate the application of narrative analysis and highlight the contributions it can make to conceptualising how transnationalism becomes consequential in accounts of intimate life. In narrative terms, transnationalism lends each life situation dual or multiple interpretive frameworks. Migrants from China to Canada situate their personal stories in relation to social and cultural norms and features of both nations. Yet, as our analysis makes apparent, 'Canada' and 'China' do not carry singular or consistent meanings in migrants' stories. Attention to the role of stories in self-making allows us to better understand why transnational contexts appear as they do in narrative accounts, and responds to calls for more accurate mappings of the interface between transnationalism and the subject. Attention to how stories are 'put together' shows that transnational discursive resources are assembled in ways that bolster, and also undermine, entitlements to safe and equitable intimate relationships.

  17. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  18. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  19. Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa; Bates, Geoff; McCoy, Ellie; Bellis, Mark A

    2015-04-18

    Studies show that alcohol consumption appears to have a disproportionate impact on people of low socioeconomic status. Further exploration of the relationship between alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and the development of chronic alcohol-attributable diseases is therefore important to inform the development of effective public health programmes. We used systematic review methodology to identify published studies of the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and morbidity for alcohol-attributable conditions. To attempt to quantify differences in the impact of alcohol consumption for each condition, stratified by SES, we (i) investigated the relationship between SES and risk of mortality or morbidity for each alcohol-attributable condition, and (ii) where, feasible explored alcohol consumption as a mediating or interacting variable in this relationship. We identified differing relationships between a range of alcohol-attributable conditions and socioeconomic indicators. Pooled analyses showed that low, relative to high socioeconomic status, was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer and stroke, and in individual studies, with hypertension and liver disease. Conversely, risk of female breast cancer tended to be associated with higher socioeconomic status. These findings were attenuated but held when adjusted for a number of known risk factors and other potential confounding factors. A key finding was the lack of studies that have explored the interaction between alcohol-attributable disease, socioeconomic status and alcohol use. Despite some limitations to our review, we have described relationships between socioeconomic status and a range of alcohol-attributable conditions, and explored the mediating and interacting effects of alcohol consumption where feasible. However, further research is needed to better characterise the relationship between socioeconomic status alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable disease risk

  20. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  1. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INVESTMENTS AND CASH-FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila PROFIR

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial performance is often difficult to achieve by economic entities, especially in the current economic context and successful models of some companies constitute examples of good practice for aspirants. Cash-flow explains investment because it contains information about future flows of cash and because investment is made in pursuit of future income. Therfore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between cash-flow, investment and net income. The target population of the study was the companies listed and traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during 2012-2016. The results of this empirical study showed that most of the companies listed and traded on BVB that earn profit constantly generate cash-flow and 65% of the companies listed and traded on BVB during the period 2012-2016 show a satisfactory long-term financial balance.

  2. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  3. Genomic relationships of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains evaluated by ribotyping, sequence analysis of ribosomal intergenic regions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis of the riboso......The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis...... of the ribosomal intergenic region of strains representing each ribotype and each country showed no differences. A common ribotype was further characterized by PFGE of 12 strains representing all countries. The resultant five PFGE patterns of European strains showed a similarity of more than 91%, to which the two...

  4. The Relationship between Juvenile Psychopathic Traits, Delinquency and (Violent) Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…

  5. A cross-country analysis of the relationship between income inequality and social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijke, J.A.M.; Ioakimidis, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether earnings inequality is associated with social capital as measured by active membership in organizations and interpersonal trust. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis showed that greater earnings inequality was associated with lower values on both measures of

  6. Joint cross-correlation analysis reveals complex, time-dependent functional relationship between cortical neurons and arm electromyograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between cortical activity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of limb muscles has long been a subject of neurophysiological studies, especially in terms of corticospinal connectivity. Interest in this issue has recently increased due to the development of brain-machine interfaces with output signals that mimic muscle force. For this study, three monkeys were implanted with multielectrode arrays in multiple cortical areas. One monkey performed self-timed touch pad presses, whereas the other two executed arm reaching movements. We analyzed the dynamic relationship between cortical neuronal activity and arm EMGs using a joint cross-correlation (JCC) analysis that evaluated trial-by-trial correlation as a function of time intervals within a trial. JCCs revealed transient correlations between the EMGs of multiple muscles and neural activity in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortical areas. Matching results were obtained using spike-triggered averages corrected by subtracting trial-shuffled data. Compared with spike-triggered averages, JCCs more readily revealed dynamic changes in cortico-EMG correlations. JCCs showed that correlation peaks often sharpened around movement times and broadened during delay intervals. Furthermore, JCC patterns were directionally selective for the arm-reaching task. We propose that such highly dynamic, task-dependent and distributed relationships between cortical activity and EMGs should be taken into consideration for future brain-machine interfaces that generate EMG-like signals. PMID:25210153

  7. The Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Skills and the Establishment of Clark's Management Network among Sport Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool NAZARI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. This applied research is a kind of correlational – survey study. Statistical population consist ed of 140 sport managers working for sport organizations in Isfahan Province, which have been selected by stratified random sampling. Measurement tools included two questionnaires of Communication Skill (91% and Establishment of Clark's Management Network (87%. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods applied for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results show that there is a relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. I n addition, the feedback component has greater contribution to prediction of Clark's management network (p 0.05. In general, it can acknowledge that the communication skills are effective in the establishment of Clark's management network and cause to i mprove the management process of sport organizations' managers and to achieve to the organizational goals with high level of productivity.

  8. The relationship between 3D bone architectural parameters and elastic moduli of three orthogonal directions predicted from finite elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sam Sun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Wan Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between 3D bone architectural parameters and direction-related elastic moduli of cancellous bone of mandibular condyle. Two micro-pigs (Micro-pigR, PWG Genetics Korea) were used. Each pig was about 12 months old and weighing around 44 kg. 31 cylindrical bone specimen were obtained from cancellous bone of condyles for 3D analysis and measured by micro-computed tomography. Six parameters were trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone specific surface (BS/BV), percent bone volume (BV/TV), structure model index (SMI), degree of anisotropy (DA) and 3-dimensional fractal dimension (3DFD). Elastic moduli of three orthogonal directions (superiorinferior (SI), medial-lateral (ML), andterior-posterior (AP) direction) were calculated through finite element analysis. Elastic modulus of superior-inferior direction was higher than those of other directions. Elastic moduli of 3 orthogonal directions showed different correlation with 3D architectural parameters. Elastic moduli of SI and ML directions showed significant strong to moderate correlation with BV/TV, SMI and 3DFD. Elastic modulus of cancellous bone of pig mandibular condyle was highest in the SI direction and it was supposed that the change into plate-like structure of trabeculae was mainly affected by increase of trabeculae of SI and ML directions.

  9. Relationships to Social Robots: Towards a Triadic Analysis of Media-oriented Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim R. Höflich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People are living in relationships not only to other people but also to media, including things and robots. As the theory of media equation suggests, people treat media as if they were real persons. This theoretical perspective is also relevant to the case of human-robot interaction. A distinctive feature of such interaction is that the relation to social robots also depends on the human likeness as an anthropomorphic perspective underlines. But people seem to prefer a certain imperfection; otherwise they feel uncanny. This paper explores the idea of robots as media and people’s relations to them. The paper argues that robots are seen not only in the context of a relationship with a medium but also as a medium that ‘mediates.’ This means that robots connect between the environment and other people, but can also divide them. The paper concludes with a proposed perspective that widens a dyadic model of human-robot-interaction towards a triadic analysis.

  10. Exploring the relationship difficulties of Iranian adolescents with conduct disorder: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanian, Maryam; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Alavi, Seyyed-Salman; Jokarian, Ali-Akbar; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-20

    Conduct disorder is characterized by aggressive behaviors, deceitfulness or theft, destruction of property and serious violations of rules prior to age 18 years. The object relations theory provides an integrative model to understand the problems of conduct disorder, and proposes that child-caregiver relationships develop the internal working models of self and others. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship difficulties of Iranian adolescents with conduct disorder. This study was a qualitative directed content analysis research. The in-depth interview was conducted with nine male adolescents aged 12-17 years who had conduct disorder with or without substance use disorder at the reformatory in Tehran. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and analyzed. The relations with different objects including parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, other school members, colleagues and employers were analyzed, and four themes were extracted: 1) Object relations based on insecurity and fear; 2) Object relations based on inability and abjection; 3) Object relations based on pessimism and mistrust; 4) Object relations based on non-maintenance of boundaries and limits. The importance of object relations and attachment problems in adolescents with conduct disorder, and their need to participate in special intervention programs should be reconsidered.

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of Multiscale Field-Aligned Currents: Characteristics, Controlling Parameters, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Forsyth, Colin

    2017-12-01

    We explore the characteristics, controlling parameters, and relationships of multiscale field-aligned currents (FACs) using a rigorous, comprehensive, and cross-platform analysis. Our unique approach combines FAC data from the Swarm satellites and the Advanced Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to create a database of small-scale (˜10-150 km, 250 km) FACs. We examine these data for the repeatable behavior of FACs across scales (i.e., the characteristics), the dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field orientation, and the degree to which each scale "departs" from nominal large-scale specification. We retrieve new information by utilizing magnetic latitude and local time dependence, correlation analyses, and quantification of the departure of smaller from larger scales. We find that (1) FACs characteristics and dependence on controlling parameters do not map between scales in a straight forward manner, (2) relationships between FAC scales exhibit local time dependence, and (3) the dayside high-latitude region is characterized by remarkably distinct FAC behavior when analyzed at different scales, and the locations of distinction correspond to "anomalous" ionosphere-thermosphere behavior. Comparing with nominal large-scale FACs, we find that differences are characterized by a horseshoe shape, maximizing across dayside local times, and that difference magnitudes increase when smaller-scale observed FACs are considered. We suggest that both new physics and increased resolution of models are required to address the multiscale complexities. We include a summary table of our findings to provide a quick reference for differences between multiscale FACs.

  12. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  13. The Relationship between Market Sentiment Index and Stock Rates of Return: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Emiko Yoshinaga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between market sentiment and future stock rates of return. We used amethodology based on principal component analysis to create a sentiment index for the Brazilian market withdata from 1999 to 2008. The sample consisted of companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA which were groupedinto quintiles, each representing a portfolio, according to the magnitude of the following characteristics: marketvalue, total annualized risk and listing time on BM&FBOVESPA. Next, we calculated the average return of eachportfolio for every quarter. The data for the first and last quintiles were analyzed via two-factor ANOVA, usingsentiment index of the previous period (positive or negative as the main factor and each characteristic ascontrolling factors. Finally, the sentiment index was included in a panel data pricing model. The results indicatea significant and negative relationship between the market sentiment index and the future rates of return. Thesefindings suggest the existence of a reversion pattern in stock returns, meaning that after a positive sentimentperiod, the impact on subsequent stock returns is negative, and vice-versa.

  14. Analysis of plasmid genes by phylogenetic profiling and visualization of homology relationships using Blast2Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzicalupo Marco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic methods are well-established bioinformatic tools for sequence analysis, allowing to describe the non-independencies of sequences because of their common ancestor. However, the evolutionary profiles of bacterial genes are often complicated by hidden paralogy and extensive and/or (multiple horizontal gene transfer (HGT events which make bifurcating trees often inappropriate. In this context, plasmid sequences are paradigms of network-like relationships characterizing the evolution of prokaryotes. Actually, they can be transferred among different organisms allowing the dissemination of novel functions, thus playing a pivotal role in prokaryotic evolution. However, the study of their evolutionary dynamics is complicated by the absence of universally shared genes, a prerequisite for phylogenetic analyses. Results To overcome such limitations we developed a bioinformatic package, named Blast2Network (B2N, allowing the automatic phylogenetic profiling and the visualization of homology relationships in a large number of plasmid sequences. The software was applied to the study of 47 completely sequenced plasmids coming from Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella spps. Conclusion The tools implemented by B2N allow to describe and visualize in a new way some of the evolutionary features of plasmid molecules of Enterobacteriaceae; in particular it helped to shed some light on the complex history of Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella plasmids and to focus on possible roles of unannotated proteins. The proposed methodology is general enough to be used for comparative genomic analyses of bacteria.

  15. Relationship between brain perfusion SPECT and MMSE score in dementia of Alzheimer's type: a statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas in which reductions of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were correlated with decline of general mental function, measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed in 9 probable AD patients at the initial and follow-up periods of 1.8 years (average) after the first study. MMSE scores were also measured in both occasions. The mean MMSE score of the initial study 16.4 (range: 5-24) and the mean MMSE score of the follow-up was 8.1 (range: 0-17). Each SPECT image was normalized to the cerebellar activity and a correlation analysis was performed between the level of rCBF in AD patients and the MMSE scores by voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software. Significant correlation was found between the blood-flow decrease in left inferior prefrontal region(BA 47) and left middle temporal region (BA 21) and the MMSE score changes. Additional areas such as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, precuneus, and bilateral superior and middle prefrontal regions showed and similar trends. A relationship was found between reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in left prefrontal and temporal areas and decline of cognitive function in Alzheimer's diseases (AD) patients. This voxel-based analysis is useful in evaluating the progress of cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease

  16. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; Dersarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for

  17. Patient experience shows little relationship with hospital quality management strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groene, O.; Arah, O.A.; Klazinga, N.S.; Wagner, C.; Bartels, P.D.; Kristensen, S.; Saillour, F.; Thompson, C.A.; Pfaff, H.; DerSarkissian, M.; Suñol, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes

  18. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dreassi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship between eating pathology and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Francis; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ong, Deborah; Krug, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Undertake a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative synthesis of longitudinal studies that assessed the direction of effects between eating pathology and depression. A second aim was to use meta-regression to account for heterogeneity in terms of study-level effect modifiers. A systematic review was conducted on 42 studies that assessed the longitudinal relationship between eating pathology and depression. Of these 42 studies, multilevel random-effects meta-analyses were conducted on 30 eligible studies. Meta-analysis results showed that eating pathology was a risk factor for depression (rm  = 0.13) and that depression was a risk factor for eating pathology (rm  = 0.16). Meta-regression analyses showed that these effects were significantly stronger for studies that operationalized eating pathology as an eating disorder diagnosis versus eating pathology symptoms, and for studies that operationalized the respective outcome measure as a categorical variable (e.g., a diagnosis of a disorder or where symptoms were "present"/"absent") versus a continuous measure. Results also showed that in relation to eating pathology type, the effect of an eating disorder diagnosis and bulimic symptoms on depression was significantly stronger for younger participants. Eating pathology and depression are concurrent risk factors for each other, suggesting that future research would benefit from identifying factors that are etiological to the development of both constructs. Llevar a cabo un meta-análisis para proporcionar una síntesis cuantitativa de los estudios longitudinales que evaluaron la dirección de los efectos entre la alimentación patológica y la depresión. Un segundo objetivo fue utilizar la meta-regresión para dar cuenta de la heterogeneidad en términos de modificadores del efecto a nivel de estudio. MÉTODO: Una revisión sistemática se llevó a cabo en 42 estudios que evaluaron la relación longitudinal entre la alimentación patológica y la depresión. De

  1. Managing Distributed Innovation Processes in Virtual Organizations by Applying the Collaborative Network Relationship Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbächer, Jens; Seifert, Marcus; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    Distributed innovation processes are considered as a new option to handle both the complexity and the speed in which new products and services need to be prepared. Indeed most research on innovation processes was focused on multinational companies with an intra-organisational perspective. The phenomena of innovation processes in networks - with an inter-organisational perspective - have been almost neglected. Collaborative networks present a perfect playground for such distributed innovation processes whereas the authors highlight in specific Virtual Organisation because of their dynamic behaviour. Research activities supporting distributed innovation processes in VO are rather new so that little knowledge about the management of such research is available. With the presentation of the collaborative network relationship analysis this gap will be addressed. It will be shown that a qualitative planning of collaboration intensities can support real business cases by proving knowledge and planning data.

