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Sample records for relating experimentally-induced false

  1. Illusions and delusions: relating experimentally-induced false memories to anomalous experiences and ideas

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    Philip R Corlett

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The salience hypothesis of psychosis rests on a simple but profound observation that subtle alterations in the way that we perceive and experience stimuli have important consequences for how important these stimuli become for us, how much they draw our attention, how they embed themselves in our memory and, ultimately, how they shape our beliefs. We put forward the idea that a classical memory illusion – the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM effect – offers a useful way of exploring processes related to such aberrant belief formation. The illusion occurs when, as a consequence of its relationship to previous stimuli, a stimulus is asserted to be remembered even when has not been previously presented. Such illusory familiarity is thought to be generated by the surprising fluency with which the stimulus is processed. In this respect, the illusion relates directly to the salience hypothesis and may share common cognitive underpinnings with aberrations of perception and attribution that are found in psychosis. In this paper, we explore the theoretical importance of this experimentally-induced illusion in relation to the salience model of psychosis. We present data showing that, in healthy volunteers, the illusion relates directly to self reported anomalies of experience and magical thinking. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience hypothesis and of a broader Bayesian framework of perception and cognition which emphasizes the salience both of predictable and unpredictable experiences..

  2. Confabulation versus experimentally induced false memories in Korsakoff patients.

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    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Géry

    2010-09-01

    The present study focuses on both the clinical symptom of confabulation and experimentally induced false memories in patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. Despite the vast amount of case studies of confabulating patients and studies investigating false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the nature of Korsakoff patients' confabulatory behaviour and its association with DRM false memories have been rarely examined. Hence, the first aim of the present study was to evaluate confabulatory responses in a large sample of chronic Korsakoff patients and matched controls by means of the Dalla Barba Confabulation Battery. Second, the association between (provoked) confabulation and the patients' DRM false recognition performance was investigated. Korsakoff patients mainly confabulated in response to questions about episodic memory and questions to which the answer was unknown. A positive association was obtained between confabulation and the tendency to accept unstudied distractor words as being old in the DRM paradigm. On the other hand, there was a negative association between confabulation and false recognition of critical lures. The latter could be attributed to the importance of strategic retrieval at delayed memory testing.

  3. Experimentally induced masseter-pain changes masseter but not sternocleidomastoid muscle-related activity during mastication.

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    Pasinato, Fernanda; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0.009; d=0.34) and a reduction in the asymmetry between the working and the balancing side during mastication (p=0.007; d=0.38). No changes were observed either on the craniocervical electromyographic variables. In conclusion, experimentally induced pain reduced the masseter muscle activation on the working side, thereby reducing the physiological masseters' recruitment asymmetry between the two sides during mastication. No effects on SCM activity were detected. These results may partly explain the initial maladaptative changes underlying TMD conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lateralised sleep spindles relate to false memory generation.

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    Shaw, John J; Monaghan, Padraic

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH. Sleep increased acceptance of unseen-lure words as previously seen compared to the wake group, particularly for RH presentations of word lists. RH lateralised stage 2 sleep spindle density relative to the LH correlated with this increase in false memories, suggesting that RH sleep spindles enhanced false memories in the RH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

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    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations.

  6. Morphological examination of the effects of defibrotide on experimentally induced bladder injury and its relation to interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, H; Ercan, F; Cetinel, S; San, T

    2001-08-01

    This morphological study aims to investigate the effects of defibrotide, a deoxyribonucleic acid derivative drug with cytoprotective, immunosuppressive and vasorelaxant effects, on protamine sulfate induced bladder injury. Wistar albino female rats were catheterized and intravesically infused with phosphate buffered solution (control group) or, either protamine sulfate (bladder injury group) or protamine sulfate+defibrotide (bladder injury+defibrotide group) dissolved in phosphate buffered solution. The morphology of the urinary bladder was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The number of mast cells in the mucosa, mucosal alterations, intercellular junctions, surface topography and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer as well as microvillus formation on the luminal surface were evaluated. In the bladder injury group, ulcerated areas, irregularity of the GAG layer, increased number of mast cells, vacuole formation, dilated perinuclear cistern, formation of pleomorphic and uniform microvilli and dilatations in the intercellular spaces in the urothelium were observed. In the bladder injury+defibrotide group a relatively normal urothelial topography, GAG layer and a few mast cells in the mucosa, some dilatations between the intercellular areas, less uniform microvilli, regular perinuclear cistern and tight junctions were observed. These results show that defibrotide can inhibit PS induced bladder damage.

  7. Age-related changes in False Recognition: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Episodic memory function is well known to decline with age and there is evidence to suggest seniors prone to forget events compared to younger adults (Aizpurua & Koutstaal, 2010). What’s more, seniors are inclined to falsely ‘remember’ events which did not happen. For example, seniors are more affected by misleading post-event information (e.g. lures), remembering that information as having occurred alongside the original event (Roediger & Geraci, 2007; Chan & McDermott, 2007; Koutstaal, 2006...

  8. Hippocampal size is related to short-term true and false memory, and right fusiform size is related to long-term true and false memory.

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    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2016-11-01

    There is a keen interest in identifying specific brain regions that are related to individual differences in true and false memories. Previous functional neuroimaging studies showed that activities in the hippocampus, right fusiform gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus were associated with true and false memories, but no study thus far has examined whether the structures of these brain regions are associated with short-term and long-term true and false memories. To address that question, the current study analyzed data from 205 healthy young adults, who had valid data from both structural brain imaging and a misinformation task. In the misinformation task, subjects saw the crime scenarios, received misinformation, and took memory tests about the crimes an hour later and again after 1.5 years. Results showed that bilateral hippocampal volume was associated with short-term true and false memories, whereas right fusiform gyrus volume and surface area were associated with long-term true and false memories. This study provides the first evidence for the structural neural bases of individual differences in short-term and long-term true and false memories.

  9. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

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    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  10. Lie-Telling Behavior in Children with Autism and Its Relation to False-Belief Understanding

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    Talwar, Victoria; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goulden, Keith J.; Manji, Shazeen; Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior and its relation to false-belief understanding was examined in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 26) and a comparison group of typically developing children (n = 27). Participants were assessed using a temptation resistance paradigm, in which children were told not to peek at a forbidden toy while…

  11. Running head: Relative judgment. When the relative judgment theory proved to be false

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    Levi A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A commonly accepted theory is that when witnesses can identify culprits in lineups, they will concentrate on him. On the other hand, when they cannot they compare between lineup members and choose the person most similar to the culprit. Therefore they will divide their gaze more equally between foils. An eye tracker was used with a 48-person lineup (four screens with twelve photos in each in an attempt to demonstrate the superiority of gaze behavior over the verbal response. Surprisingly witnesses usually concentrated on some foil as much as they did on the target. Alternate theories are required to explain the reduction of false identifications in sequential lineups. The advantage of large lineups was demonstrated. Police may use them in conjunction with eye trackers to find culprits that witnesses focus on despite saying that they are absent, the only known method to increase correct identifications.

  12. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

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    Cadavid, Sara; Beato, Maria Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively) were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on recollection

  13. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cadavid

    Full Text Available Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on

  14. Elucidating the neural correlates of related false memories using a systematic measure of perceptual relatedness.

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    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Previous memory research has exploited the perceptual similarities between lures and targets in order to evoke false memories. Nevertheless, while some studies have attempted to use lures that are objectively more similar than others, no study has systematically controlled for perceptual overlap between target and lure items and its role in accounting for false alarm rates or the neural processes underlying such perceptual false memories. The current study looked to fill this gap in the literature by using a face-morphing program to systematically control for the amount of perceptual overlap between lures and targets. Our results converge with previous studies in finding a pattern of differences between true and false memories. Most importantly, expanding upon this work, parametric analyses showed false memory activity increases with respect to the similarity between lures and targets within bilateral middle temporal gyri and right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, this pattern of activation was unique to false memories and could not be accounted for by relatedness alone. Connectivity analyses further find that activity in the mPFC and left middle temporal gyrus co-vary, suggestive of gist-based monitoring within the context of false memories. Interestingly, neither the MTL nor the fusiform face area exhibited modulation as a function of target-lure relatedness. Overall, these results provide insight into the processes underlying false memories and further enhance our understanding of the role perceptual similarity plays in supporting false memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Why Distinctive Information Reduces False Memories: Evidence for Both Impoverished Relational-Encoding and Distinctiveness Heuristic Accounts

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    Hege, Amanda C. G.; Dodson, Chad S.

    2004-01-01

    Two accounts explain why studying pictures reduces false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995). The impoverished relational-encoding account suggests that studying pictures interferes with the encoding of relational information, which is the primary basis for false memories…

  16. Decision-related factors in pupil old/new effects: Attention, response execution, and false memory.

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    Brocher, Andreas; Graf, Tim

    2017-07-28

    In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible. We found old/new effects for both words and pseudowords. In Experiment 3, we used materials and an old/new design known to elicit a large number of incorrect responses. For false alarms ("old" response for new word), we found larger pupils than for correctly classified new items, starting at the point at which response execution was allowed (2750ms post stimulus onset). In contrast, pupil size for misses ("new" response for old word) was statistically indistinguishable from pupil size in correct rejections. Taken together, our data suggest that pupil old/new effects result more from the intentional use of memory than from its automatic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Development of Gender Constancy in Early Childhood and Its Relation to Time Comprehension and False-Belief Understanding

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    Zmyj, Norbert; Bischof-Köhler, Doris

    2015-01-01

    What is the developmental course of children's gender constancy? Do other cognitive abilities such as time comprehension and false-belief understanding foster gender constancy and the subcomponents gender stability and gender consistency? We examined the development of gender constancy and its relation to time comprehension and false-belief…

  18. Haloperidol increases false recognition memory of thematically related pictures in healthy volunteers.

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    Guarnieri, Regina V; Buratto, Luciano G; Gomes, Carlos F A; Ribeiro, Rafaela L; de Souza, Altay A Lino; Stein, Lilian M; Galduróz, José C; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine can modulate long-term episodic memory. Its potential role on the generation of false memories, however, is less well known. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, 24 young healthy volunteers ingested a 4-mg oral dose of haloperidol, a dopamine D 2 -receptor antagonist, or placebo, before taking part in a recognition memory task. Haloperidol was active during both study and test phases of the experiment. Participants in the haloperidol group produced more false recognition responses than those in the placebo group, despite similar levels of correct recognition. These findings show that dopamine blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase false recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

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    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  20. Stereotypes, Warnings, and Identity-Related Variables Influence Older Adults' Susceptibility to Associative False Memory Errors.

