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Sample records for relations uranium-matieres organiques

  1. Production des micro-algues des claires ostréicoles en relation avec l'azote organique dissous excrété par les huîtres

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Jean-michel; Maestrini, Serge; Heral, Maurice; Zanette, Yvan

    1981-01-01

    L'utilisation de tests biologiques dans l'étude de la fertilité des eaux de claires ainsi que l'analyse chimique des réserves en sels nutritifs des mêmes eaux montrent qu'une part importante de la biomasse micro-algale peut être produite dans ces bassins, par assimilation par les cellules de substances organiques dissoutes. Ainsi, pour l'azote, des estimations indirectes aboutissent à des quantités de cet élément assimilé sous forme organique variant entre 0,6 et 30,7 µg-at.I-1 selon les mode...

  2. statut de la matiere organique des cambisols et des lixisols sous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    L'étude vise à évaluer la matière organique des Cambisols et des Lixisols sous formations naturelles de longue durée en zone climatique nord-soudanienne et à établir, les relations entre ... sont supérieures à celles des sols des zones sahélienne et sud-soudanienne. ... globale a eu une corrélation positive avec le pH.

  3. [Précis de chimie organique (1844-1846) and the Traité de chimie organique (1853-1856) from Charles Gerhardt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, Marie

    2007-07-01

    In 1844 and in 1853 Charles Gerhardt writes two textbooks about organic chemistry: Précis de chimie organique and Traité de chimie organique. In these textbooks Gerhard presents a way to arrange organic compounds in series. The Traité is more accomplished. The classification has improved. His idea is that all organic compounds are based on four main types (i.e., hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, and water). Why did Gerhardt chose to develop his theories in a textbook and not in scientific papers? We can think of a few reasons: in a textbook he could articulate ideas and could give constitency to his theories. It is longer than a paper. Textbook authors are less rescricted. The readers are students.

  4. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by polytetra-fluor ethylene; Adsorption de composes organiques volatils par le polytetrafluor ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The sorption of organic vapours by microporous polytetra-fluor ethylene has been studied gravimetrically using a Mc Bain-Baker type sorption balance. The amount of sorption, the peculiarities observed on the isotherm curves, the small influence of temperature, and smallness of hysteresis suggests that mainly physical adsorption occurs when the temperature is around 25 deg. C. The values of the surface areas obtained from the adsorption isotherms using organic vapours differ greatly from those derived from N{sub 2} adsorption measurements. This discrepancy cannot be completely attributed to differences in the structure and chemical function of the adsorbate molecules, or to the porous structure of the adsorbent. On the contrary, the surface area values obtained by sorbing high volatile freons conform with those measured by nitrogen adsorption, which seems to imply a connection between the area of sorbed monolayers and volatility of the adsorbate. (author) [French] La sorption de vapeurs organiques par du polytetrafluor ethylene microporeux a ete etudiee gravimetriquement a l'aide d'un appareillage du type balance de Mac Bain. La valeur de la masse adsorbee, les particularites observees dans la forme des isothermes, le peu d'influence de la temperature, la faiblesse de l'hysteresis suggerent l'intervention d'une adsorption physique, du moins au voisinage de 25 deg. C. Les isothermes relatives a l'absorption de vapeurs organiques conduisent a des valeurs de la surface specifique tres differentes de celles obtenues par adsorption d'azote. Ces divergences ne peuvent s'expliquer par la seule intervention de la structure moleculaire et de la fonction chimique de l'adsorbat, ni par la structure poreuse de l'adsorbant. Par contre, l'adsorption de freons tres volatils conduit a des valeurs de la surface specifique analogues a celles obtenues par adsorption d'azote ce qui semble etablir un lien entre la volatilite de l'adsorbat et l'etendue des couches monomoleculaires

  5. 152 Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john mukalay

    Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à-vis de la salinité en culture de bananier. Michel Mazinga KWEY1, Séverin Kalala BANZE2 et John Banza MUKALAY2*. 1Laboratoire des cultures in vitro, Département de phytotechnie, Faculté des sciences agronomiques,. Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, ...

  6. Relations entre les types de dépôts évaporitiques et la présence de couches riches en matière organique (roches-mères potentielles Relationship Between Different Types of Evaporitic Deposits and the Occurrence of Organic-Rich Layers (Potential Source Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La fertilité exceptionnelle des eaux salées est confirmée par des études récentes sur l'Actuel (marais salants de Méditerranée occidentale. Le benthos est représenté par des mollusques, foraminifères, ostracodes et surtout des cyanophycées et des populations bactériennes ; le plancton par le microphytoplancton (Dunaliella, diatomées, etc, par le zooplancton (flagellés, Arternia salina et par de très nombreuses bactéries hétérotrophes. Si les espèces sont d'autant plus rares que la salinité est élevée, la prolifération des formes adaptées peut atteindre des valeurs supérieures à celles réalisées dans la plupart des autres milieux. On rappelle ensuite l'efficacité des systèmes d'eaux stratifiées pour la conservation de la matière organique originellement élaborée dans l'eau photique et oxygénée. Ces systèmes peuvent s'accompagner de proliférations bactériennes photosynthétiques exposées à des mortalités en masse pouvant être responsables de véritables lamines organiques. Dans les évaporites de plates-formes où la ségrégation des salinités et des dépôts a été synchrone et latérale, la tranche d'eau a dû être faible et, de ce fait, peu favorable à l'établissement de systèmes d'eaux stratifiées et surtout à leur pérennité géologique. Ces accumulations s'avèrent donc en général pauvres en matière organique, de même qu'elles ne s'accompagnent pas d'appareils récifaux abondants. Dans les évaporites de centre de cuvette, les dépôts sont imputables à une succession de phases de salinité croissante dans le temps : calcaires sur les zones hautes, contemporains de minces couches à matière organique dans les dépressions ; sulfate de calcium sur les aires d'épaisseur moyenne pouvant être encore contemporain de couche à matière organique dans les aires déprimées ; enfin, remplissage par la halite des zones centrales profondes et déprimées. A ces phases successives, se

  7. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by polytetra-fluor ethylene; Adsorption de composes organiques volatils par le polytetrafluor ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The sorption of organic vapours by microporous polytetra-fluor ethylene has been studied gravimetrically using a Mc Bain-Baker type sorption balance. The amount of sorption, the peculiarities observed on the isotherm curves, the small influence of temperature, and smallness of hysteresis suggests that mainly physical adsorption occurs when the temperature is around 25 deg. C. The values of the surface areas obtained from the adsorption isotherms using organic vapours differ greatly from those derived from N{sub 2} adsorption measurements. This discrepancy cannot be completely attributed to differences in the structure and chemical function of the adsorbate molecules, or to the porous structure of the adsorbent. On the contrary, the surface area values obtained by sorbing high volatile freons conform with those measured by nitrogen adsorption, which seems to imply a connection between the area of sorbed monolayers and volatility of the adsorbate. (author) [French] La sorption de vapeurs organiques par du polytetrafluor ethylene microporeux a ete etudiee gravimetriquement a l'aide d'un appareillage du type balance de Mac Bain. La valeur de la masse adsorbee, les particularites observees dans la forme des isothermes, le peu d'influence de la temperature, la faiblesse de l'hysteresis suggerent l'intervention d'une adsorption physique, du moins au voisinage de 25 deg. C. Les isothermes relatives a l'absorption de vapeurs organiques conduisent a des valeurs de la surface specifique tres differentes de celles obtenues par adsorption d'azote. Ces divergences ne peuvent s'expliquer par la seule intervention de la structure moleculaire et de la fonction chimique de l'adsorbat, ni par la structure poreuse de l'adsorbant. Par contre, l'adsorption de freons tres volatils conduit a des valeurs de la surface specifique analogues a celles obtenues par adsorption d'azote ce qui semble etablir un lien entre la

  8. La micro-échelle en synthèse organique : un outil commun chimie/génie chimique

    OpenAIRE

    Prat , Laurent E.; Loubiere , Karine; Dechy-Cabaret , Odile

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Cet article est une restitution courte de la présentation réalisée au cours des JIREC 2013 sur l'enseignement de la notion de changement d'échelle et de passage d'un mode batch à un mode continu en synthèse organique. L'enjeu est de faire travailler des étudiants issus des départements chimie et génie chimique autour d'un même outil, le microréacteur. Au cours d'une séance de travaux pratiques, les étudiants mettent en oeuvre une synthèse organique en continu à micro-échell...

  9. Petrographical and Geochemical Study of a Kimmeridgian Organic Sequence (Yorkshire Area, Uk Étude pétrographique et géochimique d'une séquence organique du Kimmeridgien (région du Yorkshire, Angleterre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin S.

    2006-11-01

    , bien marquée, est ondulée ou lenticulaire ; dans le second, elle est plus ténue. Le MEB en mode ER fournit une image complète du sédiment et permet la distinction entre argile et matière organique. Dans la zone où les fortes valeurs de calcite coïncident avec les fortes valeurs de COT, les coccolithes se rencontrent sous la forme de pelotes fécales (pl. 2A. Par contre, dans la moitié supérieure du cycle, ils sont dispersés dans la matrice argileuse (pl. 2B. La MO des échantillons à faible COT (< 4% est constituée pour sa plus grande partie de corps algaires fins et allongés et d'éléments aux formes irrégulières et anguleuses vraisemblablement terrigènes (pl. 2B. Dans les échantillons à plus forts COT (4 à 8%, la proportion de particules à contours anguleux diminue et la matière organique se présente soit en éléments longs de plus de 30 µm et fins, soit en éléments également allongés, mais beaucoup plus épais (pl. 2C. La matière organique tend à se répartir en lamines d'autant plus longues (100 µm que le COT est fort. Lorsque le COT est le plus élevé, les argiles renferment en outre de nombreuses particules organiques de très petite taille (< 1 µm (p 1. 2 C. L'étude de la diagenèse dans un tel sédiment, riche en matière organique, a un double but au moins; il s'agit d'une part de déterminer l'incidence de ces transformations sur la microtexture organo-minérale et sur la teneur en carbone organique, et d'autre part de préciser les conditions d'environnement au moment du dépôt. La difficulté majeure rencontrée dans ce type de faciès est l'extrême rareté des critères pétrographiques permettant de fournir une chronologie relative entre les phases diagénétiques. La compaction accentue le réarrangement, parallèlement au plan de stratification, des minéraux phylliteux, qui moulent les grains détritiques, et provoque l'aplatissement des pellets fécaux. L'absence de bioturbation et de faune benthique indique que

  10. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  11. La catalyse enzymatique en milieu organique Enzymatic Catalysis in Organic Media

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    Monot F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'environnement naturel des enzymes étant de nature aqueuse, leurs applications industrielles se sont en général limitées à des réactions mettant en jeu des substrats solubles dans l'eau. Depuis quelques années, la possibilité de faire fonctionner des enzymes dans des milieux hydrophobes (hydrocarbures, solvants organiques a été mise en évidence, engendrant ainsi de nombreux travaux visant, d'une part à mieux comprendre les mécanismes permettant aux enzymes de rester actives dans un tel environnement et, d'autre part à explorer les nouvelles applications envisageables. Les produits pétroliers constituant par excellence le domaine des molécules hydrophobes, le présent article se propose de faire le point sur ces deux aspects, compréhension et intérêt de la catalyse enzymatique en milieu organique. Nous détaillerons ainsi les vues actuelles sur le fonctionnement des enzymes dans des solvants organiques, les différents modes de mise en oeuvre possibles et, à travers une revue de leurs applications potentielles, les principaux systèmes enzymatiques utilisés. The extension of enzymatic catalysis, classically carried out in aqueous media, to organic media can be first ascribed to the possibility of using substrates that are poorly soluble or insoluble in water. In biphasic media consisting of an aqueous phase containing the enzyme in solution and of a non water-miscible organic solvent, the enzyme is kept in a suitable aqueous environment. A variant biphasic system consists in creating reverse micelles by the addition of a surfactant in order to increase the interfacial area and thus to improve the transfers between the aqueous phase where the enzyme is located and the organic phase. In these two cases, the partition coefficient of the different reactants plays a crucial role by governing the rates and yields of reaction. Microaqueous media constitute a new system for biocatalysis in organic media. In this case, a solid enzyme

  12. L'utilisation des eaux usées organiques en pisciculture.

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    SCHMIDT G.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des eaux usées en pisciculture nécessite un traitement minimum indispensable (lagunage, épuration classique, prédilution, dilution simultanée. Une deuxième condition, non moins importante, est la sélection exclusive des eaux usées domestiques et rurales afin d'éviter la présence de métaux lourds et autres substances toxiques des rejets industriels. Dans un tel milieu enrichi, la production piscicole peut être doublée et même triplée sans nourriture additionnelle. Cependant, même si on arrive à de bons résultats, certains dangers subsistent : possibilité d'anoxie due à la dégradation des matières organiques, présence d'ammoniac, de nitrites, de détergents, risques d'infections virales et bactériennes. Des études ultérieures devraient préciser ces problèmes et tenter de les résoudre.

  13. Essai de productions aquicoles intégrées : possibilités d'utilisation des boues de pisciculture comme amendement organique agricole

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    LESEL R.

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Des essais comparatifs ont été faits dans le but de déterminer l'efficacité des boues de pisciculture comme amendement organique. Il apparaît que ces boues constituent un amendement aussi efficace qu'un poids équivalent de fumier de ferme.

  14. Contribution de la géochimie organique à une esquisse paléoécologique des shistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'Est du bassin de Paris. Etude de la matière organique insoluble (kérogènes Contribution of Organic Geochemistry to a Paleoecological Sketch of Toarcian Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of Insoluble Organic Matter (Kerogens

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    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des kérogènes des schistes cartons du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris au niveau de l'affleurement oriental (du Luxembourg au Morvan confirme l'homogénéité globale de la matière organique dans cette formation. Il s'agit d'une matière organique d'origine marine autochtone. Cependant l'existence de fluctuations (de faible amplitude répondant à une logique géographique conforte la notion de provinces géochimiques dans ce bassin, telle qu'elle avait été définie à l'occasion de l'étude de la fraction soluble (CHCIsJ. La distinction entre une province nord (Lorraine et une province sud (Avallonais,Haute-Saône, Haute-Marne pourrait être imputable à un apport détritique plus sensible dans la partie septentrionale du bassin et/ou aux conditions de milieu ayant régné au moment du dépôt. The present study of kerogens isolated from early Toorcion shales sompled on the eastern out-trop of the Paris Basin (from Luxembourg to Morvan verifies the overall homogeneity of the organic matter in this formation. This organic matter is of autoch thonous marine origin. However, the occurrence of small variations related to different geogrophical locations reinforces the concept of geochemical provinces in this basin as revealed by a previous analysis of the chloroform extracts. Differences between a northern province (Lorraine and a southern province (Avallon area, Haute-Saône, Haute-Marne could be interpreted as the consequence of a more important detrital input in the northern part of the basin and/or of different environmental conditions at the time of deposition.

  15. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  16. Dynamique de transfert des matières organiques et inorganiques le long du continuum fluvial de la Garonne : impact de la retenue de Malause

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoudou, Mohamadou

    2008-01-01

    Les fleuves sont à l'origine des transferts de matières organiques et inorganiques des continents vers les océans. Ces matières peuvent être séparées par filtration (généralement à 0,45 ou 0,22µm) entre une phase particulaire et une phase dissoute. Le devenir des formes organiques va dépendre de leurs origines. Les formes labiles sont souvent rapidement minéralisées lors de leur transfert tandis que les formes réfractaires ont un comportement conservatif. Nous avons étudié la dynamique de tou...

  17. Les effets et conséquences de la méthanisation sur la matière organique et l’azote des lisiers de porc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUIDEAU, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Les technologies liées au procédé de méthanisation se développent depuis peu. Elles transforment les substrats organiques utilisés, modifiant plus ou moins leurs caractéristiques et leurs impacts environnementaux. L’analyse du cas du lisier de porc illustre ces modifications et leurs conséquences.

  18. Cadarache LOR (liquides organiques radioactifs) treatment by a solidification process using NOCHAR polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Kelley, Dennis; Cochaud, Chantal; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In France, two options can be considered to handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW). The first one is the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the second one is the disposal at ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these two channels is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the channel specifications. If the waste characteristics and the channel specifications (presence of significant quantities of halogens, complexing agents, organic components... or/and high activity limits) are incompatible, an alternative solution have to be identify. It consists of a waste pre-treatment process. For Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. They are composed of a mix of organic liquids and water: for the first one, 19 % of organic compounds (xylene, mesitylene, diphenyloxazole, TBP...) and 86.9 % of water, and for the second one, 23 % of organic compounds (TBP...) and 77 % of water. They contain halogens (chlorine and fluorine), complexants agents (nitrate, sulphate, oxalate and formate) and have got αβγ spectra with mass activities equal to some 100 Bq/g. Therefore, tritium is also present. As a consequence, in order for storage acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. An adequate solution seems to be a solidification process using NOCHAR polymers. Indeed, NOCHAR polymers correspond to an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing ...) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and

  19. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien; Kelley, Dennis; Cochaud, Chantal; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    To handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW) in France, two options can be considered: the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the disposal facility on ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these radwaste routes is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the radwaste route specifications. If the waste characteristics are incompatible with the radwaste route specifications (presence of significant quantities of chlorine, fluorine, organic component etc or/and high activity limits), it is necessary to find an alternative solution that consists of a waste pre-treatment process. In the context of the problematic Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. The first one is composed of organic liquids at 13.1 % (diphenyloxazol, mesitylene, TBP, xylene) and water at 86.9 %. The second one is composed of TBP at 8.6 % and water at 91.4 %. They contain chlorine, fluorine and sulphate and have got alpha/beta/gamma spectra with mass activities equal to some kBq.g -1 . Therefore, tritium is present and creates the second problematic waste stream. As a consequence, in order for disposal acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. The NOCHAR polymers as an aqueous and organic liquid solidification process seem to be an adequate solution. Indeed, these polymers constitute an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing etc) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and immobilise the liquid. Then as the

  20. Organic Matter in the Early Toarcian Shales, Paris Basin, France: a Response to Environmental Changes La matière organique dans les argiles du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris, France : un enregistrement des changements d'environnement

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    Hollander D. J.

    2006-11-01

    entre carbone organique et carbone minéral peut être utilisé comme un moyen pour déterminer l'importance relative de ces deux facteurs. Ce paramètre, qui reflète la concentration en CO2 dissous à la surface de l'eau, présente des valeurs faibles lors des épisodes de forte productivité dans un lac eutrophique et par analogie, dans les zones de forte productivité primaire, des valeurs élevées lors des épisodes de faible productivité de ce même lac, et par analogie, dans les bassins confinés et stratifiés. La base de la série étudiée est caractérisée par l'accumulation la plus importante de matière organique présentant l'état de préservation maximum, dépôt qui a eu lieu lorsque la teneur en CO2 dissous à la surface de l'eau était la plus élevée. Ceci suggère que l'environnement était donc du type bassin confiné et stratifié avec une productivité primaire faible à modérée, où intervenait un recyclage important des eaux intermédiaires enrichies en 12C-CO2. Le passage de la matière organique dans une colonne d'eau qui devait être anoxique à faible profondeur, peut-être immédiatement sous la zone euphotique, et son dépôt sur un fond anoxique et peu perturbé, en assureraient la très bonne préservation. Dans la partie moyenne de la section, les différents résultats suggèrent une diminution de la tranche d'eau basale appauvrie en oxygène et l'approfondissement de la limite redox, qu'on peut relier à de multiples facteurs tels une décroissance de la productivité, un changement dans le régime de circulation des eaux, ou encore une modification du climat. Cet intervalle est aussi caractérisé par une diminution de la préservation de la matière organique qui peut refléter une plus grande oxygénation de la colonne d'eau. Mais toutes les autres conditions (populations, conditions de fond . . . restent inchangées. Les tendances observées dans la partie supérieure reflètent une stabilisation du régime de circulation

  1. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

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    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  2. Les formations d'âge Crétacé de l'Atlantique Nord et leur matière organique : paléogéographie et milieux de dépôt The Cretaceous Series in the Northern Atlantic and Their Organic Matter: an Attempt At Reconstruction of Paleoenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Graciansky P. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une étude chronostratigraphique, sédimentologique et géochimique des black-shales recoupés par les forages DSDP dans l'Atlantique Nord, a été menée avec la double préoccupation de reconstituer, d'une part les milieux de dépôt par l'étude des séquences élémentaires et d'identifier, d'autre part, les unités stratigraphiques majeures et les discontinuités qui les séparent. Les types de séries illustrées dans ce texte à titre d'exemple sont les suivantes : I. Séries à matière organique marine conservée. - Séries avec faciès autochtones et resédimentés comportant tous de la matière organique marine. - Séries avec sédiments autochtones à matière organique marine mais avec sédiments redéposés à matière organique résiduelle. Dans ces deux cas, la présence de matière organique marine dans les sédiments autochtones montre que le milieu de dépôt était réduit (type euxinique. I I. Séries à matière organique terrigène ou résiduelle. - Argilites noires ou alternance d'argilites noires et d'argilites vertes ou encore alternance d'argilites et de marnes noires. - Alternances de calcaires blancs (à matière organique indéterminée et de marnes silteuses (à matière organique terrigène. La reconstitution du milieu de sédimentation n'implique pas nécessairement la présence d'un milieu réducteur au lieu du dépôt, la matière organique terrigène ayant une meilleure résistance à l'oxydation que la matière organique marine, surtout avec un taux d'accumulation assez élevé. III. Séries à faciès alternant, dont l'un à matière organique marine et l'autre à. matière organique détritique résiduelle. - Alternances d'argilites noires (à matière organique marine et verdâtres (à matière organique indifférenciée. - Séquences avec, de bas en haut, marnes sombres laminées (matière organique terrigène et marine associées, argilites noires (matière organique terrigène et argilites vertes (mati

  3. Mechanism of the extraction of nitric acid and water by organic solutions of tertiary alkyl-amines; Mecanisme d'extraction de l'acide nitrique et de l'eau par les solutions organiques d'alcoylamines tertiaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D

    1966-06-01

    The micellar aggregation of tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrates in low polarity organic solvents has been verified by viscosity, conductivity and sedimentation velocity measurements. The aggregation depends upon the polarity of solvent, the length of the alkyl radicals and the organic concentration of the various constituents (tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate, tri-alkyl-amine, nitric acid, water). The amine salification law has been established and the excess nitric acid and water solubilities in the organic solutions have been measured. Nitric acid and water are slightly more soluble in micellar organic solutions than in molecular organic solutions. A description of excess nitric acid containing tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate solutions is proposed. (author) [French] Mecanisme d'extraction de l'acide nitrique et de l'eau par les solutions organiques d'alcoylamines tertiaires. L'agregation micellaire des nitrates de trialcoylammonium dans les solvants peu polaires a ete verifiee par viscosimetrie, conductimetrie et ultracentrifugation des solutions organiques. L'agregation depend de la polarite du solvant, de la longueur des radicaux alcoyle, et des concentrations des differents constituants de la solution organique (nitrate de trialcoylammonium, alcoylamine tertiaire, acide nitrique, eau). La loi de salification de l'amine a ete determinee et les solubilites de l'acide nitrique en exces et de l'eau dans les solutions organiques ont ete mesurees. L'acide nitrique et l'eau sont legerement plus solubles dans les organiques micellaires que dans les solutions organiques moleculaires. Une description des solutions de nitrate de trialcoylammonium contenant de l'acide nitrique en exces est proposee. (auteur)

  4. Quelques aspects de la géochimie organique dans la prospection des hydrocarbures Several Aspects of Organic Geochemistry in Prospection for Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubler B.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La classification, d'après la composition des huiles brutes, permet maintenant de reconnaître des origines semblables ou différentes. Dans certains cas, les corrélations non seulement entre indices et accumulations, mais entre roches mères et accumulations sont devenues sûres. L'étude, selon un fil logique du devenir des composés de la matière organique vivante, morte, fossilisée puis diagénisée, a permis de préciser l'origine organique des pétroles mais encore de lier la composition de ceux-ci aux types dominants de matière organique des bassins sédimentaires, donc de fixer les conditions de sédimentation, les environnements les plus favorables à l'accumulation et la préservation de matière organique pétroligène. Cependant, la contribution la plus importante de la géochimie organique à l'exploration est certainement d'avoir pu fixer, dans un premier temps, une fourchette de température, puis de température et de durée : le facteur thermo-temporel de naissance de production maximale puis de conservation des hydrocarbures liquides : la fenêtre à huile potentielle. Plus récemment la géochimie des gaz hydrocarburés a pu montrer que cette fenêtre à huile était encadrée par la génération de gaz légers. Ce développement récent remet en valeur des objectifs de prospection abandonnés ou classés sans intérêt. Cependant par essence même la géochimie organique, comme la majorité. des sciences qui utilisent le laboratoire, donne des résultats ponctuels : ceux-ci ne trouvent toute leur signification que si les échantillons géologiques sont bien situés dans la configuration géologique à laquelle ils appartiennent. Organic geochemistry has made great strides, thanks in particular to the range of analytical tools, often in the forefront of technological progress, which have been developed for medical and biochemical research. Classification according to the composition of crude oils now make it possible to

  5. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures; Etude de proprietes acides-bases dans divers melanges eau-sels et eau-solvants organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H{sup +} + B {r_reversible} HB{sup +} in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pK{sub A} value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO{sup -} + H{sup +} {r_reversible} H{sub 2}O has been investigated and a relation been found between pK{sub i} values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors) [French] Nous avons envisage l'etude des reactions acides-bases dans des melanges eau-sels MX et des melanges d'eau et de solvants organiques. Les uns et les autres ont ete choisis de facon a ce que la basicite du solvant ou celle de l'anion X{sup -} soit negligeable devant celle de l'eau dans les melanges consideres. Dans un premier temps nous avons etudie dans les melanges eau-sels MX les equilibres H{sup +} + B {r_reversible} HB{sup +} et HA {r_reversible} H{sup +} + A{sup -}. On montre que connaissant la valeur de la solubilite de la base B et de l'acide HA dans le melange eau-sel considere et dans l'eau pure et celle de l'activite de l'eau dans le melange, il est possible de prevoir la valeur de la constante de l'equilibre acide-base etudiee. Dans un deuxieme temps nous avons cherche a generaliser ces resultats, lorsque l'on remplace le sel MX dans le melange avec l'eau par un solvant organique. De meme que precedemment, nous avons compare les constantes d'equilibre du type HB

  6. La fouille de graphes dans les bases de données réactionnelles au service de la synthèse en chimie organique

    OpenAIRE

    Pennerath , Frédéric; Napoli , Amedeo

    2006-01-01

    National audience; La synthèse en chimie organique consiste à concevoir de nouvelles molécules à partir de réactifs et de réactions. Les experts de la synthèse s'appuient sur de très grandes bases de données de réactions qu'ils consultent à travers des procédures d'interrogation standard. Un processus de découverte de nouvelles réactions leur permettrait de mettre au point de nouveaux procédés de synthèse. Cet article présente une modélisation des réactions par des graphes et introduit une mé...

  7. Gestion de la matière organique dans les sols tropicaux

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    Wouters, J.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter management in the Tropical soils. Organic matter is the key of fertilization in tropical conditions and is closely associated with the cultural systems by/te dominant kinds of transfer : internal or external, vertical or horizontal. Although very complex by nature, organic material in the soils can be reduced to few transformation stages, accelerated in humid tropics compared with temperated environment, more particularly the mineralization of humus. Among the problems inherent to tropical ferrallitic soils, low cation adsorption capacity of the clay and low phosphorus availability to plant associated to high exchangeable and toxic aluminium content in strong acidity conditions constitute their main fertility constraints. So that reducing of exchangeable aluminium is the basis of the fertilizer effect of organic matter that can be compared with liming. This reducing is related to the formation of aluminium complexes with short chain di- and tri-carboxylic acids, characteristics of the freshly decomposed material rather than the humus. These data seem support the idea of the advantage of incorporating organic matter in soil before the humification in warm-humid tropics, according to many traditional cultural practices. The question of organic matter management is a good illustration of the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach with the agronomic and fundamental topics being treated in an integrated way.