  2. Analysis of the Comprehensive Tensile Relationship in Electrospun Silk Fibroin/Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunlei; Pu, Dandan; Xiong, Jie

    2017-12-07

    The mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber membranes are critical for their applications. A clear understanding of the mechanical properties that result from the characteristics of the individual fiber and membrane microstructure is vital in the design of fiber composites. In this reported study, silk fibroin (SF)/polycaprolactone (PCL) composite nanofiber membranes were preparedusing an electrostatic spinning technology. The nanofiber orientation distribution (FOD) of the membrane was analyzed using multi-layer image fusion technology, and the results indicated the presence of an approximately uniform distribution of fibers in the electrospun membranes. The relationship between the single nanofiber and the membrane was established by analyzing the geometrical structure of the cell by employing a representative volume element (RVE) analysis method. The mechanical properties of the 272 nm diameter SF/PCL composite fibers were then predicted using the developed model.

  3. The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students' Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis examines the association between teacher support and students' academic emotions [both positive academic emotions (PAEs and negative academic emotions (NAEs] and explores how student characteristics moderate these relationships. We identified 65 primary studies with 58,368 students. The results provided strong evidence linking teacher support and students' academic emotions. Furthermore, students' culture, age, and gender moderated these links. The correlation between teacher support and PAEs was stronger for Western European and American students than for East Asian students, while the correlation between teacher support and NAEs was stronger for East Asian students than for Western European and American students. Also, the correlation between teacher support and PAEs was strong among university students and weaker among middle school students, compared to other students. The correlation between teacher support and NAEs was stronger for middle school students and for female students, compared to other students.

  4. Social Pedagogy and Social Work: An analysis of their Relationship from a Socio-pedagogical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Marynowicz-Hetka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for the relationship between social pedagogy and social work will be made in this manuscript. It is assumed that social work is a certain type of practice cultivated by representatives of the social professions. Social pedagogy can provide an analysis of the field of social work, helping to orient activities within the field and to determine the proper selection of ways of conduct, a kind of a meta-theory. Such an approach enables interaction and cooperation between representatives of multiple disciplines within the humanities and social sciences who are engaged in social work. It also has consequences for the acceptance of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional approaches to activities in the field of social work, which is recognized as an important field for social pedagogues, allowing them to carry out social actions from various perspectives, socio-pedagogical among them. The socio-pedagogical perspective on social work will be analyzed in this article.

  5. COGcollator: a web server for analysis of distant relationships between homologous protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-29

    The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins systematize evolutionary related proteins into specific groups with similar functions. However, the available databases do not provide means to assess the extent of similarity between the COGs. We intended to provide a method for identification and visualization of evolutionary relationships between the COGs, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COGcollator, a web tool for identification of evolutionarily related COGs and their further analysis. We demonstrate the utility of this tool by identifying the COGs that contain distant homologs of (i) the catalytic subunit of bacterial rotary membrane ATP synthases and (ii) the DNA/RNA helicases of the superfamily 1. This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor N. Berezovsky, Igor Zhulin and Yuri Wolf.

  6. Internet Searches and Their Relationship to Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Johanna; Hollingshead, Kristy; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2017-09-06

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a very challenging experience for all those affected. Unfortunately, detection of Alzheimer disease in its early stages when clinical treatments may be most effective is challenging, as the clinical evaluations are time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and everyday behavior, an avenue of research that holds great promise for the early detection of cognitive decline. One area of behavior that changes with cognitive decline is language use. Multiple groups have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and vocabulary size, verbal fluency, and semantic ability, using conventional in-person cognitive testing. An alternative to this approach which is inherently ecologically valid may be to take advantage of automated computer monitoring software to continually capture and analyze language use while on the computer. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between Internet searches as a measure of language and cognitive function in older adults. We hypothesize that individuals with poorer cognitive function will search using fewer unique terms, employ shorter words, and use less obscure words in their searches. Computer monitoring software (WorkTime, Nestersoft Inc) was used to continuously track the terms people entered while conducting searches in Google, Yahoo, Bing, and Ask.com. For all searches, punctuation, accents, and non-ASCII characters were removed, and the resulting search terms were spell-checked before any analysis. Cognitive function was evaluated as a z-normalized summary score capturing five unique cognitive domains. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between cognitive function and Internet searches by controlling for variables such as age, sex, and education. Over a 6-month monitoring period, 42 participants (mean age 81 years [SD 10.5], 83% [35/42] female) conducted 2915 searches using these top search

  7. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffl M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Michal Steffl,1 Richard W Bohannon,2 Lenka Sontakova,1 James J Tufano,1 Kate Shiells,3 Iva Holmerova3 1Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Humanities, Centre of Gerontology, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Physical activity (PA has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–0.55. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia. Keywords: aging, sarcopenia, physical activity 

  8. Identification of hidden relationships from the coupling of hydrophobic cluster analysis and domain architecture information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Guilhem; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2013-07-15

    Describing domain architecture is a critical step in the functional characterization of proteins. However, some orphan domains do not match any profile stored in dedicated domain databases and are thereby difficult to analyze. We present here an original novel approach, called TREMOLO-HCA, for the analysis of orphan domain sequences and inspired from our experience in the use of Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA). Hidden relationships between protein sequences can be more easily identified from the PSI-BLAST results, using information on domain architecture, HCA plots and the conservation degree of amino acids that may participate in the protein core. This can lead to reveal remote relationships with known families of domains, as illustrated here with the identification of a hidden Tudor tandem in the human BAHCC1 protein and a hidden ET domain in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Taf14p and human AF9 proteins. The results obtained in such a way are consistent with those provided by HHPRED, based on pairwise comparisons of HHMs. Our approach can, however, be applied even in absence of domain profiles or known 3D structures for the identification of novel families of domains. It can also be used in a reverse way for refining domain profiles, by starting from known protein domain families and identifying highly divergent members, hitherto considered as orphan. We provide a possible integration of this approach in an open TREMOLO-HCA package, which is fully implemented in python v2.7 and is available on request. Instructions are available at http://www.impmc.upmc.fr/∼callebau/tremolohca.html. isabelle.callebaut@impmc.upmc.fr Supplementary Data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates based on transmission electron microscopy: relationship to particle mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Weon Gyu; Wang Jing; Mertler, Michael; Sachweh, Bernd; Fissan, Heinz; Pui, David Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates generated using condensation and evaporation method in an electric tube furnace followed by a coagulation process are analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Agglomerates with mobility diameters of 80, 120, and 150 nm are sampled using the electrostatic method and then imaged by TEM. The primary particle diameter of silver agglomerates was 13.8 nm with a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. We obtained the relationship between the projected area equivalent diameter (d pa ) and the mobility diameter (d m ), i.e., d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m for particles from 80 to 150 nm. We obtained fractal dimensions of silver agglomerates using three different methods: (1) D f = 1.84 ± 0.03, 1.75 ± 0.06, and 1.74 ± 0.03 for d m = 80, 120, and 150 nm, respectively from projected TEM images using a box counting algorithm; (2) fractal dimension (D fL ) = 1.47 based on maximum projected length from projected TEM images using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633; and (3) mass fractal-like dimension (D fm ) = 1.71 theoretically derived from the mobility analysis proposed by Lall and Friedlander (2006) J Aerosol Sci 37:260-271. We also compared the number of primary particles in agglomerate and found that the number of primary particles obtained from the projected surface area using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633 is larger than that from using the relationship, d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m or from using the mobility analysis.

  10. Study of causal relationships among indicators of academic performance in the freshman year of Computer Science by using modal implicative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zamora-Matamoros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Statistical Implicative Analysis (SIA is a method of non-symmetrical analysis of data whose main objective is the structuring of data, interrelating individuals and variables, the extraction of inductive rules among the variables and from their contingency, the explanation and in consequence a certain prediction in different knowledge branches. The SIA holds two techniques of analysis of data, the cohesive analysis and the implicative analysis, along with the classificatory or similarity analysis. The objective of the present research is to reveal possible similarity, propensity and cohesion relationships among the academic results of students coming from high schools that enter to Computer Science career and the results that they show in undergraduate courses related to Mathematics and Programming, which they receive in the first year of the mentioned career. The gathered data were processed using the software SIASI for modal data.

  11. The relationship between ataque de nervios and unexplained neurological symptoms: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interian, Alejandro; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Vega, William A; Gara, Michael A; Like, Robert C; Escobar, Javier I; Díaz-Martínez, Angélica M

    2005-01-01

    Within somatization, unexplained neurological symptoms (UNSs) have been shown to mark a distinct subgroup with greater clinical severity. However, some UNSs resemble ataque de nervios somatic symptoms. This raises questions about cultural factors related to Hispanics with somatization characterized by UNSs. To examine cultural factors, preliminary analyses examined the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity, UNSs, and ataque de nervios. Data were obtained from 127 primary care patients (95 Hispanic, 32 European American) with somatization. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview provided somatization data, whereas the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used for data on Axis I disorders. Ataque de nervios was assessed via a proxy measure. Within each ethnic group, cross-tabs examined the relationship between ataque de nervios and multiple UNSs, and ataque de nervios and selected Axis I disorders. Only among Hispanics, a significant overlap was found between ataque de nervios and having four or more UNSs (p nervios and a diagnosis of panic disorder (p = .05). Although equal percentages of European Americans and Hispanics experience multiple UNSs, these results show that the presentation of UNSs among some Hispanics may be qualitatively different, because it may involve features related to ataque de nervios. A diagnosis of panic disorder also appears to interact with cultural factors.

  12. Evaluating correlation between geometrical relationship and dose difference caused by respiratory motion using statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Seok; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Yoon, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Seok [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yu Yoon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Three-dimensional dose (3D dose) can consider coverage of moving target, however it is difficult to provide dosimetric effect which occurs by respiratory motions. Four-dimensional dose (4D dose) which uses deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images can consider dosimetric effect by respiratory motions. The dose difference between 3D dose and 4D dose can be varied according to the geometrical relationship between a planning target volume (PTV) and an organ at risk (OAR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the overlap volume histogram (OVH), which quantitatively shows the geometrical relationship between the PTV and OAR, and the dose differences. In conclusion, no significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value. No significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value.

  13. Analysis of the Relationship between Elite Wrestlers’ Leg Strength and Balance Performance, and Injury History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Çimen Polat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between leg power and balance performance in elite wrestlers and injury history. In the research group, there are 18 elite freestyle male wrestlers at the ages of 24.27 ± 3.18 years, with a height of 171.86 ± 5.44 cm and a body weight of 79.27 ± 11.16 kg. Information on the injury history of the athletes’ upper legs for the past year was collected via interviews with the club’s physiotherapist. Laboratory tests to measure performance assessed height, body weight, Y balance and isokinetic leg strength. Data obtained from the study are presented as mean and standard deviation. The test of normality was carried out by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Pearson Correlation Test was performed for all parameters with normal distribution, and significance level was accepted as p < 0.05. It was found that there is a relationship between the wrestlers’ right leg ratio and hamstring strength and injury history. However, there is no statistically significant relationship between left leg hamstring, quadriceps, ratio, right leg quadriceps, or right and left leg balance performance, and injury history. The resulting data shows that the proportioning between hamstring and quadriceps muscles in freestyle wrestlers’ upper leg strength values is not ideal. This finding provides evidence that injury risk increases with the additional impact of loss of strength.

  14. Speed-volume relationship and headway distribution analysis of motorcycle (case study: Teuku Nyak Arief Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, E.; Prasetya, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    In many developing countries, transportation modes are more varied than the other country. For example, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in some roadway, motorcycle is the most dominant vehicle, with total volume is four times higher than a passenger car. Thus, the traffic characteristic in motorcycle-dominated traffic differs from a common traffic situation. The purpose of this study is to apply the concept and theory developed to analyze motorcycle behaviour under motorcycle-dominated traffic condition. The survey is applied by recording the traffic flow movement of research location at specified time period. The macroscopic characteristic analyzed in this research is a speed-flow relationship based on motorcycle equivalent unit (MCU). Furthermore, a detail microscopic characteristic analyzed that is motorcycle time headway regarding traffic flow. MCU values computed were consists of motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). Those values were calculated 1.00, 6.13 and 10.71 respectively. The speed and volume relationship result is showing a linear regression model with R2 value is 0.58, it can be explained that the correlation between two variables is intermediate. The headway distribution of motorcycle is compatible with the negative exponential distribution which fitted with the proposed theory for a small vehicle such as a motorcycle.

  15. The relationships between low back pain and lumbar lordosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Se-Woong; Lim, Chai-Young; Kim, Keewon; Hwang, Jinseub; Chung, Sun G

    2017-08-01

    Clinicians regard lumbar lordotic curvature (LLC) with respect to low back pain (LBP) in a contradictory fashion. The time-honored point of view is that LLC itself, or its increment, causes LBP. On the other hand, recently, the biomechanical role of LLC has been emphasized, and loss of lordosis is considered a possible cause of LBP. The relationship between LLC and LBP has immense clinical significance, because it serves as the basis of therapeutic exercises for treating and preventing LBP. This study aimed to (1) determine the difference in LLC in those with and without LBP and (2) investigate confounding factors that might affect the association between LLC and LBP. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria consisted of observational studies that included information on lumbar lordotic angle (LLA) assessed by radiological image, in both patients with LBP and healthy controls. Studies solely involving pediatric populations, or addressing spinal conditions of nondegenerative causes, were excluded. A systematic electronic search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, PEDro, and Web of Science using terms related to lumbar alignment and Boolean logic was performed: (lumbar lordo*) or (lumbar alignment) or (sagittal alignment) or (sagittal balance). Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, and chi-square and I 2 statistics were used to assess within-group heterogeneity by random effects model. Additionally, the age and gender of participants, spinal disease entity, and the severity and duration of LBP were evaluated as possible confounding factors. A total of 13 studies consisting of 796 patients with LBP and 927 healthy controls were identified. Overall, patients with LBP tended to have smaller LLA than healthy controls. However, the studies were heterogeneous. In the meta-regression analysis, the factors of age, severity of LBP, and spinal disease entity were revealed to contribute

  16. Analysis of genetic relationships and identification of lily cultivars based on inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G F; Wu, L F; Wang, X N; Jia, W J; Duan, Q; Ma, L L; Jiang, Y L; Wang, J H

    2014-07-29

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to discriminate 62 lily cultivars of 5 hybrid series. Eight ISSR primers generated 104 bands in total, which all showed 100% polymorphism, and an average of 13 bands were amplified by each primer. Two software packages, POPGENE 1.32 and NTSYSpc 2.1, were used to analyze the data matrix. Our results showed that the observed number of alleles (NA), effective number of alleles (NE), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.9630, 1.4179, 0.2606, and 0.4080, respectively. The highest genetic similarity (0.9601) was observed between the Oriental x Trumpet and Oriental lilies, which indicated that the two hybrids had a close genetic relationship. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means dendrogram showed that the 62 lily cultivars clustered into two discrete groups. The first group included the Oriental and OT cultivars, while the Asiatic, LA, and Longiflorum lilies were placed in the second cluster. The distribution of individuals in the principal component analysis was consistent with the clustering of the dendrogram. Fingerprints of all lily cultivars built from 8 primers could be separated completely. This study confirmed the effect and efficiency of ISSR identification in lily cultivars.