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    Smith, Amy M; Gallo, David A; Barber, Sarah J; Maddox, Keith B; Thomas, Ayanna K

    2017-08-01

    Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm. Afterward, we manipulated whether participants were presented with stereotypes about aging and whether they were given warnings about the associative nature of the lists. Participants then completed a yes/no recognition test and answered demographic questions. Older adults in the stereotyped group were more likely to falsely recognize non-presented theme words than older adults in the control group. Further, those who were highly educated and/or retired were most likely to experience this false memory susceptibility. Similar to the research on veridical memory, these findings suggest that the effects of ageist stereotyping on older adults' false memory susceptibility may be best understood in terms of the individual differences that older adults possess. Identifying the types of people who are at risk of experiencing stereotype threat is an important step toward helping older adults avoid memory impairment in the presence of common stereotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Semantic False Memories in the Form of Derived Relational Intrusions Following Training

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    Guinther, Paul M.; Dougher, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in characterizing memory phenomena that typically have been characterized by cognitive models, and the current study extends this development by producing "false memories" in the form of functional equivalence responding. A match-to-sample training procedure was administered in order to…

  2. The syntax of appositive relativization : On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appositive relative clauses differ in some essential respects from restrictive relative clauses. I argue that appositive relatives and appositions can be put together as a third class of coordination denoting specification. Thus, an appositive relative is a specifying conjunct to the visible

  3. False Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...

  4. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past.

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    Chen, Hong; Voss, Joel L; Guo, Chunyan

    2012-07-30

    False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1) early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2) later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  5. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Methods Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Results Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1 early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2 later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Conclusion Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  6. O(3)-symmetric tunneling at false vacuum decay in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.A.; Tkachev, I.I.; Kuzmin, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1987-12-01

    The O(3)-symmetric vacuum decay is investigated in general relativity in thin-wall approximation. The following processes are studied: the spontaneous nucleation of a new phase bubble containing a remnant of an old phase inside; a subbarrier transition of a new phase bubble with the non-vanishing total energy from a subcritical state to the infinite expansion; the vacuum decay in the vicinity of a black hole; the creation from nothing of the Universe containing a bubble. General formulae for bounces for all these processes are derived. (orig.)

  7. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

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    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  8. Do emotional stimuli enhance or impede recall relative to neutral stimuli? An investigation of two "false memory" tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Kemp, Richard I

    2017-09-01

    Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed. Film accuracy and misinformation susceptibility were found to be greater for those who viewed the distressing film relative to the neutral film. Accuracy responses on both tasks were related, however, susceptibility to the DRM illusion and Misinformation Effect were not. The misinformation findings support the Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis that negative stimuli will lead to remembering more accurate details but also greater likelihood of memory distortion. However, the PNE hypothesis was not supported for the DRM results. The findings also suggest that the DRM and Misinformation tasks are not equivalent and may have differences in underlying mechanisms. Future research should focus on more ecologically valid methods of assessing false memory.

  9. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: individual variability or false positives?

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    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2008-08-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm(3)) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. False consensus effect for attitudes related to body shape in normal weight women concerned with body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, S L; Williamson, D A; Martin, C K

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of the False Consensus Effect (FCE) with body and shape-related attitudes in 30 normal weight women who scored high or low on a measure of concern with body shape. The participants were asked to rate depressive, positive, neutral, and body shape self-statements for relevance to self and to others. They also estimated the percentage of individuals that would agree with each attitudinal statement. Women with high body shape concerns rated themselves and others as significantly more likely to agree with the statements expressing such concerns than those with low concerns. They also believed that a significantly higher percentage of others would favor those attitudes. This pattern of findings is supportive of the presence of a FCE in normal weight women preoccupied with body shape and size.

  11. False assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  12. Intra- and interpersonal consequences of experimentally induced concealment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Secrecy, concealment, and thought supression are assumed to be important aspects of psychopathology. However, most studies address these from an intrapersonal perspective. This study investigates both the intra- as well as the interpersonal consequences of experimentally induced concealment. Two

  13. Effects of sulpiride on true and false memories of thematically related pictures and associated words in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina V Guarnieri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory, working memory, emotional memory and attention are subject to dopaminergic modulation. However, the potential role of dopamine on the generation of false memories is unknown. This study defined the role of the dopamine D2 receptor on true and false memories. Twenty-four young, healthy volunteers ingested a single dose of placebo or 400 mg oral sulpiride, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, just before starting the recognition memory task in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The sulpiride group made more false recognitions during visual and verbal processing than the placebo group although both groups had the same indices of true memory. These findings demonstrate that dopamine blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase the rate of false recognitions.

  14. Consensus-based identification of factors related to false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovitis and tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kei; Narita, Akihiro; Ogasawara, Michihiro; Ohno, Shigeru; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kawakami, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsushita, Isao; Suzuki, Takeshi; Misaki, Kenta; Ogura, Takehisa; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Seto, Yohei; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Henmi, Mihoko; Fukae, Jun; Nishida, Keiichiro; Sumida, Takayuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify causes of false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovial/tenosynovial/bursal inflammation and provide corresponding imaging examples. We first performed systematic literature review to identify previously reported causes of false-positives. We next determined causes of false-positives and corresponding example images for educational material through Delphi exercises and discussion by 15 experts who were an instructor and/or a lecturer in the 2013 advanced course for musculoskeletal ultrasound organized by Japan College of Rheumatology Committee for the Standardization of Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography. Systematic literature review identified 11 articles relevant to sonographic false-positives of synovial/tenosynovial inflammation. Based on these studies, 21 candidate causes of false-positives were identified in the consensus meeting. Of these items, 11 achieved a predefined consensus (≥ 80%) in Delphi exercise and were classified as follows: (I) Gray-scale assessment [(A) non-specific synovial findings and (B) normal anatomical structures which can mimic synovial lesions due to either their low echogenicity or anisotropy]; (II) Doppler assessment [(A) Intra-articular normal vessels and (B) reverberation)]. Twenty-four corresponding examples with 49 still and 23 video images also achieved consensus. Our study provides a set of representative images that can help sonographers to understand false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovitis and tenosynovitis.

  15. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 μg/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants

  17. False biochemical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in streptavidin-biotin-based immunoassays: the problem of biotin intake and related interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Polak, Michel; Flechtner, Isabelle; Gonzales-Briceño, Laura; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    Immunoassays are now commonly used for hormone measurement, in high throughput analytical platforms. Immunoassays are generally robust to interference. However, endogenous analytical error may occur in some patients; this may be encountered in biotin supplementation or in the presence of anti-streptavidin antibody, in immunoassays involving streptavidin-biotin interaction. In these cases, the interference may induce both false positive and false negative results, and simulate a seemingly coherent hormonal profile. It is to be feared that this type of errors will be more frequently observed. This review underlines the importance of keeping close interactions between biologists and clinicians to be able to correlate the hormonal assay results with the clinical picture.

  18. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Event-related fMRI studies of false memory: An Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkela, Kyle A; Dennis, Nancy A

    2016-01-29

    Over the last two decades, a wealth of research in the domain of episodic memory has focused on understanding the neural correlates mediating false memories, or memories for events that never happened. While several recent qualitative reviews have attempted to synthesize this literature, methodological differences amongst the empirical studies and a focus on only a sub-set of the findings has limited broader conclusions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying false memories. The current study performed a voxel-wise quantitative meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation to investigate commonalities within the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature studying false memory. The results were broken down by memory phase (encoding, retrieval), as well as sub-analyses looking at differences in baseline (hit, correct rejection), memoranda (verbal, semantic), and experimental paradigm (e.g., semantic relatedness and perceptual relatedness) within retrieval. Concordance maps identified significant overlap across studies for each analysis. Several regions were identified in the general false retrieval analysis as well as multiple sub-analyses, indicating their ubiquitous, yet critical role in false retrieval (medial superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal cortex). Additionally, several regions showed baseline- and paradigm-specific effects (hit/perceptual relatedness: inferior and middle occipital gyrus; CRs: bilateral inferior parietal cortex, precuneus, left caudate). With respect to encoding, analyses showed common activity in the left middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. No analysis identified a common cluster of activation in the medial temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations between emotion and conscious recollection of true and false autobiographical memories: an investigation using lorazepam as a pharmacological tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot-Marino, Elodie; Danion, Jean-Marie; Hedelin, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Conscious recollection for autobiographical memory is the subjective experience of reliving a personal event mentally. Its frequency is strongly influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of the event. We addressed the issue of whether conscious recollection for autobiographical memories is also influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval. We used lorazepam, a benzodiazepine, as a pharmacological tool to modulate this emotional experience. Autobiographical memories were recorded in eight healthy volunteers using a diary study methodology. Each day, four entries were made by each subject: two true events, one altered event and one false event. For each event, the subjects were asked to rate emotional variables at encoding and at retrieval. Two months later, there were two sessions of recognition tests during which the subjects received orally an acute administration of either lorazepam (0.038 mg/kg) or placebo using a cross-over design. Subjective states of awareness were assessed using the Remember/Know/Guess procedure. Compared to placebo, lorazepam increased levels of conscious recollection, as assessed by Remember responses, for both true and false memories and induced an overestimation of the personal significance and emotional intensity of past events. Structural equation modelling showed that this overestimation was causal in the increased frequency of conscious recollection. Our results provide experimental evidence that the frequency of conscious recollection for both true and false autobiographical memories is influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval.

  1. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  2. Selective Activation Around the Left Occipito-Temporal Sulcus for Words Relative to Pictures: Individual Variability or False Positives?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at thi...

  3. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees......Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper...

  4. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: Individual variability or false positives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Nicholas D.; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read r !sults in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In tl e first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in >= 1 left OT voxel for word:

  5. Oxidative stress in immature brain following experimentally-induced seizures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl.1 (2013), S39-S48 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/08/0292; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immature rats * experimentally-induced seizures * oxidative stress * mitochondrial dysfunction * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  6. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  7. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  8. Likelihood of early detection of breast cancer in relation to false-positive risk in life-time mammographic screening: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, J D M; Fracheboud, J; den Heeten, G J; Otto, S J; Holland, R; de Koning, H J; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2013-10-01

    Women require balanced, high-quality information when making an informed decision on screening benefits and harms before attending biennial mammographic screening. The cumulative risk of a false-positive recall and/or (small) screen-detected or interval cancer over 13 consecutive screening examinations for women aged 50 from the start of screening were estimated using data from the Nijmegen programme, the Netherlands. Women who underwent 13 successive screens in the period 1975-1976 had a 5.3% cumulative chance of a screen-detected cancer, with a 4.2% risk of at least one false-positive recall. The risk of being diagnosed with interval cancer was 3.7%. Two decades later, these estimates were 6.9%, 7.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The chance of detection of a small, favourable invasive breast cancer, anticipating a normal life-expectancy, rose from 2.3% to 3.7%. Extrapolation to digital screening mammography indicates that the proportion of false-positive results will rise to 16%. Dutch women about to participate in the screening programme can be reassured that the chance of false-positive recall in the Netherlands is relatively low. A new screening policy and improved mammography have increased the detection of an early screening carcinoma and lowering the risk of interval carcinoma.

  9. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...... trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows...