  8. Etude hyperfrequence et ultrasonore des supraconducteurs organiques kappa-(ET)(2)X (X = copper(thiocyanogen), copper[N(CN)(2)]bromine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikach, Kamal

    2001-09-01

    Dans ce travail je presente une etude de l'impedance de surface, ainsi que de l'attenuation et la variation de la vitesse ultrasonores dans les etats normal et supraconducteur sur les composes organiques k-(ET)2X (X = Cu(SCN) 2, Cu[N(CN)2]Br). A partir des mesures d'impedance de surface, les deux composantes sigma 1 et sigma2 de la conductivite complexe sont extraites en utilisant le modele de Drude. Ces mesures montrent que la symetrie du parametre d'ordre dans ces composes est differente de celle du cas BCS. Afin de comprendre le profil de sigma1 (T) nous avons etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices a partir de la paraconductivite sigma'( T). Cette etude est rendue possible grace a la structure quasi-2D des composes k-(ET)2X dans lesquelles les fluctuations supraconductrices sont fortes. Ces dernieres sont observees sur deux decades de temperatures dans le Cu(SCN)2. L'application du modele de Aslamazov-Larkin 2D et 3D montre la possibilite du passage du regime 2D a haute temperature au regime 3D au voisinage de Tc. En se basant sur ce resultat, nous avons calcule la paraconductivite en utilisant une approche a l'ordre d'une boucle a partir du modele de Lawrence-Doniach. En tenant compte de la correction par la self energie dans la limite dynamique (17 GHz), l'ajustement de la paraconductivite calculee est en bon accord avec les donnees experimentales. Le couplage interplan obtenu est compatible avec le caractere quasi-2D des composes organiques. Le temps de relaxation des quasi-particules dans l'etat supraconducteur est ensuite extrait pour la premiere fois dans ces composes dont le comportement en fonction de la temperature est compatible avec la presence des noeuds dans le gap. Dans l'etat normal, la variation de la vitesse ultrasonore presente un comportement anormal caracterise par un fort ramollissement a T = 38 K et 50 K dans k-(ET) 2Cu(SCN)2 et k-(ET)2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br respectivement dont l'amplitude est independante du champ magnetique jusqu'a H = Hc 2

  9. Hétérogenéité quantitative et qualitative de la matière organique dans les argiles du Kimmeridgien du val de Pickering (Yorkshire, UK. Cadre sédimentologique et stratigraphique Quantitative and Qualitative Heterogeneity of the Organic Matter Within the Kimmeridge Clay of the Vale of Pickering (Yorkshire, Uk. Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penn I. E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les argiles du Kimméridgien contribuent à l'alimentation de nombreux gisements en mer du Nord. L'étude de quatre puits localisés sur une coupe Est-Ouest dans le Val de Pickering (Bassin de Cleveland permet d'illustrer dans cette formation l'hétérogénéité de distribution verticale et latérale de la matière organique en terme de quantité et de qualité. La coupe étudiée (35 km de long, 200 m de haut représente environ 6,5 millions d'années d'histoire géologique. Les analyses minéralogiques montrent que la formation est caractérisée par une grande homogénéité des apports sédimentaires, ce qui suppose des conditions de sédimentation stables dans le temps et dans l'espace. Le matériel sédimentaire, déposé dans un environnement calme, est composé de minéraux argileux (kaolinite, illite, et interstratifiés irréguliers illite/smectite avec des niveaux carbonatés résultant d'une production biogénique. Ces niveaux carbonatés intercalés au sein des argiles peuvent être corrélés entre les puits. Pour la plupart dolomitisés, ils résultent d'une transformation plus importante àl'ouest (Marton qu'à l'est (Reighton de couches presque exclusivement formées de coccolithes. L'extension horizontale de ces niveaux indique qu'ils correspondent à des événements géodynamiques régionaux. L'étude des ammonites permet de reconnaitre, dans le Yorkshire, la succession de 10 zones du Kimméridgien (sensu anglico et d'identifier 8 sous-zones depuis la zone à Cymodoce (- 144 m. a. jusqu'à celle à Pectinatus (- 137,5 m. a. . Les zonations reconnues permettent de corréler ces quatre puits avec les autres régions d'Angleterre. L'existence de repères stratigraphiques et de repères diagraphiques caractéristiques au sein des zones d'ammonites permet d'établir des zones de corrélation entre une partie bassin (puits de Marton 87, Ebberston 87, Flixton 87 et une zone haute appartenant à la plate-forme Est de l

  10. Les composés organiques volatils réduction des émissions de COV dans l'industrie

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage propose des solutions techniques et une méthodologie pour réduire les émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) dans l’atmosphère. Il permet : • de connaître l’impact des COV sur l’environnement et sur la santé, ainsi que les réglementations applicables en France et en Europe ; • de choisir les solutions d’amélioration disponibles (prévention, réduction à la source par secteur industriel, technologies de traitement et méthodes de mesure) ; • d’obtenir les clés pour mett re en place une démarche de réduction des émissions de COV (les étapes et les accompagnements possibles) ; • d’observer des exemples réussis d’investissement dans l’industrie. Cet ouvrage est un outil de travail indispensable pour les entreprises concernées par cett e problématique. Il donne les éléments essentiels pour aborder sereinement une démarche de réduction des émissions de COV. Points forts : • Des données rassemblées par un réseau d’experts spécialisés dans...

  11. Improved organic scintillation detectors; Possibilites de perfectionnement des detecteurs organiques a scintillations; Usovershenstvovannye organicheskie stsintillyatsionnye detektory; Detectores organicos de centelleo perfeccionados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, J B [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    Equations have been derived for the practical scintillation efficiency (photo-electrons/MeV) of organic crystals and solutions in terms of molecular parameters and these have been applied to the more important scintillator systems, for photomultipliers with S11 (glass window) and S13 (quartz window) responses. The results suggest several improvements in current organic scintillation detector practice: the use of binary rather than ternary solutions; the use of quartz rather than glass windows; and the reconsideration of mixed crystal scintillators based on naphthalene. Improvements by factors of 2 or more in the figure of merit (practical efficiency/decay time) for fast-scintillation counting can be obtained. (author) [French] L'auteur a etabli des equations pour determiner le rendement de scintillation (photoelectrons/MeV) de cristaux et solutions organiques, en faisant intervenir des parametres moleculaires. Il a applique ces equations a des appareils a scintillations plus importantes pour determiner la reponse des photomultiplicateurs a fenetre en verre (S11) et a fenetre en quartz (S13). Les resultats obtenus ont fait apparaitre la possibilite d'ameliorer, a plusieurs egards, les detecteurs organiques a scintillations du type courant, par exemple en remplacant les solutions ternaires par des solutions binaires, les fenetres en verre par des fenetres en quartz, ou en reexaminant les possibilites offertes par les scintillateurs a cristaux mixtes a base de naphtalene. L'introduction de ces perfectionnements conduirait a une amelioration, du simple au double ou plus, du facteur de qualite (efficacite/temps de decroissance) des dispositifs de comptage a scintillations. (author) [Spanish] Se han establecido ecuaciones que permiten calcular el rendimiento practico de centelleo (fotoelectrones/MeV) de los cristales y soluciones organicos en funcion de parametros moleculares; estas ecuaciones han sido aplicadas a los sistemas de centelleo mas importantes, para

  12. Study of the behaviour of organic carbon in the soil, and carbon 14 study of podzols; Contribution a l'etude du comportement du carbone organique dans le sol et etude des podzols a l'aide du carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhla Shawki, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Using the penetration into soil of carbon 14 of thermo-nuclear origin, the behaviour and renewal rate were studied on different organic fractions of the soil. It was established that 18% of the total organic matter is renewed in about 400 years. In addition the formation of podzol-type fossil soils in France was dated from the first millenary B.C., i.e. the end of the sub-boreal period and the beginning of the atlantic period. (author) [French] En utilisant la penetration dans le sol du carbone 14 d'origine thermonucleaire, on a etudie le comportement et la vitesse de renouvellement des differentes fractions de la matiere organique du sol. On a pu preciser que 18% de la matiere organique globale se renouvelait en 400 ans environ. Par ailleurs, la formation en France des sols fossiles du type podzol a ete datee du premier millenaire avant J.C. c'est a dire a la fin de la periode subboreale et au debut de la periode atlantique. (auteur)

  13. L'evolution thermique de la matière organique des sédiments : applications d'une simulation mathématique. Potentiel pétrolier des bassins sédimentaires de reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des sédiments Thermal Evolution of Organic Matter in Sediments : Application of a Mathematical Simulation. Petrleum Potential of Sedimentary Basins and Reconstructing the Thermal History of Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au moyen d'un modèle mathématique, on simule la dégradation thermique de la matière organique des sédiments. Les applications possibles de ce modèle concernent la recherche des zones favorables pour la prospection de l'huile ou du gaz, la détermination de l'époque de formation des hydrocarbures pour la comparer avec l'âge des pièges et celui des couvertures, l'évaluation des réserves ultimes d'un bassin, ainsi que la pyrogénation des schistes bitumineux. Le type de matière organique est représenté dans le modèle par un jeu de constantes qui sont déterminées par des essais de laboratoire; on discute en particulier la distribution des énergies d'activation et sa signification en rapport avec la composition du kérogène. Les autres données nécessaires sont la reconstitution géologique de l'enfouissement et le gradient géothermique. La reconstitution de la géothermie ancienne pose un problème particulier. En associant la mesure de la réflectance de la vitrinite et la loi d'enfouissement, on peut, au moyen d'un modèle d'évolution de la vitrinite, rétablir dans la plupart des cas l'histoire thermique de la matière organique. Ce résultat présente certes un grand intérêt pour l'exploration pétrolière, mais son champ d'application dépasse largement ce domaine et s'étend aux problèmes de géologie générale géothermie, diagenèse des sédiments, tectonique globale, etc. A mathematical model is used to simulate the thermal degradation of the organic matter in sediments. The possible applications of this model have to do with the seorch for favorable ail or gas prospection zones, determining the period when hydrocarbons were formed so as to compare it with the age of traps and caprocks, and estimating the ultimate reserves of a basin a well as the pyrogenation of ail shales. The type of organic matter is represented in the model by a set of constants that are determined by laboratory tests. This article in

  14. Coalescence of organic solutions in acid and metal extraction by tri-alkylamines; Demixtion des solutions organiques lors de l'extraction des acides et des metaux par les trialcoylamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The formation of two layers with tri-alkylammonium salts solutions in low polarity diluents could be explained on the basis of settling of micelles. Light scattering and viscosity measurements reveal that micelles size increases rather sharply before coalescence. The existence of micelles in the solution has been confirmed by ultracentrifuge experiments. The behaviour of these solutions, in general, is similar to that of colloidal soap solutions. The various parameters which promote third phase formation are: anion size in the order of Cl{sup -} {approx} Br{sup -} < NO{sub 3} < ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; extraction of excess acid; metal cation size in the order of UO{sub 2}{sup ++} < Pu{sup 4+} {approx} Th{sup 4+}; decreasing in the length of the n-alkyl chain in the alkyl-ammonium salts; decreasing in diluent polarity. The above phenomenon could be explained on the basis of the affinity between alkylammonium salts and organic solvent. The composition of the three phases is independent of the initial amine concentration for a fixed acid and metal concentration. This has been verified experimentally and is in conformity with phase rule. (author) [French] La demixtion des solutions organiques de sels de trialcoyl-ammonium dans les solvants peu polaires est provoquee par la decantation des micelles presentes dans la solution. Nous avons montre par viscosimetrie et surtout par diffusion de la lumiere que les micelles grossissent de facon importante juste avant demixtion. Des experiences d'ultracentrifugation nous ont permis de confirmer la presence de micelles. Le comportement de ces solutions est analogue a celui des solutions colloidales de savons dans l'eau. Ainsi tous les parametres qui font decroitre la compatibilite du sel d'ammonium R{sub 3}NH+ oooX{sup -} avec le solvant organique favorisent l'agregation du sel et par consequent la demixtion, soient: l'extraction des anions de taille croissante Cl{sup -} {approx} Br{sup -} < NO{sub 3} < ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; l

  15. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds, mission orgon 2, 1975 (Bassin de Cariaco et cône de l'Amazone Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Orgon 2 Mission, 1975 (Cariaco Basin and Amazon Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Trois articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORLON, les deux autres des résultats obtenus à la mer dans les domaines de la microbiologie et de la biochimie des eaux. En microbiologie, une opposition existe entre le bassin de Cariaco d'une part, milieu anoxique riche en microflore et spécialement en bactéries sulfato-réductrices, et d'autre part la plaine du Demerara et le cône de l'Amazone, où les eaux ont des teneurs médiocres en microflore et les sédiments des teneurs si faibles qu'elles sont inférieures aux teneurs des eaux (phénomène qui n'existe jamais dans les milieux côtiers ou peu profonds. On met en évidence une relation directe entre teneurs en microflore et vitesse de sédimentation, qui permet d'avoir une vision cohérente des résultats obtenus tant à ORLON I qu'à ORLON 2. Dans le domaine de la biochimie des eaux, on a étudié outre l'eau sus-jacente au sédiment, les eaux interstitielles de 95 niveaux sédimentaires des carottes. L'utilisation d'un dispositif spécial de découpage des carottes prélevées à l'aide du carottier Reineck court a permis une étude fine des paramètres physiques (pH, Eh et des constituants chimiques (O, dissous, S-- dissous, PO---, NH4 et alcalinité des eaux interstitielles. L'influence des conditions régnant dans la Cariaco Trench sur la minéralisation de la matière organique a été étudiée au cours de l'enfouissement. Les mesures effectuées dans la mer du Demerara et sur le cône fossile de l'Amazone soulignent l'influence des conditions ambiantes et la pauvreté en matériel organique des régions océaniques profondes. Les dépôts côtiers de l'Amazone et du Para ont également été étudiés. Three separate articles are given. The first deals with general comments on the ORLON cruise, and the other two give the findings obtained on board ship in the fields of microbiology and biochemisiry of water. In microbiology, there is an

  16. Focus – La co-digestion anaérobie des boues d’épuration et de déchets organiques d’origine périurbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÉLINE, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En France, et ce principalement pour des raisons économiques, la méthanisation des boues d’épuration est encore peu appliquée dans les stations de petite et moyenne capacité. Pour améliorer le bilan économique de la digestion anaérobie des boues d’épuration dans ce type de station, il est possible de compléter les alimentations du digesteur par d’autres substrats organiques à plus fort potentiel énergétique et déjà présents sur le territoire. Quels sont les impacts de tels procédés et comment optimiser leur intégration dans la filière de traitement des eaux ?

  17. Signature isotopique du carbone et de l'azote dans la matière organique particulaire de la glace de mer en Arctique : facteurs de contrôle et applications écologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Pineault, Simon

    2011-01-01

    L'objectif de mon étude était de décrire la dynamique des isotopes stables du carbone et de l'azote de la matière organique particulaire sympagique pendant la transition printanière en mer de Beaufort. La biomasse de protistes et la disponibilité en carbone inorganique dissous ont été identifiées comme principaux facteurs de contrôle du signal isotopique du carbone à la base de la glace annuelle. Les signatures isotopiques de l'azote n'ont pu être expliquées à l'aide des variables mesurés. Un...

  18. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds. Mission Orgon 4, 1978 (golfe d'Aden, mer d'Oman. Généralités et résultats obtenus à la mer Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Organ 4 Mission, 1978 (Gulf of Aden, Sea of Oman. General and Results Obtained At Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quatre articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORGON 4, le second du cadre géographique et géologique général, ainsi que de la description des carottes prélevées, le troisième de la biochimie des eaux et le dernier de la microbiologie. Plusieurs milieux ont été rencontrés et étudiés, qui vont de la lagune (Ghubbet el Kharab à la fosse tectonique profonde (fosse d'Alula-Fartak. Deux radiales, l'une en mer d'Arabie, l'autre dans le golfe d'Oman, permettent de suivre l'évolution des caractères depuis les zones côtières jusqu'à la plaine abyssale. L'implantation des sites de carottage avait été étudiée de manière à éviter les zones à apport détritique important (cône de l'Indus : les résultats rapportés indiquent que ce but a été certainement atteint et en particulier que la matière organique des sédiments est massivement d'origine marine autochtone (planctonique. L'étude des eaux a retrouvé un résultat antérieurement acquis, à savoir l'existence dans les profondeurs moyennes (800 à 1800 m d'une zone à minimum de teneur en oxygène très marqué (équivalent à 1 ml/1, correspondant à des milieux de sédimentation a caractère réducteur net et à teneur en matièe organique relativement importante. De façon plus générale, les teneurs en carbone organique des sédiments prélevés à ORGON 4 sont les plus élevées de toutes celles mesurées dans les missions ORGON, à la fois en moyenne et pour les valeurs maximales ; ceci est certainement lié à la productivité primaire exceptionnelle des eaux sus-jacentes. Les études microbiologiques n'ont pas retrouvé les phénomènes spectaculaires d'ORGON 3 : niveaux à microflore exceptionnellement importante encadrés de niveaux stériles dans les profondeurs des carottes. Néanmoins, des tendances vers l'acquisition de ce caractère existent dans certains niveaux. Il faut signaler qu'un essai d'étude plus exhaustive des

  19. Analyse didactique de l'enseignement-apprentissage de la chimie organique jusqu'à bac+2 pour envisager sa restructuration

    OpenAIRE

    Lafarge, David

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemistry is often considered as a difficult subject to teach and to learn. Students tend to see memorisation as a priority, and this is detrimental to developing reasoning in relation to models of chemical reactivity. The aim of our research was to provide knowledge that would be useful to improve the teaching and learning of organic chemistry in the first two years of a higher education course. We focussed our study on 1/ the effects of the way this teaching is currently structured ...

  20. Paramagnetic resonance and electronic conduction in organic semiconductors; Resonance paramagnetique et conduction electroniques dans les semi-conducteurs organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechtschein, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Laboratoire de Resonance Magnetique (France)

    1963-07-01

    As some organic bodies simultaneously display semi-conducting properties and a paramagnetism, this report addresses the study of conduction in organic bodies. The author first briefly recalls how relationships between conductibility and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) can be noticed in a specific case (mineral and metallic semiconductors). He discusses published results related to paramagnetism and conductibility in organic bodies. He reviews various categories of organic bodies in which both properties are simultaneously present. He notably addresses radical molecular crystals, non-radical molecular crystals, charge transfer complexes, pyrolyzed coals, and pseudo-ferromagnetic organic structures. He discusses the issue of relationships between conduction (charge transfer by electrons) and ERP (which reveals the existence of non-paired electrons which provide free spins)

  1. Emission d'effluents gazeux lors du compostage de substrats organiques en relation avec l'activité microbiologique (nitrification/dénitrification)

    OpenAIRE

    Yulipriyanto , Hiéronymus

    2001-01-01

    Co-tutelle avec l'Indonesie; The awakening of the importance of the waste management and the safeguarding of resources led actors of the agricultural world more and more to be interested in composting as a mode of waste processing of breeding effluents or mud of wastewater treatment plants. The ways of use for these substrates, spreading, composting or other, must thus be compared. One knows indeed that agriculture is responsible for a significant share of the ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide ...

  2. Déshumidification de l'air d'une serre par contact direct à courants croisés avec une solution hygroscopique organique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraibi, A.; Jaffrin, A.; Makhlouf, S.; Bentounes, N.

    1995-07-01

    Greenhouse air can be dehumidified by direct contact with a desicant fluid on a trickle exchanger. The water vapour extraction rate depends on the hygroscopicity of the fluid and on the exchanger efficiency. An organic fluid, the triethylene glycol (TEG) at 90% concentration, has been tested. Cross corrugated cellulosic pads, of the type used in cooling, irrigated with TEG, were placed in a wind channel to dehumidify air at various speeds and temperatures. A semi-analytical model, based on energy and mass conservation, correctly reproduces the water vapor extraction rate and the enthalpy change of both fluids. It is shown that TEG trickling through a ventilated pad of 1 m^2 area and 0.1 m thickness can be used to extract 3 to 5 kg of water vapor per hour in greenhouse climate control applications. Several pads arranged in series can be used to decrease more efficiently the absolute humidity of the air, for other applications like food drying or industrial compressed air. Une technique de déshumidification de l'air des serres consiste à le soumettre au contact d'une solution hygroscopique au sein d'un échangeur ruisselant. Le taux d'extraction de vapeur d'eau dépend à la fois du pouvoir hygroscopique de la solution et de l'efficacité de l'échangeur. Une solution hygroscopique organique, le triéthylène glycol à 90% de concentration, a été expérimentée. Un échangeur ruisselant constitué de parois de cellulose ondulées à corrugations croisées, du type “cooling pad” pour serres agricoles, a été testé pour déshumidifier de l'air dans une soufflerie expérimentale. Un modèle semi-analytique, basé sur les équations de conservation de l'énergie et de masse, permet de rendre compte des échanges et de déduire les paramètres de sortie des deux fluides en contact, à partir des caractéristiques d'entrée. Cette étude permet de chiffrer à environ 3 à 5kg/h la capacité de déshumidification d'un panneau d'un mètre carré et de 10cm d

  3. Study of the double charge-changing collision cross-sections of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, Li{sup +} ions with organic molecules in the energy range 10-50 keV; Etude des sections efficaces de double echange de charges ({sigma}{sub 1-1}) d'ions H{sup +}, D{sup +}, Li{sup +} traversant differents gaz organiques dans une gamme d'energie comprise entre 10 et 50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhi, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The variation of the double charge-changing collision cross-sections of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, Li{sup +} ions with organic molecules (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) in the energy range 10-50 keV has been studied. Several maximums for {sigma}{sub 1-1} = f(E) have been shown. Their existence should be explained by the different possibilities of dissociating the target-molecules. The position of the maximums, for the H{sup +} {yields} H{sup -} and D{sup +} {yields} D{sup -} reactions is in good agreement with that defined by the Massey adiabatic relation. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la variation de la section efficace de double echange de charges des ions H{sup +}, D{sup +}, Li{sup +} lors de la collision avec les molecules organiques de CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} dans la gamme d'energie comprise entre 10 et 50 keV. Les resultats obtenus ont montre plusieurs maximums de {sigma}{sub 1-1} f(E). L'existence de ces maximums pourrait etre expliquee par les differentes possibilites de dissociation des molecules cibles. La position des points maximaux concernant les reactions H{sup +} {yields} H{sup -} et D{sup +} {yields} D{sup -} est en bon accord avec celle definie par la relation adiabatique de MASSEY. (auteur)

  4. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure; Etude des transferts du tritium atmospherique chez la laitue: Etude cinetique, etat d'equilibre et integration du tritum sous forme organique lors d'une exposition atmospherique continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.

    2009-11-30

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author) [French] Ce travail de these a concerne l'etude des phenomenes d'absorption et d'incorporation sous forme organique du tritium dans un vegetal de consommation courante, la laitue (Lactuca sativa L.), en reponse a une exposition atmospherique. Il apparait que la voie foliaire joue un role primordial dans l'absorption du tritium au sein de l'eau tissulaire des plants. Quels que soient le stade de developpement des plants et les conditions d'eclairement, le temps necessaire pour atteindre l'equilibre des concentrations dans l'eau libre et dans la vapeur d'eau de l'air est de plusieurs heures; le rapport des concentrations est alors de

  5. Influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur la cristallisation des carbonates de calcium Influence of Foreign Ions and of Organic Matter on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailleau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente les résultats d'un travail de recherche entrepris pour des aspects de la diagenèse des roches carbonatées : la cimentation cal le rôle est capital pour la conservation ou le colmatage de la porosit de ce type de sédiments. Après une synthèse bibliographique des connaissances actuelles sur et la cimentation du CaC03 en milieu naturel et en laboratoire, on a mentalement l'influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur germination et la croissance des carbonates de calcium. Les principaux résultats obtenus peuvent se résumer comme suit a En ce qui concerne les ions étrangers. Leur action se traduit en général par une augmentation du temps de germination et une réduction de la vitesse de croissance des cristaux de CaCO3; l'apparition de faciès particuliers pour certains des minéraux formés ; l'inhibition des transformations d'une variété en une autre. On obtient un classement par ordre d'efficacité croissante action à peu près nulle: K+, CI-; action modérée : Bat+, Na+, AI3+, Cul+, Sr2+, SO2 , P0;-; action dominante de Mg'+. b Pour les matières organiques. Seules l'acide citrique et, dans une moindre mesure, l'acide tartrique, ont une influence notable, d'ailleurs analogue à celle des ions étrangers en ce qui concerne les cinétiques de germination et de croissance du CaCO. L'adsorption de certains de ces produits se traduit en outre par des faciès particuliers des minéraux formés et éventuellement par l'inhibition des transformations d'une variété en une autre. This article gives the results of a research project undertaken to study one of the aspects of the diagénesis of carbonate rocks, 1. e. calcite cementing, which plays a capital role in preserving or plugging up the original porosity of such sediments.After making a bibliographic synthesis of what is now known about the origin and cementation of CaC03 in a natural environment and in the laboratory, the article experimentally

  6. Competition entre supraconductivite et magnetisme au voisinage de la transition de Mott dans le conducteur organique quasi-bidimensionnel k-(BEDT-TTF)2copper[N(CN)2]bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, David

    Les conducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels kappa-ET2X presentent d'importantes similitudes avec les SCHT telles qu'une phase isolant de Mott, un regime de pseudogap et un etat supraconducteur. L'etude de leurs proprietes apparait donc complementaire. Parmi les interrogations persistantes concernant la physique de ces systemes, l'origine du (ou des) processus exotique d'appariement, responsable de la supraconductivite est le sujet suscitant l'interet le plus marque dans la communaute. L'hypothese d'un mecanisme lie a la proximite d'un etat antiferromagnetique est privilegiee. Une etape importante dans la resolution de cette problematique est l'identification de la symetrie du parametre d'ordre. D'apres de nombreux travaux sur les systemes fortement correles, la sonde ultrasonore, de par sa sensibilite aux excitations de quasiparticule a basse temperature, est consideree comme particulierement adaptee a l'etude de cette propriete. Cependant, son emploi necessite l'utilisation d'un compose metallique a basse temperature et completement supraconducteur. Le compose metallique organique kappa-ET 2Cu[N(CN)2]Br presente toutes les caracteristiques necessaires a l'etude de cette propriete. En effet, il est situe loin de la transition du premier ordre de Mott et est completement supraconducteur. De facon surprenante, ce systeme semble se coupler fortement avec le reseau ce qui augmente significativement la sensibilite de cette sonde aux proprietes du gaz electronique. Cependant, des difficultes techniques importantes, liees a la nature intrinseque de ce materiau, doivent etre surmontees pour proceder a des mesures suivant differentes polarisations. La presente etude a profondement modifie notre comprehension de ce systeme. En effet, ces mesures ont permis de constater que le kappa-ET2Cu[N(CN)2]Br est un compose qui est situe en bordure de la zone de coexistence entre la supraconductivite et le magnetisme, ce qui constitue un resultat totalement inattendu. De plus, la

  7. Heavy Element Staining of Sedimentary Organic Matter Functional Groups for Backscattered Electron Imaging Marquage par éléments lourds de la matière organique sédimentaire pour la microscopie électronique en électrons rétrodiffusés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin-Geindre S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The scanning electron microscopy (SEM in backscattered electron mode (BSE, which imaging is based upon atomic number (Z contrasts between constituents, allows to visualize the organic matter distribution within the sediment. However the precise identification of organic matter is not possible as all the organic matter appears black. The contrasts between the different types of organic matter were enhanced for the use of the SEM/BSE imaging by staining organic matter with high Z elements. Experimental procedure was tested in terms of faisability, selectivity and specificity on polymers containing functional groups likely to occur in sedimentary organic matter. Then staining was applied to sedimentary organic matter, i. e. to purely organic sediments (algal mats, kukersite and coal and to clayey sediments (Kimmeridge Clay Formation. The chosen staining solutions comprised : ruthenium tetroxide, osmium tetroxide, phosphotungstic acid (PTA and silver methenamine. Samples were immersed in staining solutions for 24 hours, rinsed and observed with SEM/BSE. The penetration depth ranges between 20 and 150 µm. Other complementary tests with ruthenium tetroxide and mercury acetate were also performed on polymers. Tests with PTA, silver methenamine and osmium tetroxide were satisfying and presented a more or less broad specificity. Osmium allows the distinction of each algal laminite of the algal mat. The different parts of the kukersite react specifically with osmium, PTA and silver. The coal constituents display a specific staining with silver methenamine. Osmium and PTA allow in the Kimmeridge Clay sample (a to differenciate several types of organic particles according to their chemical composition; (b to locate the organic matter finely dispersed within the mineral, clayey matrix. La microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB en mode électrons rétrodiffusés (ER permet de visualiser la répartition de toute la matière organique d'un sédiment (Belin

  8. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  9. Hétérogenéité quantitative et qualitative de la matière organique dans les argiles du Kimmeridgien du val de Pickering (Yorkshire, UK). Cadre sédimentologique et stratigraphique Quantitative and Qualitative Heterogeneity of the Organic Matter Within the Kimmeridge Clay of the Vale of Pickering (Yorkshire, Uk). Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Penn I. E.; Herbin J. P.; Muller C.; Geyssant J. R.; Melieres F.

    2006-01-01

    Les argiles du Kimméridgien contribuent à l'alimentation de nombreux gisements en mer du Nord. L'étude de quatre puits localisés sur une coupe Est-Ouest dans le Val de Pickering (Bassin de Cleveland) permet d'illustrer dans cette formation l'hétérogénéité de distribution verticale et latérale de la matière organique en terme de quantité et de qualité. La coupe étudiée (35 km de long, 200 m de haut) représente environ 6,5 millions d'années d'histoire géologique. Les analyses minéralogiques mon...