  17. The relationship between oil price shocks and China's macro-economy. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Limin; Yanan, He; Wei; Chu

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the world oil price and China's macro-economy based on a monthly time series from 1995:1 to 2008:12, using the method of multivariate vector autoregression (VAR). The results show that the world oil price affects the economic growth and inflation of China significantly, and the impact is non-linear. On the other hand, China's economic activity fails to affect the world oil price, which means that the world oil price is still exogenous with respect to China's macro-economy in time series sense, and China has not yet had an oil pricing power in the world oil markets. The structural stability tests demonstrate that there is a structural break in the VAR model because of the reforms of China's oil pricing mechanism, thus it is more appropriate to break the whole sample into different sub-samples for the estimation of the model. (author)

  18. The Relationship between Stakeholder Marketing and Reciprocity in Eastern Europe: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Berger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper deals with important implications of ‘reciprocity’ in marketing in emerging and developing business environments, such as Eastern Europe. In mature, developed, high income, business systems, both transaction and relationship based marketing have been well researched. We posit that in less mature business systems, especially transition or emerging economies, there is a third way to look at marketing and exchange, which we call ‘reciprocity-stakeholder marketing.’ We believe that our framework shows the importance of reciprocity, a fundamental concept in business, for marketing in emerging environments such as Eastern Europe. This paper provides a meaningful starting point for empirical research for developing strategies in Eastern Europe.

  19. A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Schutte, Nicola S

    2017-05-01

    Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomeres are associated with poor physical health. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of anxiety and telomere length. A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length used information from 17 different samples comprising a total of 19,424 participants. The results showed a small but significant association, r = -.06, between higher anxiety and shorter telomeres. Studies comparing individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder with other individuals had a significant effect size, and studies that did not use this comparison threshold did not have a significant effect size. Anxiety is associated with an important biomarker related to health. Future experimental studies that examine the impact of interventions intended to reduce anxiety in conjunction with measurement of telomere length can further clarify the impact of anxiety on telomere length.

  20. STRUCTURE – ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES RELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS OF ISOEUGENOL, EUGENOL, VANILIN AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure Activity Relationship (SAR technique between the theoretical parameters and antioxidant activities of isoeugenol, eugenol, vanillin and their derivatives as Mannich reaction products, have been analyzed. Antioxidant activities were examined by oxidation reaction of oleic acid at 60 °C with b-carotene methods, whereas theoretical parameters of the activities were determined by calculating Bonding Dissociation Enthalpy (BDE and net charge of oxygen atom(-OH using AM1 semi empiric methods. The result from both test showed in the following orders: BHT > Mannich product of isoeugenol > isoeugenol > Mannich product of eugenol > eugenol > Mannich product of vanillin > vanillin. The antioxidant activities increase with small the BDE value and high the net charge. Electron donating groups will increase the antioxidants activity with lowering the BDE value and increasing the net charge, while electron-withdrawing groups will decrease antioxidants activity.   Keywords: SAR, antioxidants, Bonding Dissociation Entalphy, eugenol.

  1. Spatial Intensity Duration Frequency Relationships Using Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Chandra; Mujumdar, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, quantification of extreme precipitation is important in the design of storm water drains and other infrastructure. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) relationships are generally used to obtain design return level for a given duration and return period. Due to lack of availability of extreme precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of extreme events is difficult. Typically, a single station data is used to obtain the design return levels for various durations and return periods, which are used in the design of urban infrastructure for the entire city. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 5 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of return levels for various durations. In this work, the extreme precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with Block Maxima approach for defining the extreme precipitation, using Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for Bangalore city, Karnataka state, India. Daily data for nineteen stations in and around Bangalore city is considered in the study. The analysis is carried out for summer maxima (March - May), monsoon maxima (June - September) and the annual maxima rainfall. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the block maxima, pooling the extreme precipitation from all the stations. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the extreme precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm (Metropolis Hastings

  2. Meta-analysis of the relationships between Kerr and Jermier's substitutes for leadership and employee job attitudes, role perceptions, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; MacKenzie, S B; Bommer, W H

    1996-08-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate more accurately the bivariate relationships between leadership behaviors, substitutes for leadership, and subordinate attitudes, and role perceptions and performance, and to examine the relative strengths of the relationships between these variables. Estimates of 435 relationships were obtained from 22 studies containing 36 independent samples. The findings showed that the combination of the substitutes variables and leader behaviors account for a majority of the variance in employee attitudes and role perceptions and a substantial proportion of the variance in in-role and extra-role performance; on average, the substitutes for leadership uniquely accounted for more of the variance in the criterion variables than did leader behaviors.

  3. Experimental analysis of the relationship between depressed mood and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. One-year reciprocal relationship between community participation and mental wellbeing in Australia: a panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2015-03-01

    The links between social capital and mental wellbeing are established but the direction of the social capital-wellbeing relationship is rarely systematically examined. This omission undermines the validity of social capital as a basis for health interventions. The aim of this paper was to explore the short-term (one-year) reciprocal relationship between community participation - an important component of social capital - and mental wellbeing. We used nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey data, 2005-11. The HILDA Survey is an annual cohort study from which was extracted a sub-sample of panel data (the same people participating across multiple waves) enabling us to use fixed effects regression methods to model the longitudinal association of mental health and participation controlling for individual heterogeneity. The results showed that better mental wellbeing in one year was generally related to more community participation the next year, while greater past community participation was linked to better mental wellbeing the next year independent of (i) initial mental wellbeing, (ii) multiple potentially confounding factors and (iii) unobserved and time-constant heterogeneity. Political participation was marginally related to worse mental health in both directions. The results also showed that the association between community participation and mental wellbeing the next year is weaker for those with poor initial wellbeing than for initially healthier respondents. Our findings may inform the trial and scientific evaluation of programs aimed at increasing informal social connectedness and civic engagement to promote mental wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  6. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2. Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.61). Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73) and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84). Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human behavior

  7. Multivariate analysis applied to the study of the relationship between soil and plant properties in a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos Silva Terra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, the municipality of Pelotas is responsible for 90 % of peach production due to its suitable climate and soil conditions. However, there is the need for new studies that aim at improved fruit quality and increased yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship that exists between soil physical properties and properties in the peach plant in the years 2010 and 2011 by the technique of multivariate canonical correlation. The experiment was conducted in a peach orchard located in the municipality of Morro Redondo, RS, Brazil, where an experimental grid of 101 plants was established. In a trench dug beside each one of the 101 plants, soil samples were collected to determine silt, clay, and sand contents, soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, and volumetric water content in the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers, as well as the depth of the A horizon. In each plant and in each year, the following properties were assessed: trunk diameter, fruit size and number of fruits per plant, average weight of the fruit per plant, fruit pulp firmness, Brix content, and yield from the orchard. Exploratory analysis of the data was undertaken by descriptive statistics, and the relationships between the physical properties of the soil and of the plant were assessed by canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that the clay and microporosity variables were those that exhibited the highest coefficients of canonical cross-loading with the plant properties in the soil layers assessed, and that the variable of mean weight of the fruit per plant was that which had the highest coefficients of canonical loading within the plant group for the two years assessed.

  8. Causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI: multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritara, C; Thakkinstian, A; Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Chailurkit, L; Chanprasertyothin, S; Ratanachaiwong, W; Vathesatogkit, P; Sritara, P

    2014-05-01

    Using mediation analysis, a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and bone mineral density (BMD) through fetuin-A and body mass index (BMI) mediators was suggested. Fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein of hepatic origin, is associated with bone mineral density. It is unclear if this association is causal. This study aimed at clarification of this issue. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,741 healthy workers from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) cohort. The alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) rs2248690 gene was genotyped. Three mediation models were constructed using seemingly unrelated regression analysis. First, the ln[fetuin-A] group was regressed on the AHSG gene. Second, the BMI group was regressed on the AHSG gene and the ln[fetuin-A] group. Finally, the BMD model was constructed by fitting BMD on two mediators (ln[fetuin-A] and BMI) and the independent AHSG variable. All three analyses were adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of the minor T allele for the AHSG locus was 15.2%. The AHSG locus was highly related to serum fetuin-A levels (P Multiple mediation analyses showed that AHSG was significantly associated with BMD through the ln[fetuin-A] and BMI pathway, with beta coefficients of 0.0060 (95% CI 0.0038, 0.0083) and 0.0030 (95% CI 0.0020, 0.0045) at the total hip and lumbar spine, respectively. About 27.3 and 26.0% of total genetic effects on hip and spine BMD, respectively, were explained by the mediation effects of fetuin-A and BMI. Our study suggested evidence of a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI mediators.

  9. The relationship between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumor: a systematic review and meta-analysis of trails in the last decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lige Leng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify whether there was a relationship between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumor.A comprehensive search strategy was developed,and studies were eliminated in a stepwise manner,based on the inclusion criteria.The current meta-analysis collected data from the 24 eligible studies to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumor,while a detailed analysis of different classification was also conducted in order to identify the risk of mobile phone use.From the results,the relationship between cell phone use and brain tumor incidence had no significant difference between men and women.Cell phone use can increase the RF energy absorbed in the brain and apoptosis genes expression level,but glioma cell line cells were not significantly affected.Most calculations of laterality show a trend of increasing risk for time since first use,cumulative duration of subscriptions,cumulative duration of calls,and cumulative number of calls.In Asian people's,cell phone use and glioma had certain relations,while has verylittle relationship with meningioma incidence.This result seems to be no racial difference.In children and teenagers,cell phone use is associated with the incidence of brain tumors.We need longer time observation to supervise longer time (>20 years) mobile phone use whether has severe effects on incidence of brain tumor.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship Between Poverty and Underground economy in the Highly developed, Transition and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah, Obayelu Abiodun; Uffort, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken with the goal of analyzing the relationship between poverty rates and size of underground economy in the developed and developing countries and exploring whether there is a link between them. There are technical problems in linking them in that getting information from those who have undertaken underground activities are difficult. Secondary data were used to established hypothetical relationship and primary data for the empirical analysis. The results of th...

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship Between Poverty and Underground economy in the Highly developed, Transition and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah, Obayelu Abiodun; Uffort, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken with the goal of analyzing the relationship between poverty rates and size of underground economy in the developed and developing countries and exploring whether there is a link between them. There are technical problems in linking them in that getting information from those who have undertaken underground activities are difficult. Secondary data were used to established hypothetical relationship and primary data for the empirical analysis. ...

  12. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  13. Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

  14. Metagenomic analysis reveals symbiotic relationship among bacteria in Microcystis-dominated community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili eXie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis bloom, a cyanobacterial mass occurrence often found in eutrophicated water bodies, is one of the most serious threats to freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In nature, Microcystis forms aggregates or colonies that contain heterotrophic bacteria. The Microcystis-bacteria colonies were persistent even when they were maintained in lab culture for a long period. The relationship between Microcystis and the associated bacteria was investigated by a metagenomic approach in this study. We developed a visualization-guided method of binning for genome assembly after total colony DNA sequencing. We found that the method was effective in grouping sequences and it did not require reference genome sequence. Individual genomes of the colony bacteria were obtained and they provided valuable insights into microbial community structures. Analysis of metabolic pathways based on these genomes revealed that while all heterotrophic bacteria were dependent upon Microcystis for carbon and energy, Vitamin B12 biosynthesis, which is required for growth by Microcystis, was accomplished in a cooperative fashion among the bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that individual bacteria in the colony community contributed a complete pathway for degradation of benzoate, which is inhibitory to the cyanobacterial growth, and its ecological implication for Microcystis bloom is discussed.

  15. Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trophic relationships in a tropical stream food web assessed by stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Bouchon, Claude; Lepoint, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    1. Stable isotope analysis, coupled with dietary data from the literature, was used to investigate trophic patterns of freshwater fauna in a tropical stream food web (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). 2. Primary producers (biofilm, algae and plant detritus of terrestrial origin) showed distinct delta C-13 signatures, which allowed for a powerful discrimination of carbon sources. Both autochthonous (C-13-enriched signatures) and allochthonous (C-13-depleted signatures) resources enter the food ...

  17. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in an...

  18. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  19. University-Industry Collaboration from a Relationship Marketing Perspective: An Empirical Analysis in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquet, Marta; Calderon, Haydee; Cervera, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Building relationships between universities and industry bodies is of prime importance for creating value for universities' stakeholders. This paper focuses on relationships in relation to undergraduate internship programmes in the Social Sciences. Using the relationship marketing approach, we analyze this type of collaboration of firms with a…

  20. An analysis of relationships among transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in two Turkish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Mehmet; Tarcan, Menderes; Tekingündüz, Sabahattin; Hikmet, Neşet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among employee organizational commitment, organizational trust, job satisfaction and employees' perceptions of their immediate supervisors' transformational leadership behaviors in Turkey. First, this study examined the relationships among organizational commitment, organizational trust, job satisfaction and transformational leadership in two Turkish public hospitals. Second, this investigation examined how job satisfaction, organizational trust and transformational leadership affect organizational commitment. Moreover, it was aimed to investigate how organizational commitment, job satisfaction and transformational leadership affect organizational trust. A quantitative, cross-sectional method, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. Eight hundred four employees from two public hospitals in Turkey were recruited for collecting data. The overall response rate was 38.14%. The measurement instruments of survey were the Job Satisfaction Survey (developed by P. Spector), the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (developed by J. Meyer and N. Allen), the Organizational Trust Inventory-short form (developed by L. Cummings and P. Bromiley) and the Transformational Leadership Inventory (TLI) (developed by P. M. Podsakoff). Five-point Likert scales were used in these measurement instruments. Correlation test (the Pearson's rank test) was used to examine relationships between variables. Also, multiple regression analysis was used to determine the regressors for organizational commitment and organizational trust. There were significant relationships among overall job satisfaction, overall transformational leadership and organizational trust. Regression analyses showed that organizational trust and two job satisfaction dimensions (contingent rewards and communication) were significant predictors for organizational commitment. It was found that one transformational leadership dimension (articulating

  1. Investigation of Antileishmanial Activities of Acridines Derivatives against Promastigotes and Amastigotes Form of Parasites Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Chtita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a search of newer and potent antileishmanial (against promastigotes and amastigotes form of parasites drug, a series of 60 variously substituted acridines derivatives were subjected to a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR analysis for studying, interpreting, and predicting activities and designing new compounds by using multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN methods. The used descriptors were computed with Gaussian 03, ACD/ChemSketch, Marvin Sketch, and ChemOffice programs. The QSAR models developed were validated according to the principles set up by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. The principal component analysis (PCA has been used to select descriptors that show a high correlation with activities. The univariate partitioning (UP method was used to divide the dataset into training and test sets. The multiple linear regression (MLR method showed a correlation coefficient of 0.850 and 0.814 for antileishmanial activities against promastigotes and amastigotes forms of parasites, respectively. Internal and external validations were used to determine the statistical quality of QSAR of the two MLR models. The artificial neural network (ANN method, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.933 and 0.918 with 7-3-1 and 6-3-1 ANN models architecture for antileishmanial activities against promastigotes and amastigotes forms of parasites, respectively. The applicability domain of MLR models was investigated using simple and leverage approaches to detect outliers and outsides compounds. The effects of different descriptors in the activities were described and used to study and design new compounds with higher activities compared to the existing ones.