  10. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  11. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Foraminiferal survival after long term experimentally induced anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    Anoxia has been successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed on the Northern Adriatic seafloor from 1 week to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerGreen method has been applied. Numerous individuals have been found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths, showing that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulphides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular way. A large difference in standing stock between two cores samples in initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after 1 month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in a core sampled after 2 months of anoxia, to attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulphides, but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  13. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  14. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  15. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  16. Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-05-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with less reactive temperaments will reach certain milestones in theory-of-mind (ToM) development more quickly. We examined relations between temperament and false-belief understanding in 102 preschool-age children from China and the United States. Temperament was measured via parental ratings of behavior as well as with physiological measures of children's reactivity (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity gauged via salivary cortisol). In accord with an emotional reactivity hypothesis, children with certain reactive temperaments--specifically, those who were more aggressive and those who were both socially withdrawn and physiologically reactive--evidenced poorer social-cognition. However, our findings also force amendment to the ontogenetic emotional reactivity hypothesis. For the majority of children in both countries, physiological reactivity predicted more advanced ToM, perhaps by facilitating social engagement and attention to social stimuli. Moreover, children who were withdrawn from social interaction yet nonreactive, especially Chinese children of this temperament, evidenced advanced ToM. Thus, some forms of social disengagement may foster social-cognitive development in certain sociocultural contexts.

  17. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  18. Systemic True False

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ):. (a). (b). (c). (d). Answer: True systemics are (b & c); False Systemics (a & d). For more examples, see (10 and 11). Na2O2. NaCl. Na. HCl heat /excess. (O). 300°C electrolysis. (molten). NaOH. NaCl. Na. HCl. H2O electrolysis. (solution). NaCl.

  19. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  20. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  1. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  2. [One example of false negative hepatitis B surface antigen (EIA) result due to variant S area strain and reagment reactiveness related to hepatitis B surface antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Chikashi; Moriyama, Hidehiko; Taketani, Takeshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nagai, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The presence in serum of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the outer envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), indicates viral infection, used in laboratory tests to confirm this. We report a case of discrepancy among HBsAg test results detected between measurements in a subject with HB infection. Gene analysis demonstrated several S region gene mutations, not detected previously. We tested 12 measurements e.g., EIA, CLIA, CLEIA, F-EIA, MAT, and IC for whether they could detect our subject's HBsAg and found that it was not recognized by a method using only a single monoclonal antibody to detect HBsAg in two detection processes, in contrast to the 11 other measurements, which used two different antibodies. This case shows that amino acid substitution may cause a false negative result for HBsAg. Gene mutations known to occur in HBV, should thus trigger an awareness of the need to keep in mind that false negative results can happen in case such as ours.

  3. True photographs and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  4. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  5. The Relations Between False Positive and Negative Screens and Smoking Cessation and Relapse in the National Lung Screening Trial: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Gorelick, Jeremy J; Sicks, JoRean D; Park, Elyse R; Graham, Amanda L; Abrams, David B; Gareen, Ilana F

    2016-01-01

    Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months). During five years of follow-up, annual point prevalence quit rates ranged from 11.6%-13.4%; 48% of current smokers reported a quit attempt and 7% of long-term former smokers relapsed. Any false positive screening result was associated with subsequent increased point (multivariable hazard ratio HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.35) and sustained (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.43) abstinence among smokers. Recent quitters with ≥1 false positive screen were less likely to relapse (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.96). Screening result was not associated with relapse among long-term former smokers or among baseline smokers who quit during follow-up. A false positive screen was associated with increased smoking cessation and less relapse among recent quitters. Consistently negative screens were not associated with greater relapse among long-term former smokers. Given the Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover smoking cessation and lung screening, the impact and cost-effectiveness of lung screening could be further enhanced with the addition of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. False memories and confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

    1998-04-01

    Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories.

  7. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  8. Effects of experimentally induced intestinal obstruction on the electrolyte profile in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, E.M.; Khan, M.A.; Mehmood, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively asses the changes in serum electrolyte profile after experimentally induced upper and lower intestinal obstruction in dogs. Ten dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20-25 Kg were selected. After thorough physical examination, de-worming and vaccination they were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups A and B comprised of four animals each while group C had two animals. After preparing the operation site, upper intestinal obstruction was induced in animals of group A and lower intestinal obstruction was induced in all animals of group B through mid line laparotomy under general anesthesia. Animals of group C were kept as control without induction of any obstruction. Proper post-operative care was given to the operated animals. Blood samples were collected from all animals at an interval of 24 hours and evaluated to observe changes in serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels. The results of this study showed marked decline in electrolyte levels in animals of both groups A and B, however this decline was more severe and rapid in group A than group B, while group c acted normally. It can be concluded that upper intestinal obstruction is more fatal in its consequences than lower intestinal obstruction, which is relatively less dangerous in producing its ill effects. (author)

  9. Endovascular treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms in rabbits using stents: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, F.J.; Thiex, R.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Dreeskamp, H.; Stein, K.P.; Meetz, A.; Thron, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Scherer, K.; Brunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) systems have been generally accepted for treatment of intracranial aneurysms, primary stenting of aneurysms using porous stents or implantation of coils after stent placement remains experimental. Testing of these new methods requires an animal model which imitates human aneurysms in size, configuration and neck morphology. We assessed in detail the technical requirements of and steps for transfemoral stent treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms at the top of the brachiocephalic trunk in rabbits. We created aneurysms in ten rabbits by distal ligation and intraluminal digestion of the right common carotid artery with elastase. We treated five animals with porous stents alone, and five with stents plus coiling via the meshes of the stent, which permitted dense packing of coils. No complications related to the procedures occurred. In all animals, even in those treated solely with porous stents, total occlusion of the aneurysm was achieved. Our animal model can be suitable for testing the biocompatibility and occlusion rate of new methods and devices for the treatment of experimental aneurysms. (orig.)

  10. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  11. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  12. Experimentally induced gestational androgen excess disrupts glucoregulation in rhesus monkey dams and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Bruns, Cristin R; Barnett, Deborah K; Dunaif, Andrea; Goodfriend, Theodore L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Tarantal, Alice F

    2010-11-01

    Discrete fetal androgen excess during early gestation in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) promotes endocrine antecedents of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like traits in female offspring. Because developmental changes promoting such PCOS-like metabolic dysfunction remain unclear, the present study examined time-mated, gravid rhesus monkeys with female fetuses, of which nine gravid females received 15 mg of testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously daily from 40 to 80 days (first to second trimesters) of gestation [term, mean (range): 165 (155-175) days], whereas an additional six such females received oil vehicle injections over the same time interval. During gestation, ultrasonography quantified fetal growth measures and was used as an adjunct for fetal blood collections. At term, all fetuses were delivered by cesarean section for postnatal studies. Blood samples were collected from dams and infants for glucose, insulin, and total free fatty acid (FFA) determinations. TP injections transiently accelerated maternal weight gain in dams, very modestly increased head diameter of prenatally androgenized (PA) fetuses, and modestly increased weight gain in infancy compared with concurrent controls. Mild to moderate glucose intolerance, with increased area-under-the-curve circulating insulin values, occurred in TP-injected dams during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in the early second trimester. Moreover, reduced circulating FFA levels occurred in PA fetuses during a third trimester intravenous glucagon-tolbutamide challenge (140 days gestation), whereas excessive insulin sensitivity and increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity occurred in PA infants during an intravenous glucose-tolbutamide test at ∼1.5 mo postnatal age. Data from these studies suggest that experimentally induced fetal androgen excess may result in transient hyperglycemic episodes in the intrauterine environment that are sufficient to induce relative increases in

  13. Cutting Through False Dualisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Beshara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will use the two truths doctrine from Buddhism to explicate transformative social change as a transmodern moral framework for critical psychological research. The two truths doctrine, a teaching from the Madhyamaka, or Middle Way, school of Mahāyāna Buddhism founded by Nāgārjuna, nondualistically collapses the ontology of transformation (absolute truth and the epistemology of social change (relative truth in the name of soteriology. At their core, dualistic problems and reductionist solutions are based upon the reification of concepts, which can result in devastating effects, such as the objectification (and oppression of research participants—not mentioning moral relativism. This article attempts to offer a transmodern moral framework for qualitative and theoretical researchers in critical psychology outside the confines of the modern–postmodern debate.

  14. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  15. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  16. Trust and Cheating in Sri Lanka: The Role of Experimentally-Induced Emotions about Tsunam

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Conzo

    2014-01-01

    Through a field experiment in Sri Lanka I analyze the role of experimentally-induced memories of 2004 tsunami on behavior in a trust game in which personal notions of cheating are elicited. Microfinance borrowers were randomly assigned to a treatment (control) group consisting in watching a video about the calamity before (after) playing. Trust game participants were asked how much to receive (return) in order not to (make the counterpart) feel cheated; in a survey they selected whether the v...

  17. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  18. Experimentally induced spermatophore production and immune responses reveal a trade-off in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Angela M. Kerr; Susan N. Gershman; Scott K. Sakaluk

    2010-01-01

    The energetic demands of the immune system and reproduction are often high and can lead to trade-offs between these 2 life-history traits. In decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, much of a male's reproductive effort is devoted to calling, and to the synthesis of a spermatophylax, a large, gelatinous, non--sperm-containing mass forming part of the spermatophore and consumed by the female after mating. We employed a reciprocal design in which we experimentally induced an immune response in...

  19. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  20. The semantics of emotion in false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Bookbinder, S H

    2018-03-26

    The emotional valence of target information has been a centerpiece of recent false memory research, but in most experiments, it has been confounded with emotional arousal. We sought to clarify the results of such research by identifying a shared mathematical relation between valence and arousal ratings in commonly administered normed materials. That relation was then used to (a) decide whether arousal as well as valence influences false memory when they are confounded and to (b) determine whether semantic properties that are known to affect false memory covary with valence and arousal ratings. In Study 1, we identified a quadratic relation between valence and arousal ratings of words and pictures that has 2 key properties: Arousal increases more rapidly as function of negative valence than positive valence, and hence, a given level of negative valence is more arousing than the same level of positive valence. This quadratic function predicts that if arousal as well as valence affects false memory when they are confounded, false memory data must have certain fine-grained properties. In Study 2, those properties were absent from norming data for the Cornell-Cortland Emotional Word Lists, indicating that valence but not arousal affects false memory in those norms. In Study 3, we tested fuzzy-trace theory's explanation of that pattern: that valence ratings are positively related to semantic properties that are known to increase false memory, but arousal ratings are not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  2. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  3. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of experimentally induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the hind paws of rats was performed at 1.5 Tesla before and during the course of an experimentally-induced inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of 6-sulfanilamidoindazole, an antibacterial sulfa known to produce an acute, self-limited arthritis and periarthritis in the hind paws of rats. Phosphorus-31 spectra obtained after the development of clinical arthritis showed a significant (p 31 P MRS may permit evaluation of the severity of an inflammatory arthritis with greater accuracy than the bony changes definable by plain roentgenograms. (orig.)

  4. Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei

    2015-01-01

    Background Heliotropium indicum is used as a traditional remedy for hypertension in Ghana. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum to manage experimentally-induced glaucoma. Methods The percentage change in intraocular pressure (IOP), after inducing acute glaucoma (15 mLkg?1 of 5?% dextrose, i.v.), in New Zealand White rabbits pretreated with Heliotropium indicum aqueous extract (HIE) (30?300 mgkg?1), acetazolamide (5 mg...