  10. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area persistent organic pollutants; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole produits organiques persistants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP): dioxines et furans (Diox), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), poly-chloro-biphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chloro-benzene (HCB). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  11. Evaluation quantitative des produits formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique Quantitative Evaluation of Products Formed During the Geochemical Evolution of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation quantitative des produits mobiles formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique est nécessaire parce qu'on ne peut jamais retrouver ces produits en place dans. la roche où ils ont pris naissance. Ils ont, en effet, pu migrer durant l'histoire géologique, et de toute manière une fraction, importante et non connue, se perd lors de la prise des échantillons puis de leur conservation avant analyse. La connaissance de l'analyse d'un état E et d'un état plus évolué E' ne suffit pas pour reconstituer les quantités de produits formés. La pyrolyse type Rock-Eval sur kérogènes, avec détermination du carbone résiduel, permet par contre, à partir d'une hypothèse raisonnable, de calculer les hydrocarbures produits. L'analyse élémentaire permet d'y ajouter CO2, H2O, H2S et N2 (considérés comme seuls produits à côté des hydrocarbures. Une analyse chromatographique sommaire supplémentaire permet d'estimer la composition globale des hydrocarbures. Dans le cas des roches, on propose des techniques de correction de l'effet de matrice pratiquement utilisables et qui permettent de retrouver les résultats précédents, au prix d'une incertitude accrue. The mobile products formed during the geochemical evolution of organic matter must be quantitatively evaluated because these products can never be found in place in the rock where they were formed. Indeed, they may have migrated during geological history, and in any case a large and unknown fraction gets lost when samples are taken and then stored before being analysed. Knowing the elemental analysis of a state E and of a more evolved state E' does not suffice for recreating the amounts of products formed. On the other hand Rock-Eval type pyrolysis of kerogens, including the determination of the residual carbon, can be used to compute the hydrocarbons produced, on the basis of a reasonable hypothesis. Elemental analysis then enables the evaluation of CO2, H2O

  12. Influence of natural organic matter on the speciation of radionuclides in a geochemistry context; Influence de la matiere organique naturelle sur la speciation des radionucleides en contexte geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marang, L

    2007-09-15

    The principal aim of this work is the study of the influence of natural organic matter, in particularly humic substances (HS), on the speciation of radionuclides (RN). The studied radionuclides are cobalt (II), europium (III) and uranium (VI). It has been shown that mobility and bioavailability of a metal are related to its speciation. The NICA-Donnan model describes metal ion binding to NOM: it accounts for NOM chemical heterogeneity, competition during binding and ionic strength effects. However the model has been calibrated with a limited number of experimental data for the RN. Indeed there is only a few speciation technique available for the study of the interactions RN-HS. Within the framework of this study, we have developed and optimised speciation technique (Flux Donnan Membrane Technique and the use of an un-solubilized humic acid) in order to acquire new experimental data, we have also studied the effect of the competition on RN speciation and finally we have tested the model capacity to predict the RN behavior in laboratory or in situ. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the mobility of an organic pollutant in triphasic conditions; Evaluation de la mobilite d'un polluant organique en conditions triphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, C

    2006-10-15

    Soil contamination by liquid organic pollutants represents a serious threat to phreatic ground water. These organic liquids get into the ground and migrate through the porous medium until they finally reach the aquifer. After a critical study of the literature, we listed various existing multiple displacements under three-phase conditions of a disconnected polluting phase that may or not spread over water. The aim of this thesis is to model (at pore scale level) and integrate in the pore network model the various flows that occur when three phases (gas, pollutant and air) are present in a porous medium. The porous medium is supposed completely water-wet. The polluting phase may be connected or not, and the spreading coefficient of the pollutant over water may either be positive or negative. The goal of our study is to obtain macroscopic parameters such as relative permeabilities and capillary pressure. These parameters can be then incorporated in a larger-scale simulator in order to optimise the predictions of the contaminations of soils and to improve techniques of depollution. (author)

  14. Tritium metrology within different media: focus on organically bound tritium (OBT); Metrologie du tritium dans differentes matrices: cas du tritium organiquement lie (TOL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, 30 (France); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN, DEI/STEME/LMRE, 91 - Orsay (France); Fouhal, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/D2S/LANSE, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Deniau, I.; Mokili, M. [SUBATECH/IN2P3/CNRS, 44 - Nantes (France); Henry, A. [AREVA-NC/DQSSE/PR - La Hague, 50 - Beaumont-Hague, (France); Fourre, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/LSCE, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Olivier, A. [GEA-Marine nationale, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    2010-07-15

    The measurement of tritium in its various forms (mainly gas (HT), water (HTO) or solid (hydrides)), is an important key step for evaluating health and environmental risks and finally, dosimetry assessment. In vegetable or animal samples, tritium is often associated with the free water fraction, but may be included in the organic form as organically bound tritium (OBT). In this case, 2 forms exist: (i) a fraction called exchangeable or labile (E-OBT), bound to oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and (ii) a so-called non-exchangeable fraction (NE-OBT) bound to carbon atoms. The main technique for tritium analysis is liquid scintillation, which enables one to measure concentrations in the range of several Bq.L{sup -1}. The standards (AFNOR, ISO) published to date relate only to tritium analysis in water. Only one CETAMA method addresses OBT analysis in biological environments. This method has been tested since 2001 through intercomparison circuits on grass samples collected from the environment. Regarding tritium analysis in water, the strengths are reliability of this analysis at low concentrations (order of Bq.L{sup -1}), robustness and simplicity, and weaknesses are linked to problems of background, conservation and contamination of samples. Concerning OBT analysis, the analysis is reliable for values around 50 Bq.kg{sup -1} of fresh sample. The weaknesses are problems of contamination, reproducibility, analysis time (2 to 6 days) and lack of reference materials. The difficulty to date is the separation between E-OBT and NE-OBT, that will need experimental validation. (authors)

  15. FUMURE ORGANIQUE ET PRODUCTIVITE DU MANIOC (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    moyens de 4 variétés de manioc, qui ont été de 40 t.ha-1 pour le témoin et de 63 t.ha-1 et 61 t.ha-1 respectivement, .... Après analyse des échantillons composites au ..... contamination par les micro-organismes ... Dégradation et restauration.

  16. Utilisation des polymères organiques durant le forage et la cimentation des puits à haute température Using Organic Polymers During Drilling and Cementing of High Temperature Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les puits pétroliers, par suite de l'accroissement de la profondeur, des températures statiques de fond voisines de 250 °C seront probablement atteintes dans un très proche avenir. Dans les puits géothermiques à haute énergie, cette limite est déjà largement dépassée avec des températures pouvant aller jusque 400 °C. II est indispensable que les fluides de forage et les matériaux de cimentation alors mis en oeuvre possèdent des stabilités suffisantes. Pour les fluides de forage, à base d'eau et à base d'huile, il convient de prévenir, à l'aide d'additifs, les évolutions réversibles et irréversibles des caractéristiques de viscosité et de filtration durant le cycle ou pendant des arrêts de circulation de quelques heures. Ces additifs sont, pour la plupart, des polymères susceptibles de se disperser dans la phase liquide. Mais actuellement leur stabilité ne permet guère d'envisager l'utilisation des fluides à base d'eau au-delà de 260 °C et celle des fluides à base d'huile au-delà de 285 °C. Pour les cimentations, il peut être souhaitable de remplacer le ciment hydraulique habituellement employé par un matériau de masse volumique plus faible et/ou de durabilité accrue. Pendant toute la vie du puits, prévue pour 20 à 30 ans, ce matériau devra assurer l'étanchéité de l'annulaire et conserver sa résistance mécanique. II devra, de plus, supporter l'environnement parfois agressif des eaux de formation. Des recherches de laboratoire sur de nouveaux matériaux de cimentation ont été orientées vers des résines organiques et des composés à base d'organosiloxanes. Elles conduisent à sélectionner des formules stables jusqu'à 300 °C. Mais les possibilités de mise en oeuvre sur puits restent encore à étudier et le coût élevé des produits de base risque de limiter leur application. Static downhole temperatures of around 250°C will probably be reached in the very near future in oil wells as the

  17. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds. Mission orgon 3, 1976 (Mauritanie, Sénégal, Iles du Cap-Vert. Généralités et résultats obtenus à la mer. Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Orgon 3 Mission, 1976 (Mauritania,Senegal,Cape Verde Islands. General and Results Obtained At Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Sept articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORLON 3, le second du cadre géologique général, les cinq autres des résultats obtenus à la mer dans les domaines de l'interprétation des profils d'échosondeur, de la descrip-tion des carottes, de l'examen de la matière organique figurée, de l'étude des gaz occlus et enfin de la microbiologie. Les profils d'échosondeur permettent de préciser la topographie des fonds, qui apparaissent comme entaillés de canyons. Ils permettent aussi de déceler les glissements sédimentaires qui apparaissent comme un processus normal de mise en place des sédiments dans la région étudiée. La description immédiate des carottes a permis, en particulier, de mettre en évidence des niveaux turbiditiques à éléments bioclastiques subsistant sous la lysocline, ce qui, entre autres, confirme les considérations précédentes. L'examen de la matière organique figurée fait soupçonner l'importance de l'apport détritique éolien, ce qui est une nouveauté. L'étude des gaz occlus oppose nettement la région Nord (radiale de Nouadhibou, au Sud (région des fleuves côtiers et du canyon de Kayar. Dans cette dernière, les gaz ne contiennent pratiquement que du méthane comme hydrocarbure ; les teneurs sontirrégulièrement réparties et ne montrent aucune corrélation, ni avec la teneur en carbone organique, ni avec la richesse microbienne des niveaux. Au Nord, le méthane est un peu moins prédominant (l'éthane représente quelques centièmes du méthane, les homologues supérieurs sont à l'état de traces. S'il n'y a pas corrélation avec la richesse microbienne, il y en a par contre avec la teneur en carbone organique et les teneurs s'accroîssent régulièrement en profondeur pour atteindre le double des teneurs mesurées au Sud. L'interprétation de ces données n'est pas évidente. La microbiologie a mis en évidence un phénomène déjà entrevu aux pr

  18. Manipulation de molécules organiques sur couches ultra-minces semi-isolantes et plots métalliques pour la fabrication de circuits moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Yengui , Mayssa

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of molecular circuitsThe overall objective of this thesis is to study the growth of individual cobalt silicide (CoSi2) dots combined with a semi-insulating hydrogenated silicon surface (Si(100):H) to create a controlled and suitable environment for the interconnection of functionalized molecules, the premises to molecular circuits. This study, related to the context of the bottom-up molecular electronics, is performed using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at low temp...

  19. Composites organiques-inorganiques pour la substitution et la réparation osseuse : concepts, premiers résultats et potentialités Organic-inorganic composites for bone substitute and bone repair applications: concepts, first results and potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peroglio Marianna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce document présente un très bref aperçu de l'intérêt des matériaux composites organique – inorganique pour la substitution et la réparation osseuse. Deux types de composites sont présentés. Dans une première partie, des matériaux poreux en céramique ou bio-verre élaborés par la technologie des poudres sont imprégnés par un polymère. Cette imprégnation se traduit par une forte augmentation de l'énergie à la rupture du squelette céramique, permettant de limiter le risque de rupture fragile. L'augmentation des propriétés mécaniques des substituts osseux céramiques par une phase polymère peut être mise en regard des mécanismes de renforcement présents dans l'os et du rôle du collagène sur la ténacité de celui-ci. Dans une deuxième partie, des composites denses sont élaborés par des technologies de plasturgie, qui permettent de réaliser des produits de formes complexes. Les phases polymères et céramiques sont ici choisies pour leurs caractères respectifs résorbable et ostéo-inducteur. Ces composites permettent la création rapide d'hydroxyapatite à leur surface et accélèrent la guérison osseuse. A terme, ils sont résorbés. Ces deux exemples démontrent les potentialités de tels multi-matériaux architecturés pour la réalisation de substituts osseux plus résistants mécaniquement et apportant de nouvelles fonctionnalités, ainsi que pour la production de produits d'ostéosynthèse favorisant les processus de guérison osseuse. Here we show a brief outline of organic-inorganic composites for bone substitute and bone repair applications. Two types of composites are presented. In a first strategy, porous ceramics and bioactive glasses processed by sintering methods are impregnated by a polymer. The strong improvement of the mechanical properties of the ceramic scaffolds by a polymer phase can be linked to the one present in bone with the role of collagen on bone toughness. In a second strategy, a

  20. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  1. Analyse géochimique de la matiére organique extraite des roches sédimentaires. IV. Extraction des roches en faible quantités Geochemical Analysis of Organic Matter Extracted from Sedimentary Rocks Iv. Exraction from Small Amounts of Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monin J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'extraction en Soxhlet est inappllcable lorsque les échantillons de roche sont de trop petite taille. A l'occasion de la mise au point du protocole d'extraction correspondant, on examine l'influence d'un certain nombre de conditions opératoires sur le rendement d'extraction : température, durée nature et quantité du solvant, présence de lumière, présence d'air, procédé d'extraction. Pour les hydrocarbures, tant saturés qu'aromatiques, le facteur essentiel est l'agitation du milieu d'extraction ; la nature du solvant n'est pas critique, à condition de ne pas choisir un très mauvais solvant des hydrocarbures : l'extractibilité est en effet plus fonction du pouvoir désorbant vis-à-vis de la roche que du pouvoir solvant proprement dit. Pour les résines et asphalténes, l'interprétation des résultats est délicate, car la frontière n'est pas nette entre produits simplement dissous, produits de solvolyse et, produits de néoformation par interaction solvant-matière organique-matière minérale. II n'existe donc pas de protocole d'extraction recommandable dans l'absolu. Tout dépend des exigences analytiques et aussi pratiques du laboratoire; à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP le protocole retenu est l'extraction en bécher avec agitation magnétique pendant 20 min dans le chroroforme à 50 °C (approximativement; on donne aussi le protocole d'évaporation du solvant et de récupération de l'extrait, qui doit être étudié soigneusement étant donné les faibles quantités mises en jeu. A Soxhlet extractor cannot be used with rock samples that are too small in size. With the development of on extraction procédure for such cases, this article examines the influence of various operating conditions on extraction yield, i. e. temperature, duration, nature and amount of solvent, presence of light, présence of air and extraction process. For both saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, the essential factor is the stirring of the

  2. Influence combinée des fumures organique et minérale sur la nutrition et le rendement du maïs (Zea mays: impact sur le diagnostic des carences du sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanza, KP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined Influence of Manure and Fertilizers on Nutrition and Yield of Maize (Zea mays: Impact on the Diagnosis of Primary Soil Deficiencies. A trial was carried out at Centre National de Recherche Agronomique (CNRA station in Man, in order to study the effects of combined application of fertilizers and manure on the soil fertility, yields and nutrition of corn (Zea mays. Three doses of fertilizers and five amounts of manure were tested. Combination of levels' factors corresponds to fifteen treatments. Results show that manure is the engine of the improvement of soil fertility, nutrition and yields. All chemical characteristics of the soil have been improved, notably phosphorus, calcium and the total of exchangeable base cations. Impacts of these changes on soil' fertility, plant nutrition and performance have been established. A significant increase in the absorption of phosphorus and yield, due to manure, is observed. Soil phosphoric nutrition and yield of maize are related to the dose in the soil of each of these crucial nutrients by a quadratic production function. The ignorance of factors, that limit nutrition and production, maintains a low yield levels. Correction of deficiencies by a fertilization formula, adjusted to the soil and crop, restores productivity. Organic soil maintenance is an appropriate solution to the problems of the farmer.

  3. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  4. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  5. Réponse de fertilisant organique liquide (DIGROW)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2016 ... sur le Rendement graine de haricot –commun (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) À forte teneur en fer et zinc à Ngandajika. 9680. Réponse de .... importante source protéique, de calcium, du fer, zinc et de la ..... Détermination du moment.

  6. Composes organiques et activités antioxydantes de Ampelocissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2015 ... additives or the necessary supplements in the food preserving. Key words: Composed organic, activity antioxidant, Ampelocissus multistriata. INTRODUCTION. Sur le plan physiologique, les végétaux verts en cours de croissance utilisent l'énergie que leur fournit la lumière solaire captée par les feuilles.

  7. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan; Le photovoltaique organique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  8. Nanoprismes d'argent dans les cellules solaires organiques plasmoniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cao , Zhixiong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays there has been a strong global demand for renewable and clean energy due to the rapid consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting greenhouse effect. One promising solution to harvest clean and renewable energy is to utilize solar cells to convert the energy of sunlight directly into electricity. Compared to their inorganic counterparts, organic solar cells (OSCs) are now of intensive research interest due to advantages such as light weight, flexibility, the compatibil...

  9. Analyse par ToF-SIMS de matériaux organiques pour les applications en électronique organique

    OpenAIRE

    Terlier , Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, organic electronics have developed rapidly. However, the production of organic electronic devices is still impeded because of various technological barriers. Such systems have specific analytical needs and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is per se highly relevant, particularly when considering the use of a new type of ion source based on argon clusters (Arn +). The main objective of this work was therefore to understand the ion-matter interact...

  10. Liquid Scintillation Detection of Tritium and other Radioisotopes in Insoluble or Quenching Organic Samples; Detection par compteur a scintillations a liquides du tritium et des autres radioelements contenus dans des echantillons organiques insolubles ou coupeurs; Obnaruzhenie tritiya metodom zhidkostnoj stsintillyatsii v nerastvorimykh ili sposo'nykh gasit' izluchenie organicheskikh o'raztsakh; Deteccion del tritio u otros radioisotopos por centelleo liquido en muestras organicas insolubles o que provocan extincion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, J F; Westbrook, H L; Gonzales, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    To facilitate a study of the H{sup 1}/H{sup 3} isotope effect in the reduction of organic compounds, it has been necessary to develop procedures to overcome the two major limitations of the most convenient general method of radioassaying organic material, liquid scintillation counting. These limitations, which are scintillation-quenching by many organic samples and limited solubility of others, are particularly common with material of biological significance: The procedures developed involve combustion of the sample wrapped in filter paper in art oxygen-filled flask, formation of a solution of the combustion products in a suitable solvent added to the flask before combustion, and scintillation-counting of the solution. Advantages of the developed, procedures, in addition to overcoming the indicated limitations, include efficacy with samples with a great range of activity (some as low as 1{mu}c/mole), good precision (as great as any other general method of radio-assaying H{sup 3}), and applicability to other soft beta emitters (C{sup 14} and S{sup 35}). With a scintillation spectrometer and the techniques developed, samples triply labelled with H{sup 3}, C{sup 14} and S{sup 35} can be differentially radio assayed. Details of the solvent systems and techniques developed are reported. Analytical results are reported for such quenching material as 2.4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazones dyes and for such insoluble materials as proteins and carbohydrates. Application of the techniques to evaluation of H{sup 1}/H{sup 3} isotope effects in certain reduction reactions are discussed. (author) [French] Pour faciliter l'etude de l'effet isotopique ''1H/''3H dans la reduction des composes organiques, il a fallu mettre au point des procedes permettant d'elargir le champ d'application de la methode generale la plus pratique de radioanalyse des matieres organiques, savoir l'analyse au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations a liquides. En effet, ce champ d'application est limite pour deux

  11. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Recoil in Organic Halide Systems: A New Theoretical Treatment and Experimental Verification of the Theory; Effets Chimiques du Recul Nucleaire dans des Systemes Organiques Halogenes: Nouveau Traitement Theorique et Verification Experimentale de la Theorie; Khimicheskie vozdejstviya yadernoj otdachi v organicheskikh galoidnykh sistemakh: novoe teoreticheskoe tolkovanie i ehksperimental'noe podtverzhdenie teorii; Efectos Quimicos del Retroceso Nuclear en Sistemas de Haluros Organicos: Nuevo Tratamiento Teorico y Verificacion Experimental de la Teoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontis, S. S.; Sanitwongs, P.; Weston, M. [Londonderry Laboratory for Radiochemistry, University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    1965-04-15

    Methods have been developed for calculating the organic retention of radiohalogen to be expected following neutron activation of mixtures of two organic halides and the corresponding free halogen. The methods are based on the concepts of the Libby ''billiard-ball'' process of hot-atom labelling and retentions are expressed in terms of two types of parameters: (1) the fractional chance that collision of a hot radiohalogen atom with a particular molecule will lead to retention of the hot atom in that molecule; (2) the upper and lower energy limits for what is termed a hot bromine atom. It is shown how the former type of parameter may be derived from experiments with binary mixtures of an organic halide and the corresponding free halogen: the second type of parameter must be deduced from nuclear and chemical data. These methods have been tested by studies on the systems C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}. The calculated retentions (using parameters derived from studies of the systems C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}) are in good agreement with those found experimentally in mixtures with a bromine mole-fraction greater than about 0.1. It is therefore considered that the Libby mechanism is adequate to explain the observed organic retentions in such mixtures. As the bromine mole-fraction is reduced, below 0.1 the observed retentions become progressively higher than calculated values. This is attributed to there being additional modes of hot-atom labelling which become operative when the bromine concentration is not high enough to give adequate radical scavenging. (author) [French] Lesauteuts ont mis au point des methodes pour calculer la retention organique du radiohalogene a laquelle on peut s'attendre apres activation par les neutrons de melanges de deux halogenures organiques et de l'halogene libre correspondant. Ces methodes sont basees sur les principes du

  12. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of radicals formed by radiolysis at 77 K of nitroalkanes and of their solutions in organic glasses. Chromatography analysis of radiolysis products of nitromethane in ethanol solution in a vitreous medium; Etude par resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux formes par radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes et de leurs solutions dans les verres organiques analyse par chromatographie des produits de la radiolyse du nitromethane en solution dans l'ethanol en milieux vitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosilio, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    etude porte sur la structure et la reactivite des radicaux formes par irradiation 7 des derives nitres a 77 K, et sur le mecanisme de formation et de disparition de ces radicaux dans les differentes matrices utilisees. Les radicaux resultant de l'arrachement d'un hydrogene en {alpha} du groupe NO{sub 2}, et les radicaux resultant de reactions d'addition sur le groupe nitre caracterises par un electron non apparie sur l'azote ont ete identifies, soit dans la radiolyse des nitroalcanes purs, soit dans la radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes en solution dans les verres organiques. La conformation et les mouvements des radicaux dans les matrices, le mecanisme de formation des radicaux observes resultant generalement de la capture par les nitroalcanes des especes primaires de la radiolyse ont ete etudies. Les nitroalcanes en solution dans l'ethanol se manifestent a la fois comme capteurs d'electrons et de radicaux libres. L'etude de la radiolyse des nitroalcanes en solution dans un verre polaire d'ethanol a ete completee par des analyses chimiques des produits finals de la radiolyse; elle nous a permis de deduire l'efficacite de capture des electrons pieges et des radicaux libres par les nitroalcanes dans l'ethanol. Pour cela nous avons dose, pour le systeme nitro-methane - ethanol les rendements radiochimiques de-l'hydrogene, de l'acetaldehyde et du glycol en fonction de la concentration en capteur. Un mecanisme de disparition des radicaux observes a ete propose. (auteur)

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of radicals formed by radiolysis at 77 K of nitroalkanes and of their solutions in organic glasses. Chromatography analysis of radiolysis products of nitromethane in ethanol solution in a vitreous medium; Etude par resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux formes par radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes et de leurs solutions dans les verres organiques analyse par chromatographie des produits de la radiolyse du nitromethane en solution dans l'ethanol en milieux vitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosilio, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    radiolyse. Notre etude porte sur la structure et la reactivite des radicaux formes par irradiation 7 des derives nitres a 77 K, et sur le mecanisme de formation et de disparition de ces radicaux dans les differentes matrices utilisees. Les radicaux resultant de l'arrachement d'un hydrogene en {alpha} du groupe NO{sub 2}, et les radicaux resultant de reactions d'addition sur le groupe nitre caracterises par un electron non apparie sur l'azote ont ete identifies, soit dans la radiolyse des nitroalcanes purs, soit dans la radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes en solution dans les verres organiques. La conformation et les mouvements des radicaux dans les matrices, le mecanisme de formation des radicaux observes resultant generalement de la capture par les nitroalcanes des especes primaires de la radiolyse ont ete etudies. Les nitroalcanes en solution dans l'ethanol se manifestent a la fois comme capteurs d'electrons et de radicaux libres. L'etude de la radiolyse des nitroalcanes en solution dans un verre polaire d'ethanol a ete completee par des analyses chimiques des produits finals de la radiolyse; elle nous a permis de deduire l'efficacite de capture des electrons pieges et des radicaux libres par les nitroalcanes dans l'ethanol. Pour cela nous avons dose, pour le systeme nitro-methane - ethanol les rendements radiochimiques de-l'hydrogene, de l'acetaldehyde et du glycol en fonction de la concentration en capteur. Un mecanisme de disparition des radicaux observes a ete propose. (auteur)

  15. Technique for the Measurement of Low-Level Radioactivity of Organic Iodine in Large-Volume Urine Samples; Technique de Mesure de la Faible Radioactivite de l'Iode Organique Contenu dans des Echantillons d'Urine de Grand Volume; Metod izmereniya nizkikh aktivnostej organicheskogo joda v krupnykh obraztsakh mochi; Tecnicas de Medicion de Bajas Actividades de Yodo Organico Contenido en Muestras de Orina de Gran Volumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolesco-Zinca, D.; Matei, I. [Institut d' Endocrinologie de l' Academie Roumaine, Bucarest (Romania)

    1965-10-15

    scintillation equipment, which is currently available in nuclear medical laboratories. (author) [French] Dans l'endocrinologie nucleaire deux problemes importants se posent en ce qui concerne la determination de l'excretion renale de l'iode sous forme de composes organiques marques in vitro: a) leur separation quantitative de l'iodure coexistant dans l'urine, meme si la concentration de ce dernier est vingt fois plus grande; b) la determination de leur faible radioactivite dans des echantillons d'urine de grand volume, leur concentration par millilitre d'urine etant approximativement 10{sup -5} fois celle de la dose administree, dont la radioactivite doit etre, a son tour, aussi faible que possible. La separation s'effectue habituellement par chromatographie sur papier, pour laquelle on n'utilise que de petits echantillons d'urine. Cette technique, qui exige des appareils pour chromatographie, est d'une application difficile et longue. Elle implique une contamination de toute la bande de papier. Malgre les corrections apportees, la recuperation de la radioactivite n'est que de 89,9%, et moins encore lorsqu'on utilise un extrait de butanol. La technique des auteurs consiste a faire passer un echantillon de grand volume d'urine a travers une microcolonne d'un cationique H{sup +}. Les composes organiques du radioiode restent tixes sur le cationique et leur radioactivite est mesuree a l'aide d'une sonde a scintillation a cristal de Nal(Tl) creux. La recuperation de la diiodotyrosine de l'urine a ete verifiee dans des conditions donnees; on 1'a trouvee complete, avec une erreur standard de 0,42% sur la moyenne de dix experiences. Cette methode a ete appliquee pour determiner la desiodation de la diiodotyrosine chez onze patients presentant une desiodation normale et chez dix cretins avec goftre, dont cinq ont montre un deficit de desiodation. La radioactivite administree a ete de 1 {mu}Ci de diiodotyrosine-{sup 131}L La methode decrite par les auteurs permet l'administration d

  16. Relativity without relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan Z; Murchadha, Niall O

    2002-01-01

    We give a derivation of general relativity (GR) and the gauge principle that is novel in presupposing neither spacetime nor the relativity principle. We consider a class of actions defined on superspace (the space of Riemannian 3-geometries on a given bare manifold). It has two key properties. The first is symmetry under 3-diffeomorphisms. This is the only postulated symmetry, and it leads to a constraint linear in the canonical momenta. The second property is that the Lagrangian is constructed from a 'local' square root of an expression quadratic in the velocities. The square root is 'local' because it is taken before integration over 3-space. It gives rise to quadratic constraints that do not correspond to any symmetry and are not, in general, propagated by the Euler-Lagrange equations. Therefore these actions are internally inconsistent. However, one action of this form is well behaved: the Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler (Baierlein R F, Sharp D and Wheeler J A 1962 Phys. Rev. 126 1864) reparametrization-invariant action for GR. From this viewpoint, spacetime symmetry is emergent. It appears as a 'hidden' symmetry in the (underdetermined) solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations, without being manifestly coded into the action itself. In addition, propagation of the linear diffeomorphism constraint together with the quadratic square-root constraint acts as a striking selection mechanism beyond pure gravity. If a scalar field is included in the configuration space, it must have the same characteristic speed as gravity. Thus Einstein causality emerges. Finally, self-consistency requires that any 3-vector field must satisfy Einstein causality, the equivalence principle and, in addition, the Gauss constraint. Therefore we recover the standard (massless) Maxwell equations

  17. Spectres de vibration de composés organiques des éléments de la colonne IVB—XIV. Etude physico-chimique de germa-2 azolidines, digerma-2,5 azolidines et de cyclodi- et tri-germazanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Annette; Gerval, Pierre; Rivière-Baudet, Monique; Lacrampe, Georges; Khallaayoun, Abdelhay

    1985-01-01

    A physicochemical study (i.r., Raman) about a series of 2-germaazolidines, 2,5-digermaazolidines and cyclodi- and tri-germazanes is presented. Infrared and Raman spectra were examined and led to the following conclusions: vibrations ν(GeN) and ν s(GeNGe) are located between 500 and 620 cm -1 and the ν a(GeNGe) mode between 750 and 900 cm -1. The influence of the dimension and the substitution of each cycle upon those vibrations is discussed. Evidence of a relation between (ν a - ν s) GeNGe and the size of the cycle is presented for cyclodi- and trigermazanes. An extension of this study to derivatives with an MXM sequence (X = N or O), (M = Si, Ge, Sn) has shown that a linear relation can be established between the characteristic frequencies of the MOM group and the corresponding angle.

  18. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  19. Apports en matière organique marine et terrigène sur la marge équatoriale ouest africaine : rôle joué par le canyon sous-marin du Zaïre.
    Approche par les biomarqueurs lipidiques

    OpenAIRE

    Treignier , Claire

    2005-01-01

    The Zaire deep-sea fan (South-East Atlantic) is one of the world's largest active fans. It is fed by a unique canyon extending across the West Equatorial African margin, creating a direct connection between the Zaire River estuary and the abyssal plains. The canyon drives a substantial amount of terrigenous sediment down to the deep sea, mainly via turbidity currents. The initial goal of the French BIOZAIRE project initiated by IFREMER is to study the benthic ecosystem in relation to the orga...