  2. The mean–variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H.; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed. PMID:26236216

  3. The mean-variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed.

  4. The relationship between materialism and personal well-being: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Bond, Rod; Hurst, Megan; Kasser, Tim

    2014-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between individuals' materialistic orientation and their personal well-being. Theoretical approaches in psychology agree that prioritizing money and associated aims is negatively associated with individuals' well-being but differ in their implications for whether this is invariably the case. To address these and other questions, we examined 753 effect sizes from 259 independent samples. Materialism was associated with significantly lower well-being for the most widely used, multifaceted measures (materialist values and beliefs, r = -.19, ρ = -.24; relative importance of materialist goals, r = -.16, ρ = -.21), more than for measures assessing emphasis on money alone (rs = -.08 to -.11, ρs = -.09 to -.14). The relationship also depended on type of well-being outcome, with largest effects for risky health and consumer behaviors and for negative self-appraisals (rs = -.28 to -.44, ρs = -.32 to -.53) and weakest effects for life satisfaction and negative affect (rs = -.13 to -.15, ρs = -.17 to -.18). Moderator analyses revealed that the strength of the effect depended on certain demographic factors (gender and age), on value context (study/work environments that support materialistic values and cultures that emphasize affective autonomy), and on cultural economic indicators (economic growth and wealth differentials). Mediation analyses suggested that the negative link may be explained by poor psychological need satisfaction. We discuss implications for the measurement of materialist values and the need for theoretical and empirical advances to explore underlying processes, which likely will require more experimental, longitudinal, and developmental research.

  5. Application of the Gini correlation coefficient to infer regulatory relationships in transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-09-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey's biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses.

  6. Application of the Gini Correlation Coefficient to Infer Regulatory Relationships in Transcriptome Analysis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey’s biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses. PMID:22797655

  7. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S Burall

    Full Text Available In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra analysis plots standardized (z-score tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2. This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993-1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as

  8. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Concentrations of Microcystins in Water and Fish

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    Natalie M. Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, the primary bloom-forming organisms in fresh water, elicit a spectrum of problems in lentic systems. The most immediate concern for people and animals are cyanobacterial toxins, which have been detected at variable concentrations in water and fish around the world. Cyanotoxins can transfer through food webs, potentially increasing the risk of exposure to people who eat fish from affected waters, yet little is known about how cyanotoxins fluctuate in wild fish tissues. We collated existing studies on cyanotoxins in fish and fresh water from lakes around the world into a global dataset to test the hypothesis that cyanotoxin concentrations in fish increase with water toxin concentrations. We limited our quantitative analysis to microcystins because data on other cyanotoxins in fish were sparse, but we provided a qualitative summary of other cyanotoxins reported in wild, freshwater fish tissues. We found a positive relationship between intracellular microcystin in water samples and microcystin in fish tissues that had been analyzed by assay methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein phosphatase inhibition assay. We expected microcystin to be found in increasingly higher concentrations from carnivorous to omnivorous to planktivorous fishes. We found, however, that omnivores generally had the highest tissue microcystin concentrations. Additionally, we found contrasting results for the level of microcystin in different tissue types depending on the toxin analysis method. Because microcystin and other cyanotoxins have the potential to impact public health, our results underline the current need for comprehensive and uniform detection methods for the analysis of cyanotoxins in complex matrices.

  9. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA: taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in two fish taxa (Pisces: Mugilidae and Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semina, A V; Polyakova, N E; Brykov, Vl A

    2007-12-01

    To solve some systematic questions as well as to study genetic variability and evolutionary relationships in two groups of fish belonging to the Mugilid (Mugilidae) and Cyprinid (Cyprinidae) families, we have used restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction. The analysis of three mtDNA fragments of 7220 bp total length of six Mugilid species has shown that Mediterranean Liza aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens, and Chelon labrosus form a common cluster, L. aurata and C. labrosus being the closest relatives, whereas L. haematocheilus (syn. C. haematocheilus) of the Sea of Japan forms a sister group to the Mediterranean cluster. It was found that Chelon and Liza genera are paraphyletic, and therefore their division into two genera is unnatural and they should be synonymized. According to priority, Liza species should be ascribed to Chelon genus. Mugil cephalus is the most distant compared to the rest of the species studied. The level of genetic divergence between allopatric samples of M. cephalus from the Sea of Japan and the Mediterranean Sea has proved to be very high--4.5% of nucleotide substitutions. The analysis of four mtDNA fragments of 9340 bp total length of six Cyprinid species has shown that L. waleckii is the most genetically distant. Pseudaspius leptocephalus is a sister group to Tribolodon species. All Tribolodon species form a common cluster with T. sachalinensis as a root. The remaining species form two branches, one of which includes T. nakamurai and T. brandtii, another one combines T. hakonensis and a new form of Tribolodon revealed that is close to T. hakonensis by its mtDNA (2.4% of nucleotide substitutions). This new form might be an independent species.

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2012-09-21

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced C(α) representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family's phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: (1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and (2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the α-amylase, D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal mode analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of Environmental Conditions to Filariasis Cases in Community (An Advanced Analysis of Basic Health Research 2007

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    Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis (elephantiasis disease in Indonesia is still a health problems, there are still areas with the patient chronic and acute. A total of 1553 villages in 647 health centers scattered in 231 districts in 26 provinces as the location of the endemic, with a number of chronic cases of 6233 people. Elimination program disease elephantiasis has been undertaken by the government, but until today there are still many areas with the number of microfilariae (Mf rate is still high (> 1%. One of the government's efforts in this regard Litbangkes RI in collecting basic data, including data filariasis is with the activities of the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas conducted simultaneously across Indonesia. Based on the results of data collection Riskesdas then further analysis is to look at the environmental conditions and demographic status associated with the incidence of filariasis. Based on the results of analysis show that there were a statistically significant relationship between the type of waste water reservoirs; types of sewage systems and types of livestock kept, the classification of villages with the incidence of filariasis.

  12. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

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    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  14. THE COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIP IN BASKETBALL. ANALYSIS OF THE ANTECEDENTS, COMPONENTS AND OUTCOMES

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    Jos\\u00E9 M. S\\u00E1nchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the coach-athlete relationship by analyzing the determinants of the quality of that relationship, the components emerged from previous constraints and the outcomes of the relationship. We accomplished a qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews with a total of 4 dyads (2 coaches and 4 players selected deliberately. The data obtained suggested that the coach-athlete relationship in basketball is organized into three layers: a relationship antecedent variables (coach's and athlete's behaviour and values wanted, b components (behaviours, feelings, cognitions, improvement and maintenance strategies, and management of differences and c the consequences or outcomes (the coach and the player. In conclusion, we found that the different antecedents determine the components of the relationship, generating, in the case of positive relationships, satisfaction, wellbeing and performance, representing a personal and professional growth in both members of the dyad.

  15. Relationship between impulsivity, hyperactivity and working memory: a differential analysis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellu-Hagedorn Françoise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is a behavioural trait that comprises several distinct processes. It is a key feature of many psychopathologies such as mania, addictive disorders or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. To date, the aspects of impulsiveness involved in these pathologies have not yet been explicitly defined. In these disorders, sensation or drug seeking and cognitive deficits are closely related, but the nature of these relationships remains largely unknown. A new animal model of impulsiveness based on spontaneous inter-individual differences is proposed here to help clarify the relationship between characteristic aspects of impulsive-related pathologies. Methods Rats were divided into sub-groups according to their scores in three operant tasks with varying degrees of behavioural inhibition, timing and motor vs. cognitive impulsivity demands. These tasks included a fixed consecutive number schedule (ability to complete an action to receive a reinforcer, a multiple fixed-interval/extinction schedule of reinforcement (high level of responding, and a delayed reward task (delay discounting. In addition, measurements of locomotor responses to novelty and to amphetamine in a circular corridor, and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze were obtained. Results Substantial behavioural inter-individual differences were observed in each task, whereas few inter-task relationships were found. Impulsive rats, as defined in a task requiring inhibition of premature responses, presented a higher increase in amphetamine-induced locomotion. Reduced working memory performance was only observed in hyperactive rats in an extinction schedule. Conclusion This novel approach shows that distinct aspects of impulsiveness and hyperactivity can be expressed based on large inter-individual differences that vary from poorly to highly adapted behaviours ones in a normal population of rats. Inhibitory deficit was related to a higher response to

  16. Analysis Relationship Among Descriptor, References and Citation to Contruct the Inherent Structure of Document Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Zainal A.; Mustangimah

    2001-01-01

    There are many characteristics can be used to identify a document which cover characteristics of the documents, cited documents, and citing documents This research explored the inherent structure of a document collection as one of main components of information retrieval system. The characteristics examined are: descriptors, references (cited documents), and citations (citing documents). Three independent variables were studied: co-descriptor, bibliographic coupling, and co-citation. A test collection was constructed by searching on a single descriptor i nformation retrieval i n the CD-ROM version of Education Resource Information Clearinghouse (ERIC), covering the period 1981 through 1985. Descriptors were extracted from ERIC; cited and citing documents associated with the test collection were derived from Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), covering the period 1981 through 1990. Three hypothesis were tested in this study, that are: (1) the higher the frequency of co-descriptors between documents, the higher the frequencies of their bibliographic coupling and co-citation; (2) the higher the frequency of bibliographic coupling between documents, the higher the frequencies of their co-citation and co-descriptors; and (3) the higher the frequency of co-citation between documents, the higher the frequencies of their co-descriptors and bibliographic coupling. The results showed that all of three hypothesis are supported statistically and there is a significant linear relationship among the observed variables. It is mean that there is a significant relationship among descriptors, references, and citation, so that it can be used to construct the inherent structure of document collection in order to improve information retrieval system performance

  17. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of maxillary anterior teeth proportion in relationship with lower facial height and malocclusion

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    Rajesh Gyawali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Maxillary anterior tooth to tooth proportion has a special value in dental esthetics. This study aimed to assess the apparent proportion of maxillary anteriors and possible association with lower anterior facial height and malocclusion type. Materials & Methods: One-hundred and sixty samples with well aligned maxillary dentition were selected and the lower anterior facial height was measured with digital caliper. Molar relationship was examined and intraoral frontal photograph was taken for digital measurement of tooth proportion. The ratio of maxillary canine to lateral and lateral to central incisors were measured and compared between gender and the sides. These ratios were further compared among various malocclusion type using ANOVA and its association with lower anterior facial height was evaluated with Pearson’s correlation.Results: Most of the samples had Class I molar relationship (70% followed by Class II (23% and Class III (7%. The mean lower anterior facial height was 62.82mm and ratio of maxillary lateral to central incisor and canine to lateral incisor was 0.68 and 0.76 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found when the ratio was compared between the gender and the sides. These ratios were statistically different from the golden ratio and has no significant correlation with lower anterior facial height. These mean ratios were also found similar across the malocclusion type.Conclusion: Ratio of apparent dimension of maxillary canine to lateral incisor and lateral to central incisor was different from the golden ratio and showed no association with lower anterior facial height and malocclusion type.

  19. meta-analysis of the Relationship between Passive Smoking Population in China and Lung Cancer

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    Hui ZHAO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Studies of passive smoking exposure in China however are of particular interest, because of the high lung cancer rate in people who are mostly non-smokers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese. Methods By searching Medline, PubMed, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, CBM, CNKI and VIP, et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents between 1987 and 2007 on passive smoking and lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct meta-analysis on the case control study results, and the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results Sixteen documents were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that there was statistical significance between passive smoking and lung cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.05-1.21, P=0.001. It was significant of lung cancer among non-smoking subjects associated with amount of tobacco passively smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, with life period in adulthood passive smoking exposure, with gender female, and with exposure to workplace. The P value, OR and 95%CI were P=0.000 3, OR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.30-2.43; P=0.000 1, OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.23-1.83; P=0.000 7, OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.19-1.90; P<0.000 1, OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.19-1.66; respectively. And there was no significant difference between passive smoking and lung cancer with amount of tobacco passively smoked within 20 cigarettes daily, with life period in childhood passive smoking exposure, with gender male and with exposure to spouse and parents. Conclusion Passive smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese, and for non-smoking women who expose to environment tobacco smoke in a long period of time have a close relationship with lung cancer risk.

  20. The Relationships Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load and Intensity in Team Sports: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or

  1. The relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the distribution of body fluid: assessment by bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.

  2. Computational methods for analysis and inference of kinase/inhibitor relationships

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    Fabrizio eFerrè

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The central role of kinases in virtually all signal transduction networks is the driving motivation for the development of compounds modulating their activity. ATP-mimetic inhibitors are essential tools for elucidating signaling pathways and are emerging as promising therapeutic agents. However, off-target ligand binding and complex and sometimes unexpected kinase/inhibitor relationships can occur for seemingly unrelated kinases, stressing that computational approaches are needed for learning the interaction determinants and for the inference of the effect of small compounds on a given kinase. Recently published high-throughput profiling studies assessed the effects of thousands of small compound inhibitors, covering a substantial portion of the kinome. This wealth of data paved the road for computational resources and methods that can offer a major contribution in understanding the reasons of the inhibition, helping in the rational design of more specific molecules, in the in silico prediction of inhibition for those neglected kinases for which no systematic analysis has been carried yet, in the selection of novel inhibitors with desired selectivity, and offering novel avenues of personalized therapies.