  5. Functional magnetic resonances imaging of psychological functions with experimentally induced emotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schneider, F.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this study a T 2 * FLASH sequence (TR 240 ms, TE 60 ms, slice thickness 4 mm, α=40 , matrix 64x128) was used to investigate changes in signal intensity within the temporal lobe and the amygdala during experimentally induced emotions. Visual stimuli of happy [sad] facial portraits were presented to volunteers to induce changes in the subjects' mood while lying in the tomograph. In agreement with a previous PET study, a significant increase in signal intensity in the left amygdala was found during induction of a sad mood, while no comparable effect was visible during induction of a happy mood. (orig.) [de

  6. How does negative emotion cause false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Stein, L M; Silveira, R A; Rohenkohl, G; Reyna, V F

    2008-09-01

    Remembering negative events can stimulate high levels of false memory, relative to remembering neutral events. In experiments in which the emotional valence of encoded materials was manipulated with their arousal levels controlled, valence produced a continuum of memory falsification. Falsification was highest for negative materials, intermediate for neutral materials, and lowest for positive materials. Conjoint-recognition analysis produced a simple process-level explanation: As one progresses from positive to neutral to negative valence, false memory increases because (a) the perceived meaning resemblance between false and true items increases and (b) subjects are less able to use verbatim memories of true items to suppress errors.

  7. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  8. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  9. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  10. 224Ra and 226Ra experimentally induced dental changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, P.A.; Althoff, J.; Eckhardt, W.; Rippel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats received intragastrically a single dose of 226 Ra or 224 Ra once weekly for 21 weeks. During this period the animals of both groups were thus exposed to comparable doses. After 12 weeks, a shortening of the maxillary incisors was observed, and this progressed during the course of the 55-week experiment. Radiologically, a loss of pulpal transparency and an apical irregular opacity in the maxillary incisors were demonstrable. Histologically, dysplastic changes of the maxillary incisors and multiple resorptions at the cemento-enamel junction of the molars were seen. The observed alterations were more pronounced in the 226 Ra group than in the 224 Ra treated group. The experimentally induced resorptions were comparable to those observed in patients who had incorporated 224 Ra or 226 Ra. Clinical, radiological, histological, γspecrometrical, and autoradiographical findings, as well as dose-estimations, are described. (author)

  11. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  12. False Positives in Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuquire, Jacob; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kar, Aman; Sorber, Rebecca; Suhaimi, Afiq; KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope)

    2018-06-01

    Our team at the University of Wyoming uses a 0.6 m telescope at RBO (Red Buttes Observatory) to help confirm results on potential exoplanet candidates from low resolution, wide field surveys shared by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) team. False positives are common in this work. We carry out transit photometry, and this method comes with special types of false positives. The most common false positive seen at the confirmation level is an EB (eclipsing binary). Low resolution images are great in detecting multiple sources for photometric dips in light curves, but they lack the precision to decipher single targets at an accurate level. For example, target star KC18C030621 needed RBO’s photometric precision to determine there was a nearby EB causing exoplanet type light curves. Identifying false positives with our telescope is important work because it helps eliminate the waste of time taken by more expensive telescopes trying to rule out negative candidate stars. It also furthers the identification of other types of photometric events, like eclipsing binaries, so they can be studied on their own.

  13. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  14. Concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Londa J; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats. Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LT-to-TP ratios were calculated. Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergen-sensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points. Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study.

  15. The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories.

  16. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  17. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

  18. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion. Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs' effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories.

  19. Acute effects of triazolam on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Griffiths, R R

    2000-12-01

    Neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques have been applied to the study of false recognition; however, psychopharmacological techniques have not been applied. Benzodiazepine sedative/anxiolytic drugs produce memory deficits similar to those observed in organic amnesia and may be useful tools for studying normal and abnormal memory mechanisms. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled repeated measures study examined the acute effects of orally administered triazolam (Halcion; 0.125 and 0.25 mg/70 kg), a benzodiazepine hypnotic, on performance in the Deese (1959)/Roediger-McDermott (1995) false recognition paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. Paralleling previous demonstrations in amnesic patients, triazolam produced significant dose-related reductions in false recognition rates to nonstudied words associatively related to studied words, suggesting that false recognition relies on normal memory mechanisms impaired in benzodiazepine-induced amnesia. The results also suggested that relative to placebo, triazolam reduced participants' reliance on memory for item-specific versus list-common semantic information and reduced participants' use of remember versus know responses.

  20. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  1. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  2. Analysis of false positive and false negative cytological diagnosis of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Awtif A.; Mansoor, I.

    2001-01-01

    To study the reasons for interpretive errors in false negative and false positive diagnosis of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology material. We reviewed only those cases in which cytohistological discrepancies were found, where the cytologic material was abnormal and to some extent misinterpreted or both. There was only one false negative case (false negative fraction 0.32%) proved histologically as ductal carcinoma and four false positive cases (false positive fraction 1.2%); 2 fibroadenoma; 1 fibrocystic disease; and 1 stromal fibrosis. Smears of the two false positive fibroadenoma cases showed very high cellularity, overcrowded clusters and frequent stripped nuclei. The fibrocystic case showed tight clusters of apocrine cells and sheets of loosely aggregated macrophages that were over interpreted. Smears of the false negative ductal carcinoma was hypocellular overall, and the cells showed minimal nuclear pleomorphism. Overcrowded clusters and hypercellular smears should be carefully assessed for uniformity of cells and detailed nuclear and cytomorphological features. If the full-blown malignant cytomorphological changes are not visible, a diagnosis of suspicious or inconclusive should be made and frozen section recommended before surgery. Hypocellularity and relatively nuclear monomorphism are the reasons for failure to diagnose malignant breast lesions. Careful attention should be paid to extreme nuclear monomorphism and absence of naked bipolar cells. A cytologically atypical or suspicious diagnosis together with positive radiological and clinical findings should suggest a diagnosis of malignancy. (author)

  3. Revisiting the False Confession Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Toro, Viviana; Lopez-Morales, Cesar A

    2018-03-01

    Despite the existence of important safeguards in our criminal legal system, innocent suspects often succumb to forceful and deceptive interrogation techniques. Among those over-represented members of the false confessor population are minors, people with cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and those with psychiatric disorders. Some of the confessions made by these at-risk populations can hardly be considered voluntary or reliable, but they are generally admitted at trial, regardless of their prejudicial effect. Forensic psychiatrists should become more involved in the overall process of evaluating confessions, not only testifying in courts, but also assisting policymakers in reforming the interrogation process and influencing the legal process. Thus, forensic psychiatrists may give their expert opinion by providing proper training to police interrogators and examining videotaped interrogations. In addition, forensic experts can be instrumental in contributing to three legal solutions that we propose to the false confession problem: a constitutional approach, an evidence law approach, and a jury instruction approach. Each of these approaches requires forensic psychiatrists to help judges and jurors understand the coercive nature of the interrogation process and its effect on suspects' behavior. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  5. Electron microscopic study of spontaneous and experimentally induced leukemia in IRC mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, S.; Ranadive, K.J.; Dmochowski, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous, serially transplanted, and experimentally induced leukemias of ICRC mice were studied by electron microscopy in an attempt to detect the presence of virus particles, if any, and to observe the influence of chemical and hormonal treatment on the presence of these virus particles. The first series of experiments included spontaneous, serially transplanted, and radiation-induced leukemia. The paucity of type C virus particles was quite conspicuous in spontaneous leukemia. Serially transplanted and radiation-accelerated leukemic lesions showed the presence of some type C and intracisternal type A particles. Found in two of these leukemic lesions (thymus and lymphosarcoma), in addition to type C virus particles, were budding and some mature type B virus particles, and numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles. ''Viropexis'' of type B virus particles has been observed in the lymphosarcoma and in a leukemic thymus gland. The second series of experiments included leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice with 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), pituitary transplants, and ovarian hormones (estradiol and estradiol-progesterone). In ovariectomized ICRC mice, leukemic lesions induced by MCA or pituitary transplants, or by MCA and pituitary transplants, showed type C virus particles and, in most cases, intracisternal type A particles. In leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice by MCA and estradiol, numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles were observed but no type C virus particles

  6. Foraminiferal survival after long-term in situ experimentally induced anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-11-01

    Anoxia was successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed at 24 m depth on the northern Adriatic seafloor from 9 days to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerTM Green method was applied and calcareous and agglutinated foraminifera were analyzed. Numerous individuals were found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths (to 5 cm), supported by a ribosomal RNA analysis that revealed that certain benthic foraminifera were active after 10 months of anoxia. The results show that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulfides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular manner. A large difference in standing stock between two cores sampled under initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after one month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in cores sampled after 2 months of anoxia to then attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulfides but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  7. Animal model of atherosclerosis using rabbit experimentally induced by combination of X-ray and hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Tomotoshi; Sawai, Takashi; Okuma, Tsuneo; Mori, Shozo

    1995-01-01

    An attempt was made to prepare an animal model of atherosclerosis similar to human lesions. The experimental animals were male Japanese white rabbits weighting about 2 kg. Hypercholesterolemia was experimentally induced by giving a 1% cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, a single dose of 45 Gy was delivered to the femur to produce vascular changes. Soon after irradiation, immunohistochemical examination revealed the adhesion and invasion of macrophages to endothelial cells, followed by accumulation of foam cells and thickness of the intimal plaques. Three months after irradiation, these thickened plaques became fibrotic, calcified, and necrotic. The tunica media was thinned and the internal elastic lamella was destroyed. Irradiated arteries exhibited not only severe narrowing of the lumen but also aneurysmal dilation and the lesions of the irradiated arteries resembled human atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the atherosclerotic model produced by combining experimental hypercholesterolemia and X-ray irradiaiton may serve as a useful model for studies on atherosclerosis because it can be prepared with no need of complicated or time-consuming procedures. (N.K.)