  20. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  1. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of new organic and phosphorous derivatives against ionizing radiation: study of the in vitro mechanism of action; Synthese et evaluation de nouveaux composes organiques et phosphores contre les effets des rayonnements ionisants. Etude de leur mecanisme d'action in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, C

    2006-10-15

    This work falls under a research program. The aim was to synthesize new organic phosphorylated compounds having an interesting radio pharmacological activity without toxicity. That is why, we carried out the synthesis of new benzothiazole and thiadiazole N-substituted derivatives as thiols, amino thiols, acids thio-sulfonic and phosphoro thioates. All these compounds were characterized by NMR (proton, carbon, phosphorus, 2D), by mass spectrometry, elementary analyzes and for some of them by diffraction of x-rays. The activity of the majority of them was evaluated by in vitro tests. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical study: the aim of D.F.T. calculation was the study of the mechanism of capture of the free radicals by our compounds. In addition, a study of relation structure activity (Q.S.A.R.) was carried out. Our results allow us to create a model making it possible to establish structure-activity relationship. (author)

  3. Integrated stratigraphy of an organic matter enriched pelagic series (''black shales''). The Aptian-Albian of the Marches - Umbria basin (central Italy); Stratigraphie integree d'une serie pelagique a horizons enrichis en matiere organique (''black shales''). L'Aptien-Albien du bassin de Marches - Ombrie (Italie centrale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiet, N

    1998-10-23

    The Aptian-Albian series of the Marches-Umbria basin is considered as a field analogue of most basin deposits of the same age located in the Atlantic domain. It corresponds to a pelagic sedimentation with alternations of marls, black shales, and limestones. The study of the black shales series has been carried out using a combination of petrological, geochemical and palynological data. The integration of these data allows to propose a detailed typology of these beds, to define a deposition mode with respect to the organic matter content and to precise the location of sources and transfer ways. A close relationship between the deposition of the black shales and the development of delta zones in the North-Gondwana margin is shown. A comparison with sub-actual analogues allows to explain their rhythmical organization within the sedimentation. A cyclo-stratigraphical approach of the overall series has been performed using the analysis of the sedimentary rhythms. A detailed time calibration (< 100 ka) of the Aptian and Albian epochs is proposed according to the planktonic foraminifera, the calcareous nano-fossils and the dyno-cysts populations. The M-0 magnetic chron has ben dated to 116.7 {+-} 0.7 Ma. The combination of all stratigraphical approaches has permitted to elaborate a subdivision of the series into deposition sequences. The forcing phenomena that led to the genesis of these sedimentary bodies are probably of astronomical-climatical origin. Then a relative sea-level curve has been constructed and compared with the existing reference curves published for the worldwide ocean and the Russian platform. The strong similarities between these curves and the amplitude of the relative variations (up to 80 m) suggest a control of the sedimentation of glacial-eustatic origin. Thus, several glaciation phases are proposed according to the low sea level deposits identified in the series (upper Gargasian, Clansayesian, upper Albian, middle Vraconian). (J.S.)

  4. Integrated stratigraphy of an organic matter enriched pelagic series (''black shales''). The Aptian-Albian of the Marches - Umbria basin (central Italy); Stratigraphie integree d'une serie pelagique a horizons enrichis en matiere organique (''black shales''). L'Aptien-Albien du bassin de Marches - Ombrie (Italie centrale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiet, N.

    1998-10-23

    The Aptian-Albian series of the Marches-Umbria basin is considered as a field analogue of most basin deposits of the same age located in the Atlantic domain. It corresponds to a pelagic sedimentation with alternations of marls, black shales, and limestones. The study of the black shales series has been carried out using a combination of petrological, geochemical and palynological data. The integration of these data allows to propose a detailed typology of these beds, to define a deposition mode with respect to the organic matter content and to precise the location of sources and transfer ways. A close relationship between the deposition of the black shales and the development of delta zones in the North-Gondwana margin is shown. A comparison with sub-actual analogues allows to explain their rhythmical organization within the sedimentation. A cyclo-stratigraphical approach of the overall series has been performed using the analysis of the sedimentary rhythms. A detailed time calibration (< 100 ka) of the Aptian and Albian epochs is proposed according to the planktonic foraminifera, the calcareous nano-fossils and the dyno-cysts populations. The M-0 magnetic chron has ben dated to 116.7 {+-} 0.7 Ma. The combination of all stratigraphical approaches has permitted to elaborate a subdivision of the series into deposition sequences. The forcing phenomena that led to the genesis of these sedimentary bodies are probably of astronomical-climatical origin. Then a relative sea-level curve has been constructed and compared with the existing reference curves published for the worldwide ocean and the Russian platform. The strong similarities between these curves and the amplitude of the relative variations (up to 80 m) suggest a control of the sedimentation of glacial-eustatic origin. Thus, several glaciation phases are proposed according to the low sea level deposits identified in the series (upper Gargasian, Clansayesian, upper Albian, middle Vraconian). (J.S.)

  5. Electric properties of organic and mineral electronic components, design and modelling of a photovoltaic chain for a better exploitation of the solar energy; Proprietes electriques des composants electroniques mineraux et organiques, conception et modelisation d'une chaine photovoltaique pour une meilleure exploitation de l'energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A

    2006-11-15

    The research carried out in this thesis relates to the mineral, organic electronic components and the photovoltaic systems. Concerning the mineral semiconductors, we modelled the conduction properties of the structures metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) strongly integrated in absence and in the presence of charges. We proposed a methodology allowing characterizing the ageing of structures MOS under injection of the Fowler Nordheim (FN) current type. Then, we studied the Schottky diodes in polymers of type metal/polymer/metal. We concluded that: The mechanism of the charges transfer, through the interface metal/polymer, is allotted to the thermo-ionic effect and could be affected by the lowering of the potential barrier to the interface metal/polymer. In the area of photovoltaic energy, we conceived and modelled a photovoltaic system of average power (100 W). We showed that the adaptation of the generator to the load allows a better exploitation of solar energy. This is carried out by the means of the converters controlled by an of type MPPT control provided with a detection circuit of dysfunction and restarting of the system. (author)

  6. Electric properties of organic and mineral electronic components, design and modelling of a photovoltaic chain for a better exploitation of the solar energy; Proprietes electriques des composants electroniques mineraux et organiques, conception et modelisation d'une chaine photovoltaique pour une meilleure exploitation de l'energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A

    2006-11-15

    The research carried out in this thesis relates to the mineral, organic electronic components and the photovoltaic systems. Concerning the mineral semiconductors, we modelled the conduction properties of the structures metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) strongly integrated in absence and in the presence of charges. We proposed a methodology allowing characterizing the ageing of structures MOS under injection of the Fowler Nordheim (FN) current type. Then, we studied the Schottky diodes in polymers of type metal/polymer/metal. We concluded that: The mechanism of the charges transfer, through the interface metal/polymer, is allotted to the thermo-ionic effect and could be affected by the lowering of the potential barrier to the interface metal/polymer. In the area of photovoltaic energy, we conceived and modelled a photovoltaic system of average power (100 W). We showed that the adaptation of the generator to the load allows a better exploitation of solar energy. This is carried out by the means of the converters controlled by an of type MPPT control provided with a detection circuit of dysfunction and restarting of the system. (author)

  7. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  8. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  9. Palynological study (spores, Acritarchs and Chitinozoans) in the paleozoic (Cambrian to Dinantian) of western and meridional Morocco (biostratigraphy, paleo-bio-geography and characterisation of organic matter); Etude palynologique (spores, Chitinozoaires, Acritarches) dans le Paleozoique: Cambrien a Dinantien du Maroc occidental et meridional (biostratigraphie, paleobiogeographie et caracterisation de la matiere organique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, K.

    1995-01-27

    The palynological study of paleozoic levels in ten wells and two cross sections in western and meridional Morocco has permit to establish the inventory of organic micro-fossils. Some of these are spores and Acritarchs which constitute much rich and more conserved than to Chitinozoans. The different associations yield from the middle Cambrian to the lower Carboniferous have allowed the setting of a bio-zonation. This latter, consists of 7 biozones based on Carboniferous and Acritarchs in the lower Paleozoic, and 12 biozones in the Devonian and lower Carboniferous based essentially on the spores. This bio-zonation however, does not provide full information. This is due to the degradation of the micro-fossils, their absence of an unsuitable facies, a shortage of samples, erosion or lack of sedimentation. Most of these short comings were dated and their importance was considered in relation to the different epeirogeny known in Morocco. The biozones distinguished were based on index taxa of spores, Chitinozoans or Acritarchs which coexist with biostratigraphic micro-fossils in Morocco or in others regions referred to. This biozones allowed: the indication of the precision of many subdivisions within the Paleozoic of the studied areas the setting of local, regional and intercontinental correlations, subsequently: Anti-Atlas, Moroccan Meseta, Algeria, Libya, North, America, Canada and Europe. The paleo-bio-geographic evolution traced from the middle Cambrian to the lower Carboniferous has demonstrated that the position of Morocco between north Gondwana and Avalonia zone at the lower Paleozoic and between Africa and Europe during the upper Paleozoic, has associated this area to different geological phenomena. Morocco also constituted a paleo-bio-geographic bridge which has allowed diverse exchanges, especially floristic one, between the Gondvanian and the Laurasian domains. This privileged position of Morocco in the geographic and geologic line has certainly influenced the

  10. Metabolic activation of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coated onto airborne PM{sub 2.5} in isolated human alveolar macrophages; Etude de l'activation metabolique des composes organiques volatils et des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques d'un aerosol anthropogenique par des macrophages alveolaires humains en culture primaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Georges, F.; Mulliez, P. [Hopital Saint Philibert - GHICL-FLM, Service de Pneumologie, 59 - Lomme (France); Saint-Georges, F.; Abbas, I.; Garcon, G.; Billet, S.; Verdin, A.; Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Lab. de Recherche en toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale - ULCO-MREI, 59 - Dunkerque (France); Gosset, P. [Hopital Saint Vincent, Laboratoire d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques - GHICL-FLM, 59 - Lille (France); Courcot, D. [LCE-EA2598, Lab. de Catalyse et Environnement - ULCO-MREI, 59 - Dunkerque (France)

    2009-01-15

    To contribute to improve the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action involved in air pollution Particulate Matter (PM)-induced cytotoxicity, we were interested in the metabolic activation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and/or Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)-coated onto Dunkerque City's PM{sub 2.5} in human Alveolar Macrophages (AM) isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF). This in vitro cell lung model is very close to the normal in vivo situation, notably in the characteristics that AM display in terms of gene expression of phase I and phase II-metabolizing enzymes. The bronchoscopic examinations and BAL procedures were carried out without any complications. The exposure of AM, during 24, 48 or 72 h, to increasing concentrations of the collected aerosol induced significant variations of the activities of the extracellular lactate dehydrogenase and the mitochondrial dehydrogenase. The lethal concentrations at 10% and 50% were 14.93 and 74.63 {mu}g/mL for AM, respectively, and indicated the relatively higher sensibility of such target lung cells. VOC and/or PAH-coated at low levels onto the surface of the particulate fraction significantly induced gene expression of cytochrome P450 (GYP) 1A1, CYP2E1, NADPH Quinone oxido-reductase (NQO)-1) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST)P1 and M3, versus controls, suggesting thereby the formation of biologically reactive metabolites. Moreover, these results suggested the role of physical vector of carbonaceous core of PM, which can, therefore, increase both the penetration and the retention of attached-VOC into the cells, thereby enabling them to exert a more durable induction. Hence, we concluded that the metabolic activation of the very low doses of VOC and/or PAH-coated onto Dunkerque City's PM{sub 2.5} is one of the underlying mechanisms of action closely involved in its cytotoxicity in isolated human AM in culture. (author)

  11. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  12. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Public relations activities continued in a well-proved form of organizing plant visits and Information Centre off - site activities. Bohunice NPPs were visited by the number of 7294 visitors in 1997. A brief account of activities in public relations carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented

  13. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  14. Chemical aspects of incinerating highly chlorinated and actinide {alpha} contaminated organic waste: application to the Iris process; Aspects chimiques de l'incineration des dechets organiques fortement charges en chlore et contamines en actinides emetteurs {alpha}. Application au procede IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Cames, B. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SCD), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    A fraction of the waste produced by nuclear activities is combustible, and thus suitable for incineration to produce gases, ash and fines. A typical composition representative of actual organic waste mixtures was defined for the purpose of investigating possible heat treatment processes; the composition is identified according to components Table 1 and elements Table II. The high polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content is responsible for the high chlorine potential in the process equipment. The quantity and quality of the resulting solid residue depends entirely on the inorganic load of the organic waste, whose behavior is entirely conditioned by the process conditions. For example, pure polyethylene is totally converted to gases (water and carbon dioxide), while the composition shown in Table II produces a range of oxides and chlorides. The high chlorine content results in partial chlorination of the inorganic compounds, but can also lead to interactions with the process equipment. The temperature dependent variation of the chlorination equilibrium constants of various metals clearly shows that all the elements of technological alloys may be subject to active corrosion by hydrochloric acid. However, the corresponding oxides-notably alumina-are much less sensitive to corrosion; aluminum-based alloys are therefore preferred for incinerator construction and to limit corrosion by hydrochloric acid. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies led to the development of the IRIS three-step process. Gas emissions occurring during processing of solid materials are completely oxidized in the after-burning step at 1100 deg C, and are then ducted to a HERA filtration system capable of retaining all the actinide {alpha} radionuclides. Although corrosion-related problems are attenuated in the two-step process chlorine can combine with the inorganic waste material to form chlorides with potentially damaging effects on the system; this is the case for zinc chloride and for volatile chlorides in

  15. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  16. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  17. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  18. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Les liants organiques présents dans les polychromies d’objets ethnographiques 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Bruttin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude s’intéresse à la nature des liants utilisés sur des objets ethnographiques polychromes d’Afrique Centrale. Après l’examen et la documentation des polychromies, l’analyse d’une sélection d’échantillons à l’aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge à transformée de Fourier (FT-IR a permis d’identifier la présence de liants en proportions variables. Leur nature exacte a été déterminée au moyen de la chromatographie en phase gazeuse (GCMS et de la spectroscopie de masse à résolution thermique directe (DTMS.This study concentrates on different kinds of binding media present on ethnographic artefacts from central Africa. Once the preliminary examination and documentation of the painted parts were finished the analyses of selected samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed  variable ratios of binding media. Their  compositions were specified by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS and Direct Temperature-Resolved  Mass Spectrometry (DTMS.

  20. Effets des sels organiques de tributyletain sur l'huître adulte Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Heral, Maurice; Alzieu, Claude; Caux, O.; Razet, Daniel; Garnier, Jacqueline

    1983-01-01

    La toxicité des composés organostanniques a été mise en évidence à l'égard de l'huître Crassostrea gigas tant aux stades larvaires (His & Robert, 1980) que chez l'adulte (Alzieu & al., 1980, 1981). Parallèlement ces mêmes auteurs ont montré l'accumulation d'étain dans les huîtres contaminées expérimentalement ainsi que le rôle que peut jouer le fluorure de TBT dans la perturbation de la croissance (Héral & al. 1981) et dans la malformation de la coquille des huîtres (Alzieu & al., 1981). Dans...

  1. Couches minces organiques riches en amines primaires par photo-polymerisation ultraviolette : Caracterisation et applications biomedicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Georges-Robillard, Amelie

    Biomaterials have evolved significantly over the past decades. There are now several types of polymeric biomaterials with physical characteristics suited to different applications. This project focuses on improving the physico-chemical properties of the surface of these materials by incorporating primary amines (R-NH2), a functional group known to promote adhesion and cell growth, in the context of two biomedical applications. First, it is necessary to develop a cell culture surface that enables the adhesion of U937 monocytes. These cells are used to evaluate the effect of wear particles produced by the prosthesis in periprosthetic osteolysis, a major cause of failure of a hip replacement. Second, one of the strategies used to improve the success rate of polymeric vascular grafts is to create a layer of endothelial cells on the lumen of the prosthesis. A coating that promotes the adhesion and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is required to achieve that layer. Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of R-NH2 groups on the coating allows the adhesion of U937 monocytes, provided that their concentration [NH2] is higher than a certain critical value, [NH2]crit; R-NH2 groups were also found to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of HUVEC. Two different primary amine-rich coatings are investigated in this work: organic thin films deposited by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photo-polymerization, UV-PE:N; and parylene diX AM, deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The physico-chemical stability of these coatings in air and in water, essential for biomedical applications, was first studied. “Aging” of parylene diX AM in contact with the ambient air caused a diminution of [NH2]/[C] of around 6 % during 22 days and is caused by the oxidation of R-NH2 by atmospheric oxygen, while in the case of UV-PE:N, the diminution is only of 2,5 % over 26 days. Also, a second aging mechanism is present: the reaction of trapped free radicals in the coating with oxygen in air or dissolved in water. The UV-PE:N coating proved virtually insoluble, despite a high concentration of nitrogen and showed excellent retention of the R-NH 2 groups when immersed in water, two essential properties for applications in cell culture. These studies have also shown that UV-PE:N coatings (deposited with two gas ratios, R = 0.75 and 1) permit adhesion and survival of U937 monocytes without causing any significant inflammatory response, which enables one to study wear particle effects. However, the adhesion of U937 monocytes on parylene diX AM manifests a rather different behavior, adhesion being proportional to [NH2] and not controlled by the critical threshold, [NH 2]crit, observed for different types of plasma-polymer coatings. Also, monocytes do not survive for 24 hours on parylene diX AM. The cause for these differences remains to be elucidated. Finally, the adhesion and growth of HUVEC on both types of UV-PE:N (R = 0.75 and 1), as well as on L-PPE:N and on gelatinized polystyrene, were statistically higher than on untreated PET. Therefore, UV-PE:N has proven to be a cell culture surface well-adapted for HUVEC, of similar efficiency to gelatinized polystyrene, a surface known to promote the adhesion and growth of HUVEC. UV-PE: N is therefore a promising coating that provides stability in air and in water for use in cell culture and has demonstrated its performance for two biomedical applications. Keywords: biomaterials, primary amines, thin film deposition, photo-polymerization, plasma polymerization, XPS, chemical derivatization, ellipsometry, cellular adhesion, arthroplasty, vascular graft.

  2. Effets d'amendements organiques et phosphatés sous zaï sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-sahélienne pour pallier l'aridité climatique dans un contexte de changements globaux. ... étude est de proposer une pratique culturale adaptée à la restauration des ... Africa, to address the climate aridity in a context of global changes.

  3. Caractérisation d'une cellule photovoltaïque organique ITO/PEDOT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... analysis of the parameters from voltage and current density curve under dark and light and the first degradation process allow us to hope that it is possible to make photovoltaic device base on P3HT and PCBM in ambiente atmosphere. Keywords: ambiente atmosphere, spincoating organic photovoltaïc, polymer organic.

  4. Technological study of organic fluids; Etudes technologiques des fluides caloporteurs organique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Under contract to EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE and HANNAERT), the C.E.A. and the Progil Society have collaborated on a technological study of the terphenyls. The results obtained from the radiolysis and pyrolysis of the product OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyl, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyl, 5 p. 100 p-terphenyl) are reported. Using two pile loops at temperatures up to 450 deg. C, a phenomena of accelerated pyrolysis on the radiolized material has been demonstrated. Some by-products of the petroleum industry have also been studied, with a view to finding substitutes for terphenyl. (author) [French] Le C.E.A. et la Societe PROGIL ont entrepris en commun sous contrat EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE et HANNAERT) une etude technologique des terphenyles. Les resultats de radiolyse et de pyrolyse obtenus sur le produit OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyle, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyle. 5 p. 100 de p-terphenyle) sont exposes. L'exploitation de deux boucles en pile jusqu'a des temperatures de 450 deg. C a mis en evidence un phenomene de pyrolyse acceleree sur le produit radiolyse. On a etudie egalement quelques sous-produits de l'industrie petroliere dans le but de trouver des substituts au terphenyle. (auteur)

  5. The purification of organic reactor coolants; La purification des refrigerants organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannaert, H; Lopes Cardozo, R [CCR EURATOM, Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    1967-01-01

    Among the main impurities present in irradiated and virgin coolants we have been particularly interested in chlorine, water, iron, oxygen and heavy elements. Our studies have been directed along two basic lines, namely: (1) the elimination of inorganic impurities, and (2) the elimination of organic impurities. The purpose of the studies on the elimination of inorganic impurities is to obtain a 'clean' coolant (virgin or used), this cleanness being marked by a low tendency to form deposits on the fuel element cladding (fouling corrosion). Careful attention has been paid to the problems of chlorine, water, iron and coated particles. Particular interest has been attached to research on deoxygenation of the organic liquid by catalytic hydrocracking, the oxygen (which comes from the dissociation of the water and the gases contained in the liquid) favouring polymerization and the formation of particles which are likely to be deposited on the hot walls. As regards the elimination of degradation products, many studies have been carried out with a view to permitting the maximum recycling of decomposed hydrocarbides and thus reducing the cost of make-up, the recycling rate being a function of the mean molecular weight and the viscosity of the recycled fractions. The technique based on solvent extraction has led to very satisfactory results. An extension of this technique, using counter-flow extraction, appears to be even more promising. (author)

  6. Effets d'application sur le long terme de fertilisants organiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les teneurs en C, N et P, les agrégats formés, le potentiel de respiration du sol, les activités de la chitinase et la longueur des hyphes fongiques ont été déterminés. ... English Title: Long-term effect of organic residues and mineral fertilizers on soil aggregation and microbial activities in a tropical sandy soil in Burkina Faso.

  7. 328 Étude de la pollution organique totale et fécale dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notre

    Preliminary analysis of organic and fecal pollution of water in two river and three pond of Eastern of .... L'étude de périphytons algal a été réalisée en vue de compléter et comparer les trois études ..... Case of Kahuwa micro-catchment in.

  8. Heat transfer with organic fluids; Transferts de chaleur par liquides organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Ricque, R; Villeneuve, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Using a test channel with a circular cross-section of 12 mm internal diameter the following heat transfer correlation, valid to about {+-} 6 p. 100, was determined for the terphenyls OMP and OM2 with 0, 10, 20 or 30 p. 100 of high polymers: Nu{sub b} = 0.00835 Re{sub b}{sup 0.9} Pr{sub L}{sup 0.4}. This correlation was established with fluxes ranging from 50 to 100 W/cm{sup 2}, temperatures from 290 to 420 C and Reynolds number from 30 000 to 350 000. 8 long-term tests were carried out (250 to 1000 hours continuous running) to determine how deposition on the heating surfaces affects the exchange coefficient. The loops is made of stainless steel except for one part in soft steel. No deposits are observed even if the terphenyl contains 30 ppm of chlorure, while on the other hand deposition is appreciable when heavy substances containing combined oxygen are added. (authors) [French] On a determine sur un canal d'essai de section circulaire de 12 mm de diametre interieur, la correlation de transfert de chaleur suivante valable a {+-} 6 p.100 pres pour les terphenyles OMP et OM2 avec 0, 10, 20 ou 30 p. 100 de haute polymeres Nu{sub b} = 0,00835 Re{sub b}{sup 0.9} Pr{sub L}{sup 0.4}. Cette correlation a ete etablie dans une gamme de flux de 50 a 100 W/cm{sup 2}, de temperature de 290 a 420 C, de Reynolds de 30 000 a 350 000. On a effectue 8 essais de longue duree (250 a 1 000 heures en regime continu) pour determiner l'effet sur le coefficient d'echange de l'encrassement des surfaces chauffantes. La boucle est en acier inoxydable sauf une partie en acier doux; on n'observe aucun encrassement meme si le terphenyle contient 30 ppm de chlore; par contre l'encrassement est sensible quand on ajoute des produits lourds contenant de l'oxygene combine. (auteurs)

  9. Tritium in plants; Le tritium dans la matiere organique des vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-07-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  10. Élimination des polluants organiques présents dans la margine d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2014 ... d'olive par filtration sur colonne d'argile et sciure de bois d'eucalyptus. 6232. Élimination des .... ultrafiltration, Ozonation et Coagulation,. • Biologiques : Par .... types de filtres étudiés a donné les résultats suivants : Tableau 2 ...

  11. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  12. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  13. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    1962-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  14. Relative Utilitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    DHILLON, Amrita; MERTENS, Jean-François

    1993-01-01

    In a framework of preferences over lotteries, we show that an axiom system consisting of weakned versions of Arrow’s axioms has a unique solution. “Relative Utilitarianism” consists of first normalizing individual von Neumann-Morgenstern utilities between 0 and 1 and then summing them.

  15. Relative Hypovolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    the vascular space and the remainder of the extracellular fluid. (ECF) and intracellular ... diuretic therapy are likely to have a relative volume deficiency. Normovolaemia and .... and it is likely that alternative forms of assessment of this crucial measure will be ... necrosis factor and Interleukins1–6, histamine and serotonin.

  16. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  17. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  18. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  19. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  20. Relational topology

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Gunther

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and develops new algebraic methods to work with relations, often conceived as Boolean matrices, and applies them to topology. Although these objects mirror the matrices that appear throughout mathematics, numerics, statistics, engineering, and elsewhere, the methods used to work with them are much less well known. In addition to their purely topological applications, the volume also details how the techniques may be successfully applied to spatial reasoning and to logics of computer science. Topologists will find several familiar concepts presented in a concise and algebraically manipulable form which is far more condensed than usual, but visualized via represented relations and thus readily graspable. This approach also offers the possibility of handling topological problems using proof assistants.

  1. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1982-01-01

    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  2. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR), the public relations belongs to the secretariat of the Chairman, and are a part of the policy of carefully planned and purposeful efforts to establish mutual relations between the authority and the public. A spokesmen of NRA SR is in charge of the public relations. The spokesman is ready, without a useless filibuster and based on a particular requirement, to inform governmental bodies, other national bodies and organizations, embassies and international organizations, the public and news media in case of an event at a nuclear installation. To provide for communications activities, NRA SR constructed and opened the Information centre with a particular equipment in autumn 1995, that has already started communications with some dailies, broadcasting, television and Press Agency SR. It has been envisaged that there will be press conferences held in the Information centre a few times a year, or NRA SR senior staff may be interviewed here on extraordinary events at NPPs, or on some other important occasions in NRA SR. In 1995, NRA Sr issued the Annual report in a few variants - each suitable for different use - on NRA SR activities and nuclear safety of Slovak nuclear power plants as of 1994. The NRA SR's Bulletin has started to be published with periodicity of 3 times a year, focusing on NRA SR activities both in Slovakia and abroad. NRA SR Information centre provides foreign visitors with independent propagation and information materials about the issue of nuclear safety enhancement at operational Slovak NPPs. Furthermore, the Information centre provides both the NRA SR's residences in Bratislava and Trnava with daily press monitoring of topical news

  3. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... is positioned at the intersection of anthropology and consumer culture research and is based upon 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork in fields, offices and conference rooms throughout Denmark in 2012 and 2013 as well as reading of emic literature and marketing material. The main argument of the thesis is...

  4. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  5. Relatives and Relations in Paluai’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schokkin, Dineke; Otto, Ton

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the expression of kinship in Paluai (Baluan-Pam, ISO 639-3: blq), an Oceanic language spoken on Baluan Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. Based on data gathered during extensive fieldwork, the authors first consider the formal characteristics of nominal possessive cons...... of birth order terms, which are a relatively rare phenomenon, and the partial replacement of the system by terms from the creole language Tok Pisin....

  6. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  7. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  8. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  9. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  10. Oil Shale and Its Relation to Petroleum and Other Fuels (Summary Les schistes à l'huile et leurs relation avec le pétrole et les autres combustibles (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billo S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available World oil reserves in oil shales (1. 2 to 2 trillion barrels are at least 4 times as large as proven crude oil petroleum reserves (310 billion barrels. Petroleum is produced from oil shale by pyrolysis (destructive distillation by hecit. Coal can also be converted ta synthetic petroleum products by direct hydrogenation and by the modified Fischer-Tropsch process. Rising cost of oil exploration and production and increasing efficiency of synthetizing processes indicate that synthetic fuels may increase the supply of natural liquid fuels in the foreseeable future. The term kerogen is often used to comprise all the organic matter contained in sediments and may be of two kinds: 1 coalylike kerogen, and 2 sapropellic kerogen - oil shale type. It is believed that both kerogen and petroleum were formed from hypothetical ancestor - protopetroleum. They are found together in sedimenfs and their C13C12 ratios are similar. The largest producer of oil shale ore China, the USSR and Sweden. The USA is technologically prepared to begin production of synthetized fuels through varying economic condition. Richness and size of deposits, cost of mining, cost of retorting, character of products, and location of deposit in relation to plant and market, determine the economic value of a given deposit. Les réserves mondiales de schistes à huile (1,2 à 2 x 10. 12 barils sont au moins quatre fois supérieures aux réserves prouvées de pétrole brut (310 x 10. 9 barils. On extrait le pétrole des schistes par pyrolyse (distillation destructive thermique. Le charbon peut aussi être transformé en hydrocarbures par hydrogénation et par le procédé Fischer-Tropsch modifié. L'augmentation des coûts de l'exploration et de la production du pétrole et amélioration de l'efficacité des procédés synthétiques montrent que les produits synthétiques vont jouer un rôle croissant dans l'approvisionnement en combustibles liquides au cours des années à venir. Le terme k

  11. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  12. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  13. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  14. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  15. What Are Related Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...

  16. Les zéolithes comme catalyseurs "verts" pour la synthèse organique : de leur synthèse à façon à leurs applications en chimie organique

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardon , Claire

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline porous aluminosilicates and useful heterogeneous catalysts in chemical industries. They represent one of the significant solutions to main environmental concerns. Thanks to their particular properties like shape selectivity and intrinsic acidities of Lewis and Brønsted, zeolites offer unbeatable abilities in organic synthesis. More than 230 structures have already been discovered, which afford thousands discovery and offer a lot of possibilities.This work was focused ...

  17. Etude de l'oxydation d'un colorant organique AO7, par H2O2, en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration initiale égale à 30 mg/L) sont: pH initial de la solution: 3, masse du ..... organic compounds at neutral pH values, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: ... Impedimetric Sensor Based on Heteropolyanions with Additional Nafion ...