  3. Brief analysis on relationship between red beds and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zengxian

    2006-01-01

    Red beds are sandy gravel beds deposited under the arid and hot climates and correspondent to the oxidation environment of continental basins. As an exogenetic epigenetic uranium deposit, the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit needs a large chronologic gap between the diagenesis and the subsequent uranium metallogenesis of the ore-hosting target layer with a sedimentary discontinuity and an alternative humid-arid climate. Red beds are the product of this time. The evolutionary times of red beds are in accordance with the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit. Both domestic and abroad researches indicate that each times evolution of a red bed might be associated with uranium ore-formation in one or more sandstone layers in the region. In China, red beds are developed in many geologic periods, but sandstone-type uranium mineralization occurs mostly in Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Taking five known sandstone-type uranium deposits as examples, the author makes a primary analysis on the relationship between red beds and the subsequent sandstone-type uranium mineralization. It is suggested that the deposition of red beds and sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis are of 'cogenesis and coexistence' and that the deposition of red beds and its evolutionary times can be regarded as the prerequisites to judge the potential of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin. (authors)

  4. Predicting biomaterial property-dendritic cell phenotype relationships from the multivariate analysis of responses to polymethacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Peng Meng; Pallassana, Narayanan; Bowden, Rebeca; Cunningham, Barry; Joy, Abraham; Kohn, Joachim; Babensee, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in orchestrating the host responses to a wide variety of foreign antigens and are essential in maintaining immune tolerance. Distinct biomaterials have been shown to differentially affect the phenotype of DCs, which suggested that biomaterials may be used to modulate immune response towards the biologic component in combination products. The elucidation of biomaterial property-DC phenotype relationships is expected to inform rational design of immuno-modulatory biomaterials. In this study, DC response to a set of 12 polymethacrylates (pMAs) was assessed in terms of surface marker expression and cytokine profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) determined that surface carbon correlated with enhanced DC maturation, while surface oxygen was associated with an immature DC phenotype. Partial square linear regression, a multivariate modeling approach, was implemented and successfully predicted biomaterial-induced DC phenotype in terms of surface marker expression from biomaterial properties with R2prediction = 0.76. Furthermore, prediction of DC phenotype was effective based on only theoretical chemical composition of the bulk polymers with R2prediction = 0.80. These results demonstrated that immune cell response can be predicted from biomaterial properties, and computational models will expedite future biomaterial design and selection. PMID:22136715

  5. Deconstructing the power resistance relationship for squats: A joint-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, D J; Lichtwark, G A; Brown, N A T; Cresswell, A G

    2016-07-01

    Generating high leg power outputs is important for executing rapid movements. Squats are commonly used to increase leg strength and power. Therefore, it is useful to understand factors affecting power output in squatting. We aimed to deconstruct the mechanisms behind why power is maximized at certain resistances in squatting. Ten male rowers (age = 20 ± 2.2 years; height = 1.82 ± 0.03 m; mass = 86 ± 11 kg) performed maximal power squats with resistances ranging from body weight to 80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM). Three-dimensional kinematics was combined with ground reaction force (GRF) data in an inverse dynamics analysis to calculate leg joint moments and powers. System center of mass (COM) velocity and power were computed from GRF data. COM power was maximized across a range of resistances from 40% to 60% 1RM. This range was identified because a trade-off in hip and knee joint powers existed across this range, with maximal knee joint power occurring at 40% 1RM and maximal hip joint power at 60% 1RM. A non-linear system force-velocity relationship was observed that dictated large reductions in COM power below 20% 1RM and above 60% 1RM. These reductions were due to constraints on the control of the movement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of 3-phenylcoumarin-Based Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamäki, Sanna; Postila, Pekka A.; Niinivehmas, Sanna; Kortet, Sami; Schildt, Emmi; Pasanen, Mira; Manivannan, Elangovan; Ahinko, Mira; Koskimies, Pasi; Nyberg, Niina; Huuskonen, Pasi; Multamäki, Elina; Pasanen, Markku; Juvonen, Risto O.; Raunio, Hannu; Huuskonen, Juhani; Pentikäinen, Olli T.

    2018-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) catalyzes deamination of monoamines such as neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Accordingly, small-molecule MAO-B inhibitors potentially alleviate the symptoms of dopamine-linked neuropathologies such as depression or Parkinson’s disease. Coumarin with a functionalized 3-phenyl ring system is a promising scaffold for building potent MAO-B inhibitors. Here, a vast set of 3-phenylcoumarin derivatives was designed using virtual combinatorial chemistry or rationally de novo and synthesized using microwave chemistry. The derivatives inhibited the MAO-B at 100 nM - 1 µM. The IC50 value of the most potent derivative 1 was 56 nM. A docking-based structure-activity relationship analysis summarizes the atom-level determinants of the MAO-B inhibition by the derivatives. Finally, the cross-reactivity of the derivatives was tested against monoamine oxidase A and a specific subset of enzymes linked to estradiol metabolism, known to have coumarin-based inhibitors. Overall, the results indicate that the 3-phenylcoumarins, especially derivative 1, present unique pharmacological features worth considering in future drug development.

  8. A statistical analysis of mineral relationships in a Witwatersrand gold placer at Randfontein Estates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Proterozoic 'Composite Reef' on the Randfontein Estates Gold Mine, is a proximal Witwatersrand braided-stream placer, in which pyrite, chromite, zircon, uraninite, and gold are the more common detrital minerals. They range in concentration from a few ppm to over 3 per cent. Optimum concentration of these minerals occurs on scour- and pebble-armoured surfaces, in conglomerate gravel bars, and in trough cross-bedded quartz-arenites. The distribution of gold is, however, complex and the relative proportions of the detrital minerals change from one depositional situation to another. The abundance of detrital and other related minerals was monitored geochemically and quantitatively indicates the prevalence of optimal placer concentration situations in preserved depositional subenvironments of the 'Composite Reef'. The relationships between 20 elements were determined by using an R-mode factor-analysis of the geochemical data. The elements load on to chalcophile, detrital oxide, hydrothermal and clay factors, suggesting the consanguinity of four subsets of elements. A multiple linear regression of gold against the other elements provides the framework for an improved prediction of gold where only very small or single samples are available. The method uses many elements in a single sample to achieve statistical reliability, as opposed to the geostatistical method where many samples of a single element are analysed. The regression equation demonstrates the geochemical validity of the geological-response model for optimum gold mineralization

  9. Relationship between Insulin Levels and Nonpsychotic Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-xia Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore the relationship between insulin levels and nonpsychotic dementia. Methods. Six electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane, SCI, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang were searched from January 1, 2007, to March 1, 2017. Experimental or observational studies that enrolled people with nonpsychotic dementia or abnormal insulin levels in which insulin levels or MMSE scores (events in nonpsychotic dementia were the outcome measures. Random-effects models were chosen for this meta-analysis. Sample size, mean, s.d., and events were primarily used to generate effect sizes (with the PRIMA registration number CRD42017069860. Results. 50 articles met the final inclusion criteria. Insulin levels in cerebrospinal fluid were lower (Hedges’ g = 1.196, 95% CI = 0.238 to 2.514, and P=0.014, while the levels in peripheral blood were higher in nonpsychotic dementia patients (Hedges’ g = 0.853 and 95% CI = 0.579 to 1.127, and MMSE scores were significantly lower in the high insulin group than in the healthy control group (Hedges’ g = 0.334, 95% CI = 0.249 to 0.419, and P=0.000. Conclusions. Our comprehensive results indicate that blood insulin levels may increase in patients with nonpsychotic dementia.

  10. A meta-analysis of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2018-06-01

     Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.  Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Integrative qualitative communication analysis of consultation and patient and practitioner perspectives: towards a theory of authentic caring in clinical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Mendick, Nicola; Young, Bridget

    2011-03-01

    We developed a method whereby relationships can be studied simultaneously from the perspectives of each party and researchers' observations of their dialogue. Then we used this method to study how to recognise authentic, caring clinical relationships. Participants were 20 patients who had recently received surgery for breast cancer and nine surgeons with whom they had a post-operative consultation. We audiorecorded consultations, before interviewing patients and surgeons about their perceptions of the consultation and each other. Cross-case qualitative analyses (analysing consultations and surgeon and patient interviews, respectively) were supplemented by integrative, within-case analysis. Surgeons and patients described their relationship as personal and emotional, but emotional talk was absent from consultations. For patients and surgeons, their relationship depended, instead, on surgeons' expertise and character. Our integrative approach suggested that authentic caring in these relationships lay in practitioners' conscientious execution of their role and, contrary to currently influential views, not in an explicit emotional engagement. Relationships between patients and practitioners cannot be described adequately using analyses of interactions between them. Researchers will need to triangulate between these observations and the patient and practitioner perspectives in order to understand what makes for authentically caring relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance: meta-analysis and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Giovanni Rosero Villabón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research about the relationship between the level of social responsibility (CSR of an organization and the corresponding financial and economic performance (FP has been a task that has more than 30 years. More than 25 meta-analysis or study summaries have been developed, that analyze up to 186 studies. The paper presents in detail the most recognized figures and what has been the evolution of research in this area of knowledge. Both social responsibility and financial performance variables, frequently used by researchers are identified. In these investigations a positive relationship between csr and fp is tested. A few claim that the relationship is not strong or relevant; and fewer states that the relationship is negative.

  13. UPLC-MS/MS analysis for antioxidant components of Lycii Fructus based on spectrum-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Fei; Chen, Juan; Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Lycii Fructus is widely cultivated in the Northwest China. It is well-known for its antiaging effect in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), but the effective components are not clear. In this work, the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to study the antioxidant components of Lycii Fructus through analyzing the spectrum-effect relationship, and the positive correlation components with antioxidant activity were partially identified. The extractums of Lycii Fructus were adsorbed with macroporous resin, and then eluted with water and 30%, 60%, 90% ethanol in turn. The extract fraction eluted with 60% ethanol was determined as the best, and was taken for subsequent experiments. With the above separation method, UPLC fingerprints of thirty batches of Lycii Fructus (from different areas) were obtained, and thirty common peaks were selected through similarity analysis (SA). Combined with the data of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assays, the spectrum-effect relationship was studied. The results showed that the main peaks with antioxidant activity were P14, P26, P8, and P21 for DPPH, and P26, P14, P21, and P19 for ABTS. Using the UPLC-MS/MS data, peaks P14, P19, P21, and P30 were respectively identified as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, and then the results were confirmed through comparison with the standards and other references. Finally, their strong antioxidant activities were validated experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

    2008-03-01

    Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Multiple Matched Copy Number and Transcriptomics Data Sets for Inferring Gene Regulatory Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Inferring gene regulatory relationships from observational data is challenging. Manipulation and intervention is often required to unravel causal relationships unambiguously. However, gene copy number changes, as they frequently occur in cancer cells, might be considered natural manipulation experiments on gene expression. An increasing number of data sets on matched array comparative genomic hybridisation and transcriptomics experiments from a variety of cancer pathologies are becoming publicly available. Here we explore the potential of a meta-analysis of thirty such data sets. The aim of our analysis was to assess the potential of in silico inference of trans-acting gene regulatory relationships from this type of data. We found sufficient correlation signal in the data to infer gene regulatory relationships, with interesting similarities between data sets. A number of genes had highly correlated copy number and expression changes in many of the data sets and we present predicted potential trans-acted regulatory relationships for each of these genes. The study also investigates to what extent heterogeneity between cell types and between pathologies determines the number of statistically significant predictions available from a meta-analysis of experiments. PMID:25148247

  16. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Ptest showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  17. Analysis of agency relationships in the design and implementation process of the equity fund in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayako

    2015-02-04

    There are large gaps in the literature relating to the implementation of user fee policy and fee exemption measures for the poor, particularly on how such schemes are implemented and why many have not produced expected outcomes. In October 2003, Madagascar instituted a user fee exemption policy which established "equity funds" at public health centres, and used medicine sales revenue to subsidise the cost of medicine for the poor. This study examines the policy design and implementation process of the equity fund in Madagascar in an attempt to explore factors influencing the poor equity outcomes of the scheme. This study applied an agency-incentive framework to investigate the equity fund policy design and implementation practices. It analysed agency relationships established during implementation; examined incentive structures given to the agency relationships in the policy design; and considered how incentive structures were shaped and how agents responded in practice. The study employed a case-study approach with in-depth analysis of three equity fund cases in Madagascar's Boeny region. Policy design problems, triggering implementation problems, caused poor equity performance. These problems were compounded by the re-direction of policy objectives by health administrators and strong involvement of the administrators in the implementation of policy. The source of the policy design and implementation failure was identified as a set of principal-agent problems concerning: monitoring mechanisms; facility-based fund management; and the nature and level of community participation. These factors all contributed to the financial performance of the fund receiving greater attention than its ability to financially protect the poor. The ability of exemption policies to protect the poor from user fees can be found in the details of the policy design and implementation; and implications of the policy design and implementation in a specific context determine whether a policy

  18. A big data analysis of the relationship between future thinking and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstad, Robert; Wolff, Phillip

    2018-02-20

    We use big data methods to investigate how decision-making might depend on future sightedness (that is, on how far into the future people's thoughts about the future extend). In study 1, we establish a link between future thinking and decision-making at the population level in showing that US states with citizens having relatively far future sightedness, as reflected in their tweets, take fewer risks than citizens in states having relatively near future sightedness. In study 2, we analyze people's tweets to confirm a connection between future sightedness and decision-making at the individual level in showing that people with long future sightedness are more likely to choose larger future rewards over smaller immediate rewards. In study 3, we show that risk taking decreases with increases in future sightedness as reflected in people's tweets. The ability of future sightedness to predict decisions suggests that future sightedness is a relatively stable cognitive characteristic. This implication was supported in an analysis of tweets by over 38,000 people that showed that future sightedness has both state and trait characteristics (study 4). In study 5, we provide evidence for a potential mechanism by which future sightedness can affect decisions in showing that far future sightedness can make the future seem more connected to the present, as reflected in how people refer to the present, past, and future in their tweets over the course of several minutes. Our studies show how big data methods can be applied to naturalistic data to reveal underlying psychological properties and processes.

  19. Factors Associated With Financial Relationships Between Spine Surgeons and Industry: An Analysis of the Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Joseph A; Cook, Ralph W; Hashmi, Sohaib; Schallmo, Michael S; Chun, Danielle S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-09-15

    A retrospective review of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Database. Utilizing Open Payments data, we aimed to determine the prevalence of industry payments to orthopedic and neurospine surgeons, report the magnitude of those relationships, and help outline the surgeon demographic factors associated with industry relationships. Previous Open Payments data revealed that orthopedic surgeons receive the highest value of industry payments. No study has investigated the financial relationship between spine surgeons and industry using the most recent release of Open Payments data. A database of 5898 spine surgeons in the United States was derived from the Open Payments website. Demographic data were collected, including the type of residency training, years of experience, practice setting, type of medical degree, place of training, gender, and region of practice. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were utilized to determine the relationship between demographics and industry payments. A total of 5898 spine surgeons met inclusion criteria. About 91.6% of surgeons reported at least one financial relationship with industry. The median total value of payments was $994.07. Surgeons receiving over $1,000,000 from industry during the reporting period represented 6.6% of the database and accounted for 83.5% of the total value exchanged. Orthopedic training (P regression analysis revealed a strong inverse relationship between years of experience and number of payments from industry (r = -0.967, P Financial relationships between spine surgeons and industry are highly prevalent. Surgeon demographics have a significant association with industry-surgeon financial relationships. Our reported value of payments did not include ownership or research payments and thus likely underestimates the magnitude of these financial relationships. 3.

  20. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  1. Exploring the Relationships between Tutor Background, Tutor Training, and Student Learning: A Problem-Based Learning Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…

  2. Relationships between mastitis and functional longevity in Danish Black and White dairy cattle estimated using survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis

  3. The Relationship between Bible Literacy and Behavioral and Academic Outcomes in Urban Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis is undertaken, including 11 studies, to determine whether there is a relationship between Bible knowledge on one hand and academic and behavioral outcomes on the other among those living in urban areas. The results indicate that increased Bible knowledge is associated with higher levels of student academic achievement and positive…

  4. An entropy based analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Index and the TRNA Sentiment series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper features an analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Industrial Average Index (DJIA) and a sentiment news series using daily data obtained from the Thomson Reuters News Analytics (TRNA)1 provided by SIRCA (The Securities Industry Research Centre of the Asia Pacic).