  8. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  9. Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Yasin; Halici, Zekai; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Colak, Suat; Cakir, Ahmet; Kaya, Yusuf; Akçay, Fatih

    2011-11-18

    Since ancient times, various herbal preparations have been used in treatment of urolithiasis, which is basically formation of calcium oxalate stones in kidney. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum (HP) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. The efficacy of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg HP extract was studied in 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride-induced urolithiasis for 21 days in rats. The weight difference and the levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid in both serum and 24h-urine were measured. The calcium oxalate (CaOx) and pH were defined in urine. Histo-pathological analyses in kidneys were also performed. The rats' weights were higher in HP groups than urolithiasis group. Urolithiasis caused a significant increase in both serum and urine biochemical parameters compared to healthy rats. HP extract decreased levels of these parameters. Urine CaOx level was high in urolithiasis rats, whereas it was decreased by HP extract. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive intratubular crystal depositions and degenerative tubular structures in urolithiasis group, but not in HP treatment groups. More studies will be necessary to elucidate the antiurolithiatic activity of HP. Nonetheless, having a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys, HP extract may be a potential drug for urolithiasis treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity and milk compositional changes following experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, H J; Sorter, D E; Hogan, J S

    2015-02-01

    Milk constituents and physical activity of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis were compared with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late-lactation Holsteins cows were paired based on milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected in the right front mammary gland with Strep. uberis. The remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. Real-time analyses of milk constituents provided fat, protein, and lactose percentages at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was measured. Intramammary infections with Strep. uberis reduced milk yield in experimental cows by approximately 1.6kg/d in the first week after challenge compared with control cows. Lactose percentage in milk was reduced on d 3, 4, 5, and 6 after challenge in treatment cows compared with controls. Percentages of fat and protein in milk did not differ between infected and uninfected cows the week after infections were induced. Total steps per day were reduced and minutes resting per day were increased the week after experimental challenge in infected cows compared with control cows. The number of resting bouts did not differ between infected and uninfected cows. Changes in percentage of lactose in milk and animal activity caused by experimentally induced Strep. uberis mastitis were detected by the automated milk analyzer and pedometer systems. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Cynodon dactylon extract on experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Belal; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Malekinejad, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg -1 ), moderate (200 mg kg -1 ) and maximum (400 mg kg -1 ) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg -1 ) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon -treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.

  12. Effects of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonist on Experimentally Induced Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor soluble receptor type I (sTNFRI, a TNF-α antagonist on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus an intramuscular injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (antibiotic group, an instillation of sTNFRI (sTNFRI group, an instillation of sTNFRI and an injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (sTNFRI/antibiotic group, or no additional treatment (LPS group. Histopathological changes were determined using hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining. Leakage of exudate was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Vascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of MUC5AC was measured using reverse transcriptase PCR. The sTNFRI, antibiotic, and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups had significantly less capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and expression of MUC5AC than the LPS group. There were no differences in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and MUC5AC expression between the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups. The antibiotic group had PAS staining similar to that of the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups but had a greater increase in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, and MUC5AC expression. This study shows that sTNFRI reduces inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

  13. Antiinflammatory effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S; Anim, J T; Khan, I

    2001-05-01

    Products of certain species of Cordia are reported to have antiinflammatory properties. In the present study we examined the effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Colitic, normal, and corresponding control animals were included. Body weight was recorded daily. All the animals were sacrificed 4 days after the fruit treatment. Colitis was monitored histologically and by activity of myeloperoxidase. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, as well as total antioxidant status and concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iron were assayed in plasma, liver, and colon using standard methods. Histology of the colon of colitic rats showed acute colitis that was confirmed by a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Colitis was associated with significant decreases in the tissue activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and lower concentrations of trace elements. Histologic examination and myeloperoxidase activity showed that the fruit treatment reversed the above findings in the inflamed colon, and in liver and plasma of colitic rats. The present results suggest that the observed antiinflammatory effect of the Cordia myxa may be attributed partly to its antioxidant property and to restoration of the levels of trace elements in the inflamed colon, liver, and plasma.

  14. Introducing False EUR and False EUR exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.; Ivanova, K.

    2000-10-01

    The Euro ( EUR) is a new currency introduced by the European Community. Its exchange rate is very puzzling. We have invented a false Euro ( FEUR) dating back to 1993 and have derived the exchange rates of the FEUR with respect to currencies not belonging to the EUR, i.e., DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. This allows us to search for correlations between the fluctuations preexisting to the introduction of EUR and present ones in such financial data. The detrended fluctuation analysis ( DFA) statistical method is used. This leads to assume a power-law behavior, i.e., a scaling hypothesis, through an exponent α. The latter has demonstrated its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in several types of financial sequences. Our findings show that the α exponent interestingly characterizes fractional Brownian motion of the currency exchange rates between EUR and DKK over a 25 day interval, and usual Brownian motion otherwise and for the three other investigated exchange rates. We can devise an investment strategy based on the localα technique and obtain appreciable gains for the time being.

  15. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  16. The problem of false positives and false negatives in violent video game experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    The problem of false positives and negatives has received considerable attention in behavioral research in recent years. The current paper uses video game violence research as an example of how such issues may develop in a field. Despite decades of research, evidence on whether violent video games (VVGs) contribute to aggression in players has remained mixed. Concerns have been raised in recent years that experiments regarding VVGs may suffer from both "false positives" and "false negatives." The current paper examines this issue in three sets of video game experiments, two sets of video game experiments on aggression and prosocial behaviors identified in meta-analysis, and a third group of recent null studies. Results indicated that studies of VVGs and aggression appear to be particularly prone to false positive results. Studies of VVGs and prosocial behavior, by contrast are heterogeneous and did not demonstrate any indication of false positive results. However, their heterogeneous nature made it difficult to base solid conclusions on them. By contrast, evidence for false negatives in null studies was limited, and little evidence emerged that null studies lacked power in comparison those highlighted in past meta-analyses as evidence for effects. These results are considered in light of issues related to false positives and negatives in behavioral science more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M. S. [R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (India). Dept. of Physiology; Choudhary, P. R. [C.U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagr (India). Dept. of Physiology

    2014-08-15

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  19. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M. S.; Choudhary, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  1. Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Hopker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available James G Hopker1, Abigail J Foad2, Christopher J Beedie2, Damian A Coleman2, Geoffrey Leach11Centre for Sports Studies, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK; 2Department of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKPurpose: This study examined the therapeutic effects of an inert placebo gel on experimentally induced muscle pain in a sports therapy setting. It aimed to investigate the degree to which conditioned analgesia, coupled with an expectation of intervention, was a factor in subsequent analgesia.Methods: Participants were sixteen male and eight female sports therapy students at a UK University. With institutional ethics board approval and following informed consent procedures, each was exposed to pain stimulus in the lower leg in five conditions, ie, conditioning, prebaseline, experimental (two placebo gel applications, and postbaseline. In conditioning trials, participants identified a level of pain stimulus equivalent to a perceived pain rating of 6/10. An inert placebo gel was then applied to the site with the explicit instruction that it was an analgesic. Participants were re-exposed to the pain stimulus, the level of which, without their knowledge, had been decreased, creating the impression of an analgesic effect resulting from the gel. In experimental conditions, the placebo gel was applied and the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 recorded.Results: Following application of the placebo gel, the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 increased by 8.2%. Application of the placebo gel significantly decreased participant’s perceptions of muscle pain (P = 0.001.Conclusion: Subjects’ experience and expectation of pain reduction may be major factors in the therapeutic process. These factors should be considered in the sports therapeutic environment.Keywords: conditioning, expectation, perception, positive belief, sports therapy

  2. Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used as a traditional remedy for hypertension in Ghana. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum to manage experimentally-induced glaucoma. The percentage change in intraocular pressure (IOP), after inducing acute glaucoma (15 mLkg(-1) of 5 % dextrose, i.v.), in New Zealand White rabbits pretreated with Heliotropium indicum aqueous extract (HIE) (30-300 mgkg(-1)), acetazolamide (5 mgkg(-1)), and normal saline (10 mLkg(-1)) per os were measured. IOPs were also monitored in chronic glaucoma in rabbits (induced by 1 % prednisolone acetate drops, 12 hourly for 21 days) after treatments with the same doses of HIE, acetazolamide, and normal saline for 2 weeks. The anti-oxidant property of the extract was assessed by assaying for glutathione levels in the aqueous humour. Glutamate concentration in the vitreous humour was also determined using ELISA technique. Histopathological assessment of the ciliary bodies was made. The extract significantly reduced intraocular pressure (p ≤ 0.05-0.001) in acute and chronic glaucoma, preserved glutathione levels and glutamate concentration (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). Histological assessment of the ciliary body showed a decrease in inflammatory infiltration in the extract and acetazolamide-treated group compared with the normal saline-treated group. The aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum has ocular hypotensive, anti-oxidant and possible neuro-protective effects, which therefore underscore its plausible utility as an anti-glaucoma drug with further investigation.

  3. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  4. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  5. Analysis of left ventricular function of the mouse heart during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Neele Saskia; Merkle, Annette; Jung, Bernd; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2015-01-01

    Many of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are due to the ability of thyroid hormones to alter myocardial contractility and cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to cardiovascular impairment. In contrast, recent studies highlight also the potential beneficial effects of thyroid hormone administration for clinical or preclinical treatment of different diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes or as a new therapeutic approach in demyelinating disorders. In these contexts and in the view of developing thyroid hormone-based therapeutic strategies, it is, however, important to analyze undesirable secondary effects on the heart. Animal models of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism therefore represent important tools for investigating and monitoring changes of cardiac function. In our present study we use high-field cardiac MRI to monitor and follow-up longitudinally the effects of prolonged thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) administration focusing on murine left ventricular function. Using a 9.4 T small horizontal bore animal scanner, cinematographic MRI was used to analyze changes in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening. Cardiac MRI investigations were performed after sustained cycles of triiodothyronine administration and treatment arrest in adolescent (8 week old) and adult (24 week old) female C57Bl/6 N mice. Triiodothyronine supplementation of 3 weeks led to an impairment of cardiac performance with a decline in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening in both age groups but with a higher extent in the group of adolescent mice. However, after a hormonal treatment cessation of 3 weeks, only young mice are able to partly restore cardiac performance in contrast to adult mice lacking this recovery potential and therefore indicating a presence of chronically developed heart pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism on crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Skandali, Nikolina; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2014-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is known to exert significant structural and functional changes to the developing central nervous system, and can lead to the establishment of serious mental retardation and neurological problems. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil-induced experimental hypothyroidism on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, at two time-points of their lives: at birth (day-1) and at 21 days of age (end of lactation). Under all studied experimental conditions, offspring brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found to be significantly decreased due to maternal hypothyroidism, in contrast to the two studied adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities that were only found to be significantly altered right after birth (increased and decreased, respectively, following an exposure to gestational maternal hypothyroidism) and were restored to control levels by the end of lactation. As our findings regarding the pattern of effects that maternal hypothyroidism has on the above-mentioned crucial offspring brain enzyme activities are compared to those reported in the literature, several differences are revealed that could be attributed to both the mode of the experimental simulation approach followed as well as to the time-frames examined. These findings could provide the basis for a debate on the need of a more consistent experimental approach to hypothyroidism during neurodevelopment as well as for a further evaluation of the herein presented and discussed neurochemical (and, ultimately, neurodevelopmental) effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism, in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complementarity in false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2018-03-01

    For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old. We removed that limitation by also asking whether test items were new-similar. This more comprehensive methodology revealed that list words and critical distractors are remembered quite differently. Memory for list words is compensatory: They are remembered as old at high rates and remembered as new-similar at very low rates. In contrast, memory for critical distractors is complementary: They are remembered as both old and new-similar at high rates, which means that the DRM procedure induces a complementarity illusion rather than a reality reversal. The conjoint recognition model explains complementarity as a function of three retrieval processes (semantic familiarity, target recollection, and context recollection), and it predicts that complementarity can be driven up or down by varying the mix of those processes. Our experiments generated data on that prediction and introduced a convenient statistic, the complementarity ratio, which measures (a) the level of complementarity in memory performance and (b) whether its direction is reality-consistent or reality-reversed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Ilka C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables. Methods Seven Danish Holstein-Friesian cows were kept in tie-stalls, where the E. coli associated mastitis was induced and laser stimulations were conducted. Measurements of rectal temperature, somatic cell counts, white blood cell counts and E. coli counts were conducted. Furthermore, scores were given for anorexia, local udder inflammation and milk appearance to quantify the local and systemic disease response. In order to quantify the nociceptive threshold, behavioral responses toward cutaneous NLS applied to six skin areas at the tarsus/metatarsus and udder hind quarters were registered at evening milking on day 0 (control and days 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 after experimental induction of mastitis. Results All clinical and paraclinical variables were affected by the induced mastitis. All cows were clinically ill on days 1 and 2. The cows responded behaviorally toward the NLS. For hind leg stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 0 than days 3 and 6, and the frequency of leg movements after laser stimulation tended to decrease on day 1 compared to the other days. After udder stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 1 than on all other days of testing. Significant correlations between the clinical and paraclinical variables of disease and the behavioral responses toward nociceptive stimulation were found. Conclusions Changes in behavioral responses coincide with peaks in local and systemic signs of E

  9. Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    . It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves.