  18. 2005 sales: organic growth of 3.7%; Chiffre d'affaires 2005: croissance organique de 3,7%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The AREVA group's sales revenue for the year rose to 10,125 million euros, compared with 9,821 million euros in 2004, adjusted for the Connectors division, representing 3.1% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was up 3.7% for 2005. The nuclear divisions posted organic growth of 4.6%, signaled by: - growth in the Front End division (+5.2%) linked to the favorable price effect for uranium supplies and to climbing volumes in all of the division's businesses; - new projects in Finland, France and China and strong performance in services, the growth driver for the Reactors and Services division (+10.8%); - the drop in sales for the Back End division (-2.9%) following the 2004 completion of the support contract with Japanese customer JNFL; a contract extension for 2006 and 2007 was signed in late 2005. The Transmission and Distribution division recorded organic growth of 2.0%. The 5.8% increase in the second half of 2005 over 2004 offsets the downturn in the first half of 2005 compared with the same period in 2004, when a one-time peak was observed. New orders rose by 13.1% like-for-like over the period, resulting in a large backlog at the end of 2005. For the fourth quarter of 2005, the group recorded growth of 2.4% in reported data compared with the fourth quarter of 2004, and organic growth of 1.8%. Foreign exchange rate differences had a positive impact of 69 million euros.

  19. Gestion des apports organiques en systèmes de culture maraîchers sous abri

    OpenAIRE

    Bressoud, miss Frédérique; Parès, miss Laure

    2003-01-01

    Afin d’améliorer les pratiques de fertilisation en maraîchage biologique, la minéralisation de 2 types de composts est évaluée par différentes méthodes sur plusieurs cultures salade-tomate successives. Les premiers résultats montrent une contribution de ces composts à l’alimentation de la culture estivale, sans incidence sur les rendements récoltés.

  20. Le transfert des micropolluants organiques dans la chaîne alimentaire Etat et perspectives de recherche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feidt Cyril

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques ont récemment défrayé la chronique à plusieurs reprises. Cet article se propose de faire le point sur les propriétés de ces molécules en vue de donner un aperçu des voies pour la recherche d’outils d’évaluation et de gestion des risques liés à ces molécules. De nombreuses molécules peuvent prétendre appartenir à cette famille. Nous traiterons de celles les plus communément impliquées dans les problèmes de sécurité alimentaire, à savoir la famille des dioxines-furanes ou polychloro-dibenzo-paradioxines/furanes (PCDD/F, celle des composés polychlorés biphényles (PCB et enfin celle des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP que nous réserverons dans ce texte aux composés non chlorés.

  1. Effet de l'apport de différents types d'engrais organiques sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Unité de Recherche sur la Gestion Intégrée du Sol et des Cultures (ISCM), ... facteur principal puis trois doses d'application et un contrôle (0, 20, 30 et 40 t/ha) comme facteur secondaire. ..... mesure de la longueur a été réalisée du collet à.

  2. Recuperation de la matiere organique biodegradable presente dans l'effluent d'un MBBR a forte charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Catherine

    High-rate processes are receiving great interest due to their potential to favor the energy balance of water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) either for their design or retrofit. Anaerobic digestion is a process that allows the valorization of organic biodegradable matter contained in sludge into biogas. This process also produces a stabilized sludge named digestate or biosolids that can be reused for agriculture purposes. This project proposed a secondary treatment train composed of a high-rate moving bed biofilm reactor (HR-MBBR) to biotransform colloidal and soluble biodegradable organics into particulate matter followed by an enhanced and compact physico-chemical separation process to recover mainly particulate organics and a part of the colloidal matter. A high-rate biological process operated at a low hydraulic retention time aimed at transforming colloidal and soluble fractions of organic matter into a particulate fraction for recovery by downstream separation process. The HR-MBBR effluent solids are known for their poor settleability, therefore requiring an efficient separation process downstream to ensure their recovery and to meet the effluent discharge regulations. The global objective of this project was to maximize the recovery of organic biodegradable matter for valorization into biogas by anaerobic digestion with an innovative treatment train combining an HR-MBBR and a separation process. The specific objectives of this report were 1) to characterize the HR-MBBR effluent solids and 2) to determine the efficiency of several physico-chemical separation processes combined with unbiodegradable or natural based coagulants and polymers. Effluents of lab-scale HR-MBBR fed with a synthetic soluble or domestic wastewater influent and the effluent of a full-scale HR-MBBR were used to evaluate the efficiency of separation processes adapted at bench-scale in jar-tests experiments. The processes studied were conventionnal settling, ballasted flocculation, dissolved air flotation and an innovative enhanced flotation process. Unlike conventional settling and dissolved air flotation, ballasted flocculation and enhanced flotation use a ballasted or flotation agent to accelerate the sludge settling or flotation rate. The original scientific hypothesis of this project is that the combination of enhanced flotation and natural based chemicals can meet a target total suspended solids (TSS) concentration of less or equal to 10 mg TSS/L in the clarified effluent of an HR-MBBR. The separation processes efficiencies were evaluated based on their TSS recoveries. Monitoring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions allowed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of organic matter biotransformation and capture throughout the proposed treatment train. The concentration of solids expressed in TSS concentration in the MBBR effluent with a synthetic soluble influent was kept very low, from 27 to 61 mg TSS/L, which is about 2 to 9 times less than the expected concentration for an MBBR fed with domestic wastewater. Without the presence of particulate matter in the influent, the particulate matter in the MBBR effluent represented only the production of biomass detached by the shearing forces between the carriers. The TSS concentration and the efficiency of colloidal and soluble matter biotransformation into particulate matter increased with the MBBR hydraulic retention time. Wide volumetric particle size distributions ranging from 5 to 1000 mum in the lab-scale MBBR effluent were observed with a higher proportion of particles larger than 100 mum for a synthetic feed, and a higher proportion of small size particles of 30 mum for a domestic wastewater feed. The presence of lots of small size particles was attributed to unsettleable solids in the influent unchanged in the reactor. Despite the high proportion of large size particles for the MBBR with a synthetic feed, poor settleability of effluent solids was observed as static settling could only achieve TSS recoveries between 35 to 78%. Hence, coagulating agents were necessary to enhance the solids recovery. The combination of the innovative enhanced flotation process and unbiodegradable chemicals allowed to achieve TSS recovery efficiencies up to 97%. The enhanced flotation efficiency was reduced when using natural based chemicals, especially the natural based polymer which was not suited to treat waters with such high TSS concentrations. The hypothesis of the residual TSS concentration of 10 mg TSS/L was verified for half of the HR-MBBR operating conditions and the recovery efficiency did not seem to be influenced by the reactor hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and temperature. More experiments are needed to confirm the effect of these parameters on TSS recovery efficiency. Although natural based chemicals reduced the coagulation and flocculation efficiency, they allowed a decrease in sludge production, which can represent a significant cost benefit. These chemicals resulted in an increase of 33 to 60% of the total COD of the MBBR effluent, compared to the unbiodegradable chemicals which only contributed about 2%. Natural based chemicals are recommended over unbiodegradable ones to promote the use of high biodegradability potential chemicals and to reduce the production of chemical sludge. However, to offset the increase of total COD, it may be required to add a treatment downstream to meet target secondary treatment COD concentration. Conventionnal settling and ballasted flocculation offered similar TSS recovery efficiencies to enhanced flottation (88% TSS recovery efficiency). The efficiency was reduced by 34% when using the dissolved air flotation process, much lower than the ones expected for such a separation process. The efficiency reduction was attributed to non-optimized and unadapted flotation lab-scale setups to treat medium strength wastewater. A similar innovative treatment train is currently being tested at pilot-scale in order to evaluate its carbon footprint and its potential to be eventually transposed to full-scale. Furthermore, the biodegradability and the biochemical methane production of the natural based chemicals are being determined. This project allowed to determine the potential of the innovative enhanced flotation process to recover the HR-MBBR solids when combined with natural based chemicals which are currently not often used in wastewater treatment for resource recovery.

  3. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  4. Early Biological Evolution in Relation to Mineral and Energy Resources: Igcp Project 157 Évolution biologique précoce en relation avec des ressources énergétiques et minérales : projet 157 de l'IGPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehler J. H.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Project 157 of the International Geological Correlation Program is concerned with the timing of major events in biological history (such as the advent of bacterial sulfate reduction and the development of oxygen-releasing photosynthesis and how these events may have been related to the formation of mineral and fossil fuel deposits. Both direct and indirect forms of microbial involvement are being investigated. Examples of direct involvement would be contributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria to the formation of certain stratiform sulfide mineral deposits and massive accumulation of microbial remains to form bog head coals and oil shales. An example of indirect involvement would be photosynthetic oxygenation of the Proterozoic atmosphere providing conditions amenable to the formation of red bed copper deposits. Two aspects of Project 157 are directly applicable to the search for petroleum reserves. One is the subproject thut deals with pre-Devonian crude oils; a major conclusion of our work in this area is that many Proterozoic sedimentary sequences have oil and gas potential and should not be neglected by explorationists. The other is the subproject that deals with organic diagenesis of modern microbial mat communities; among other things, work in this area should lead to the recognition of new biological tracer compounds that can be used for oil-to-source correlations. Le projet 157 du Programme International de Corrélations Géologiques concerne le déroulement dans le temps des événements majeurs de l'histoire biologique (comme l'apparition de la réduction bactérienne des sulfates et le développement de la photosynthèse productive d'oxygène et comment ces événements sont en relation avec la formation de minerais et de combustibles fossiles. On étudie les actions microbiologiques directes ou indirectes. Des exemples d'actions directes peuvent être le rôle des bactéries réductrices des sulfates dans la formation de minerais

  5. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    on these substrata. Oceollo!ogica Acta. 1990, 13,4,471-474. -~----~-------- I.• ABSTRACT --,- RESUME Composition de la matiere organique particulaire adsorbee sur un substrat solide La matiere organique particulaire adsorb&: sur des panneaux d'aluminium et de verre... immerges dans un estuaire a ete analysce: bacteries, chlorophylle a, poids sec, matiere organique, carbone organique, azote, proteines, glueides et lipides. Aucune difference n'a etc dccelee dans lacomposition de la matiere organique et dans les...

  6. Pioneers as Relational Subjects? Probing Relationality as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relational engagement roles in driving the energy transition, as described on their website. ... He comments, 'In Japan, they call it Viking leadership,' .... island, such as the mayor, representatives of different business, leading employees at the.

  7. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  8. Functional Programming With Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Graham

    1991-01-01

    While programming in a relational framework has much to offer over the functional style in terms of expressiveness, computing with relations is less efficient, and more semantically troublesome. In this paper we propose a novel blend of the functional and relational styles. We identify a class of "causal relations", which inherit some of the bi-directionality properties of relations, but retain the efficiency and semantic foundations of the functional style.

  9. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  10. Theoretical general relativity: 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, O.

    1979-01-01

    The metric and field equations of Einstein's general relativity theory are written down. Solutions to the equations are discussed. Connection is made between relativity theory and elementary particle theory. Possibilities for a unified field theory are considered

  11. Relativity simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, the discovery of such astronomical phenomena as quasars, pulsars, and black holes - all intimately connected to relativity - has provoked a tremendous upsurge of interest in the subject. This volume, a revised version of Martin Gardner's earlier Relativity for the Million, brings this fascinating topic up to date. Witty, perceptive, and easily accessible to the general reader, it is one of the clearest and most entertaining introductions to relativity ever written.

  12. Nothing but relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Palash B

    2003-01-01

    We deduce the most general space-time transformation laws consistent with the principle of relativity. Thus, our result contains the results of both Galilean and Einsteinian relativity. The velocity addition law comes as a by-product of this analysis. We also argue why Galilean and Einsteinian versions are the only possible embodiments of the principle of relativity

  13. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  14. Relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, William J

    1973-01-01

    The foundations of gravitational theory ; the birth of relativity theory ; the foundations of general relativity ; experimental tests of relativity ; the meaning of the redshift ; the black hole ; wormholes and white holes ; galaxies and quasars ; gravitational waves ; the shape of the Universe ; the creation of the Universe.

  15. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  16. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  17. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  19. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  20. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Strategi Komunikasi Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Artis, Artis

    2011-01-01

    Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison) in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual un...

  2. Relative Thinking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ofer H. Azar

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...

  3. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  4. Public relations and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of different forms of PR implementation and research its relation with ethics in practice. 'Public relations' is the every-day term that represents the job that is widely used in all aspects of life and work in today's society. Public relations represent a specific form of communication that has a particular application in society. Public relations involve focusing on a public aspect of organization with the aim of building a positive attitude and image. Image of public relations as a profession is often unfairly negative, and the reason for this is unprofessional and unethical relation of individuals towards their profession. In practice ethics in public relations is often considered to be an oxymoron. Ethical thinking of experts in public relations goes from Biblical attitude 'all you want people to do to you, do even so to them' (Matthew 7:12to professional loyalty to organization they work for. Because of unethical appearance it is important to set the rules, in the form of codex by which the public relations professionals will set their behaviors. .

  5. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  6. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  7. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  8. EU-Mashreq Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -related foreign policy considerations: the ENP Action Plans (APs) ‘will draw on a common set of principles but will be differentiated, reflecting the existing state of relations with each country, its needs and capacities, as well as common interests’ (Commission of the European Communities 2004). In the Mashreq...

  9. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with S...... with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs....

  10. Destination: Alumni Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  13. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  14. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  15. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  16. Methods of numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  17. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  18. The Redshifts in Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav

    2011-01-01

    The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…

  19. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  20. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  1. Journalism of Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    of cosmopolitanism from universal reproductions of sameness into creative productions of singular self-other relations based on the practiced and productive journalism. This is substantiated through case study analyses. The aim is to challenge the modern, rational journalistic subject referring back to the unified...... of the self-other relation which is simultaneously personal and political. Secondly, the dissertation relates the phenomenological ‘race’ and gender debates to the societal and productive context of contemporary European and ‘western’ globalised and mediated culture and politics. Journalism is re...... accountability and relation from journalistic training and practices whereby a ‘white’ and homogeneous social imaginary is reproduced. I make a call for thinking about journalism as relation – in terms of technological mediations, but also in terms of subjectivities. In order to allow for this, a shift is needed...

  2. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  3. 1398-IJBCS-Article-Joseph Kouassi+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    3Université d'Abobo-Adjamé, Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Organique et de Substances Naturelles,. 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d'Ivoire. 4INRA Science du Sol, BP 20619, 45166 Olivet cedex, ...... Mobilité relative des métaux lourds issus de la décharge d'Akouédo et risque de contamination de la nappe du Continental.

  4. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  5. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  6. The relational universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnon, A.

    1998-01-01

    A relational approach to be observable universe is proposed, which precludes the concept of absolute background. Space-time events emerge as dynamical entities which owe their existence to a memorization process, itself inter wind with the availability of cosmological horizons (screening from totality) sourcing long-range correlations. The resulting (and relational) mode of description sheds light on various paradoxes (EPR, Foucault pendolum, light beam effect, etc.), on the problem of instantaneous and global influences (quark deconfinement) as related to the interconnectedness of our cosmos. This scenario leads to comment on living systems vs. robots, and on non-recursive and global aspects of the mathematical intuition

  7. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  8. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  9. NgsRelate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2015-01-01

    . Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. AVAILABILITY: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.pop gen.dk/software. CONTACT: ida...... be called with high certainty. RESULTS: We present a software tool, NgsRelate, for estimating pairwise relatedness from NGS data. It provides maximum likelihood estimates that are based on genotype likelihoods instead of genotypes and thereby takes the inherent uncertainty of the genotypes into account...

  10. Clocks and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRoberts, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A kinematic theory without precise definitions of the 'space' and 'time' used is an uninterpreted calculus. The definition of 'time' in special relativity is based on light propagation and the 'constant velocity of light' is a tautological consequence of the definition. When this definition is reified in a 'clock' the phenomenon of 'time dilation' occurs, in terms of the defined time, but is not reciprocal between moving systems; the postulate of relativity is not observed. The new definition of time is compatible with an ether theory without the relativity principle. The derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which requires both postulates, is purely formalistic and is not ontologically sound. (Auth.)

  11. Public Relations vs. Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BASTIAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the characteristics, methods and aplications of two related activities – Public Relations and propaganda. Although different from the piont of wiev of purpose and results (the practice of Public Relations aims at establishing and maintaining mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics, through transparency and honesty, while propaganda insists on a message that is intended primarily to serve the interests of the messenger. in order to influence public opinion and to manipulate other people’s beliefs by any means necessary, the two activities also present quite a lot of similarities.

  12. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  13. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  14. General relativity and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, T.

    1994-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  15. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  16. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Wishes Visiting The ER Who Takes Care Of You In An Emergency? Checking Into ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  18. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  19. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  1. Relativity in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deruelle, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook on relativity integrates Newtonian physics, special relativity and general relativity into a single book that emphasizes the deep underlying principles common to them all, yet explains how they are applied in different ways in these three contexts. Newton's ideas about how to represent space and time, his laws of dynamics, and his theory of gravitation established the conceptual foundation from which modern physics developed. Book I in this volume offers undergraduates a modern view of Newtonian theory, emphasizing those aspects needed for understanding quantum and relativistic contemporary physics. In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed a novel representation of space and time, special relativity. Book II presents relativistic dynamics in inertial and accelerated frames, as well as a detailed overview of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. This provides undergraduate and graduate students with the background necessary for studying particle and accelerator physics, astrophysics and ...

  2. Relating BIP and Reo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.C. Dokter (Kasper); S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); F. Arbab (Farhad); S. Bliudze (Simon)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCoordination languages simplify design and development of concurrent systems. Particularly, exogenous coordination languages, like BIP and Reo, enable system designers to express the interactions among components in a system explicitly. In this paper we establish a formal relation

  3. Relating BIP and Reo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.C. Dokter (Kasper); S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); F. Arbab (Farhad); S. Bliudze (Simon); S. Knight; I. Lanese; A. Lluch Lafuente; H.T. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractCoordination languages simplify design and development of concurrent systems. Particularly, exogenous coordination languages, like BIP and Reo, enable system designers to express the interactions among components in a system explicitly. In this paper we establish a formal relation

  4. de Sitter special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  5. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  6. Managing or Relating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Buur, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a case of user-driven innovation. We draw on social capital theory and the concept of complex responsive processes to examine the role of relations for the exchange and generation of knowledge across different knowledge traditions. We argue that innovation as a social phenome...... phenomenon with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity requires more relating and less managing to use conflict as a resource by turning the friction between different knowledge traditions into creative friction....

  7. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  8. Mass relation for neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu; Barr

    2000-08-07

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  9. Mass Relation for Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  11. The metamorphoses of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Richard

    This talk will explore the ways that problems shifted and disciplinary boundaries changed around physicists' engagement with relational physics and relativistic thought, first in research dealing with physiology, psychology and geometry in the late nineteenth century and then (a better-known story) moving between physics, mathematics and geometry in the twentieth century. I hope to develop a richer approach for understanding the disciplinary and political significance of relativity, especially by considering in one framework the work of Engels, Mach, Einstein and Planck.

  12. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  13. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.

  14. The theories of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)

  15. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI PUBLIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artis Artis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual understanding among an organization with whole its member “. In this case, Public Relations in give distribution on manajement's strategy there is two: First, Doing task as part of Public Relations's strategy and involvement in comprehensive process and gives benefit for management an organization. Both of, Public Relations gets role in management strategy in bring off activity to reach to the effect good one gets internal character and also external one correspond to that desirable by good institute on level governance and firm.

  16. De Sitter projective relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio; Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the Projective approach to de Sitter Relativity. It traces the development of renewed interest in models of the universe at constant positive curvature such as "vacuum" geometry. The De Sitter Theory of Relativity, formulated in 1917 with Willem De Sitter's solution of the Einstein equations, was used in different fields during the 1950s and 1960s, in the work of H. Bacry, J.M. LevyLeblond and F.Gursey, to name some important contributors. From the 1960s to 1980s, L. Fantappié and G. Arcidiacono provided an elegant group approach to the De Sitter universe putting the basis for special and general projective relativity. Today such suggestions flow into a unitary scenario, and this way the De Sitter Relativity is no more a "missing opportunity" (F. Dyson, 1972), but has a central role in theoretical physics. In this volume a systematic presentation is given of the De Sitter Projective relativity, with the recent developments in projective general relativity and quantum cosmology.

  17. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  18. Dynamics and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A new title in the Manchester Physics Series, this introductory text emphasises physical principles behind classical mechanics and relativity. It assumes little in the way of prior knowledge, introducing relevant mathematics and carefully developing it within a physics context. Designed to provide a logical development of the subject, the book is divided into four sections, introductory material on dynamics, and special relativity, which is then followed by more advanced coverage of dynamics and special relativity. Each chapter includes problems ranging in difficulty from simple to challenging with?solutions for solving problems. Includes?solutions for solving problemsNumerous worked examples included throughout the bookMathematics is carefully explained and developed within a physics environmentSensitive to topics that can appear daunting or confusing

  19. New general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Shirafuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A gravitational theory is formulated on the Weitzenboeck space-time, characterized by the vanishing curvature tensor (absolute parallelism) and by the torsion tensor formed of four parallel vector fields. This theory is called new general relativity, since Einstein in 1928 first gave its original form. New general relativity has three parameters c 1 , c 2 , and lambda, besides the Einstein constant kappa. In this paper we choose c 1 = 0 = c 2 , leaving open lambda. We prove, among other things, that (i) a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field is given by the Schwarzschild metric, that (ii) in the weak-field approximation an antisymmetric field of zero mass and zero spin exists, besides gravitons, and that (iii) new general relativity agrees with all the experiments so far carried out

  20. Global general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1979-01-01

    Much theoretical work in General Relativity has been concerned with finding explicit solutions of Einstein field equations. Exact solutions must involve simplifying procedures which in the case of strong gravitational fields may not be valid. Computers can help but complementary to these are the global qualitative mathematics that have been introduced into relativity over the past years. These have shown that Einstein's equations together with suitable inequalities on the energy-momentum tensor can lead inevitably to space-time singularities arising, provided that some qualitative geometric criterion is satisfied. It seems that in suitable situations of gravitational collapse this criterion will be satisfied. Similarly in a cosmological setting the criterion can be applied in the reverse direction in time. There is, however, the unsolved problem in general relativity of cosmic censorship and this is discussed as a consequence of Einstein's equations. (UK)

  1. Elementary general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.

    1979-01-01

    The plan of the book is as follows: Chapter 1 develops special relativity in a setting and notation that can immediately be transferred to general relativity. Most of the fundamental geometrical ideas are established here. Chapter 2 gives a more conventional account of some selected applications of special relativity. Chapter 3 is the heart of the book. A geometrical model of space-time is progressively built up, motivated by physical arguments stemming from the equivalence principle, leading to Einstein's field equations. Chapter 4 deals very quickly with the simplest form of weak-field theory with application to gravitational radiation. Chapter 5 concludes the book with a fairly detailed analysis of the Schwarzschild solution, plane fronted gravitational waves, and the Robertson-Walker cosmological solutions. Exercises at the end of each chapter extend the general theory into particular applications, giving a broader picture of the scope of the subject. (author)

  2. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  3. Introduction to special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is intended as a text for an introductory course on special relativity; it assumes no prior knowledge of relativity. It is intended for the upper undergraduate level and upwards. The first three chapters take a three-dimensional viewpoint for a simple introduction to topics such as the relativity of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, the twin paradox and the appearance of moving objects. For the remaining chapters the strongest possible use is made of four-dimensional techniques. Chapter four deals with space-time, chapters five and six with mechanics and electromagnetism. In these a purely synthetic four-tensor approach is adopted. Pure tensor theory is covered in an appendix. The last chapter is on the mechanics of continua. (U.K.)

  4. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b

  5. Relativity and its roots

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1998-01-01

    In this fascinating, accessible introduction to one of the most revolutionary developments in modern physics, Einstein scholar Banesh Hoffmann recounts the successive insights that led to both the special and general theories of relativity.Using simple examples from everyday life, the author presents entertaining, nontechnical demonstrations of what relativity actually means and how it has revolutionized our ideas of time and space. Starting with the geometrical and cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks, the author traces the succession of ideas and advances that paved the way for modern p

  6. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...

  7. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  8. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  9. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  10. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  11. Goedel, relativity, and mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Goedel's acquaintance with Einstein led him to discover, by use of novel techniques, an exotic cosmological model which flouted many preconceived notions, such as the role of Mach's principle in general relativity and the nature of time. Goedel also invoked it in speculations concerning the question of minds

  12. MARC and Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jose; Trenor, Asuncion

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of MARC format in relational databases and addresses problems of incompatibilities. A solution is presented that is in accordance with Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards and is based on experiences at the library of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). (four references) (EA)

  13. Quantum relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1983-11-01

    A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is argued that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in an earlier paper is formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity. Then it is shown that the recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce in a consistent way the quantum space-time model (the 'canonically quantized Minkowski space') proposed by Banai earlier. The main new aspect of the quantum mechanics of the quantum relativistic particles is, in this model of space-time, that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem and, that the excited mass states of such particles can be interpreted as classifically relativistic (massive) quantum particles ('elementary particles'). The question of field theory over quantum relativistic models of space-time is also discussed. Finally, it is suggested that 'quarks' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)

  14. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  15. Bimetric general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1979-01-01

    A modification of general relativity is proposed involving a second metric tensor describing a space-time of constant curvature and associated with the fundamental rest-frame of the universe. The theory generally agrees with the Einstein theory, but gives cosmological models without singularities which can account for present observation, including helium abundance

  16. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  17. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  18. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  19. Aquinas on Real Relation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), s. 147-172 ISSN 1804-5588 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : relation and its foundation * Aquinas * order Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.cupress.cuni.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2868&id=5343&casopis=921&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  20. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  1. Conformal special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes

  2. Is Happinness relative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The theory that happiness is relative is based on three postulates: (1) happiness results from comparison. (2) standards of comparison adjust, (3) standards of comparison are arbitrary constructs. On the basis of these postulates the theory predicts: (a) happiness does not

  3. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  4. The relations of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents papers on elementary particle physics, relations between various particles, and the connections between particle physics with other branches of physics. The papers include: Contemporary status and prospects of high-energy physics; Particle physics prospects; and High energy physics

  5. Can Relations be Designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Mikkelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of design methods in a social innovation project on a Danish Institution for severely physically and mentally handicapped people. The project was focused on ‘designing’ new or better relations between the residents at the institution and the civil society. During the ...

  6. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  7. BNFL and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions made by BNFL to community relations are described in an illustrated booklet under the headings: introduction (general policy); donations and sponsorships; BNFL talks service; brochures and public information; visits; local liaison committees; industrial training; sponsored students; apprentices. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  9. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  10. relation in spherical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Bhattacharyya

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... SMBH than that of the nearby stars. The relation of the. SMBHs to their host galaxies can be seen by the strong correlation between the mass of SMBH and velocity dispersion σ of the stars in the galaxy. This is some- what surprising because the stars are too far from the. SMBH for the velocity dispersion to ...

  11. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  12. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  13. Functions of public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article reveals the importance of communication with the public in the implementation of human rights and the ideals of mankind; characterized by the specificity of public relations in the information culture of belief; PR functions are explained on the criterion of optimization of activity of social interactions on the basis of cultural ideals.

  14. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1987-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the nuclear related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1987 and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  15. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  16. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  17. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  18. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  19. Relational time in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.K.T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  20. Relational time in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.K.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  1. Fluctuation Relations for Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Akimov, Alexei; Chernyak, Vladimir; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We consider a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or a network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly strongly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, leading to new Fluctuation Relations that originate from the supersymmetry and the principle of the geometric universality of currents rather than from the relations between probabilities of forward and reverse trajectories. NSF/ECCS-0925618, NSF/CHE-0808910 and DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  3. Relativity without spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cosgrove, Joseph K

    2018-01-01

    In 1908, three years after Einstein first published his special theory of relativity, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski introduced his four-dimensional “spacetime” interpretation of the theory. Einstein initially dismissed Minkowski’s theory, remarking that “since the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity I do not understand it myself anymore.” Yet Minkowski’s theory soon found wide acceptance among physicists, including eventually Einstein himself, whose conversion to Minkowski’s way of thinking was engendered by the realization that he could profitably employ it for the formulation of his new theory of gravity. The validity of Minkowski’s mathematical “merging” of space and time has rarely been questioned by either physicists or philosophers since Einstein incorporated it into his theory of gravity. Physicists often employ Minkowski spacetime with little regard to the whether it provides a true account of the physical world as opposed to a useful mathematical tool in th...

  4. THE RELATION APICULTURE - TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analyses of the current condition, trends and opportunities for the apiculture development and its relation to tourism in Bulgaria. Beekeeping is considered as a branch of agriculture since its formation after the liberation to the present day and in its dynamics of development for the last 5 years. Resource base including traditions, state, production and marketing of honey is presented. Data from the National Statistics Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food beekeepers' associations, processors and traders of honey and bee products, the Ministry of Tourism and tourism industry organizations is analyzed and discussed. Beekeeping is represented in the relation as a resource for development of apitourism, as untraditional attractive specialized type of tourism, which can support farmers through non-agricultural practices. The paper aimed at assisting companies and individuals in the field of agribusiness and apitourism for the realization of bee products and services.

  5. Galilei-isotopic relativities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    In this note we further develop the proposal made in preceding works of constructing the infinite family of Lie-isotopic liftings of Galilei's relativity for closed-isolated systems of particles possessing local, potential and selfadjoint, as well as nonlocal, nonhamiltonian and non selfadjoint internal forces. In particular, we show that the nonlinear and nonlocal generalization of the Galilei transformations introduced in a preceding note do indeed represent motion of extended particles within resistive media, but in such a way to coincide with the conventional transformations at the abstract, realization-free level. This allows the preservation of the basic, physical and mathematical axioms of Galilei's relativity under our liftings, and their realization in the most general possible nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian way. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  6. Very special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L

    2006-07-14

    By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable.