  5. A meta-analysis of the relationship of academic performance and Social Network Site use among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lui, Dong; Kirschner, Paul A.; Karpinski, Aryn

    2018-01-01

    This meta-analysis explores the relationship between SNS-use and academic performance. Examination of the literature containing quantitative measurements of both SNS-use and academic performance produced a sample of 28 effects sizes (N ¼ 101,441) for review. Results indicated a significant

  6. Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (MCBIOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Jie Liu1,2, Richard Judson1, Matthew T. Martin1, Huixiao Hong3, Imran Shah1 1National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), US EPA, RTP, NC...

  7. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  8. A Historical and Jurisprudential Analysis of Suzerain-Vassal State Relationships in the Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiming

    2006-01-01

    Studies of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty have been a focus of domestic and overseas academic circles.This paper examines the origins,semiotics,and legal principles of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty with some innovative viewpoints.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Yilmaz Ilker; Colak, Ibrahim; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Given the inconsistency among research studies on the relationship between burnout and job satisfaction of teachers in Turkey, it is of great importance to combine and interpret the results of such studies. In this regard, this study aims to examine the size and direction of relationships between job satisfaction and dimensions of…

  10. Interorganizational Relationships Between Schools of Social Work and Field Agencies: Testing a Framework for Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Globerman, Judith

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 62 social-work field educators investigated factors associated with effective interorganizational relationships, examining relationships between three categories of agencies and the university on four dimensions: commitment to education; organizational supports/resources; interpersonal relations; and collaborative/reciprocal…

  11. Social relationships and cognitive decline : a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jisca S.; Zuidersma, Marij; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Smidt, Nynke

    Background: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  12. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.S.; Zuidersma, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Burgerhof, J.G.; Stolk, R.P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Smidt, N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  13. Analysis of influential factors for the relationship between PM2.5 and AOD in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Caiwang; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhu, Yannian; Wang, Yang; Shi, Xiaoqin; Wu, Xiaolin; Chen, Tianmeng; Wu, Fang; Qiu, Yanmei

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 is often investigated in order to obtain surface PM2.5 from satellite observation of AOD with a broad area coverage. However, various factors could affect the AOD-PM2.5 regressions. Using both ground and satellite observations in Beijing from 2011 to 2015, this study analyzes the influential factors including the aerosol type, relative humidity (RH), planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), wind speed and direction, and the vertical structure of aerosol distribution. The ratio of PM2.5 to AOD, which is defined as η, and the square of their correlation coefficient (R2) have been examined. It shows that η varies from 54.32 to 183.14, 87.32 to 104.79, 95.13 to 163.52, and 1.23 to 235.08 µg m-3 with aerosol type in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively. η is smaller for scattering-dominant aerosols than for absorbing-dominant aerosols, and smaller for coarse-mode aerosols than for fine-mode aerosols. Both RH and PBLH affect the η value significantly. The higher the RH, the smaller the η, and the higher the PBLH, the smaller the η. For AOD and PM2.5 data with the correction of RH and PBLH compared to those without, R2 of monthly averaged PM2.5 and AOD at 14:00 LT increases from 0.63 to 0.76, and R2 of multi-year averaged PM2.5 and AOD by time of day increases from 0.01 to 0.93, 0.24 to 0.84, 0.85 to 0.91, and 0.84 to 0.93 in four seasons respectively. Wind direction is a key factor for the transport and spatial-temporal distribution of aerosols originated from different sources with distinctive physicochemical characteristics. Similar to the variation in AOD and PM2.5, η also decreases with the increasing surface wind speed, indicating that the contribution of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD decreases with surface wind speed. The vertical structure of aerosol exhibits a remarkable change with seasons, with most particles concentrated within about 500 m in summer and within 150 m in winter

  14. The relationship between emotional regulation and eating behaviour: a multidimensional analysis of obesity psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micanti, Fausta; Iasevoli, Felice; Cucciniello, Claudia; Costabile, Raimondo; Loiarro, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Giuseppe; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Rossetti, GianLuca; Galletta, Diana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the differences among eating behaviours are related to the emotional dysregulation connected to the mental dimensions being part of the obese psychopathology. Eating behaviours can be considered a diagnostic feature at the initial screening for determining the obesity treatment: nutritional or bariatric surgery. 1828 Obese subjects underwent psychiatric assessment before entering obesity nutritional treatment or bariatric surgery following the multidisciplinary programme. 1121 subjects were selected and enrolled in this study: 850 were inpatients visited or hospitalised at the Obesity Centre or at the Bariatric Surgery Units, 271 were outpatients visited at the Eating Disorder and Obesity Unit. Psychiatric examination was used to exclude psychiatric disorders and investigate eating behaviours distinguished on the basis of food intake rhythm in: gorging, snacking, grazing and binge. They are related to the mental dimensions: impulsiveness, body image, mood and anxiety, taking part in the emotional regulation system. Specific psychometric tools were used to investigate the different mental dimensions of the single eating behaviours and their differences. Statistical analysis of the psychopathological features was performed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, Levene test, Bonferroni's and Tamhane post hoc test. Significance was set at p analysis shows significant differences of psychopathology among all the eating behaviours and an increase in the emotional dysregulation determining maladaptive behaviours. Eating behaviours are connected to the balance of the different features of mental dimensions implicated in the emotional regulation system. They could provide significant clinical information and therefore be part of the obesity diagnostic criteria and therapeutic programme.

  15. Relationships between some Thai cultivars of pineapple (Ananas comosus revealed by RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siam Popluechai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available RAPD analysis of nine Thai pineapple cultivars, including 'Phulae', 'Sawee', 'Tradsithong', 'Phuket', 'Pattavia', 'Intrachitdang', 'Intrachitkhow', 'Petburi No.1', and 'Nanglae', showed that, of 40 arbitrary 10- mer primers, 17 primers gave 206 DNA fragments ranging from 510 to 4,700 bp. One hundred and forty-five (70.4% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic. RAPD analysis using NTSYS-pc Version 2.01e also showed that the similarity coefficients among the cultivars were 0.643-0. 963. The dendrogram indicated that the cultivars were clustered into 3 groups, consistent with the morphological data. The first group, consisting of 'Phuket', 'Phulae', 'Tradsithong', 'Sawee', and 'Petburi No.1', had morphological characteristics of the Queen group, while those of the second ('Intrachitdang' and 'Intrachitkow' and the third ('Nanglae' and 'Pattavia' groups could be determined morphologically to be members of the Spanish and Cayenne groups, respectively. 'Intrachitdang' and 'Intrachitkow' have similarity coefficient of 0.963, while that of 'Phulae' and 'Phuket' is 0.950. These pairs of cultivars are probably the same cultivars. The morphological differences between them are probably caused by mutations, differences in environment and agricultural practices, or combinations of these factors.

  16. A meta-analysis of the relationships between body checking, body image avoidance, body image dissatisfaction, mood, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Catherine; White, Emily K; Srinivasan, Vamshek J

    2018-04-16

    Body checking (BC) and body image avoidance (BIA) have been proposed as etiological and maintaining mechanisms for eating disorder (ED) pathology. To date, no comprehensive review summarizes the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, or mood/affect. Meta-analyses examined the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect. Gender, publication status, and presence or absence of ED diagnoses were examined as potential moderators. Results showed strong relationships between BC and ED pathology (ρ = 0.588) and BC and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.631) and a moderate relationship between BC and mood/affect (ρ = 0.385). Similarly, results showed strong relationships between BIA and ED pathology (ρ = 0.553) and BIA and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.543) and a moderate relationship between BIA and mood/affect (ρ = 0.392). Overall, limited evidence supported publication bias; however, publication bias may exist in the relationship between BIA and body image dissatisfaction in the literature. Subgroup moderator analyses suggested that gender moderates the strength of the relationships between BC and ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect and between BIA and body image dissatisfaction. Results are consistent with cognitive-behavioral models of ED pathology that suggest BC and BIA are behavioral expressions of overvaluation of weight and shape. Notably, more published research has investigated BC than BIA. Future studies, incorporating methods such as meta-analytic structural equation modeling, should examine these variables to further test cognitive-behavioral models of ED development and maintenance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An empirical analysis on influencing factors on organizational silence and its relationship with employee’s organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Panahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is no doubt that in many organizations, many employees refuse to provide their opinions and comments about the organizational problems. In fact, in many organizations there is a created climate, which often makes employees feel their opinion is not valued. This phenomenon is examined as an organizational silence that by identifying the factors affecting on it we can effectively take steps to eliminate barriers to commenting staff in organizations. In this regard, this paper presents an empirical work conducted on data obtained from 260 employees Payame Noor University of East Azerbaijan Province. These data are analyzed by SPSS software and regression and path analysis tests. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between silence climate dimensions and employee organizational commitment with silence behavior employee. In addition, there is a positive correlation between higher management attitudes and supervisor’s attitudes with workers silent behavior. We have also observed that there is a negative correlation between communication opportunities and organizational commitment with employee silence behavior of employees.

  18. Noise-induced tinnitus using individualized gap detection analysis and its relationship with hyperacusis, anxiety, and spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pace

    Full Text Available Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus((+ and tinnitus((- groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus((- and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus((+ group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus((+ group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments.

  19. The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination-depression relationship among Asian Americans: path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2014-01-01

    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.

  20. Relationships among sense of coherence, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults according to path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2083-2088. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Feeling an Invisible Wall: The Experience of Iranian Women's Marital Relationship After Surgical Menopause: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Om Salimeh Roudi Rasht; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Tirgari, Batool; Nayeri, Nahid Dehaghan; Rayyani, Masoud

    2018-02-16

    Sexual relationships after surgical menopause matter when talking about sex is taboo and marriage is the only justified way to meet sexual needs. In this qualitative research study, 22 surgical menopausal women shared their experiences of sexual/marital relationship after surgery through in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative content analysis technique was used for data analysis. An overarching theme entitled "feeling an invisible wall" reflected this experience. It comprised three categories: (1) declined marital intimacy, (2) disarming, and (3) transformation of societal norms into concerns. This study proposed new contextual information about the marital relationship of Iranian women after surgical menopause that was not openly articulated before and which may be applicable for others in such contexts. Women's main concern was the emotional separation because of the sexual consequences of the surgery. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's concerns, which may alter their marital relationship. They must provide individualized care, education, and support for couples to make thoughtful decisions about rebuilding their sexual relationship. Results may also have implications for psychiatrists, sex/marital therapists, and probably clergy who have the authority to openly address this important issue to the public.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA genomes organization and phylogenetic relationships analysis of eight anemonefishes (pomacentridae: amphiprioninae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlong Li

    Full Text Available Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae Amphiprioninae are a group of 30 valid coral reef fish species with their phylogenetic relationships still under debate. The eight available mitogenomes of anemonefishes were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic tree; six were obtained from this study (Amphiprion clarkii, A. frenatus, A. percula, A. perideraion, A. polymnus and Premnas biaculeatus and two from GenBank (A. bicinctus and A. ocellaris. The seven Amphiprion species represent all four subgenera and P. biaculeatus is the only species from Premnas. The eight mitogenomes of anemonefishes encoded 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two main non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and translation direction basically identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. Among the 13 protein-coding genes, A. ocellaris (AP006017 and A. percula (KJ174497 had the same length in ND5 with 1,866 bp, which were three nucleotides less than the other six anemonefishes. Both structures of ND5, however, could translate to amino acid successfully. Only four mitogenomes had the tandem repeats in D-loop; the tandem repeats were located in downstream after Conserved Sequence Block rather than the upstream and repeated in a simply way. The phylogenetic utility was tested with Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods using all 13 protein-coding genes. The results strongly supported that the subfamily Amphiprioninae was monophyletic and P. biaculeatus should be assigned to the genus Amphiprion. Premnas biaculeatus with the percula complex were revealed to be the ancient anemonefish species. The tree forms of ND1, COIII, ND4, Cytb, Cytb+12S rRNA, Cytb+COI and Cytb+COI+12S rRNA were similar to that 13 protein-coding genes, therefore, we suggested that the suitable single mitochondrial gene for phylogenetic analysis of anemonefishes maybe Cytb. Additional mitogenomes of anemonefishes with a combination of nuclear markers will be useful to

  3. QUANTITAVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS (QSAR OF ANTIMALARIAL 1,10-PHENANTHROLINE DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Hadanu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Electronic Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR analysis of a series of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives as antiplasmodial compounds have been conducted using atomic net charges (q, dipole moment (μ ELUMO, EHOMO, polarizability (α and log P as the descriptors. The descriptors were obtained from computational chemistry method using semi-empirical PM3. Antiplasmodial activities were taken as the activity of the drugs  against  chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FCR3 strain and are presented as the value of ln (1/IC50 where IC50 is an effective concentration inhibiting 50% of the parasite growth. The best model of QSAR model was determine by multiple linear regression method and giving equation of QSAR: ln 1/IC50  =  3.732 + (5.098 qC5 + (7.051 qC7 + (36.696 qC9 + (41.467 qC11 -(135.497 qC12 + (0.332 μ -                    (0.170 α + (0.757 log P. The equation was significant on the 95% level with statistical parameters: n=16; r=0.987; r2= 0.975; SE=0.317;  Fcalc/Ftable = 15.337 and gave the PRESS=0.707. Its means that there were only a relatively few deviations between the experimental and theoretical data of antimalarial activity.   Keywords: QSAR, antimalarial, semi-empirical method, 1,10-phenanthroline.

  4. 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis for determination of phylogenetic relationship among methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K; Tsien, H C; Hanson, R S; DePalma, S R; Scholtz, R; LaRoche, S

    1990-01-01

    16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) of 12 methylotrophic bacteria have been almost completely sequenced to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Methylotrophs that are physiologically related are phylogenetically diverse and are scattered among the purple eubacteria (class Proteobacteria). Group I methylotrophs can be classified in the beta- and the gamma-subdivisions and group II methylotrophs in the alpha-subdivision of the purple eubacteria, respectively. Pink-pigmented facultative and non-pigmented obligate group II methylotrophs form two distinctly separate branches within the alpha-subdivision. The secondary structures of the 16S rRNA sequences of 'Methylocystis parvus' strain OBBP, 'Methylosinus trichosporium' strain OB3b, 'Methylosporovibrio methanica' strain 81Z and Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2 are similar, and these non-pigmented obligate group II methylotrophs form one tight cluster in the alpha-subdivision. The pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs, Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1, Methylobacterium sp. strain DM4 and Methylobacterium organophilum strain XX form another cluster within the alpha-subdivision. Although similar in phenotypic characteristics, Methylobacterium organophilum strain XX and Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 are clearly distinguishable by their 16S rRNA sequences. The group I methylotrophs, Methylophilus methylotrophus strain AS1 and methylotrophic species DM11, which do not utilize methane, are similar in 16S rRNA sequence to bacteria in the beta-subdivision. The methane-utilizing, obligate group I methanotrophs, Methylococcus capsulatus strain BATH and Methylomonas methanica, are placed in the gamma-subdivision. The results demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish and classify the methylotrophic bacteria using 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

  5. Is there a relationship between psychological stress or anxiety and chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain in adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Gorka; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doménech-García, Victor; Berjano, Pedro; Bertozzi, Lucia; Herrero, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    To systematically review and analyze the research evidence linking stress or anxiety to chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain (NSNAP) in adults. Data were obtained from Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and The Cochrane library database from their inception to July 2015. Two authors independently conducted the searches, extracted data, and completed methodological quality assessments. The methodological quality of the cohort and case-control studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, whilst the quality of the Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Twenty-eight studies involving 39,166 participants met the inclusion criteria. Four studies, including 5 pair-wise comparisons, were included in the meta-analysis: Three were cohort studies and 1 was a cross-sectional study. The meta-analysis outcome demonstrated a relationship between chronic NSNAP and psychological stress. The estimate odds ratio for all studies combined was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.04-5.18; p=0.039). A high heterogeneity of the findings appeared (Q=28.94, I 2 =86% p=0.00). This study shows that there is a strong relationship between stress and chronic NSNAP. Despite this finding, we cannot support that stress is a risk factor for chronic NSNAP due to the low quality of the results according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). It was not possible to make a quantitative analysis comparing the relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. However, according to the qualitative analysis there is a strong relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative structure-property relationship (correlation analysis) of phosphonic acid-based chelates in design of MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Ojha, Himanshu; Kaul, Ankur; Dutta, Anupama; Srivastava, Pooja; Shukla, Gauri; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mishra, Anil K

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is a very useful tool in modern medical diagnostics, especially when gadolinium (III)-based contrast agents are administered to the patient with the aim of increasing the image contrast between normal and diseased tissues. With the use of soft modelling techniques such as quantitative structure-activity relationship/quantitative structure-property relationship after a suitable description of their molecular structure, we have studied a series of phosphonic acid for designing new MRI contrast agent. Quantitative structure-property relationship studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors of the phosphonic acid-based chelating agent and their stability constants. The final quantitative structure-property relationship mathematical models were found as--quantitative structure-property relationship Model for phosphonic acid series (Model 1)--log K(ML) = {5.00243(+/-0.7102)}- MR {0.0263(+/-0.540)}n = 12 l r l = 0.942 s = 0.183 F = 99.165 quantitative structure-property relationship Model for phosphonic acid series (Model 2)--log K(ML) = {5.06280(+/-0.3418)}- MR {0.0252(+/- .198)}n = 12 l r l = 0.956 s = 0.186 F = 99.256.