  10. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid), Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Re...

  11. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M Marchak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined – across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity – whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a ‘contact’ that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device versus questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the ten second period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

  12. False Belief and Language Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him

    2006-01-01

    The current research compared two accounts of the relation between language and false belief in children, namely that (a) language is generally related to false belief because both require secondary representation in a social-interactional context and that (b) specific language structures that explicitly code meta representation contribute…

  13. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before the...

  14. With sadness comes accuracy; with happiness, false memory: mood and the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2005-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm lures people to produce false memories. Two experiments examined whether induced positive or negative moods would influence this false memory effect. The affect-as-information hypothesis predicts that, on the one hand, positive affective cues experienced as task-relevant feedback encourage relational processing during encoding, which should enhance false memory effects. On the other hand, negative affective cues are hypothesized to encourage item-specific processing at encoding, which should discourage such effects. The results of Experiment 1 are consistent with these predictions: Individuals in negative moods were significantly less likely to show false memory effects than those in positive moods or those whose mood was not manipulated. Experiment 2 introduced inclusion instructions to investigate whether moods had their effects at encoding or retrieval. The results replicated the false memory finding of Experiment 1 and provide evidence that moods influence the accessibility of lures at encoding, rather than influencing monitoring at retrieval of whether lures were actually presented.

  15. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways and on immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Byerly, Jenni R; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William E; Berghaus, Londa J; Hyde, Dallas M; Schelegle, Edward S; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2005-07-01

    To compare the effects of an orally administered corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid (flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine), and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 6 cats with asthma experimentally induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA). A randomized, crossover design was used to assess changes in the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA determined by use of ELISAs. Mean +/- SE eosinophil percentages in BALF when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 +/- 2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 +/- 1.7%) were significantly lower than for the control treatment (33.7 +/- 11.1%). We did not detect significant differences in airway hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in serum was significantly lower when cats were treated with prednisone (25.5 +/- 5.4%), compared with values for the control treatment (63.6 +/- 12.9%); no other significant differences were observed in content of BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments. Orally administered and inhaled corticosteroids decreased eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration of prednisone decreased the content of BGA-specific IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic immunologic effects were detected among treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered as an alternate method for decreasing airway inflammation in cats with asthma.

  16. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  17. Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi

    2009-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

  18. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  19. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  20. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  1. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  2. [Effect of Capsicum annum L (pucunucho, ají mono) in gastric ulcer experimentally induced in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Montero, Rocío; Flores Cortez, Daisy; Villalobos Pacheco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. We used the model of indomethacin gastric ulcer-induced and the gastric ulcer model induced by pylorus ligation in rats. The rats were divided in five treatment groups as follow: G1: Distilled water 1 ml/Kg; G2: Ranitidine 50 mg/kg, G3: Capsicum 10mg/kg, G4: Capsicum 100 mg/kg, G5: Capsicum 1000 mg/kg. The results of the first model showed an ulcer inhibition of 60,4% and 66,7% using the doses of Capsicum at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the second model showed that neither the pH nor the volume of the gastric content were modified by the administered extract (p >0.05); however, by using the doses of Capsicum at 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, there was clearly an ulcer inhibition of 75.59% and 81.63% respectively, which were even greater than the inhibition obtained by ranitidine (75.51%). Therefore, in this experiment we demonstrated that the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract has a gastroprotective effect in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

  3. Combined roentgenoultrasonic diagnosis of false pancreatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrov, Eh.Ya.; Beresneva, Eh.A.; Chervonenkis, A.V.; Morozova, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of false pancreatic cysts in 21 patients have been described. Such a study proves to be highly informative permitting early detection of false pancreatic cysts and observation of the stages of their formation and development of complications. The ultrasound method has advantages for the investigation of patients in early time of false cyst formation and provides an opportunity to detect formations of minimum sizes

  4. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  5. Is it wise to protect false targets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers a system consisting of genuine elements and false targets that cannot be distinguished by the attacker's observation. The false targets can be destroyed with much less effort than the genuine elements. We show that even when an attacker cannot distinguish between the genuine elements and the false targets, in many cases it can enhance the attack efficiency using a double attack strategy in which it tries first to eliminate with minimal effort as many false targets as possible in the first attack and then distributes its entire remaining resource among all surviving targets in the second attack. The model for evaluating the system vulnerability in the double attack is suggested for a single genuine element, and multiple genuine elements configured in parallel or in series. This model assumes that in both attacks the attacking resource is distributed evenly among the attacked targets. The defender can optimize its limited resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better. The attacker can optimize its limited resource distribution between two attacks. The defense strategy is analyzed based on a two period minmax game. A numerical procedure is suggested that allows the defender to find the optimal resource distribution between deploying and protecting the false targets. The methodology of optimal attack and defense strategies analysis is demonstrated. It is shown that protecting the false targets may reduce the efficiency of the double attack strategy and make this strategy ineffective in situations with low contest intensity and few false targets. - Highlights: ► The efficiency of the double attack tactics against using false targets is analyzed. ► The role of the false target protection in system survivability enhancement is shown. ► The resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better is optimized. ► Both series and parallel systems are considered.

  6. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-05-01

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  8. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.

    1996-01-01

    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific

  9. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  10. The probability of the false vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.; Selivanov, K.

    1983-01-01

    The closed expession for the probability of the false vacuum decay in (1+1) dimensions is given. The probability of false vacuum decay is expessed as the product of exponential quasiclassical factor and a functional determinant of the given form. The method for calcutation of this determinant is developed and a complete answer for (1+1) dimensions is given

  11. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  12. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  13. Endocrinological and behavioural adaptations to experimentally induced physical stress in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-Roelfsema, E. de

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this thesis is to find parameters to diagnose early overtraining (a stress-related disorder) in horses. Diagnosing overtraining remains still a major challenge. In man, a decrease in performance despite normal training, is indicative for the syndrome. The diagnosis is made by

  14. Scenario analysis of false indication in computer-control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Wan-Hui; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new failure mode and effect for safety-critical systems is proposed. ► False indication is the most dreadful kind of partial failures. ► A model-based simulation approach to generate failure scenarios is proposed. ► Simulation results showed that multiple errors may cause undesired consequences. ► An assertion-based method to detect false indication problems is provided. -- Abstract: Computer control may cause additional failure modes and effects that are new to analogue systems. False indication is one such failure mode that may bring unknown risks to a system. False indication refers to the problem when part of a system fails while other processes still work, and the failure is not revealed to operators. This paper presents a model-based simulation approach to systematically generate potential false indication and unintended consequences. Experiments showed that once a false indication occurs, it may have drastic effects on system safety. False indication can mislead the operator to perform adverse actions or no action. Therefore, we propose an assertion-based detection method to alleviate such failures. Our assertions contain process/device dependencies, timing relations and physical conservation rules. With these assertions, the operator may be alerted at run time. The proposed technique can reduce false indication problem. Moreover, it can also be used to assist the system design.

  15. False memory for context activates the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex during true memory than false memory, which has been interpreted as reflecting greater sensory processing during true memory. However, in these studies, sensory detail and contextual information were confounded. In the present fMRI study, we employed a novel paradigm to dissociate these factors. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented in one of two contexts (i.e., moving or stationary). During retrieval, participants classified shapes as previously "moving" or "stationary." Critically, contextual processing was relatively greater during false memory ("moving" responses to stationary items), while sensory processing was relatively greater during true memory ("moving" responses to moving items). Within the medial temporal lobe, false memory versus true memory produced greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex, whereas true memory versus false memory produced greater activity in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that the parahippocampal cortex mediates contextual processing rather than sensory processing.

  16. MRI findings of experimentally induced hepatic infarction: Correlation between changes of MRI findings of liver parenchyma and capsule with time lapse and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Gang Deuk; Min, Kyung Yoon; Choi, See Sung; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Noh, Byung Suk; Won, Jong Jin

    1994-01-01

    We experimentally induced hepatic infarction in rabbit to evaluate MR findings of liver parenchyma and capsule and its changes with time and to confirm the capsular structure correlating with its histologic findings. After ligation of hepatic artery, vein and duct of right inferior posterior lobe of liver, T1, T2 weighted and enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained at several time intervals. Histologic samples were taken of two rabbits or more at each time intervals. During the first several days, the signal intensity of the ischemic necrosis showed strong high signal intensity relative to normal liver on both T1 and T2 weighted images. After 2 weeks , however, the necrotic areas gradually changed to isointensity or low signal intensity. Capsule structure was observed as slightly high signal intensity compare to ischemic areas on both enhanced T1 and T2 weighted images in six cases, and five cases of 12, retrospectively. From the first day, homogeneous coagulation necrosis without hemorrhage or liquefaction was observed. Fibrous thickening with rich vascularity was observed along the surface of the necrosis area after two weeks. During the first several days, the signal intensity of the ischemic necrosis showed strong high signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images and gradually changed to isointensity or low signal intensity. Liver capsule was shown and slightly high signal intensity along the surface of the necrosis area and could be explained by fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and rich vascularity within in it

  17. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  18. Current management of inguinal false aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim; Jepsen, Jørn M; Saicu, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    False aneurysms are formed as a result of bleeding causing a hematoma to compress the surrounding tissue. The majority of false aneurysms presenting to the vascular surgeon are caused by iatrogenic injury to an artery. Although anastomotic failure occurs, a much higher number is caused by bleeding...... vessels. endovascular treatment with coils or covered stent grafts have proven useful in infected ilio-femoral false aneurysms. Open surgical repair may be the best treatment in the setting of imminent rupture, massive haematoma and skin necrosis. We present three patient cases treated with open surgery...

  19. The relationship between DRM and misinformation false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, B; Chen, C; Loftus, EF; Lin, C; Dong, Q

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between false memories induced by two different paradigms (misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott [DRM]). The misinformation effect refers to the phenomenon that a person's recollection of a witnessed event can be altered after exposure to misleading information about the event. DRM false memory represents the intrusion of words that are semantically related but not actually presented in the study session. Subjects (N = 432) completed both misi...