  7. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  8. LAMA2-related myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. METHODS: In this study......, we assessed the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy in CMD (n = 18) and LGMD2 (n = 128) cohorts identified in the last 15 years in eastern Denmark. The medical history, brain-MRI, muscle pathology, muscle laminin-α2 expression, and genetic analyses were assessed....... RESULTS: Molecular genetics revealed 2 pathogenic LAMA2 mutations in 5 of 18 CMD and 3 of 128 LGMD patients, corresponding to a LAMA2-mutation frequency of 28% in the CMD and 2.3% in the LGMD cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a wide clinical spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular...

  9. Hemodialysis-related headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Murat Yusuf; Sav, Tansu; Senocak, Elif; Sav, Nadide Melike

    2014-10-01

    Headache is one of the most frequently encountered neurological symptoms during hemodialysis. According to International Classification of Headache criteria dialysis-related headache was defined as the headache occurring during hemodialysis with no specific characteristic. It resolves spontaneously within 72 hours after the hemodialysis session ends. There are few studies in the literature investigating the clinical features of dialysis headache. The pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related headache is not known, but various triggering factors have been identified, including changes in blood pressure, serum sodium and magnesium levels during hemodialysis sessions, caffeine deprivation and stress. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze features of headache in patients undergoing hemodialysis. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. Offentlighed og Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Heltoft

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heltoft, der er en af grundlæggerne af Public Relationsuddannelsen på Roskilde Universitetscenter, kaster i artiklen et kritisk blik på den akademiske forskning i feltet public relations. Selv i nyere udgaver af PR-forskningen - af mange anset for "progressive", f.eks. James Grunings og Jon Whites arbejder - ser Lars Heltoft tydelige spor af PR- professionens selvforståelse og legitimationsbehov. Resultatet er, at den "offentlighed", der burde være kernen i den videnskabelige beskæftigelse med public relations, "forsvinder i den blå luft". Han argumenterer for, at Habermas´ forestilling om "offentlighed" stadig institutionaliserer mulig- heden for kritisk diskurs inden for feltet, samtidig med at han i sproghand- lingsteoretisk perspektiv problematiserer Habermas´ legitimationsbegreb, fordi det undtager private virksomheder og organisationer.

  11. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  12. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  13. Einstein and relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullwick, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905 and in 1915 his General Theory which predicted the bending of light rays passing near the sun. This prediction was apparently confirmed experimentally in 1919 bringing Einstein popular acclaim. Einstein's work is reviewed and the question of whether he was in fact first in the field is examined with especial reference to the work of Maxwell, Lorentz and Poincare. (U.K.)

  14. On Allometry Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    German polymath Gauss64 and the Amer- ican mathematician Adrian1 introduced into science the law of frequency of errors, the French physicist ...00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE On Allometry Relations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT ...AR was given by Sarrus and Rameaux.188 Schmidt–Nielsen195 records that this team of a mathematician and a physician reasoned that the heat gener- ated

  15. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  16. Relativity of Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-01-01

    Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is conn...

  17. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-09-01

    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  18. Complex manifolds in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, E.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex manifold theory is applied to the study of certain problems in general relativity. The first half of the work is devoted to the mathematical theory of complex manifold. Then a brief review of general relativity is given. It is shown that any spacetime admits locally an almost Hermitian structure, suitably modified to be compatible with the indefinite metric of spacetime. This structure is integrable if and only if the spacetime admits two geodesic and shearfree null congruences, thus in particular if the spacetime is type D vacuum or electrified. The structure is ''half-integrable'' in a suitable sense if and only if the spacetime admits one geodesic and shearfree null congruence, thus in particular for all algebraically special vacuum spacetimes. Conditions for the modified Hermitian spacetime to be Kahlerian are presented. The most general metric for such a modified Kahlerian spacetime is found. It is shown that the type D vacuum and electrified spacetimes are conformally related to modified Kahlerian spacetimes by a generally complex conformal factor. These latter are shown to possess a very rich structure, including the existence of Killing tensors and Killing vectors. A new ''explanation'' of Newman's complex coordinate transformations is given. It is felt to be superior to previous ''explanations'' on several counts. For example, a physical interpretation in terms of a symmetry group is given. The existence of new complex coordinate transformations is established: Nt is shown that any type D vacuum spacetime is obtainable from either Schwarzschild spacetime or ''C'' spacetime by a complex coordinate transformation. Finally, some related topics are discussed and areas for future work are outlined. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  19. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  20. Three forms of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The physical sense of three forms of the relativity is discussed. The first - instant from - respects in fact the traditional approach based on the concept of instant distance. The normal form corresponds the radar formulation which is based on the light or retarded distances. The front form in the special case is characterized by 'observable' variables, and the known method of k-coefficient is its obvious expression. 16 refs

  1. File: International bilateral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, Ch.; Rabouhams, J.; Bravo, X.; Rousseau, M.; Le Breton, S.; Saint Raymond, Ph.; Brigaud, O.; Pertuis, V.; McNair, J.; Sayers, M.R.; Bye, R.; Scherrer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since its creation in 1973, the Authority of Safety was assigned missions in the international field with following objectives: to develop information exchanges with its foreign counterpart, to make know and to explain the French approach and practice; to give to concerned countries the useful information on french nuclear facilities situated near the border; This file shows with some examples, how bilateral relations allow to fill up these objectives and how the French Authority got the foreign experience. (N.C.)

  2. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  3. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  4. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  5. The elements of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, David

    2018-01-01

    Relativity has much to offer for a well-rounded education. Yet books on relativity either assume a strong background in physics and math, aimed at advanced physics students, or, alternatively, offer a broad description with little intellectual challenge. This book bridges the gap. It aims at readers with essentially no physics or math background, who still find it rewarding to think rigorously. The book takes a "thinking tools" approach, by first making readers comfortable with a new thinking tool and then applying it to learn more about how nature works. By the end of the book, readers will have collected a versatile toolbox and will be comfortable using the tools to think about and really understand the intriguing phenomena they may have only heard about, including the twin paradox, black holes, and time travel. End-of-chapter exercises span a range of difficulty, allowing adventurous readers to stretch their understanding further as desired. Students who have studied, or are studying, relativity at a more...

  6. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  7. Lectures on general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Achille

    1974-01-01

    This book is an elaboration of lecture notes for the graduate course on General Rela­ tivity given by the author at Boston University in the spring semester of 1972. It is an introduction to the subject only, as the time available for the course was limited. The author of an introduction to General Relativity is faced from the beginning with the difficult task of choosing which material to include. A general criterion as­ sisting in this choice is provided by the didactic character of the book: Those chapters have to be included in priority, which will be most useful to the reader in enabling him to understand the methods used in General Relativity, the results obtained so far and possibly the problems still to be solved. This criterion is not sufficient to ensure a unique choice. General Relativity has developed to such a degree, that it is impossible to include in an introductory textbook of a reasonable length even a very condensed treatment of all important problems which have been discussed unt...

  8. Intraprofessional relations in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddle, Maree; Boughton, Maureen

    2007-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the way in which Registered Nurses relate to and interact with each other in the workplace, and to identify factors that influence nurses' interactions with each other. Intraprofessional relations are an important topic both for nurses and nursing as we face the ongoing challenges of nurse shortages. Poor colleague relationships, together with workplace conflict, cause job dissatisfaction. As a consequence, some nurses leave the profession while others continue working but remain chronically unhappy. An explanatory multiple case study design was adopted. Data were collected from multiple sources on three different wards within one hospital in Australia between July 2005 and January 2006. The workplace can be a difficult place for both very experienced and less experienced nurses, regardless of the clinical environment. Nurses navigate their way in the workplace through a series of complex negotiations with each other and develop skills to assess the potential success of an interaction before approaching another nurse. Some also develop a resilience to conflict in their workplace, accepting it as part of working life. Creation of a more positive work environment requires increased understanding of the way nurses relate to each other and appreciation of the factors in the environment that contribute to conflict and a negative atmosphere. This appreciation is a necessary prerequisite to developing a more satisfying and productive workplace enhancing the recruitment of new nurses and the retention of experienced nurses.

  9. Statin-related myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Santos, Maria Joana; Pérez, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Statin therapy has a very important role in decreasing cardiovascular risk, and treatment non-compliance may therefore be a concern in high cardiovascular risk patients. Myotoxicity is a frequent side effect of statin therapy and one of the main causes of statin discontinuation, which limits effective treatment of patients at risk of or with cardiovascular disease. Because of the high proportion of patients on statin treatment and the frequency of statin-related myotoxicity, this is a subject of concern in clinical practice. However, statin-related myotoxicity is probably underestimated because there is not a gold standard definition, and its diagnosis is challenging. Moreover, information about pathophysiology and optimal therapeutic options is scarce. Therefore, this paper reviews the knowledge about the definition, pathophysiology and predisposing conditions, diagnosis and management of statin-related myotoxicity, and provides a practical scheme for its management in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Båth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m and surface-wave magnitudes (M are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave magnitudes from broad-band and narrow-band short-period seismographs are compared and relations deduced. Applications are made both to underground nuclear explosions and to earthquakes. The possibilities of explosion-earthquake discrimination on the basis of magnitudes are examined, as well as the determination of explosive yield from magnitudes. For earthquakes, relations between magnitudes of main earthquakes and largest aftershocks are investigated. A world-wide station network for more homogeneous magnitude determinations is suggested in order to provide the necessary reference system.

  11. Relativities of fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    2017-08-01

    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  12. Cancer-related anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rzaeq, Hikmat N.

    2004-01-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in cancer patients is often under-recognized and undertreated. The pathogenesis of cancer anemia is complex and most of time multifactorial; involving factors related to the tumor itself or its therapy. While anemia can be present in a wide range of symptoms, involing almost every organ, it is beleived that it contributes much to cancer-related-fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients. In addition there is increasing evidence to suggest that anemia is an independent factor adversely affecting tumor reponse and patient survival. While blood transfusion was the only option to treat cancer related anemia, the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is becomig the new standard of care, more so with the recent studies demonstrating the feasibility of a sigle weekly injection .Things are even getting better with the recent approval of a new form of rHuEPO; Darbepoetin an analogue with a 3-fold longer half-life. In addition to its effects in raising homoglobin, several well controlled studies demonstrated decrease in transfusion requirementsand better qualify of life assessed objectively using standard assesments scales. (author)

  13. Viking relativity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, I.I.; Reasenberg, R.D.; MacNeil, P.E.; Goldstein, R.B.; Brenkle, J.P.; Cain, D.L.; Komarek, T.; Zygielbaum, A.I.; Cuddihy, W.F.; Michael, W.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity. According to this theory the signals will be delayed by up to approx.250 μs owing to the direct effect of solar gravity on the propagation. A very preliminary qualitative analysis of the Viking data obtained near the 1976 superior conjunction of Mars indicates agreement with the predictions to within the estimated uncertainty of 0.5%

  14. Theory of relations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraïssé, R

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

  15. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....

  16. The Viking Relativity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Macneil, P. E.; Goldstein, R. B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Cain, D. L.; Komarek, T.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Cuddihy, W. F.; Michael, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity. According to this theory the signals will be delayed by up to approximately 250 microsec owing to the direct effect of solar gravity on the propagation. A very preliminary qualitative analysis of the Viking data obtained near the 1976 superior conjunction of Mars indicates agreement with the predictions to within the estimated uncertainty of 0.5%.

  17. Twistors in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1987-01-01

    The two most significant definitions of a twistor in (conformally) flat space-time are that given by solutions of the twistor equation and that given by α-planes in the complexification of the space-time. It is shown that these concepts are naturally dual to one another, and that they give rise to various different twistor concepts in curved space-time when referred to submanifolds of differing dimension. One of these concepts, that of 2-surface twistors, gives rise to a quasi-local definition of mass (and angular momentum). The status of this definition is explored in relation to various examples. (author)

  18. Relative Reality: the Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onley, David; Steinberg, Gary

    2004-04-01

    The consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity are explored in a virtual world in which the speed of light is only 10 m/s. Ray tracing software and other visualization tools, modified to allow for the finite speed of light, are employed to create a video that brings to life a journey through this imaginary world. The aberation of light, the Doppler effect, the altered perception of time and power of incoming radiation are explored in separate segments of this 35 min video. Several of the effects observed are new and quite unexpected. A commentary and animated explanations help keep the viewer from losing all perspective.

  19. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  20. CKM related measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalseno, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent CKM-related results on the unitary triangle for B d decays from the BaBar and Belle Collaborations which collect BB-bar pairs at the Υ(4S) resonance produced in asymmetric e + e - collisions. These include the decay channels B 0 → (cc-bar)K 0 and B 0 → D (*)+ D (*)- , which are sensitive to the CP violating phase φ 1 : B 0 → α 1 (1260) ± π ± , which can constrain the CP violating phase φ 2 , and B → hlν, from which V ub can be determined. (author)

  1. Studies Relating to EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  2. Nuclear public relations campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A two-day hearing to investigate DOE's participation in a $30 million nuclear public relations program at a time when the country is asked to decrease spending and in conjunction with similar efforts by the nuclear industry focused on the issue of whether ratepayers or shareholders should finance the effort. Shelby Brewer, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, defended the expenditures as a response to public demand for information and the need to correct misinformation. The testimony of 14 other witnesses includes the views of citizen and professional groups, utilities, and government agencies. Their testimony is followed by additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  3. Public relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.

    1996-01-01

    NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome has become a major problem in the field of environmental planning. Also in Slovenia. Agency for Radwaste management was established by the Slovene government in 1991. Our main objective is to provide the final disposal of radioactive waste in Slovenia. Overcoming the NIMBY syndrome is therefore the primary aim of Agency's PR (public relations) strategy. Agency's public relations strategy was prepared in 1993. After very unpleasant experience with NIMBY syndrome in local community where one of the potential locations for low and intermediate level repository was identified the strategy was renewed in 1994. It is divided into two parts: information and education. The first one includes providing information to the media, surveys of press clippings, interviews, press conferences, public opinion polls and publishing articles. Agency's first task in the field of education was to prepare different materials like: leaflets, Agency's newspaper and videos. Materials were distributed to various target publics. There is also a special program of lectures for youngsters. All those activities and projects have been successfully realized within the last year. Plans of PR activities for this year are focused on informing the local community about remediation of temporary storage of radioactive waste near village Zavratec. Other new projects are also under preparation like: new leaflets, presentation on Internet, journalist's guide to rad waste management, most frequently asked questions and answers. (author)

  4. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  5. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  6. Sleep-related laryngospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnheer, R; Henz, S; Knoblauch, A

    1997-09-01

    The term "sleep-related laryngospasm" refers to episodic, abrupt interruption of sleep accompanied by feelings of acute suffocation followed by stridor. The condition is included in the diagnostic and coding manual of the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA), but there are few references in the peer-reviewed literature. Our description of the distinct clinical picture associated with this condition is based on an analysis of the histories of a series of 10 patients. The patients and their families gave precise, uniform accounts of the dramatic attacks. Diagnostic work-up included pulmonary and gastroenterological assessment. All patients reported sudden awakening from sleep due to feelings of acute suffocation, accompanied by intense fear. Apnoea lasting 5-45 s was followed by stridor. Breathing returned to normal within minutes. Patients were left exhausted by the attacks. Nine of our 10 patients had evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and six responded to antireflux therapy. We conclude that the nocturnal choking attacks (and the occasional daytime attacks experienced by some of the patients) are caused by laryngospasm. The pathogenesis of the apparent underlying laryngeal irritability is unknown. The condition may be related to a gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  7. My relational self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicholz, Judith Guss

    2009-04-01

    In this article, I suggest recent sources of influence on psychoanalysis and describe a contemporary relational self psychology that is my personal attempt at integration. Even with this integration, I struggle to find the right "therapeutic" balance between my essential but imperfect instrument for empathic listening, on the one hand, and the risks of authentic engagement, on the other. These dialectical tensions in me mirror those in the psychoanalytic community as a whole, poised between a scientifically based practice and a healing "art"--or between a complex but teachable methodology or discipline-and an ordinary (yet extraordinary) human relationship in which spontaneity and even improvisation play a role. Complicating this balancing act, there is new evidence from neuroscientists, attachment theorists, and infant-caregiver researchers that, from birth onward, bidirectional influences on brain and psychic development create contingent and unpredictable outcomes in every intimately related dyad. Thus, the contemporary analyst must expect to be changed by the work and--while taking full responsibility for his or her own contribution--must recognize patient and analyst as co-creators of the psychoanalytic project. At the same time that we now recognize contingency, complexity, and chaos at the heart of human minds and relationships, we also acknowledge the central importance of a sense of continuity and coherence as the individual undertakes the pursuit of goals and relationships in life. What kind of relationship can facilitate these qualities in the sense of self? That is the question that this article undertakes to answer.

  8. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  9. A logic road from special relativity to general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X.; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in first-order logic. From this axiom system we "derive" an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.

  10. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  11. Work related shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    and symptoms. Data were analysed by generalised estimating equation and multiple logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: For current upper arm elevation above 90°, a duration increment of 1% of the daily working hours was associated with odds ratios of 1.23 (95% CI 1.10 to 1......Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three...... occupational groups. Exposure measurements were performed for four consecutive working days in a random sample of 72 currently employed subjects. Individual work histories were obtained by questionnaire and register data. Health status was ascertained by physical examination blinded towards exposure...

  12. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  13. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...... theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works.......Presented with conflicting evidence and interpretations, how do we ever come to valid conclusions about complex questions of continuity and change in global politics? In any analytical task you need to consider a number of things and this final chapter will take you through some of them including...

  14. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  15. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  16. Communication and external relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A company's identity is what it really is, whereas its image is what others perceive or think it is. Therefore, it should suffice to simply combine these two concepts-identity and image-to simplify communication activities. However, identity and image are complex, varying concepts that are conditioned by environment, opinions, expectations, attitudes, market evolution and many other factors. In Cofrentes, we have always been aware of the difficulties involved in successful communication at all levels and, therefore, from the very beginning, even before the Plant was started up, channels were established for public service and relations with all the entities of Cofrentes NPP physical, human and institutional environment in its three possible spheres of influence at the local, provincial and national levels. (Author)

  17. Research as relational agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    the agency of iPads implemented in Danish schools challenged the implementation of a research based auxiliary artefact, the TECS-model, meant to help teachers managing teaching with iPads in Danish schools. Researchers had to develop a special sensitivity to the cultural force of all of these artefacts......Studying the impact of educational technologies ‘in the wild’ put new demands on researchers than when researchers are conducting experiments in a laboratory. When researchers work within institutional boundaries they cannot take for granted that all members engaged in institutional work share...... the same conception of material artefacts, which are non-human in the sense that they are not just material but agentic and persuasive like humans. Local conceptualisations of artefacts must be explored as the researchers develop relational agency with the different local people involved. New educational...

  18. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  19. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  20. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  1. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  2. Stakeholder Relations Office

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Scientists, politicians, the public, school children, our neighbours, you. All of these groups of people have a stake in CERN, and all are important to us.   The list of stakeholders in an organisation as large and complex as CERN is a long and ever lengthening one. Each group has its own specific interests and needs in terms of what kind of information it requires from CERN and how we should engage. It’s important, therefore, for us to ensure that we’re communicating optimally with everyone we care about and who cares about us. This is something that CERN has always taken seriously. The CERN Courier, for example, was first published in 1959 and we had a pro-active public information office right from the start. Today, our stakeholder relations are spread between several groups and teams, reflecting the nature of CERN today. But while we’re already doing a good job, I think we can do better by exploiting the synergies between these teams, and that’s wh...

  3. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  5. Malnutrition related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparre-Sørensen, Maja; Kristensen, Gustav N

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that malnutrition increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and costs in the elderly population. Approximately one third of all patients admitted to geriatric wards in Denmark are malnourished according to the Danish Geriatric database. The aim of this study is to describe and examine the sudden increase in deaths due to malnutrition in the elderly population in Denmark from 1999 and, similarly, the sudden decline in malnutrition related deaths in 2007. A descriptive epidemiologic study was performed. All Danes listed in the national death registry who died from malnutrition in the period from 1994 to 2012 are included. The number of deaths from malnutrition increased significantly during the period from 1999 to 2007, especially in the age group 70 years and over. Additionally, we document a surprising similarity between the development in excess mortality from malnutrition in the five Danish regions during the same period. During the period 1999-2007 malnutrition was the direct cause of 340 extra deaths, and probably ten times more registered under other diseases. This development in excess mortality runs parallel in all five Danish regions over time. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Work-related COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Anne Kristin Møller; Aasen, Tor Olav Brøvig; Kongerud, Johny

    2014-11-01

    Work-related COPD occurs as a result of exposure to harmful particles and gases/fumes in the workplace, including among non-smokers. The objective of this article is to present more recent findings on the correlation between occupational exposure and COPD. In addition, we review diagnostic and prognostic considerations and the potential for prevention. We have undertaken literature searches in Medline and EMBASE for the period May 2009 - July 2014. Studies without any measurements of pulmonary function or references to occupational exposure were excluded. We have also included three prospective studies on pulmonary function and occupational exposure that were not indexed with the search terms used for obstructive pulmonary disease. Three population studies and eight studies that described a specific industry or sector were included. Recent studies detect an association between exposure and an increased risk of COPD in the construction industry, metallurgical smelting, cement production and the textile industry. In other respects, the findings from previous review studies are confirmed. Exposure to a number of organic and inorganic particles and fumes in the workplace may cause COPD even at prevailing levels of exposure. Doctors should inquire about such exposure in cases of suspected and established COPD and should have a low threshold for referral to occupational health assessment.

  7. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  8. Dispersion relation and relative intensity for double-plasmon satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.S.; Shiv Singh; Harsh, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dispersion relation and the relative intensity of double-plasmon oscillations and satellites has been derived by extending the dispersion relation and the extended Bohm and Pines Hamiltonian to second order. The calculated value of the relative intensity of the double-plasmon satellite for Be agrees fairly well with the value observed experimentally by other workers. (orig.)

  9. Is there a map between Galilean relativity and special relativity?

    OpenAIRE

    Shariati, Ahmad; Jafari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mandanici has provided a map which he claims to be a two way map between Galilean relativity and special relativity. We argue that this map is simply a curvilinear coordinate system on a subset of the two-dimensional Minkowski space-time, and is not a two way map between 1+1 dimensional Galilean relativity and 1+1 dimensional special relativity.

  10. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  11. Public Relations and Interpersonal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Elizabeth P.

    Despite a lack of consensus on theoretical perspectives on public relations and variations in the ways it and interpersonal communication are defined, public relations may be related to interpersonal communication in three ways: (1) it is two-way communication, (2) it is personal, and (3) it is relational. Even in activities having the highest…

  12. Distortions in Judged Spatial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Distortions in judgments of relative geographical relations were observed, particularly when the locations were in different geographical or political units. Subjects distorted the judged relation to conform with the relation of the superordinate political unit. A model for the hierachical storage of spatial information is presented. (Author/RD)

  13. Perceptions of Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.; Botan, Carl; Turk, Judy VanSlyke

    1999-01-01

    Surveys 258 public-relations educators and practitioners, finding they agree that public-relations education is on track; that systematic assessment is an important feature of public-relations education; and that they agreed on how public-relations education should be structured, and demonstrated a high degree of similarity in their preferences…

  14. Are hospitals also for relatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Madsen, Mette; Kjøller, Mette

    2008-01-01

    at relatives of patients with cardiac diseases is sparse. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of health services for relatives of cardiac patients in Denmark. METHODS: We surveyed activities offered by Danish hospitals to the relatives of cardiac patients. Data were obtained from an Internet-based survey...... and 50 of 55 invited hospital departments participated. RESULTS: Almost all departments offer activities to relatives of cardiac patients, but only one-quarter have activities specifically aimed at supporting relatives. Large departments offer activities for relatives more often than smaller departments....... Participation rates for relatives are generally low, and the departments experience numerous barriers in providing activities for relatives of heart patients. CONCLUSIONS: Danish hospitals focus very little on relatives of cardiac patients, and this seems to be due to several factors, including lack...

  15. A Relational Algebra Query Language for Programming Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Anderson, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Relational Algebra Query Language (RAQL) and Relational Algebra Query (RAQ) software product we have developed that allows database instructors to teach relational algebra through programming. Instead of defining query operations using mathematical notation (the approach commonly taken in database textbooks), students…

  16. Dynamics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Several variational principles which lead to the first and the second geodesic deviation equations, recently formulated by the author and used for the description of the relative motion of test particles in general relativity are presented. Relations between these principles are investigated and exhibited. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also studied for these generalized deviations and the conservation laws appearing here are discussed

  17. Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation

  18. Information in relational data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, R B

    1982-01-01

    A new knowledge representation scheme is proposed for representing incomplete information in relational data bases. The knowledge representation scheme introduces a novel convention for negative information based on modal logic and a novel data structure obtained by introducing tuple flags in the relational model of data. Standard and minimal forms are defined for relations conforming to the new data structure. The conventional relational operators, select, project and join, the redefined so they can be used to manipulate relations containing incomplete information. Conditions are presented for the lossless decomposition of relations containing incomplete information. 20 references.

  19. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  20. Strategi Public Relations Pariwisata Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Cahaya Putra, Kadek Dwi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Bali has to maintain its image and reputation as the world leading class tourist destination. Tourism in fact is a vulnerable industry easily ruined by related issues and crises. Therefore, Public Relations (PR) with its communication strategy is highly required to maintain good relationships with related parties. This study is aimed at identifying Bali’s Public Relations positioning and setting up its PR strategies. Data and information are gained by means of questionnaire distri...

  1. Education for Corporate Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Bill L.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed members of the Public Relations Society of America who reported that (1) students planning public relations careers in corporations should take courses in this order of priority: journalism, public relations, internships, speech communication, marketing, etc., and (2) an MBA degree was the best advanced education degree. (PD)

  2. Public Relations: Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demo, Penny

    Designed for students and practitioners of public relations (PR), this annotated bibliography focuses on recent journal articles and ERIC documents. The 34 citations include the following: (1) surveys of public relations professionals on career-related education; (2) literature reviews of research on measurement and evaluation of PR and…

  3. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  4. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  5. Representing and querying now-relative relational medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselma, Luca; Piovesan, Luca; Stantic, Bela; Terenziani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Temporal information plays a crucial role in medicine. Patients' clinical records are intrinsically temporal. Thus, in Medical Informatics there is an increasing need to store, support and query temporal data (particularly in relational databases), in order, for instance, to supplement decision-support systems. In this paper, we show that current approaches to relational data have remarkable limitations in the treatment of "now-relative" data (i.e., data holding true at the current time). This can severely compromise their applicability in general, and specifically in the medical context, where "now-relative" data are essential to assess the current status of the patients. We propose a theoretically grounded and application-independent relational approach to cope with now-relative data (which can be paired, e.g., with different decision support systems) overcoming such limitations. We propose a new temporal relational representation, which is the first relational model coping with the temporal indeterminacy intrinsic in now-relative data. We also propose new temporal algebraic operators to query them, supporting the distinction between possible and necessary time, and Allen's temporal relations between data. We exemplify the impact of our approach, and study the theoretical and computational properties of the new representation and algebra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  7. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  8. The isentropic relation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, K T A L

    2004-01-01

    The isentropic relation from gas dynamics relates pressure, density and temperature. The use of this relation may ease the hydrodynamic modelling effort. Characteristic for the isentropic relation is the constant isentropic exponent. The isentropic exponent is also in the case of plasmas a constant as long as the ionization degree is between 5 and 80%. This constant is lower due to the extra degree of freedom which comes with ionization in plasmas. The occurrence of ionization means that plasmas are never isentropic. The isentropic relation itself is therefore adapted here to include plasmas within its concept. From the plasma isentropic relation a further extension is to include viscosity and heating. It is found that all extra non-isentropic inclusions further lower the (quasi-) isentropic exponent in the adapted isentropic relation

  9. Supramolecular organization of organic phases for DIAMEX solvent extraction process; Organisation supramoleculaire des phases organiques de malonamides du procede d'extraction DIAMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, L

    2005-04-15

    In the frame of nuclear waste cycle, supramolecular organization of organic phases has been studied for DIAMEX solvent extraction process. A general methodology has been developed in order to determine surfactant properties of an extractant at high concentration. An illustration is given by a malonamide (DMDBTDMA) at 0.7 mol/L, in dodecane and contacted with water, at 23 deg C. The concentrations of monomers (0.3 mol/L) and aggregates (0.4 mol/L), c.m.c. (0.25 mol/L), aggregation number (4,4), aggregation constant (7.7) and finally aggregates interactions (U/kT = -1.6) are quantified. The method is based on simultaneous utilization of four experimental techniques (small X-ray and neutron scattering, vapour pressure osmometry and tensiometry) added to the model of Baxter. The structure of malonamide organic phase is depending on extractant concentration. (i) Below 0.2 mol/L, it is a quasi-molecular liquid fluid, extracting few amount of solutes. (ii) From 0.2 to 1 mol/L, it is a complex liquid fluid, containing small spherical aggregates of 5 extractant molecules in coexistence with monomers. This phase behaves like typical microemulsions with reverse micelles, through its stabilizing effect of penetrating oil and steric repulsion between extractants. (iii) Above 1 mol/L, the organic phase is able to extract huge amount of solutes. When HNO{sub 3} or Nd(NO{sub 3} ){sub 3} are extracted, a gel with a pseudo-lamellar structure is observed. With UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} a solid crystal with a ratio DMDBTDMA/UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} equal to 1/1 is characteristic of the organic phase. The 'third phase' due to attractive interactions between aggregates has exactly the same supramolecular structure than an 'unsplitted organic phase' of the same composition. Aggregates interactions are independent on the chemical affinity of the extractant for solutes. (author)

  10. Volatile organic compounds in alpine valleys: sources, evolutions and transformations; Les composes organiques volatils dans les vallees alpines: sources, evolutions et transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomb, A.