  7. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Family relationships versus learning: an analysis with children aged 5 and 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Claudia Jacometo Durante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first mediator between man and culture, the family constitutes the dynamic unity of affective, social and cognitive relations that are immersed in the material, historical and cultural conditions of a given social group. The overall objective of the study was to investigate whether family relationships can compromise children’s learning. Specifically, it was intended to: a Identify conflicts in family relationships; B To verify if the conflicts in the family relations can compromise the interpersonal relationship of the children in the literacy phase; C Analyze whether conflicts in family relationships interfere with children’s learning. A total of 219 families with children aged 5 and 6 participated in the study. The main results indicate that there is a distancing of the parents in relation to the school life of the children, as well as in the family relationships there is a mixture of conflict and affection. It is considered that the learning of children can be compromised by conflicts in family relationships because learning and school performance depend primarily on family interaction and later on the relationship between teacher-student.

  9. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Productivity-Related Costs: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amélie E; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dongen, Johanna M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs, and between job satisfaction and absenteeism and presenteeism costs separately. A secondary aim was to explore whether these relationships differed across job types. Linear generalized estimating equation analyses were used to explore the longitudinal relationships. To explore whether the relationships differed across job types, stratified analyses were performed. A significant relationship was found between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs [β = &OV0556;-273; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -407 to -200] and between job satisfaction and presenteeism costs (β = &OV0556;-276; 95% CI: -367 to -235), but not between job satisfaction and absenteeism costs. These relationships differed across job types. Higher levels of job satisfaction were longitudinally related to lower total productivity-related costs and presenteeism costs, but not to lower absenteeism costs. These relationships seem to differ across job types.

  10. Global Analysis of Empirical Relationships Between Annual Climate and Seasonality of NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes the use of satellite data to calibrate a new climate-vegetation greenness function for global change studies. We examined statistical relationships between annual climate indexes (temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation) and seasonal attributes of the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series for the mid-1980s in order to refine our empirical understanding of intraannual patterns and global abiotic controls on natural vegetation dynamics. Multiple linear regression results using global l(sup o) gridded data sets suggest that three climate indexes: growing degree days, annual precipitation total, and an annual moisture index together can account to 70-80 percent of the variation in the NDVI seasonal extremes (maximum and minimum values) for the calibration year 1984. Inclusion of the same climate index values from the previous year explained no significant additional portion of the global scale variation in NDVI seasonal extremes. The monthly timing of NDVI extremes was closely associated with seasonal patterns in maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, with lag times of 1 to 2 months. We separated well-drained areas from l(sup o) grid cells mapped as greater than 25 percent inundated coverage for estimation of both the magnitude and timing of seasonal NDVI maximum values. Predicted monthly NDVI, derived from our climate-based regression equations and Fourier smoothing algorithms, shows good agreement with observed NDVI at a series of ecosystem test locations from around the globe. Regions in which NDVI seasonal extremes were not accurately predicted are mainly high latitude ecosystems and other remote locations where climate station data are sparse.

  11. The Role of Self-Efficacy on the Relationship between the Workplace Environment and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Pickering, Michael A.; Flaman, Laura M.; Spence, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that self-efficacy (SE) serves as a partial mediator of the effect that perceptions of workplace environment have on self-reported workplace physical activity (PA). To further explore the role SE plays in the relationship between perceptions of the workplace environment and workplace PA, cross-sectional mediation…

  12. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, James K; Schmidt, Frank L; Hayes, Theodore L

    2002-04-01

    Based on 7,939 business units in 36 companies, this study used meta-analysis to examine the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in management practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-unit outcomes, including profit.

  13. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Analysis of the relationship between interleukin polymorphisms within miRNA-binding regions and alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Veleiro, I; Cieza-Borrella, C; Pastor, I; González-Sarmiento, R; Laso, F-J; Marcos, M

    2018-05-01

    Alcohol consumption promotes inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway, leading to organic damage. Some micro-RNA (miRNA) molecules modulate this inflammatory response by downregulating TLR4/NF-?B pathway mediators, like interleukins (ILs). Thus, polymorphisms within IL genes located near miRNA binding sites could modify the risk of ethanol-induced damage. The present study analyzed potential relationships between alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and IL12B 2124 G>T (rs1368439), IL16 5000 C>T (rs1131445), IL1R1 3114 C>T (rs3917328), and NFKB1 3400 A>G (rs4648143) polymorphisms. The study included 301 male alcoholic patients and 156 male healthy volunteers. Polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan ® PCR assays for allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the inheritance model. Analysis of the IL1R1 (rs3917328) polymorphism showed that the proportion of alleleT carriers (CT and TT genotypes) was higher in healthy controls (9.7%) than in alcoholic patients (6.5%; P=.042). However, multivariable logistic regression analyses did not yield a significant result. No differences between groups were found for other analyzed polymorphisms. Our study describes, for the first time, the expected frequencies of certain polymorphisms within miRNA-binding sites in alcoholic patients with and without ALD. Further studies should be developed to clarify the potential relevance of these polymorphisms in alcoholism and ALD development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship between FHIT Gene Promoter Methylation and Lung Cancer Risk: 
a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichang SUN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-suppressor gene promoter DNA methylation in tumor cells is associated with its reduced expression. FHIT (fragile histindine triad was one of the important tumor suppressor genes which was found hypermethylated in the promoter region in most of tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between FIHT gene promother methylation and lung cancer risk by meta-analysis. Methods By searching Pubmed, CNKI and Wanfang, the open published articles related to FHIT gene promoter methylation and lung carcinoma risk were collected. The odds ratio (OR and range of FHIT gene of cancer tissue of lung cancer patients compared with normal lung tissue, plasma and the bronchial lavage fluid were pooled by statistical software Stata 11.0. Results Eleven studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The median methylation rate were Pmedian=40.0% (0-68.3%, Pmedian=8.7% (0-35.0%, Pmedian=33.3% (17.1%-38.3% and Pmedian=35.9% (31.1%-50.8% in cancer tissue, NLT, BALF and plasm respectively. The pooled results showed the methylation rate in tumor tissue was much higer than that of NLT OR=5.82 (95%CI: 3.74-9.06, P0.05 and plasma OR=1.41 (95%CI: 0.90-2.20, P>0.05. Conclusion Hypermethylation of FHIT gene promoter region was found more frequent in cancer tissue than that of NLT which may demonstrated association between lung cancer risk and FHIT gene promoter methylation.

  16. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity: graph theoretical analysis of an EEG neural mass model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponten, S.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between structural network properties and both synchronization strength and functional characteristics in a combined neural mass and graph theoretical model of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Thirty-two neural mass models (NMMs), each representing the lump activity

  17. United States-China-India Relationship: An Analysis of the Emergence of a Strategic Triangle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negi, Banit S

    2007-01-01

    ... as Asian powers with global influence. These three major powers are so important to each other that a change in relationship between any two of them has a significant effect on the interests of the third...

  18. Econometric analysis of the impact of the relationship of GDP and the pension capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepp, A. N.; Amiryan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of institutional risks on indicators of compulsory pension insurance and describes the results of a comparative analysis of investment risks faced by the pension systems of the Russian Federation and OECD countries. Efficiency of private companies managing pension funds in Russia and OECD countries is compared and analyzed to show the necessity to liberalize requirements placed on investments of pension savings funds. On the basis of the available statistical data, the article puts forward and discusses the hypothesis that increasing of the basic indicators of the pension system is possible by reducing its institutional risks. It is concluded that if the institutional risks are reduced and the level of trust increases, there will be enhance growth in the pension system key indicators, such as pension payments and the replacement rate.

  19. GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF ROAD DISTRESSES AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SLOPE FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOR A. M. NASIR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A road is a medium that a person uses to move from one destination to another. A good road can provide comfort and safety to users, however, poor maintenance of a road might cause danger to them. Therefore, a road maintenance management system needs to be carried out to ensure the effectiveness as well as the efficiency of road maintenance itself. In this era, there are so many systems created in order to help data storage and analysis. One of the systems is the Geographic Information System (GIS. Other than getting the location of distresses, GIS also can help to classify the severity level of distresses and to correlate the distresses occurring in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM with the slope gradient. Road distress data was collected using GPS applications supported by Supersurv 3 software. The study shows that the GIS method helps to produce a good spatial database. The road gradient factor is related to the level of road damage.

  20. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-05-21

    Knowledge of the number and distribution of species is fundamental to biodiversity conservation efforts, but this information is lacking for the majority of species on earth. Consequently, subsets of taxa are often used as proxies for biodiversity; but this assumes that different taxa display congruent distribution patterns. Here we use a global meta-analysis to show that studies of cross-taxon congruence rarely give consistent results. Instead, species richness congruence is highest at extreme spatial scales and close to the equator, while congruence in species composition is highest at large extents and grain sizes. Studies display highest variance in cross-taxon congruence when conducted in areas with dissimilar areal extents (for species richness) or latitudes (for species composition). These results undermine the assumption that a subset of taxa can be representative of biodiversity. Therefore, researchers whose goal is to prioritize locations or actions for conservation should use data from a range of taxa.

  1. Child Behavior and Sibling Relationship Quality: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Alison; Oliver, Bonamy R.

    2016-01-01

    Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children’s problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children’s prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol...

  2. The Quadratic Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Learning Performance in China by Multilevel Analysis: Implications for Policies to Foster Education Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…

  3. The role of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical methods in dose-effect relationship studies for the setting of trace metal protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.; Edel, J.; Goetz, L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prepare a scientifically accurate health protection criteria documents for trace metals integrated multidisciplinary research is necessary. In particular, the rational for structuring the documents should be based primarily on the two major questions of exposure and response. Unfortunately, in a majority of cases there is a paucity of relevant data to the establishment of dose-effect relationships. This work intends to show the role that neutron activation analysis and radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity have in solving problems relevant for establishment dose-effect relationships for trace metals. Typical applications in the different research areas involved in the preparation of the protection criteria, from source and exposure to levels and forms of trace metals in humans, are presented. (author)

  4. An Exploratory Analysis of Unhealthy and Abusive Relationships for Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses Living in Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forenza, Brad; Bermea, Autumn M

    2017-08-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are at high risk of chronic homelessness, victimization, and intimate partner violence. In recent years, supportive housing programs have emerged as one way to prevent homelessness and victimization for this population, while also expanding social interactions and social networks. In concert with a focal supportive housing program, this research conducted two focus groups with 18 individuals who have a serious mental illness diagnosis. The authors sought to answer the research question, "What are perceptions of healthy and unhealthy relationships among formerly homeless people with serious mental illness?" To this end, the eight-item questionnaire was created around dimensions of power and control, as well as relationship equality. Findings from an inductive thematic analysis reveal three broad families of themes (relationship ideals, lived experiences, and risk/resources in supportive housing), around which smaller themes and subthemes are organized. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are also discussed.

  5. Investigating lithological and geophysical relationships with applications to geological uncertainty analysis using Multiple-Point Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian

    The PhD thesis presents a new method for analyzing the relationship between resistivity and lithology, as well as a method for quantifying the hydrostratigraphic modeling uncertainty related to Multiple-Point Statistical (MPS) methods. Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are im...... is to improve analysis and research of the resistivity-lithology relationship and ensemble geological/hydrostratigraphic modeling. The groundwater mapping campaign in Denmark, beginning in the 1990’s, has resulted in the collection of large amounts of borehole and geophysical data. The data has been compiled...... in two publicly available databases, the JUPITER and GERDA databases, which contain borehole and geophysical data, respectively. The large amounts of available data provided a unique opportunity for studying the resistivity-lithology relationship. The method for analyzing the resistivity...