  20. Intratumoral vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma : comparison of power doppler sonography and microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kil Sun; Won, Hyung Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and limitations of power Doppler sonography in determining the tumor vascularity Power Doppler sonography was performed on VX2 carcinomas present in rabbit thighs, and the findings were compared with those of microangiography in an almost identical plane. Tumor vascularity was qualitatively analysed on the basis of tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vesels;for a comparison of tumor vascularity as seen on microangiography, tumor blood flow signals shown by power Doppler sonography were graded 3, 2, 1, 0. For quantitative analysis, a comparison was made of the percentage of tumor area occupied by vessels, as shown in each study. Data analysis utilized the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman correlation test. Mean tumor vascularity scores, as seen on power Doppler sonography and relating to tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vessels, were 2.87, 2.73, 2.93 and 2.73, respectively. The means and medians of the percentages of tumor area occupied by vessels were 22.7% and 23.5% and 36.4% and 34.7% on microangiography and power Doppler sonography, respectively. Thus, there was good correlation between these two modes. Power doppler sonography could demonstrate the tumor vascularity on microangiography relatively well but tend to overestimate it

  1. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  2. Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition. In Experiment 1, an agent placed a ball into one of two boxes and left. The ball then rolled out and moved either into the other box (new box) or back into the original one (old box). The participants were to decide from which box they themselves or the agent would try to recover the ball. Results showed that false belief performance was affected by increased orientation disparity between the participants and the agent, suggesting involvement of embodied transformation. In Experiment 2, false belief was similarly induced and the participants were to decide if the agent would try to recover the ball in one specific box. Orientation disparity was again found to affect false belief performance. The present results extend previous findings on EET in visuospatial perspective taking and suggest that false belief reasoning, which is a kind of psychological perspective taking, can also involve embodied rotation, consistent with the embodied cognition view. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. [Action-oriented versus state-oriented reactions to experimenter-induced failures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, J C

    1989-01-01

    The present study assessed different effects of action-oriented versus state-oriented styles of coping with failure on achievement-related performance and cognition. In a learned helplessness experiment, students were exposed to an academic failure situation and were then tested on a series of problem-solving tasks, either immediately after the pretreatment or after a delay of 24 hours. Performance and cognitive concomitants were measured during both experimental periods. Results demonstrated that action orientation was associated with self-immunizing cognitions during helplessness training. Action-oriented participants improved their performance level even after repeated failure feedbacks. Moreover, action-oriented students assigned to the delayed test condition responded with increased striving for success and showed performance increments, even in comparison with control subjects. In contrast, state-oriented participants developed symptoms of helplessness and showed impaired performance during failure inductions. In later tests on problem-solving tasks, state-oriented groups responded with increased fear of failure. Independent of immediate or delayed test conditions, they soon lapsed into new performance decrements.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ......The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli......-induced mastitis. At time = 0, each of 16 periparturient dairy cows received 20-40 CFU of live E. coli in one front quarter of the udder. A time series of liver biopsies was collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 hours relative to time of inoculation. Changes in transcription levels in response to E. coli inoculation...... were analyzed using the Bovine Genome Array and tested significant for 408 transcripts over the time series (adjusted p0.05; abs(fold-change)>2). After 2-D clustering, transcripts represented three distinct transcription profiles: 1) regulation of gene transcription and apoptosis, 2) responses...

  5. Impact of Multi-Night Experimentally Induced Short Sleep on Adolescent Performance in a Simulated Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Field, Julie; Milller, Megan M; Miller, Lauren E; LeBlond, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Investigate whether a realistic "dose" of shortened sleep, relative to a well-rested state, causes a decline in adolescents' learning and an increase in inattentive and sleepy behaviors in a simulated classroom setting. Eighty-seven healthy 14.0- to 16.9-year olds underwent a 3-week sleep manipulation protocol, including two 5-night sleep manipulation conditions presented in a randomly counterbalanced within-subjects cross-over design. Wake time was held constant. Bedtimes were set to induce Short Sleep (SS; 6.5 hours in bed) versus Healthy Sleep (HS; 10 hours in bed). During the morning at the end of each condition, participants underwent a simulated classroom procedure in which they viewed lecture-based educational videotapes and completed relevant quizzes. Their behaviors in the simulated classroom were later coded by condition-blind raters for evidence of inattention and sleepiness. Adolescents had a longer average sleep period during HS (9.1 hours) than SS (6.5 hours). Compared to scores during HS, adolescents scored significantly lower on the quiz, showed more behaviors suggestive of inattention and sleepiness in the simulated classroom, and were reported by adolescents themselves and by their parents to be more inattentive and sleepy during SS. However, the impact of the manipulation on quiz scores was not mediated by changes in attention or sleepiness. Although effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest that previously-reported correlations between sleep duration and academic performance reflect true cause-effect relationships. Findings add to the growing evidence that the chronically shortened sleep experienced by many adolescents on school nights adversely impacts their functioning and health. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  7. Effect of carprofen treatment following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, F; Duchateau, L; Boutet, P; Lekeux, P; Rainard, P; Paape, M J; Burvenich, C

    2005-07-01

    Acute Escherichia coli mastitis is one of the major sources of economic loss in the dairy industry due to reduced milk production, treatment costs, discarded milk, and occasional fatal disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used as adjunctive therapy to antibiotics. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of carprofen treatment following infusion of Escherichia coli into the mammary glands of primiparous cows during the periparturient period. Severity of mastitis was scored based on the average milk production in the uninfected quarters on d +2 postinoculation and a clinical severity score. Carprofen was administered intravenously at 9 h postchallenge, when clinical signs of mastitis appeared. In previous work, efficacy of NSAIDs was mainly evaluated using clinical symptoms. In the present study, the effect of carprofen on innate immune response was also assessed by quantification of inflammatory mediators. All primiparous cows reacted as moderate responders throughout the experimental period. Primiparous cows were intramammarily inoculated with 1 x 10(4) cfu of E. coli P4:O32 in 2 left quarters. Analysis of blood and milk parameters, including IL-8, complement component C5a, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14, prostaglandin E2, and thromboxane B2 was performed from d 0 to d +6 relative to intramammary inoculation. Rectal temperature in carprofen-treated animals was lower than in control animals at 3 and 6 h posttreatment. Treatment also restored the decreased reticulorumen motility that occurs during E. coli mastitis to preinfection levels faster than in control animals. Carprofen treatment resulted in an earlier normalization of the clinical severity score. Eicosanoid (prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2) production in milk tended to be inhibited by carprofen. No significant differences in the kinetic patterns of somatic cell count, IL-8, complement component C5a, LBP, and soluble CD14 were

  8. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  9. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    after one or more exposures (cases) and 34 cats that survived (controls) demonstrated four significant associations after 100k permutations. When these same cats were analyzed using a sib-pair transmission test, three of the four associations were confirmed although not with genome-wide significance. GWAS was then done on three different age groups of cases to take into account age-related resistance, and different associations were observed. The only common and strong association identified between the various GWAS case configurations was for the 34.7-45.8Mb region of chromosome A3. No obvious candidate genes were present in this region. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  12. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA DE CAMARGO PALMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  13. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls ( p  false memories ( p  > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  14. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising.

  15. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  16. Disfluent presentations lead to the creation of more false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A; Naylor, Jamie S

    2018-01-01

    The creation of false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has been shown to be sensitive to many factors such as task instructions, participant mood, or even presentation modality. However, do other simple perceptual differences also impact performance on the DRM and the creation of false memories? This study explores the potential impact of changes in perceptual disfluency on DRM performance. To test for a potential influence of disfluency on false memory creation, participants viewed lists under either perceptually disfluent conditions or not. Results indicated that disfluency did significantly impact performance in the DRM paradigm; more disfluent presentations significantly increased the recall and recognition of unpresented information, although they did not impact recall or recognition of presented information. Thus, although disfluency did impact performance, disfluency did not produce a positive benefit related to overall task performance. This finding instead suggests that more disfluent presentations can increase the likelihood that false memories are created, and provide little positive performance benefit.

  17. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Plomp, Gijs; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W

    2003-09-01

    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by. Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the 2000-ms condition. However, in the conditions with shorter presentation times (20 ms in Experiment 1; 20 and 40 ms in Experiment 2) no memory for studied words, nor a false memory effect was found. We argue that there is at present no strong evidence supporting the claim for a nonconscious basis of the false memory effect.

  18. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings

  19. False iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Sønksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Schroeder, T V

    1999-01-01

    We report a very rare case of a false iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation. The patient was a 51-year-old women who presented with a painful 10 x 10 cm pulsating mass in her left iliac fossa. The patient had received a second cadaveric renal transplantation 5 years previously....... The graft never functioned and transplant nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. A CT-scanning showed a 10 x 10 cm large aneurysm arising from the left external iliac artery. At operation a large false aneurysm was identified arising from the original transplant anastomotic site. Due to the extent...

  20. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  1. False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  3. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  4. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  5. False memories for affective information in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Fairfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the-to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, twenty-four patients and twenty-four healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p0.05 resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e. neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes. Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  6. No effect of stress on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María Soledad; Cadavid, Sara; Pulido, Ramón F; Pinho, María Salomé

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effect of acute stress on false recognition in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either the stress group (Trier Social Stress Test) or the no-stress control group. Because we sought to control the level-of-processing at encoding, in Experiment 1, participants created a visual mental image for each presented word (deep encoding). In Experiment 2, participants performed a shallow encoding (to respond whether each word contained the letter "o"). The results indicated that, in both experiments, as predicted, heart rate and STAI-S scores increased only in the stress group. However, false recognition did not differ across stress and no-stress groups. Results suggest that, although psychosocial stress was successfully induced, it does not enhance the vulnerability of individuals with acute stress to DRM false recognition, regardless of the level of processing.

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

  8. Production of sensitivity and false alarm rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zijie; Kang Wu; Chu Chengsheng; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Cao Lin; Hu Yongbo; Gong Jian; Xiang Yongchun; Zhang Jianhua; Yang Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    The false alarm rate and sensitivity in nuclear material monitoring system are affected by alarm principle. Two different alarm principles are studied with theory and experiment analysis in this paper. Our research shows that theory analysis and experiment result are accordant very much. This study provides technology support for designing better alarm principle in nuclear material monitoring system. (authors)

  9. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); E. As, van (Elisabeth); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); R. Boer (Rob); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with

  10. Mapping the Real and the False

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuever, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose -- To show that Chinese consumers are constantly redefining and revaluing goods along the axes of the real and the false, with little regard for legal definitions of brand authenticity or “fakeness.” Findings -- In their everyday consumption practices and navigation of a complex and often...

  11. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A Bloom filter is a widely used data-structure for representing a set S and answering queries of the form “Is x in S?”. By allowing some false positive answers (saying ‘yes’ when the answer is in fact ‘no’) Bloom filters use space significantly below what is required for storing S. In the distanc...