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic and chemical specificity in alpine valleys was the principal goal during the POVA project (Pollution des Vallees Alpines). Volatile Organic Compounds emissions in troposphere have important impacts on animal lives and environment. Then, the aim of this work was the improvement of the biogenic or anthropogenic VOC sources determination, of VOC transformation and evolution in mountain areas. During this project, the realisation of a daily continuous measurements campaign of a few chemical compounds allowed the understanding of the seasonal variations of these compounds. The goals of intensive field campaigns, realised in August 2000 and January 2001, were to understand photochemical process in a temporal and geographic small scale and to follow diurnal variation of different pollutants in summer and winter. Moreover, the VOC data would be used to develop and validate coupled atmospheric dynamic/chemical model. Therefore, these VOC measures give answer to two lacks of knowledge in alpine valleys about: - Biogenic and anthropogenic VOC respective part, and their main sources, - VOC photochemical reactions in alpine valleys, according to seasonal and diurnal cycles. Finally, we presented two atypical days results, in Maurienne valley during a Saharan episode in August 2000. This episode permitted to understand mass air transport mechanism in mountain region. (author)

  11. Influence des melanges complexes organiques sur le sort des dioxines et furanes: Implications dans le developpement de facteurs de caracterisation en analyse du cycle de vie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Eric

    The environmental fate of dioxins and furans, or polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), leaching from wood poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) oil is modified by the presence of oil. Interactions between co-contaminants, which also exist for other pollutants within the mixtures, were shown in the specific context of risk analysis, but have never been taken into account for the generic context of life cycle assessment (LCA). This decision-making tool relies on characterization factors (CF) to estimate the potential impacts of an emitted amount of a pollutant in different impact categories such as aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For these two impact categories, CFs are calculated from a cause-effect chain that models the environmental fate, exposure and effects of the pollutant (represented by a matrix of fate FF, exposure XF and effect EF, respectively), meaning that a modification of PCDD/Fs fate induces a change in PCDD/Fs CFs. The research question is therefore as follows: In life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), to what extent would the potential impacts of PCDD/Fs on aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity change when taking into account the influence of a complex organic mixture on PCDD/Fs fate?. Thus, the main objective is to develop CFs of PCDD/Fs when their fate is influenced by PCP oil and compare them with the CFs of PCDD/Fs without oil for the aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories. A mathematic approach is established to determine the new environmental distribution of PCDD/Fs in the presence of oil and a new FF' matrix is calculated from this new distribution to obtain new CFs' integrating oil influence. FF' and CF' are then compared to FF and CF of PCDD/Fs without the oil. Finally, potential (eco)toxic impacts of the PCDD/F Canadian emissions are calculated with the new CFs' of PCDD/Fs in presence of oil. By only focusing on the results for an emission into air, freshwater and natural soil on a continental scale, the overall elimination fractions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD changed significantly. For the three emissions, organic fractions increased the overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD into the continental air compartment, induced by a higher volatility of organic fractions than 2,3,7,8-TCDD: for an emission into continental air, organic fractions increased the overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the continental air from 29% to 49% at most. For an emission into continental freshwater, 2,3,7,8-TCDD fate was mainly influenced by two groups of organic fractions: the lightest ones that volatilize into continental air (overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD increasing from 2% to 35%) and the heaviest ones that are removed by sedimentation (DTCDD,fwC,fwC from 87% up to 96%). Therefore, an approach has been proposed to represent the carrier behaviour of the oil for PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F potential impacts in aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity change in a range up to two orders of magnitude depending on the emitting compartment (except for the seawater and ocean compartments). As 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic pollutant, this changing is significant in LCA. To assess the validity of the model's result, it is recommended to carry out laboratory experiments on the PCDD/F volatilization with oil. In addition, it could be interesting to integrate the influence of PCP on PCDD/Fs fate and, more broadly, the influence of all cocontaminants on PCDD/Fs exposure and effects. Moreover having a unique CFeco and CF tox via a weighting of the 17 CF'eco and the 17 CF' tox, respectively, is necessary for a use in LCA. Unfortunately the variability of the composition makes the weighting difficult, so it is suggested to calculate the mean CF'eco and CF'tox. Finally this research could be carried out on other pollutants whose fate is known to be modified by a complex organic mixture in an effort to ensure that impact characterization better reflects reality. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. Lytic process studies on anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. Etude des activites lytiques intervenant au cours de la digestion anaerobie des dechets organiques; Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durecu, S.; Thauront, J. (PEC Engineering, 95 - Cergy Pontoise (France). Service de Recherche et Developpement); Festino, C.; Aubart, C.; Reisinger, O. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne)

    1990-01-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion of pig manure, solubilization of the solid fraction was studied as the rate limiting step in the biomethanation process in an experimental completely mixed digester. The performance of conventional digesters should anaerobic microflora were inefficient in degrading complex biopolymers such as plant fibers. For pectin or cellulose, the use of digestible co-substrates accelerated methanation by increasing the yield of methane and a doubling of the apparent first order solubilization rate constant (Kp = 0.090/d). Lignin should methanation by decreasing methane yield and reducing the rate constant (Kp = 0.035/d). This inhibition was unrelated to volatile fatty acid accumulation. Nine strains of pectinolytic and/or cellulolytic bacteria were isolated. Chitin, a structural constituent of many final species, was effectively solubilized dining anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Seven strains of chitinolytic bacteria were isolated by high chitnese activity. The mycolytic power of fermenting manure processes acting through lytic microflora has been shown to be an effective antagonist of soil borne phytopathogenic fungi, as well as a fertilizer. In greenhouse trails, this compiled fraction demonstrated its ability to control flux unit. Keratin enhanced methane production, and increased H{sub 2}S nearly six-fold. Bacterial strains able to solubilize keratin were also used in autoclawed feather meal to extract the amino acids. (KJD)

  13. Quelques exemples d'exploitation du fichier de géochimie organique Some Examples of Using the Organic Geochistry File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goubin N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La division Géologie de l'Institut Français du Pétrole procède systématiquement à la mise en fichier sur ordinateur des données d'analyses d'hydrocarbures effectuées dans ses laboratoires, ainsi que de celles qui sont publiées par divers organismes mondiaux. On présente ici quelques exemples d'utilisation de ce fichier sur le plan statistique. Après avoir exposé la nature de l'information stockée, on sélectionne cinq paramètres jugés intéressants pour leur signification et leur présence fréquente : profondeur, densité de l'huile brute, viscosité, teneur en soufre, point de congélation. Une première étude portant sur les distributions de ces cinq variables avec leur évolution suivant l'âge géologique, la nature lithologique du réservoir ou l'appartenance à quelques bassins pétroliers permet de dégager certains phénomènes (diminution de la densité avec la profondeur ainsi qu'avec l'âge, bimodalité du soufre, valeurs plus élevées de la teneur en soufre dans les huiles issues de réservoirs carbonatés. Une deuxième étude a consisté à calculer le coefficient de corrélation linéaire entre ces paramètres pris deux à deux. Elle a permis de mettre en évidence la liaison entre la densité, la viscosité et la teneur en soufre, et la quasi-indépendance du point de congélation. The Institut Français du Petrole Geology Division systematically compiles computer files of the data from hydrocarbon analyses carried out in its laboratories as well as of those published by various organizations throughout the world. A few examples of how this file is used are described here from the statistical standpoint. After explaining the nature of the data in storage, five parameters judged ta be of interest for their significance and frequent presence are chosen. They are : depth, specific gravity of crude ail, viscosity, sulfur content, and pour point. An initial examination of the distributions of these five variables, along with their variation according to geological age and the lithological nature of the reservoir or what petroleum basins they belong to, is used to detect various phenomena (decrease in specific gravity with depth as well as with age, dual modality of the sulfur, higher sulfur content in oils coming from carbonate reservoirs. A second examination consisted in calculating the linear correlation coefficient between these parameters taken two by two. It revealed the link between specific gravity, viscosity and sulfur content as well as the quasi-independance of the pour point.

  14. Supramolecular organization of organic phases for DIAMEX solvent extraction process; Organisation supramoleculaire des phases organiques de malonamides du procede d'extraction DIAMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, L

    2005-04-15

    In the frame of nuclear waste cycle, supramolecular organization of organic phases has been studied for DIAMEX solvent extraction process. A general methodology has been developed in order to determine surfactant properties of an extractant at high concentration. An illustration is given by a malonamide (DMDBTDMA) at 0.7 mol/L, in dodecane and contacted with water, at 23 deg C. The concentrations of monomers (0.3 mol/L) and aggregates (0.4 mol/L), c.m.c. (0.25 mol/L), aggregation number (4,4), aggregation constant (7.7) and finally aggregates interactions (U/kT = -1.6) are quantified. The method is based on simultaneous utilization of four experimental techniques (small X-ray and neutron scattering, vapour pressure osmometry and tensiometry) added to the model of Baxter. The structure of malonamide organic phase is depending on extractant concentration. (i) Below 0.2 mol/L, it is a quasi-molecular liquid fluid, extracting few amount of solutes. (ii) From 0.2 to 1 mol/L, it is a complex liquid fluid, containing small spherical aggregates of 5 extractant molecules in coexistence with monomers. This phase behaves like typical microemulsions with reverse micelles, through its stabilizing effect of penetrating oil and steric repulsion between extractants. (iii) Above 1 mol/L, the organic phase is able to extract huge amount of solutes. When HNO{sub 3} or Nd(NO{sub 3} ){sub 3} are extracted, a gel with a pseudo-lamellar structure is observed. With UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} a solid crystal with a ratio DMDBTDMA/UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} equal to 1/1 is characteristic of the organic phase. The 'third phase' due to attractive interactions between aggregates has exactly the same supramolecular structure than an 'unsplitted organic phase' of the same composition. Aggregates interactions are independent on the chemical affinity of the extractant for solutes. (author)

  15. Approches synthétiques vers le mycothiazole-4,19-diol : utilisation du palladium en synthèse organique

    OpenAIRE

    Batt , Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Mycothiazole-4,19-diol is a natural compound isolated in 2006 from a marine sponge cacospongia mycofijiensis which has never been synthesized. Its unique structure, its weak abundance and its potential biological activity make mycothiazole-4,19-diol an attractive target in organic chemistry. The challenge is the building of allylic diol-1,2 moiety. In order to make a concise and elegant synthesis of this molecule, four disconnections and many approaches have been studied. A study about the us...

  16. Les collectivités : une source de déchets organiques et une voie de valorisation de la chaleur pour la méthanisation agricole ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEVASSEUR, Pascal ; CHARPIOT, Alicia ; LE GUEN, Gaëlle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Un des intérêts de la méthanisation est qu'elle peut participer à un recyclage extrêmement rentable des déchets. De fait, les collectivités ont un rôle à jouer dans ce processus car elles génèrent de nombreux types de déchets. Mais dans quelles mesures leur participation est-elle actuellement intéressante ? La volonté d'aboutir à une plus grande efficacité induit des changements de comportement de la part des foyers et des institutions. Quels sont-ils?

  17. Interactions between radionuclides and organic colloids. Structure and reactivity of humic compounds; Interactions entre radionucleides et colloides organiques. Structure et reactivite des substances humiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plancque, G

    2001-09-01

    Humic compounds are the main organic colloids present in natural waters. These compounds can significantly modify the speciation of metals and control their properties, like migration, toxicity or bio-availability. It is thus important to study their speciation in conditions representative to those encountered in the natural environment. The aim of this work is to analyze the reactivity of these humic compounds. Two spectroscopic techniques have been used: the time-resolution laser spectro-fluorimetry, limited to the study of fluorescent elements, and the electro-spray source mass spectroscopy which requires the development of specific protocols for all elements of the periodic classification system. Europium, a fluorescent element analogue to trivalent actinides, has been chosen as test-metal for the intercomparison of both spectroscopic techniques. The first technique has permitted to determine the inorganic and organic speciation (spectra and lifetime of europium hydroxides and carbonates, and constants of interaction with humic acids, respectively). The limitations of this technique in the study of inorganic speciation has been evidenced. Humic compounds have a badly defined structure. The use of high-resolution mass spectroscopy has permitted to propose in a direct and experimental way, a molecular structure of aquatic fulvic acids in agreement with their known physico-chemical properties. (J.S.)

  18. Public Authorities and users facing the volatile organic compounds mastership; Pouvoirs publics et utilisateurs face a la maitrise des composes organiques volatils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubresse, V. [Federation des Industries Mecaniques (France); Dessagne, J.M. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite INRS, 54 - Nancy (France); Choquel, B. [ITW Surfaces et Finitions/SITS, Ransburg (United States); Joly, M. [FIPEC, Federation des Industries des Peintures, Encres, Couleurs, Colles et Adhesifs, 75 - Paris (France); Malosse, R. [CETIM, Centre Technique des Insdustries Mecaniques, 93 - Saint Ouen (France); Costes, B. [Aerospatiale Matra Airbus (France); Languetot, H. [CMB Packaging (France); Maire, A. [SITS - Uniclima, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2000-07-01

    This conference presents the regulation concerning the VOC and the consequences on the activities of the mechanical industries. Eight papers are presented: regulation and VOC; health and safety for workshops using VOC; the different application methods; the paints evolution facing the regulation; clean technologies in the degreasing; degreasing and solvents management; an example, in the Aerospace industry, of solvents plan management to reduce the emission of VOC; regeneration and destruction of VOC. (A.L.B.)

  19. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with {sup 14}C and {sup 35}S; Syntheses de molecules organiques marquees par le carbone-14 et le soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the Frenchmic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alanines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (author)Fren. [French] Apres un bref historique du developpement de la Section des Molecules marquees du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique fran is, l'auteur donne un resume des syntheses des composes marques suivants: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alamines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, acide aminoethane sulfinique (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (auteur)

  20. Potentiometric determination of free nitric-acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium nitrate; Dosage potentiometrique de l'acidite nitrique libre dans les solutions organiques de trilaurylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J J; Saey, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A potentiometric method of determination of the free nitric acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium or thorium nitrates is described. The potentiometric titration is carried out in a mixture of benzene and 1,2-dichloro ethane with a standard solution of trilaurylamine as the titrant. When thorium nitrate is present the metal complex is not dissociated then the titration has a single end-point. In the case of plutonium nitrate the partial dissociation of the plutonium complex corresponds to a second point. The experimental error in duplicate analyses of 50 samples is about 1 per cent for free acid concentrations in the range of 0,03 to 0,1 N and plutonium concentrations between 1 to 5 g/l. (authors) [French] Une methode potentiometrique de dosage de l'acidite nitrique libre dans les solutions de trilaurylamine contenant un complexe de plutonium ou de thorium est decrite. La potentiometrie est effectuee en prenant comme base titrante la trilaurylamine et comme milieu de dilution un melange de benzene et de 1,2 dichloroethane. Dans le cas du thorium, le complexe organometallique n'est pas deplace et la courbe de titrage presente un seul point d'inflexion. Dans le cas du plutonium le complexe est partiellement dissocie ce qui correspond a un second saut de potentiel. La moyenne des erreurs experimentales sur 50 echantillons doses a ete d'environ {+-} 1 pour cent sur l'acide libre. Les solutions experimentees contenaient de 0,03 a 0,1 N en acide et de 1 a 5 g/l en plutonium. (auteurs)

  1. Les apports organiques et leur transformation en milieu abyssal à l'interface eau-sédiment dans l'Océan Atlantique tropical

    OpenAIRE

    Khripounoff, Alexis; Rowe, Gilbert T

    1985-01-01

    Cinq pièges à particules ont été déployés à des profondeurs comprises entre 4400 et 4 900 rn sur deux stations dans la plaine abyssale de Demerara et une station dans la plaine abyssale du Cap Vert (Atlantique tropical). Dans le même temps, un échantillonnage intensif du sédiment superficiel a été réalisé à l'aide d'un carottier de 0,25 m2 d'ouverture. Le flux particulaire total mesuré varie de 372 mg de matière sèche/m2/jour à 87,7 mg/m2/g de matériel récolté. Dans les sédiments superficiels...

  2. Solubility of metallic mercury in organic solvents; Solubilite du mercure metallique dans les solvants organiques; Rastvorimost' metallicheskoj rtuti v organicheskikh rastvoritelyakh; Solubilidad del mercurio metalico en solventes organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klehr, E H; Voigt, A F [Institute for Atomic Research and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The solubilities of metallic mercury at 25{sup o}C in the solvents carbon tetrachloride, 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane, n-decane, benzene, toluene, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene have been determined by the use of Hg{sup 203} tracer. Measurements were made either by shaking mercury metal of known specific activity with the solvent, or by measuring the distribution coefficient of the metal between the solvent and water and combining this measurement with the solubility of mercury in water, or by both methods. Radioactivity was measured by counting precipitated samples with a GM counter or liquid aliquots with a well-type scintillator counter. All solubilities were in the range (4.6 to 16) x 10{sup -6} g atoms/l. For n-decane, toluene and chlorobenzene, the temperature dependence of the solubility was determined over the range 0 to 45{sup o}C. The Hildebrand-Scott theory of solubility has been applied to these systems for comparison. For the aliphatic hydrocarbons, the solubilities predicted by theory are within 35% of those observed, but for the other solvents, the predicted values are 4 to 18 times larger than those observed. Modification of the theory gives better agreement for some solvents but poorer agreement for others. Curves of log G (solubility) vs. 1/T were straight lines with slopes similar to those obtained from the Hildebrand-Scott theory but displaced from those curves. The slopes of the curves were used for the calculation of heats and entropies of solution. Entropies were also calculated from curves of log G vs. log T. The two sets of entropy values were in agreement with each other and were within one to four entropy units of the ideal entropies of mixing. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont determine la solubilite du mercure metallique a 25{sup o}C dans les solvants suivants: tetrachlorure de carbone, trimethylpentane 2, 2, 4, n-decane, benzene, toluene, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene et bromobenzene en utilisant le mercure-203 comme radioindicateur. Ils ont fait les mesures soit en melangeant du mercure metallique d'une activite specifique connue avec le solvant et en agitant, soit en mesurant le le coefficient de distribution du metal entre le solvant et l'eau et en combinant cette mesure avec la solubilite du mercure dans l'eau, soit en employant simultanement les deux methodes. Ils ont mesure la radioactivite en comptant soit des echantillons de precipite avec un compteur de Geiger-Muller, soit des liquides aliquotes avec un compteur a scintillations a puits. Toutes les valeurs de solubilite etaient comprises entre 4,6 x 10{sup -6} et 16 x 10{sup -6} atomes g/l. Pour le n-decane, le toluene et le chlorobenzene, ils ont determine l'influence de la temperature sur la solubilite, de 0 a 45{sup o}C. Ils ont applique a ces systemes la theorie de Hildebrand-Scott sur la solubilite, a des fins de comparaison. Pour les hydrocarbures aliphatiques, les valeurs de la solubilite prevues par la theorie sont egales a 35 % des valeurs observees ; en revanche, pour d'autres solvants les valeurs predites sont 4 a 18 fois plus elevees que les valeurs observees. En modifiant la theorie, on obtient une meilleure concordance pour certains solvants, mais la concordance est moins bonne pour d'autres. Les courbes de log C en fonction de 1/T (C etant la solubilite) sont des droites dont la pente est la meme que celle des droites obtenues par la theorie de Hildebrand-Scott, mais deplacees par rapport a celles-ci. Les auteurs ont utilise les pentes des courbes pour calculer les quantites de chaleur et d'entropie de la solution; ils ont egalement calcule les quantites d'entropie a partie des courbes de log C en fonction de log T. Les deux series de quantites d'entropie concordent l'une avec l'autre et different de une a quatre unites d'entropie de la quantite d'entropie ideale du melange. (author) [Spanish] Usando {sup 203}Hg como trazador, los autores han determinado la solubilidad del mercurio metalico, a 25 {sup o}C, en los siguientes solventes: tetracloruro de carbono; 2,2,4-trimetilpentano; n-decano; benceno; tolueno; nitrobenceno, clorobenceno y bromobenceno. Las mediciones se efectuaron sea agitando mercurio metalico de actividad especifica conocida con el solvente, sea determinando el coeficiente de distribucion del metal entre el solvente y el agua y combinando esta determinacion con la de la solubilidad del mercurio en agua, sea aplicando los dos metodos sucesivamente. La radiactividad se determino recontando las muestras del precipitado con un contador Geiger-Mueller, o recontando partes alicuotas del liquido con un contador de centelleo del tipo de pozo. Los valores de la solubilidad resultaron del orden de 4,6 a 16 x 10-6 atomos g/l. En el caso del n-decano, del tolueno y del clorobenceno, se determino la relacion de dependencia entre la solubilidad y la temperatura desde 0 hasta 45 {sup o}C. Para comparar los resultados se aplico a estos sistemas la teoria de la solubilidad de Hildebrand-Scott. En el caso de los hidrocarburos alifaticos, los valores de la solubilidad calculados teoricamente no se alejan mas de un 35% de los observados, pero para los otros solventes los valores teoricos son de 4 a 18 veces mayores que los observados. Modificando la teoria se obtiene una concordancia mayor para unos solventes y menor para otros. (author) [Russian] Opredelyalas' rastvorimost' metallicheskoj rtuti pri temperature 25{sup o}C s pomoshch'yu indikatora Hg{sup 203} v rastvoritelyakh chetyrekhkhloristogo ugleroda, 2,2,4-trimetilpentana, i-dekana, benzola, toluola, nitrobenzola, khlorbenzola i brombenzola. Izmereniya osushchestvlyalis' libo putem vzbaltyvaniya metallicheskoj rtuti izvestnoj udel'noj aktivnosti s rastvoritelem, libo izmereniem koehffitsienta raspredeleniya metalla mezhdu rastvoritelem i vodoj i ob{sup e}dineniem ehtogo izmereniya s rastvorimost'yu rtuti v vode ili i tem i drugim metodom. Radioaktivnost' izmeryalas' podschetom osazhdennykh obraztsov schetchikom Gejgera-Myullera ili zhidkikh rassloenij stsintillyatsionnym schetchikom tipa kolodtsa. Vse rastvorimosti byli poryadka (4,6 do 16) x 10{sup -6} gramm-atomov/l. Temperaturnaya zavisimost' rastvorimosti dlya n-dekana, toluola i khlorbenzola opredelyalas' poryadkom ot 0 do 45{sup o}C. Dlya sravneniya k ehtim sistemam primenyalas' teoriya rastvorimosti KHil'debranda-Skotta. Dlya uglevodorodov alifaticheskogo ryada predskazannye teoriej rastvorimosti sostavlyayut 35% tekh, kotorye udalos' nablyudat', no dlya drugikh rastvoritelej predskazannye velichiny yavlyayutsya v 4 - 18 raz bol'she tekh, kotorye prishlos' nablyudat'. Izmenenie teorii daet luchshee soglasovanie dlya odnikh rastvoritelej i khudshee dlya drugikh. Krivye log C (rastvorimost') protiv 1/T byli pryamymi liniyami s naklonami, kotorye skhodny s naklonami teorii KHil'debranda-Skotta, no so smeshcheniem ot ehtikh krivykh. Naklony krivykh ispol'zovalis' dlya vychisleniya tepla i ehntropii rastvora, a ehntropii takzhe vychislyalis' iz krivykh log C protiv log T. Dve serii znachenij ehntropii soglasovyvalis' drug s drugom, a takzhe nakhodilis' v predelakh ot odnogo do chetyrekh edinits ehntropii nailuchshego smesheniya ehntropii. (author)

  3. Characterisation of aggregation of tributylphosphate molecules in organic solvent; Caracterisation de l'auto-organisation du phosphate de tributyle en solvant organique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandin, C.; Martinet, L.; Zemb, Th.; Berthon, L.; Madic, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a structural study of the aggregates formed with the organic phases of the extractant tri-n-butyl phosphate, used in the industrial PUREX process (Plutonium and Uranium Extraction; liquid-liquid solvent extraction) for the treatment of high radioactive waste. Combined Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Small Angle Neutron Scattering show that organic TBP solutions (in equilibrium with acid solutions) are organised in oligomeric aggregates. The influence of various parameters such as HNO{sub 3} or TBP concentrations, diluent or acid natures, does not seem to modify the aggregate shape and size, whereas the interactions are modified. Moreover the aggregates disappear under high temperatures, whereas the attractive interactions between them increase at low temperatures. The 'drop weight' method gives the critical micellar concentration values of TBP in case of H{sub 2}O or HNO{sub 3} extractions (H{sub 2}O: 0.48 M; HNO{sub 3} 2M: 0.65 M; at 21 deg C). Furthermore, the measures at different acid concentrations show that the c.m.c. varies with the acidity. The more acid the aqueous phase is, the smaller is the entropy in the system because of the numerous negative charges, i.e. the harder the micellization occurs, so the higher the c.m.c. value is. The sticky sphere model proposed by Baxter, can be used to model successfully small reverse micelles of the organic TBP phases. The aggregation number would be 4{+-}1 (water extraction) and 5{+-}1(HNO{sub 3}2M extraction). These values are also given by vapor pressure measurements. (authors)

  4. VOC emission control by circulating fluidized bed adsorption; Controle de l'emission de composes organiques volatils par adsorption en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, W.

    2003-12-15

    This work deals with the circulating fluidized bed technology, applied to the elimination by adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), like toluene, in a gas flow. In the process, the adsorbent (millimetric spherical grains of micro-porous carbon) is moved by a strong flow rate of gas inside a vertical tube without lining. Mass and heat transfers are very important and important volumes of compounds can be processed. This work presents the determination of the adsorption equilibrium, the description of the experimental facility and of the results of experiments, the development of an original model of the process which combines a flow model and a mass transfer model, a parametric study of this model, and finally, some extensions of the process principle to staged operations with pressure variation or temperature variation cycles. (J.S.)

  5. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  6. The special theory of relativity bound with relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dingle, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge

  7. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as…

  8. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between kudu density and the relative density of habitat patches in each landscape was significant, with exponential models producing more significant statistics than linear models. Regressions of resource density against animal density are useful to understand 'carrying capacity' for wild herbivores, and ...

  9. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.

  10. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low temperature is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting rice yield in Chile. Alterations in phenology and physiology of the crop are observed after a cold event. The objective of this work was to study the relative expression of genes related with cold stress in Chilean cultivars of rice. For this, we analyzed the expression ...

  11. The principle of relativity and the special relativity triple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hanying; Wu Hongtu; Zhou Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate on universal invariant constants (c,l) as well as Einstein's isotropy conditions, three kinds of special relativity form a triple with a common Lorentz group as isotropy group under full Umov-Weyl-Fock-Lorentz transformations among inertial motions

  12. Special Relativity in Week One: 1) The Principle of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    We like to begin an introductory physics course with a law of physics that applies to everything, has no known exceptions, and whose consequences are already familiar to students. That law is the principle of relativity. By focusing on the principle of relativity itself, and a careful selection of the thought experiments, we can comfortably…

  13. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  14. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  15. Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, John B

    2018-01-01

    Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law

  16. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  17. Infinitesimal bundles and projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.T.

    1973-01-01

    An intrinsic and global presentation of five-dimensional relativity theory is developed, in which special coordinate conditions are replaced by conditions of Lie invariance. The notion of an infinitesimal bundle is introduced, and the theory of connexions on principal bundles is extended to infinitesimal bundles. Global aspects of projective relativity are studied: it is shown that projective relativity can describe almost any space-time. In particular, it is not necessary to assume that the electromagnetic field have a global potential. (author)

  18. Basic relativity. An introductory essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasko, Peter [Pecs Univ. (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment. (orig.)

  19. Basic relativity. An introductory essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasko, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment. (orig.)

  20. Basic Relativity An Introductory Essay

    CERN Document Server

    Hraskó, Péter

    2011-01-01

    This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment.

  1. Can coupling constants be related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan; Ng, Wing-Chiu.

    1978-06-01

    We analyze the conditions under which several coupling constants in field theory can be related to each other. When the relation is independent of the renormalization point, the relation between any g and g' must satisfy a differential equation as follows from the renormalization group equations. Using this differential equation, we investigate the criteria for the feasibility of a power-series relation for various theories, especially the Weinberg-Salam type (including Higgs bosons) with an arbitrary number of quark and lepton flavors. (orig./WL) [de

  2. Geometry of physical dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-01-01

    To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.

  3. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  4. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  5. Spatial geometry and special relativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, it is shown the interplay of relative and absolute entities, which are present in both spatial geometry and special relativity. In order to strengthen the understanding of special relativity, we discuss firstly an instance of geometry and the existence of both frame......-dependent and frame-independent entities. We depart from a subject well known by students, which is the three-dimensional geometric space in order to compare, afterwards, with the treatment of four-dimensional space in the special relativity. The differences and similarities between these two subjects are also...