  6. Causal relationship between trade openness, economic growth and energy consumption: A panel data analysis of Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Samia; Anwar, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between economic growth, trade openness and energy consumption using data of 15 Asian countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2011. We have applied panel cointegration and causality approaches to examine the long-run and causal relationship between variables. Empirical results confirm the presence of cointegration between variables. The impact of economic growth and trade openness on energy consumption is found to be positive. The panel Granger causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption, trade openness and energy consumption. - Highlights: • This study analyzes causality between energy, growth and trade in the Asian region. • Empirical results supported cointegrating relationship between variables. • Positive impact of growth and trade openness on energy usage is found in the long run. • Bidirectional Granger causality is observed between selected variables in the long run

  7. The relationship between heart and liver iron in thalassemia: a quantitative analysis using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Peng; Huang Zhongkui; Long Liliang; Long Mei; Zhao Fanyu; Li Chunyan; Li Wenmei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the heart and liver iron overload in thalassemia patients and discuss the relationship of iron deposition between them, and to evaluate the accuracy of using hepatic iron concentration > 15 mg/g dry tissue as an index to predict heart iron deposition as used in clinical practice. Methods: One hundred and three transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia, who were older than 5 years, underwent MRI heart and liver measurement to obtain T 2 * values. The Spearman rank correlation was employed to analyze the relationship between cardiac T 2 * and liver T 2 * values. By using liver T 2 * =0.96 ms as standard setting, patients were divided into two groups, and the differences of cardiac T 2 * values between the two groups were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Then by using cardiac T 2 * =10, 20 ms as standard setting, patients were divided into 3 groups, and the differences of liver T 2 * values among the 3 groups were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. The ROC curves were drawn to predict the possibility of using hepatic iron concentration > 15 mg/g dry tissue as an index of cardiac iron deposition. Results: The cardiac and liver T 2 * values of the 103 thalassemia patients showed low correlation (r=0.453, P=0.000). With the liver T 2 * value reduced, the cardiac T 2 * value did not decline proportionally. The cardiac T 2 * value range and median of 25 patients' group whose liver T 2 * < 0.96 ms were 4.70 to 41.70 ms and 12.10 ms, respectively. The cardiac T 2 * value range and the median of 78 patients' group whose liver T 2 * > 0.96 ms were 4.80 to 51.10 ms and 26.10 ms, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between those of the two groups (Z=-3.566, P=0.000). The liver T 2 * value range and the median of 20 patients' group whose cardiac T 2 * < 10 ms was 0.68 to 3.83 ms and 1.06 ms, respectively. The liver T 2 * value range and the median of 58 patients' group whose cardiac T 2 * ≥20 ms were

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of the Temperature–Resistance Relationship of Temperature Sensing Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Husain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the uncertainty analysis of the temperature–resistance (TR data of the newly developed temperature sensing fabric (TSF, which is a double-layer knitted structure fabricated on an electronic flat-bed knitting machine, made of polyester as a basal yarn, and embedded with fine metallic wire as sensing element. The measurement principle of the TSF is identical to temperature resistance detector (RTD; that is, change in resistance due to change in temperature. The regression uncertainty (uncertainty within repeats and repeatability uncertainty (uncertainty among repeats were estimated by analysing more than 300 TR experimental repeats of 50 TSF samples. The experiments were performed under dynamic heating and cooling environments on a purpose-built test rig within the temperature range of 20–50 °C. The continuous experimental data was recorded through LabVIEW-based graphical user interface. The result showed that temperature and resistance values were not only repeatable but reproducible, with only minor variations. The regression uncertainty was found to be less than ±0.3 °C; the TSF sample made of Ni and W wires showed regression uncertainty of <±0.13 °C in comparison to Cu-based TSF samples (>±0.18 °C. The cooling TR data showed considerably reduced values (±0.07 °C of uncertainty in comparison with the heating TR data (±0.24 °C. The repeatability uncertainty was found to be less than ±0.5 °C. By increasing the number of samples and repeats, the uncertainties may be reduced further. The TSF could be used for continuous measurement of the temperature profile on the surface of the human body.

  9. EEG-informed fMRI analysis during a hand grip task: estimating the relationship between EEG rhythms and the BOLD signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSclocco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an increasing interest has arisen in investigating the relationship between the electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements of brain activity, such as EEG and (BOLD fMRI. In particular, changes in BOLD have been shown to be associated with changes in the spectral profile of neural activity, rather than with absolute power. Concurrently, recent findings showed that different EEG rhythms are independently related to changes in the BOLD signal: therefore, it would be important to distinguish between the contributions of the different EEG rhythms to BOLD fluctuations when modeling the relationship between the two signals. Here we propose a method to perform EEG-informed fMRI analysis, in which the EEG regressors take into account both the changes in the spectral profile and the rhythms distinction. We applied it to EEG-fMRI data during a hand grip task in healthy subjects, and compared the results with those obtained by two existing models found in literature. Our results showed that the proposed method better captures the correlations between BOLD signal and EEG rhythms modulations, identifying task-related, well localized activated volumes. Furthermore, we showed that including among the regressors also EEG rhythms not primarily involved in the task enhances the performance of the analysis, even when only correlations with BOLD signal and specific EEG rhythms are explored.

  10. Defending one's friends, not one's enemies: A social network analysis of children's defending, friendship, and dislike relationships using XPNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Veenstra, René

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating to what extent students in elementary schools defend their victimized classmates typically treated defending as an individual characteristic. Defending should, however, be seen as a directed dyadic relationship between a victim and a defender, who are embedded multiple positive and negative relationships with each other and their classmates. Accordingly, in the present study defending was investigated using social network analysis. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent defending relationships co-occurred with friendship and dislike relationships involving not only the victim and the defender but also other classmates. Bivariate Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) were used to analyze the defending-friendship and defending-dislike relationships in seven grade-three classrooms. As hypothesized, the results indicated that victimized students were likely to be defended by students who they perceive as friends or who perceive them as friends. Moreover, defending was likely to occur when the victim and (potential) defender had the same friends. Victimized students were unlikely to be defended by classmates whom they disliked or who had indicated to dislike them. Finally, defending was likely to occur between students who disliked the same classmates.

  11. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between cognitive insight and depression in psychosis and schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emma C; Gilleen, James; David, Anthony S

    2015-08-01

    Lack of insight is a commonly observed problem in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Clinical insight in patients has been associated with low mood. Cognitive insight is a recently defined concept, relating to the ability to self-reflect and the degree to which patients are over-confident regarding their interpretations of illness-related experiences, and is related to clinical insight. We therefore sought to investigate whether there is a positive relationship between cognitive insight and mood. A literature search identified 17 relevant papers published between 2004 and 2014. Our analysis indicated that there was a small but significant positive correlation between the composite index (CI) of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and depression scores, but this was driven by a significant positive relationship between depression and the BCIS self-reflection (SR) sub-scale, where low mood was related to higher SR scores. There was no significant relationship between the self-certainty sub-scale and depression. Post-hoc analysis indicated that different depression scales did not significantly affect the relationship with SR. Our results support the idea that cognitive insight is significantly related to mood in schizophrenia, and the effect size is similar to that between clinical insight and mood. Potential applications of this knowledge into treatment and rehabilitation are discussed and a model of cognitive insight is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure-activity relationship analysis of cytotoxic cyanoguanidines: selection of CHS 828 as candidate drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullbo Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-(6-(4-chlorophenoxyhexyl-N'-cyano-N''-4-pyridyl guanidine (CHS 828 is the first candidate drug from a novel group of anti-tumour agents – the pyridyl cyanoguanidines, shown to be potent compounds interfering with cellular metabolism (inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase and NF-κB signalling. Substituted cyanoguanidines are also found in anti-hypertensive agents such as the potassium channel opener pinacidil (N-cyano-N'-(4-pyridyl-N''-(1,2,2-trimethylpropylguanidine and histamine-II receptor antagonists (e.g. cimetidine, N-cyano-N'-methyl-N''-[2-[[(5-methylimidazol-4-yl]methyl]thio]ethylguanidine. In animal studies, CHS 828 has shown very promising activity, and phase I and II studies resulted in further development of a with a water soluble prodrug. Findings To study the structural requirements for cyanoguanidine cytotoxicity a set of 19 analogues were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects were then studied in ten cell lines selected for different origins and mechanisms of resistance, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA. The compounds showed varying cytotoxic activity even though the dose-response curves for some analogues were very shallow. Pinacidil and cimetidine were found to be non-toxic in all ten cell lines. Starting with cyanoguanidine as the crucial core it was shown that 4-pyridyl substitution was more efficient than was 3-pyridyl substitution. The 4-pyridyl cyanoguanidine moiety should be linked by an alkyl chain, optimally a hexyl, heptyl or octyl chain, to a bulky end group. The exact composition of this end group did not seem to be of crucial importance; when the end group was a mono-substituted phenyl ring it was shown that the preferred position was 4-substitution, followed by 3- and, finally, 2-substitution as the least active. Whether the substituent was a chloro, nitro or methoxy substituent seemed to be of minor importance. Finally, the activity patterns in the

  14. [Cointegration test and variance decomposition for the relationship between economy and environment based on material flow analysis in Tangshan City Hebei China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The material flow account of Tangshan City was established by material flow analysis (MFA) method to analyze the periodical characteristics of material input and output in the operation of economy-environment system, and the impact of material input and output intensities on economic development. Using econometric model, the long-term interaction mechanism and relationship among the indexes of gross domestic product (GDP) , direct material input (DMI), domestic processed output (DPO) were investigated after unit root hypothesis test, Johansen cointegration test, vector error correction model, impulse response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that during 1992-2011, DMI and DPO both increased, and the growth rate of DMI was higher than that of DPO. The input intensity of DMI increased, while the intensity of DPO fell in volatility. Long-term stable cointegration relationship existed between GDP, DMI and DPO. Their interaction relationship showed a trend from fluctuation to gradual ste adiness. DMI and DPO had strong, positive impacts on economic development in short-term, but the economy-environment system gradually weakened these effects by short-term dynamically adjusting indicators inside and outside of the system. Ultimately, the system showed a long-term equilibrium relationship. The effect of economic scale on economy was gradually increasing. After decomposing the contribution of each index to GDP, it was found that DMI's contribution grew, GDP's contribution declined, DPO's contribution changed little. On the whole, the economic development of Tangshan City has followed the traditional production path of resource-based city, mostly depending on the material input which caused high energy consumption and serous environmental pollution.

  15. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between airborne electromagnetic data and borehole lithological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2015-01-01

    resistivity values, revealing different distribution functions for lithological categories. A very large and extensive dataset is available in Denmark through the national geophysical and borehole databases. These databases contain all geophysical and borehole data in Denmark and covers a large part of its......We present a large-scale study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data contains information about subsurface geology and hydrologic properties; however extracting this information is not trivial....... Today, geophysical data is used in combination with borehole data to create detailed geological models of the subsurface. The overall statistical relationship is, however, not widely known. The objective of this study is to develop a method for understanding the relationship between petrophysical...

  16. Substitution Relationship Between The Agency Problem Control Mechanisms in Malaysia: Simultaneous Equation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Agus Harjito

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the substitution relationship (substitutability between debt policy, insider ownership, and dividend policy as the agency problem control mechanism in Malaysia. If the substitution relationship exists between the agency control mechanisms, the agency problem can be reduced through this relationship. Reducing the agency problem as a result can increase the firm value proxied by Tobin’s Q. This study employs 396 firms sample listed on Malaysian Bourse from 2001 to 2004. To achieves the objectives, this study uses two-stage least square method. The results of this study indicate that the substitutability between debt policy, insider ownership, and dividend policy as agency problem control mechanism does not fully exist in Malaysia. Apparently the substitutability only exists for debt policy and dividend. There is no substitution between debt policy and insider ownership as well as between dividend policy and insider ownership. Key words: debt policy, insider ownership, dividend policy, agency problem, firm value

  17. Child behavior and sibling relationship quality: A cross-lagged analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alison; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children's problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/) is an ongoing population-based study designed to investigate the effects of a wide range of factors on children's health and development. For the purposes of the current analyses, we included 2,043 ALSPAC families who had just 1 older sibling as well as the target child, with an age gap of no more than 5 years. Mothers reported about the quality of the sibling relationship and both children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems when the target child was 4 years of age and again when the target child was 7 years old. Confirming our hypothesis, individual child behavior was predictive of sibling relationship quality, and sibling relationship quality was predictive of later child behavior, providing robust evidence of bidirectionality for both prosocial behavior and conduct problems. It would be consistent to expect that an improvement in either sibling relationship quality or individual children's behavior could have a positive spill over effect. We also found evidence of older sibling dominance in the domain of prosocial behavior and the positive aspects of sibling interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  19. Relationship of oil seep in Kudat Peninsula with surrounding rocks based on geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Azman, Nurul; Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of oil seepage at Sikuati area with the structural and petroleum system of Kudat Peninsula. The abundance of highly carbonaceous rocks with presence of lamination in the Sikuati Member outcrop at Kudat Peninsula may give an idea on the presence of oil seepage in this area. A detailed geochemical analysis of source rock sample and oil seepage from Sikuati area was carried out for their characterization and correlation. Hydrocarbon propectivity of Sikuati Member source rock is poor to good with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) value of 0.11% to 1.48%. and also categorized as immature to early mature oil window with Vitrinite Reflectance (VRo) value of 0.43% to 0.50 %Ro. Based on biomarker distribution, from Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, source rock sample shows Pr/Ph, CPI and WI of 2.22 to 2.68, 2.17 to 2.19 and 2.46 to 2.74 respectively indicates the source rock is immature and coming from terrestrial environment. The source rock might be rich in carbonaceous material organic matter resulting from planktonic/bacterial activity which occurs at fluvial to fluvio-deltaic environment. Overall, the source rock from outcrop level of Kudat Peninsula is moderately prolific in term of prospectivity and maturity. However, as go far deeper beneath the surface, we can expect more activity of mature source rock that generate and expulse hydrocarbon from the subsurface then migrating through deep-seated fault beneath the Sikuati area.

  20. Model analysis of the relationship between intracellular Po2 and energy demand in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Spires, Jessica; Gladden, L. Bruce; Grassi, Bruno; Saidel, Gerald M.; Lai, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of experimental studies, the intracellular O2 (iPo2)-work rate (WR) relationship in skeletal muscle is not unique. One study found that iPo2 reached a plateau at 60% of maximal WR, while another found that iPo2 decreased linearly at higher WR, inferring capillary permeability-surface area (PS) and blood-tissue O2 gradient, respectively, as alternative dominant factors for determining O2 diffusion changes during exercise. This relationship is affected by several factors, including...

  1. The role of location in headquarters-subsidiaries relationships: An analysis of French multinationals in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hanane Beddi; Ulrike Mayrhofer

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper examines the role of location in the relationships established between headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. The analysis focuses on new challenges faced by MNEs from mature economies, considering the growing importance of subsidiaries located in emerging countries. The empirical study is based on three in-depth case-studies of French multinationals. The authors conducted 31 interviews with managers from both the headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. The f...

  2. The Analysis of the Relationship between Clean Technology Transfer and Chinese Intellectual Property Countering the Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Hao

    This report discusses the relationship between the Chinese intellectual property systems which counter with the climate change and the transfer of clean technology, and states how to encourage the developed countries transfer the clean technology to the developing countries according to the relat...... property countering the climate changes; the analysis of current technology transfer modes relating to the climate; the difficulties of Chinese countering climate changes technology transfer and strategic thinking....

  3. True Relationship Between Female Labor Force Participation and Total Fertility Rate: An Analysis of OECD Countries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on startups and preceding studies in Japan and abroad on entrepreneurs have frequently noted that entrepreneurs suffer financial constraints when they start a business. Based on these research findings, this paper analyzes exactly what kinds of entrepreneurs actually suffer particularly severe liquidity constraints. First I clarify the relationship between the amount of capital and the entrepreneur's attributes at the time of startup. This analysis illustrates that when controlle...

  4. Hop-distance relationship analysis with quasi-UDG model for node localization in wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, location information plays an important role in many fundamental services which includes geographic routing, target tracking, location-based coverage, topology control, and others. One promising approach in sensor network localization is the determination of location based on hop counts. A critical priori of this approach that directly influences the accuracy of location estimation is the hop-distance relationship. However, most of the related works on the hop-distance relationship assume the unit-disk graph (UDG model that is unrealistic in a practical scenario. In this paper, we formulate the hop-distance relationship for quasi-UDG model in WSNs where sensor nodes are randomly and independently deployed in a circular region based on a Poisson point process. Different from the UDG model, quasi-UDG model has the non-uniformity property for connectivity. We derive an approximated recursive expression for the probability of the hop count with a given geographic distance. The border effect and dependence problem are also taken into consideration. Furthermore, we give the expressions describing the distribution of distance with known hop counts for inner nodes and those suffered from the border effect where we discover the insignificance of the border effect. The analytical results are validated by simulations showing the accuracy of the employed approximation. Besides, we demonstrate the localization application of the formulated relationship and show the accuracy improvement in the WSN localization.

  5. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results