  6. Team incentives in relational contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Incentive schemes for teams are compared. I ask: under which conditions are relational incentive contracts based on joint performance evaluation, relative performance evaluation and independent performance evaluation self-enforceable. The framework of Che and Yoo (2001) on team incentives is combined with the framework of Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2002) on relational contracts. In a repeated game between one principal and two agents, I find that incentives based on relative or independent performance are expected to dominate when the productivity of effort is high, while joint performance evaluation dominates when productivity is low. Incentives based on independent performance are more probable if the agents own critical assets. (author)

  7. On the relativity of rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.

    2010-01-01

    The question whether rotational motion is relative according to the general theory of relativity is discussed. Einstein's ambivalence concerning this question is pointed out. In the present article I defend Einstein's way of thinking on this when he presented the theory in 1916. The significance of the phenomenon of perfect inertial dragging in connection with the relativity of rotational motion is discussed. The necessity of introducing an extended model of the Minkowski spacetime, in which a globally empty space is supplied with a cosmic mass shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius, in order to extend the principle of relativity to accelerated and rotational motion, is made clear.

  8. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  9. The principle of relativity and the indeterminacy of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial—but, unfortunately, even now somewhat controversial—question of the compatibility between the assumption of a special system of reference and Einstein's special relativity. The present study deals with the principle of relativity. Its historical evolution is reviewed and a 'weak' formulation is defended. It is emphasized that many assertions usually associated with special relativity, such as the 'relativity of time dilation' and 'relativity of space contraction' are indeed philosophical statements, as it has been established already by several authors in the past. Nonetheless, most teachers and scientists still believe nowadays they are implied by the theory and by the group property of the Lorentz transformation. This is by no means so, as it is reviewed and elucidated with the simple example on space contraction. It is argued that the lack of knowledge of the true value of the one-way speed of light in empty space leaves the theory undetermined. Einstein's special relativity corresponds to a simple and very elegant solution to this problem, allowing the study of relative motion without any concern with the study of absolute motion, which is considered to be superfluous. However, its standard interpretation is minimalist and even misleading. A large number of researchers have discussed this question, mostly within the conventionality of simultaneity thesis. The typical formulation of this thesis provides some new physical insight and points out the problem, but does not solve it. In contrast, it often leads to a labyrinth of difficult language which is herein clarified.

  10. The principle of relativity and the indeterminacy of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial-but, unfortunately, even now somewhat controversial-question of the compatibility between the assumption of a special system of reference and Einstein's special relativity. The present study deals with the principle of relativity. Its historical evolution is reviewed and a 'weak' formulation is defended. It is emphasized that many assertions usually associated with special relativity, such as the 'relativity of time dilation' and 'relativity of space contraction' are indeed philosophical statements, as it has been established already by several authors in the past. Nonetheless, most teachers and scientists still believe nowadays they are implied by the theory and by the group property of the Lorentz transformation. This is by no means so, as it is reviewed and elucidated with the simple example on space contraction. It is argued that the lack of knowledge of the true value of the one-way speed of light in empty space leaves the theory undetermined. Einstein's special relativity corresponds to a simple and very elegant solution to this problem, allowing the study of relative motion without any concern with the study of absolute motion, which is considered to be superfluous. However, its standard interpretation is minimalist and even misleading. A large number of researchers have discussed this question, mostly within the conventionality of simultaneity thesis. The typical formulation of this thesis provides some new physical insight and points out the problem, but does not solve it. In contrast, it often leads to a labyrinth of difficult language which is herein clarified

  11. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  12. Making Probabilistic Relational Categories Learnable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wookyoung; Hummel, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of relational concept acquisition (e.g., schema induction) based on structured intersection discovery predict that relational concepts with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure ought to be extremely difficult to learn. We report four experiments testing this prediction by investigating conditions hypothesized to facilitate…

  13. Action Learning as Relational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom; Blantern, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose that all knowledge is made through social processes and is political (of the people involved). If one invests in a relational or historical ontology (a philosophical choice) there are implications for the way action learning is practiced. We illuminate some of these "relational practices". We purport that action learning…

  14. Pathfinder: XQuery - The Relational Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter; Grust, Torsten; van Keulen, Maurice; Manegold, Stefan; Rittinger, Jan; Teubner, Jens; Boehm, K.; Jensen, C.S.; Haas, L.M.; Kersten, M.L.; Larson, P-K.; Ooi, B.C.

    Relational query processors are probably the best understood (as well as the best engineered) query engines available today. Although carefully tuned to process instances of the relational model (tables of tuples), these processors can also provide a foundation for the evaluation of "alien"

  15. New technologies in public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes an analysis and presentation of selected examples of communication tools, which are used in companies to create and maintain relationships with internal and external environment. The problems related with definition of public relations were also discussed. The article presents the advantage and negative consequences of the use of modern tools of PR, as well.

  16. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  17. Teaching Special Relativity without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 many AAPT members received a booklet that is the first chapter of a physics textbook available on a CD. This book espouses the new educational philosophy of teaching special relativity as the first item in the topic of mechanics. Traditionally, special relativity is part of one or more modern physics chapters at the end of the text, and…

  18. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  19. Internationalizing the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses broadening public relations to an international level by incorporating the topics of culture, international practices, and culturally sensitive theory development. Discusses rationale, design, and execution of an undergraduate course in international public relations. Suggests ways to incorporate assignments addressing international…

  20. New relations in basic dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebigan, F [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-12-01

    Four new relations have been derived based on the definitions of the fundamental dosimetric quantities given in recent ICRU reports. These relations have the general form A.B=A.B, where A and B are respectively the dosimetric quantities and their rates.

  1. Stakeholder relations and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is

  2. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  3. Perempuan Dalam Dunia Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Novi Kurnia; I Gusti Ngurah Putra

    2004-01-01

    Literature review shows that women gain more access to job in public relations. Observation in Yogyakarta shows that women are not easily top position in corporation due to understatement of the role of public relations in organizational structure. Discrimination against women is minimal except on family allowance.

  4. Generalized Moshinsky bracket recurrence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevelacqua, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Recurrence relations for generalized Talmi-Moshinsky brackets are derived. These relations permit the generation of transformation brackets once appropriate starting brackets are determined. The savings in computer time, when compared with generating brackets individually, is at least a factor of 10 for brackets with radial quantum numbers as large as 9 and angular quantum numbers as large as 2. (author)

  5. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  6. Perempuan Dalam Dunia Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Kurnia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature review shows that women gain more access to job in public relations. Observation in Yogyakarta shows that women are not easily top position in corporation due to understatement of the role of public relations in organizational structure. Discrimination against women is minimal except on family allowance.

  7. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  8. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    issues of tax jurisdiction, revenue allocation, intergovernmental relations ... The 1999 Nigeria constitution stipulates the functions and powers of the ... systems of government, is characterized with diverse ethnic groups, ... states perceived to be an attempt by the federal government to relate directly to ..... excise taxes on oil.

  9. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  10. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  11. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards...

  12. Think Piece: Pioneers as Relational Subjects? Probing Relationality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore offers a possible framework for more detailed empirical studies on relationality in collective learning .... pioneers. This idea is also reflected in a book co-authored by Hermansen called Commonities ..... studies. Harvard MS: Harvard.

  13. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....

  14. The Historiography of Public Relations in Turkish Public Relations Books

    OpenAIRE

    KARAASLAN ŞANLI, Halise

    2017-01-01

    Criticism on the hegemonic history of public relations (PR) paved the way for the emergence of new approaches to the historiography of PR. The most significant of such approaches is the exposure of genuine history of PR for each country, taking into account the specific socioeconomic and cultural context of each country. This study focuses on the handling of the history of PR in Turkish books on public relations published by prominent publishing houses in Turkey between 1967 and 2013. The stu...

  15. The Principle of Relativity and the Indeterminacy of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial--but,…

  16. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  17. To understand relativity. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This book comprises three parts: the first one is about the restricted relativity theory with ten chapters which are from Galilee to Newton, tools of classical physics, relativity principle, a dreadful child: light, Michelson experience, the restricted relativity and Einstein postulates (1905), Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics, Minkowski time-space, and the relativistic dynamics; the second part concerns the general relativity and the gravitation, from chapter 11 to chapter 19, which are towards the general relativity, absolute acceleration has no sense, the equivalence principle, the principle of generalised relativity, the gravitation and the problems that it formulates, non euclidean theory of the gravitation field, the theory of 1915, Gauss coordinates, classical tests of general relativity; in the last and third part are studied the cosmologies with three chapters, the chapter 20 is dedicated to cosmological principle precursors, the chapter 21 is about the modern cosmological models and the last one finishes on that question: universe is it or not finished. (N.C.). 26 refs., 48 figs., 9 appends

  18. Multilevel security for relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Faragallah, Osama S; El-Samie, Fathi E Abd

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Database Security Database Concepts Relational Database Security Concepts Access Control in Relational Databases      Discretionary Access Control      Mandatory Access Control      Role-Based Access Control Work Objectives Book Organization Basic Concept of Multilevel Database Security IntroductionMultilevel Database Relations Polyinstantiation      Invisible Polyinstantiation      Visible Polyinstantiation      Types of Polyinstantiation      Architectural Consideration

  19. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell

    2008-01-01

    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  20. Violence related to health work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  1. VIOLENCE RELATED TO HEALTH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  2. Relational competence in teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grams Davy, Sarah

    This paper presents an ongoing research project aiming to develop both a research-based terminology as well as a practical approach to develop the concept of relational competence in Danish teacher education. The current practical part of Danish teacher education operates with three framing...... learning goals for students: Didactics, classroom leadership and relational work. Especially the latter, relational work, lacks in-depth description and definition in order to become a tangible concept based on which teacher students’ professional qualifications can be developed....

  3. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  4. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  5. Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to cheese") derived relational responding, in both speed-contingent and speed-noncontingent conditions. Experiment 2 examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with these two response patterns. Both experiments showed similar-similar responding to be significantly faster than different-different responding. Experiment 2 revealed significant differences between the waveforms of the two response patterns in the left-hemispheric prefrontal regions; different-different waveforms were significantly more negative than similar-similar waveforms. The behavioral and neurophysiological data support the RFT prediction that, all things being equal, similar-similar responding is relationally "simpler" than, and functionally distinct from, different-different analogical responding. The ERP data were fully consistent with findings in the neurocognitive literature on analogy. These findings strengthen the validity of the RFT model of analogical reasoning and supplement the behavior-analytic approach to analogy based on the relating of derived relations.

  6. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    study reveals that intergovernmental relations among the levels of government .... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol.10 June, 2015 ..... Administrative Science Quarterly, 16 (2): 216-229. Jinadu ...

  8. Modern canonical quantum general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory provi...

  9. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  10. Cosmological tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the general relativity theory could be tested on a cosmological scale by measuring the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter, if, in addition, everything could be known about the matter filling the universe. If, on the other hand, nothing could be presupposed about the matter content of the universe general relativity could not be tested by measuring any number of time derivatives of the scale factor. But upon making the assumption of a universe filled with non-interacting mixture of non-relativistic matter and radiation general relativity can in principle be tested by measuring the first five derivatives of the scale factor. Some general relations are here presented using this assumption. (author)

  11. LABOUR RELATIONS IN POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Rostislavovitch Chistyakov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with inadequacy of present-day labour relations in economy. Out of date form of labour relations makes workforce dependable, causes social inequality, prevents economical development. The article gives results of theoretical and empiric research. The mechanism of guaranteed reproduction of labour to be realized as social partnership is offered.Purpose: the purpose is to give critical estimation of present-day labour relations in postindustrial economy.Method of studies: monographic, general theoretic economic analysis, correlation statistic analysisResults: a new modern adequate alternative form of labour relations guarantying the reproduction of labour is introducedField of application: industrial regulation both in economics in general and concrete businesses; motivation of workers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-29

  12. Some Pitfalls in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, An-Ti

    1973-01-01

    The problem of observing a collision between two spaceships is utilized to illustrate the misuse of time dilation and length contraction, and the incorrect description of space-time coordinates in special relativity. (Author/DF)

  13. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  14. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  15. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  16. Geometrical optics in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Loinger, A.

    2006-01-01

    General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.

  17. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  18. Stressful social relations and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined....... CONCLUSIONS: Stressful social relations are associated with increased mortality risk among middle-aged men and women for a variety of different social roles. Those outside the labour force and men seem especially vulnerable to exposure....

  19. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  20. Improved Garvey-Kelson Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, W. J. F.; Vinko, J. D.; Tripodi, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop improved methods of estimating atomic weights and ground state binding energies, similar to the local relations of Garvey-Kelson formulae. We show (Fig. 1) that both the longitudinal (GKL) and transverse(GKT) Garvey-Kelson relations[2] can be derived mathematically from a simpler relationship between 4 nuclides (C1). This base can be used in turn to construct more accurate relations to predict the properties of nuclei far from stability. Historically, the Garvey Kelson local relations appear to be one of the most accurate estimators of atomic mass. However their utility is limited by progressive loss of accuracy in the prediction of nuclei far from stability where it may also be impossible to find the appropriate neighbours. The scheme presented in this paper requires the known masses of only 3 neighbours and is more accurate.(author)

  1. Teorie relativity a relativita teorie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2005), s. 878-893 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : theory of relativity * relativism * philosophy of science Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Public Relations & Media Relations (Kritik Budaya Amplop Pada Media Relations Institusi Pendidikan Di Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhianty Nurjanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aims to determine how the media relations activities that have been done 10 Public Relations Higher Education, including the possibility of granting cultural envelope in media relations activities during this do. The object of this study is ten (10 Universities in Yogyakarta that consists of three (3 State University (PTN and seven (7 Colleges (PTS. Variations and types of media relations activities have been conducted by 10 universities. The reason is because the electoral college to ten (10 college is a big college in the city of Yogyakarta who own Public Relations and media relations activities that have a systematic and well-planned. In the course of media relations, Public Relations universities do culture accepting envelopes to reporters on the grounds reimburse the costs of transport and not as a "bribe" so that they publicized the news and as a means of imaging the institution. Publicist colleges feel that culture provides envelopes to reporters did not violate the code of ethics of their profession as a Public Relations, On the other hand for journalists, cultural granting envelope can interfere with the independence and constitute a violation of the code of ethics of their profession as journalists. Yet there are also journalists who will receive an envelope in their reporting activities. The discrepancies in the implementation of the code of ethics of journalism, is strongly influenced by the integrity of journalists and policies that apply to each media institution. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana kegiatan media relations yang telah dilakukan 10 Public Relations / Humas Perguruan Tinggi tersebut, termasuk kemungkinan adanya budaya pemberian amplop dalam kegiatan media relations yang selama ini dilakukan. Objek penelitian ini adalah sepuluh (10 Perguruan Tinggi di Yogyakarta yang terdiri dari tiga (3 Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (PTN dan tujuh (7 Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (PTS . Beragam variasi dan jenis

  3. 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2012-01-01

    years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES......, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES. RESULTS: At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.......80). CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes. (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....

  4. Bayesian analogy with relational transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy problems. We introduce Bayesian analogy with relational transformations (BART) and apply the model to the task of learning first-order comparative relations (e.g., larger, smaller, fiercer, meeker) from a set of animal pairs. Inputs are coded by vectors of continuous-valued features, based either on human magnitude ratings, normed feature ratings (De Deyne et al., 2008), or outputs of the topics model (Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, 2007). Bootstrapping from empirical priors, the model is able to induce first-order relations represented as probabilistic weight distributions, even when given positive examples only. These learned representations allow classification of novel instantiations of the relations and yield a symbolic distance effect of the sort obtained with both humans and other primates. BART then transforms its learned weight distributions by importance-guided mapping, thereby placing distinct dimensions into correspondence. These transformed representations allow BART to reliably solve 4-term analogies (e.g., larger:smaller::fiercer:meeker), a type of reasoning that is arguably specific to humans. Our results provide a proof-of-concept that structured analogies can be solved with representations induced from unstructured feature vectors by mechanisms that operate in a largely bottom-up fashion. We discuss potential implications for algorithmic and neural models of relational thinking, as well as for the evolution of abstract thought. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Target oriented relational model finding

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alcino; Macedo, Nuno Filipe Moreira; Guimarães, Tiago Miguel Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8411, 2014 Model finders are becoming useful in many software engineering problems. Kodkod is one of the most popular, due to its support for relational logic (a combination of first order logic with relational algebra operators and transitive closure), allowing a simpler specification of constraints, and support for partial instances, allowing the specification of a priori (exact, but potentially partial) knowledge about a problem's solution. However, in ...

  6. General relativity 50 years old

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  7. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  8. Cosmic frontiers of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.J. III.

    1977-01-01

    All relevant topics in general astronomy are covered including orientation in space--time, special relativity, gravitation and general relativity, stars and stellar evolution, white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, the black hole, the geometry of the Schwarzschild solution, and electrically charged and rotating black holes. Also the geometry of the Kerr solution, observations of black holes, white holes and particle creation, gravitational waves and lenses, exploding galaxies and massive and primordial black holes are discussed

  9. Does the relativity principle violate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs

  10. Is special relativity logically inconsistent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)

  11. Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Jaeger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.

  12. Foundations of relational particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Relational particle dynamics include the dynamics of pure shape and cases in which absolute scale or absolute rotation are additionally meaningful. These are interesting as regards the absolute versus relative motion debate as well as the discussion of conceptual issues connected with the problem of time in quantum gravity. In spatial dimensions 1 and 2, the relative configuration spaces of shapes are n-spheres and complex projective spaces, from which knowledge I construct natural mechanics on these spaces. I also show that these coincide with Barbour's indirectly constructed relational dynamics by performing a full reduction on the latter. Then the identification of the configuration spaces as n-spheres and complex projective spaces, for which spaces much mathematics is available, significantly advances the understanding of Barbour's relational theory in spatial dimensions 1 and 2. I also provide the parallel study of a new theory for which the position and scale are purely relative but the orientation is absolute. The configuration space for this is an n-sphere regardless of the spatial dimension, which renders this theory a more tractable arena for investigation of implications of scale invariance than Barbour's theory itself

  13. Strategi Public Relations Pariwisata Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Bali has to maintain its image and reputation as the world leading class tourist destination. Tourism in fact is a vulnerable industry easily ruined by related issues and crises. Therefore, Public Relations (PR with its communication strategy is highly required to maintain good relationships with related parties. This study is aimed at identifying Bali’s Public Relations positioning and setting up its PR strategies. Data and information are gained by means of questionnaire distributed to The Bali Tourism Board (BTB with its stakeholders as an organization playing important role in Bali tourism. The data is then analyzed by SWOT (Strength Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats analysis. It is then found that Bali’s PR positioning is on quadrant V means Stabilization/Growth. The appropriate strategies then are socializing the importance of Issue and Crisis Management, be more creative in tourism related special events, developing relationships with medias, improving tourism publication’s quality, maintaining relationships with related tourism organization and Bali community internally.

  14. Advanced mechanics and general relativity an introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduates with background knowledge of classical mechanics and electricity and magnetism, this textbook presents both the particle dynamics relevant to general relativity, and the field dynamics necessary to understand the theory. Focusing on action extremization, the book develops the structure and predictions of general relativity by analogy with familiar physical systems. Topics ranging from classical field theory to minimal surfaces and relativistic strings are covered in a homogeneous manner. Nearly 150 exercises and numerous examples throughout the textbook enable students to test their understanding of the material covered.

  15. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  16. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  17. Talking about Relations : Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltaretu, Adriana-Alexandra; Krahmer, Emiel; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to

  18. Researcher/Researched: Relations of Vulnerability/Relations of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2011-01-01

    Turning to reflexive journals and fieldnotes, the author reconsiders Foucault's "relations of power" through her experiences with five research participants, who are professors of education. The paper explores: (1) the translation of Foucault for an analysis of power; (2) the dynamics of researching up and analyzing from below; and (3) the…

  19. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    In Poincares axiomatic formulation special relativity is a derived consequence of a true Lorentz contraction, for a rod in absolute motion through a substratum. Furthermore, Lorentz had shown that the rod contraction can be understood by an inverse square law interaction and therefore special relativity derived from more fundamental principles. The derivation by Lorentz shows that the root of the divergence problems is the singular inverse square law. By replacing the inverse square law with a regular one through the introduction of a finite length, the author has succeeded in deriving a nonlinear generalization of special relativity which eliminates all infinities. Besides the relative velocities, these nonlinear transformation equations also contain absolute velocities against a substratum, but in the limit of small energies they go over into the linear Lorentz transformations. Depending on the smallness of the fundamental length, departures from special relativity can be observed only at very high energies. The theorem that the velocity of light is the same in all reference systems still holds and likewise the conservation laws for energy and momentum

  20. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  1. Two multi-dimensional uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, L; Kapsa, V

    2008-01-01

    Two multi-dimensional uncertainty relations, one related to the probability density and the other one related to the probability density current, are derived and discussed. Both relations are stronger than the usual uncertainty relations for the coordinates and momentum

  2. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  3. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  4. The genesis of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Renn, Jürgen; Sauer, Tilman; Stachel, John

    2007-01-01

    This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity; one of the fundamental physical theories of the 20th century. It comprises key sources from Einstein and others who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development. Some of these sources are presented here in translation for the first time. Einstein’s famous Zurich notebook, which documents the pivotal steps toward general relativity, is reproduced here for the first time and transcribed in its entirety. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity. All in all, the facets of this work, based on more than a decade of research, combine to constitute one of the most in-depth studies of a scientific revolution ever written.

  5. Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, A V; Klages, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)

  6. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  7. Pseudo-complex general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.

  8. Raymond Aron and International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At a time when the field of International Relations (IR) is diverting from grand theoretical debates, rediscovering the value of classical realism and exploring its own intellectual history, this book contributes to these debates by presenting a cohesive view of Raymond Aron’s theory of IR...... multidisciplinarity is possible (and desirable) in the study of IR. This edited collection offers a synthetic approach to Raymond Aron’s theory of International Relations by bringing together some of the most prominent specialists on Raymond Aron, thus filling an important gap in the current market of books devoted...... to IR theories and the historiography of the field. The volume is divided into three parts: the first part explores Aron’s intellectual contribution to the theoretical debates in IR, thus showing his originality and prescience; the second part traces Aron’s influence and explores his relations...

  9. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  10. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...... and explain the actions of a partnering organisation due to a lack of knowledge about their abilities and intentions. Second, we present suitable organisational responses to relational uncertainty and their effect on service quality....

  11. The power of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Barrow, John D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the cosmological and weak-field properties of theories of gravity derived by extending general relativity by means of a Lagrangian proportional to R 1+δ . This scale-free extension reduces to general relativity when δ→0. In order to constrain generalizations of general relativity of this power class, we analyze the behavior of the perfect-fluid Friedmann universes and isolate the physically relevant models of zero curvature. A stable matter-dominated period of evolution requires δ>0 or δ -19 assuming that Mercury follows a timelike geodesic. The combination of these observational constraints leads to the overall bound 0≤δ -19 on theories of this type

  12. Special relativity a heuristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Sadri

    2017-01-01

    Special Relativity: A Heuristic Approach provides a qualitative exposition of relativity theory on the basis of the constancy of the speed of light. Using Einstein's signal velocity as the defining idea for the notion of simultaneity and the fact that the speed of light is independent of the motion of its source, chapters delve into a qualitative exposition of the relativity of time and length, discuss the time dilation formula using the standard light clock, explore the Minkowski four-dimensional space-time distance based on how the time dilation formula is derived, and define the components of the two-dimensional space-time velocity, amongst other topics. Provides a heuristic derivation of the Minkowski distance formula Uses relativistic photography to see Lorentz transformation and vector algebra manipulation in action Includes worked examples to elucidate and complement the topic being discussed Written in a very accessible style

  13. Ciemat Relational Capital: Institutional Presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; González Pineda, L. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The resources in any organization for its activity development can be divided into two main groups: tangible assets and intangible assets. In recent decades there has been a recognition of the importance of the intangible assets as value generators for the development and growth of organizations. And the so called Relational Capital is among them Relational Capital arises from the relationship processes that an organization maintains with external agents. Thus, in the case of a public research institution, such as CIEMAT, it includes the relations with projects financing organizations, with partners and with customers (both public and private entities which are serviced), as well as the institutional presence understood as the participation in discussion and coordination forums (foundations, associations, committees…). This report presents a study of CIEMAT institutional presence in the year 2015.

  14. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  15. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...

  16. The geometry of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This book for students in mathematics or physics shows the interest of geometry to understand special relativity as a consequence of invariance of Maxwell equations and of constancy of the speed of light. Space-time is actually provided with a geometrical structure and a physical interpretation: at each observer are associated his own time and his own physical space in which occur events he is concerned with. This leads to a natural approach to special relativity. The Lorentz group and its algebra are then studied by using matrices and the Pauli algebra. Quaternions are also addressed

  17. Environmental communication in business relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    in the way, in which a company organise, communicate and learn in order to succeed in business. The ambition level regarding environmental improvements in each strategy can differ. The three strategies are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they supplement and support each other. Empirical data...... is collected by means of environmental reports, qualitative questionnaires, and a case study at Grundfos A/S in Denmark. These data will be discussed in relation to the three strategies of environmental communication. Different trends in environmental communication practise are found, and on this basis......, recommendations are made in order to improve environmental communication in business relations....

  18. The special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Devanathan, V

    2015-01-01

    THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  19. Persondata i relation til ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2011-01-01

    En intelligent verden er under udvikling. En verden, hvor stadig flere ting har indbygget digital teknologi, der indsamler personoplysninger med henblik på at lette borgernes tilværelseog for at realisere samfundsmæssige målsætninger. Atiklen vedrører især anvendelsen af intelligente ting i relat...... relation til måling af energiforbrug m.v. Dette kan medføre en øget anvendelse af persondata, og på denne baggrund sætter artiklen fokus på, hvorledes persondataretten finder anvendelse i denne sammenhæng....

  20. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1993-04-01

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  1. Gravitation. [Book on general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.

  2. Conformal covariance of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Gottlieb, I.

    1980-01-01

    The Einstein's equations of General Relativity are written in a conformal metric, resulting as a consequence of geometrizing the pressure forces. Accordingly, the trajectory of a test body pursues a geodetic line even inside the source of gravitational field. Moreover, the pressure, entering the perfect fluid scheme, may be replaced by a certain scalar interaction. This new manner of interpreting General Relativity is then applied to Cosmology, in order to build up a model of Universe whose static limit should coincide with that of Einstein. At the same time, the cosmological constant is connected to the scalar interaction acquiring a plausible explanation. (author)

  3. Functional statistics and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, Enea; Cao, Ricardo; Vieu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects latest methodological and applied contributions on functional, high-dimensional and other complex data, related statistical models and tools as well as on operator-based statistics. It contains selected and refereed contributions presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Functional and Operatorial Statistics (IWFOS 2017) held in A Coruña, Spain, from 15 to 17 June 2017. The series of IWFOS workshops was initiated by the Working Group on Functional and Operatorial Statistics at the University of Toulouse in 2008. Since then, many of the major advances in functional statistics and related fields have been periodically presented and discussed at the IWFOS workshops. .

  4. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric

  5. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  6. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  7. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  8. The gauge in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The view is taken that the field equations of General Relativity, without a definition of congruence of length and time intervals at different events, are without physical content. The possibility is explored that the customary Einstein field equations are to be used but with a different congruence definition than is customary. When these resulting equations are, in turn, expressed with the customary congruence, they comprise a new set of field equations physically not equivalent to either Einstein's or Brans-Dicke's formulations of general relativity. Similarities with Einstein's and Brans-Dicke's formulations are discussed, and the possibility of experimental confirmation of these new equations is also briefly considered. (author)

  9. New view of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Luiz Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.

  10. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  11. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  12. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  13. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  14. Job-Related Maternity Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    The Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women in October 1970 adopted a statement of principles that views childbirth and complications of pregnancy, for all job-related purposes, as temporary disabilities that should be treated as such under any health insurance, temporary disability insurance, or sick leave plan of an employer, union, or…

  15. Relational Database Technology: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander, Nicole

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of relational database technology as it applies to educational settings. Discusses some of the new tools and models being implemented in an effort to provide educators with technologically advanced ways of answering questions about education programs and data. (TW)

  16. Index Selection in Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Blanken, Henk; Chang, S.C.

    Intending to develop a tool which aims to support the physical design of relational databases can not be done without considering the problem of index selection. Generally the problem is split into a primary and secondary index selection problem and the selection is done per table. Whereas much

  17. School Public Relations Journal, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Albert E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a journal (formerly "Journal of Educational Relations") published to promote student achievement through positive school-home-community relationships. Articles in the first issue include: "Crossing Basic/Higher Education Boundaries through a School-University Partnership" and "How a Group of Middle…

  18. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  19. [Projective identification in human relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göka, Erol; Yüksel, Fatih Volkan; Göral, F Sevinç

    2006-01-01

    Melanie Klein, one of the pioneers of Object Relations Theory, first defined "projective identification", which is regarded as one of the most efficacious psychoanalytic concepts after the discovery of the "unconscious". Examination of the literature on "projective identification" shows that there are various perspectives and theories suggesting different uses of this concept. Some clinicians argue that projective identification is a primitive defense mechanism observed in severe psychopathologies like psychotic disorder and borderline personality disorder, where the intra-psychic structure has been damaged severely. Others suggest it to be an indispensable part of the transference and counter-transference between the therapist and the patient during psychotherapy and it can be used as a treatment material in the therapy by a skillful therapist. The latter group expands the use of the concept through normal daily relationships by stating that projective identification is one type of communication and part of the main human relation mechanism operating in all close relationships. Therefore, they suggest that projective identification has benign forms experienced in human relations as well as malign forms seen in psychopathologies. Thus, discussions about the definition of the concept appear complex. In order to clarify and overcome the complexity of the concept, Melanie Klein's and other most important subsequent approaches are discussed in this review article. Thereby, the article aims to explain its important function in understanding the psychopathologies, psychotherapeutic relationships and different areas of normal human relations.

  20. General Relativity: horizons for tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Khmil, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical basis of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), its experimental tests as well as GRT applications are briefly summarized taking into account the results of the last decade. The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduated students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes an interest in GRT.