  12. False elevation of carboxyhemoglobin: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shruti; Edmonds, Marcia; Lim, Rodrick K

    2011-02-01

    Carbon monoxide toxicity in infants and children, like adults, produce nonspecific symptoms with normal vital signs necessitating the serum measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In infants, the COHb may be falsely elevated. Our goal was to report a case of suspected carbon monoxide toxicity in an infant and the likely cause of the falsely elevated serum COHb. A previously healthy 3-month-old girl presented to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with smoke inhalation from a defective furnace. She was asymptomatic. On examination, she was alert, with Glasgow Coma Scale of 15 and normal vital signs. Cardiorespiratory and neurological examinations were completely normal. Because of concern regarding carbon monoxide poisoning, she was treated with normobaric oxygen therapy. Initial and subsequent serum COHb levels were persistently elevated, despite treatment and the infant appearing clinically well. As such, she had a prolonged stay in the ED. Further investigations found that fetal hemoglobin interferes with the spectrophotometric method used to analyze serum COHb levels. Carboxyhemoglobin serum level, in infants, may be falsely elevated due to the fetal hemoglobin interfering with standard methods of analysis. Knowledge of the false elevation using standard spectrophotometric methods of COHb in clinically well-appearing infants can decrease unnecessary oxygen therapy and monitoring time in the ED.

  13. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  14. False memories with age: neural and cognitive underpinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. PMID:27592332

  15. Effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The study comprised two control groups (untreated and saline-treated) and three experimental groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, LPS+normal saline (LPS/saline), or LPS+selenium-enriched hot spring water (LPS/selenium). Histopathological changes were identified using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Leakage of exudate was identified using fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of the Muc5ac gene was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mucosal edema and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/saline group than in the LPS group. Microvascular permeability, mucosal edema, and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/selenium group than in the LPS group. Mucosal edema was similar in the LPS/selenium group and LPS/saline group, but capillary permeability and Muc5ac expression were lower in the LPS/selenium group. This study shows that normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water reduce inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimentally induced thyrotoxicosis leads to increased connectivity in temporal lobe structures: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlich, Martin; Heldmann, Marcus; Göbel, Anna; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Adult onset hyperthyroidism may impact on different cognitive domains, including attention and concentration, memory, perceptual function, language and executive function. Previous PET studies implicated changed functionality of limbic regions, the temporal and frontal lobes in hyperthyroidism, whereas it is unknown whether cognitive effects of hyperthyroidism may be due to changed brain connectivity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of experimentally induced short-term hyperthyroidism thyrotoxicosis on resting-state functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-nine healthy male right-handed subjects were examined twice, once prior and once after 8 weeks of oral administration of 250 μg levothyroxine per day. Resting-state fMRI was subjected to graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity. Despite a lack of subjective changes noticed by the subjects significant thyrotoxicosis was confirmed in all subjects. This induced a significant increase in resting-state functional connectivity specifically in the rostral temporal lobes (0.05 FDR corrected at the cluster level), which is caused by an increased connectivity to the cognitive control network. The increased connectivity between temporal poles and the cognitive control network shown here under experimental conditions supports an important function of thyroid hormones in the regulation of paralimbic structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. False memory in aging resulting from self-referential processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-11-01

    Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self.

  19. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  20. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  2. Attributions, false consensus and valence: two field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies, with 1,056 Ss, investigated attitudes, knowledge, and behavior with regard to several environmental issues. Findings demonstrate that observers tend to perceive a false consensus with respect to the relative commonness of their own behavioral choices. This phenomenon was replicated

  3. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, R.M.W.J.; Linden, M.H. van der; Almeida, R.F. de; Müller, N.C.J.; Bovy, L.; Dresler, M.; Morris, R.G.M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott

  4. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  5. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  6. Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-07-26

    Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means.

  7. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Underlying processes behind false perspective production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent to which Reality Monitoring (RM content analysis can provide useful information when discriminating between actual versus false statements. Participants were instructed to either describe a traffic accident as eyewitness actual role or to describe the accident as a simulated victim. Data were analysed in terms of accuracy and quality, and were represented using high dimensional visualization (HDV. In Experiment 1 (between-participant design, participants made significantly more references to cognitive operations, more self-references and less changes in order when describing the event as simulated victim. In Experiment 2 (within-participants design participants also made significantly more references to cognitive operations and more self references when describing the event from the simulated victim as well as being less accurate, providing less irrelevant information and more evalúative comments. HDV graphics indicated that false statements differ holistically from actual ones.

  9. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios

  10. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  11. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-11-01

    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented. (orig.)

  12. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  13. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeelenberg, René; Plomp, G.; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the ...

  14. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Derbish, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-rela...

  15. Microbiologic, Pharmacokinetic, and Clinical Effects of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking on Experimentally Induced Pseudomonas Keratitis in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, C Banu; Kucuk, Mutlu; Celik, Ekrem; Gonen, Tansu; Akyar, Isin; Serteser, Mustafa; Tokat, Fatma; Ince, Umit

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effects of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on the penetration of topical 0.5% moxifloxacin, on the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) in the cornea, and on the clinical course in a rabbit eye model of experimentally induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. In this prospective animal study, experimental Pseudomonas corneal ulcers were induced in 56 corneas of 28 albino New Zealand rabbits. The corneas were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: the control group (14 eyes), the MOX group (moxifloxacin) (14 eyes), the MOX + CXL group (14 eyes), and the CXL group (14 eyes). On day 4 of the experiment, the eyes in the control group were enucleated and CFU counting was performed. On day 10 of the experiment, all eyes were enucleated and CFU counting was performed. In the MOX and MOX + CXL groups, the moxifloxacin level in the cornea, aqueous humor, iris, plasma, and serum was measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The difference in the corneal CFU count between the MOX group and the MOX + CXL group was not significant (P = 0.317). Clinical improvement was greatest in the MOX + CXL group (P < 0.001). The mean corneal moxifloxacin level was 0.391 ± 0.09 μg·mg in the MOX group versus 0.291 ± 0.09 μg·mg in the MOX + CXL group; as such, CXL did not have a significant effect on antibiotic penetrance (P = 0.386). Clinical improvement was greatest in the MOX + CXL group. The synergistic effect of CXL on corneal ulcer treatment is not through antibiotic penetrance.

  16. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after nAuto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazhir Khoram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods forcancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternativeto prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexualtissues (ovaries and/or testes. There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation ofovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable bloodflow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses ondirect exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implantedthis tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region.Materials and Methods: Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5, bilateralovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5, unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 casesand animals in the control-sham group (n=5 did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation.Results: All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth andrevascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antralafter 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. Afterday 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observedbetween T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesteroneand estradiol in comparison to T2 cases.Conclusion: This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helpsovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal folliclespresentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries.

  17. Sensory trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation reduces HRV response to experimentally induced arithmetic stress: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Ortu, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Marian Vladimir; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response. This function is successfully investigated by HRV. Therefore, our goal is to investigate the effects of trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation on autonomic behavior in terms of HRV and respiratory parameters during an experimentally-induced arithmetic stress test in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women between 25 and 35years of age were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the control (TENS stimulation off) or test group (TENS stimulation on). Heart (HR, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, DET, RMSSD, PNN50, RR) and respiratory (BR) rate were evaluated under basal, T1 (TENS off/on), and stress (mathematical task) conditions. Results showed that HRV parameters and BR significantly changed during the arithmetic stress paradigm (pTENS and control group could be discriminated only by non-linear HRV data, namely RR and DET (p=0.038 and p=0.027, respectively). During the arithmetic task, LF/HF ratio was the most sensitive parameter to discriminate between groups (p=0.019). Our data suggest that trigeminal sensory ULF-TENS reduces the autonomic response in terms of HRV and BR during acute mental stress in healthy subjects. Future directions of our work aim at applying the HRV and BR analysis, with and without TENS stimulation, to individuals with dysfunctional ANS among those with TMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transgenic expression of soluble human CD5 enhances experimentally-induced autoimmune and anti-tumoral immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fenutría

    Full Text Available CD5 is a lymphoid-specific transmembrane glycoprotein constitutively expressed on thymocytes and mature T and B1a lymphocytes. Current data support the view that CD5 is a negative regulator of antigen-specific receptor-mediated signaling in these cells, and that this would likely be achieved through interaction with CD5 ligand/s (CD5L of still undefined nature expressed on immune or accessory cells. To determine the functional consequence of loss of CD5/CD5L interaction in vivo, a new transgenic mouse line was generated (shCD5EμTg, expressing a circulating soluble form of human CD5 (shCD5 as a decoy to impair membrane-bound CD5 function. These shCD5EμTg mice showed an enhanced response to autologous antigens, as deduced from the presentation of more severe forms of experimentally inducible autoimmune disease (collagen-induced arthritis, CIA; and experimental autoimmune encephalitis, EAE, as well as an increased anti-tumoral response in non-orthotopic cancer models (B16 melanoma. This enhancement of the immune response was in agreement with the finding of significantly reduced proportions of spleen and lymph node Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, and of peritoneal IL-10-producing and CD5+ B cells, as well as an increased proportion of spleen NKT cells in shCD5EμTg mice. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were observed in wild-type mice following repeated administration of exogenous recombinant shCD5 protein. These data reveal the relevant role played by CD5/CD5L interactions on the homeostasis of some functionally relevant lymphocyte subpopulations and the modulation of immune responses to autologous antigens.

  19. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on left atrial pressure in dogs with experimentally-induced mitral valve regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuji; Fukushima, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Yuta; Hamabe, Lina; Kim, Soomin; Yoshiyuki, Rieko; Machida, Noboru; Tanaka, Ryou

    2012-09-18

    One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP). There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine's effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h) vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h), on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p benazepril treatment (13.19 ± 3.47 mmHg, p > .05). LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  20. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  1. Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

    2010-07-01

    This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect.

  2. Filing false vice reports: Distinguishing true from false allegations of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zutter, A.; Horselenberg, R.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of

  3. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  4. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Cassandra E; Howe, Mark L; Knott, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that false-memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only been conducted to examine the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false-memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current study demonstrates that this effect goes beyond general negative or positive moods and acts at a more discrete emotional level. Participants underwent a standard emotion-induction procedure before listening to negative emotional or neutral associative word lists. The emotions induced, negative word lists, and associated nonpresented critical lures, were related to either fear or anger, 2 negative valence emotions that are also both high in arousal. Results showed that when valence and arousal are controlled for, false memories are more likely to be produced for discrete emotionally congruent compared with incongruent materials. These results support spreading activation theories of false remembering and add to our understanding of the adaptive nature of false-memory production. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Problems with False Vacua in Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Borut; Senjanovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that in a consistent theory any Minkowski vacuum must be exactly stable. As a result, a large class of theories that in ordinary treatment would appear sufficiently long-lived, in reality make no sense. In particular, this applies to supersymmetric models in which global supersymmetry is broken in a false vacuum. We show that in any such theory the dynamics of supersymmetry breaking cannot be decoupled from the Planck scale physics. This finding poses an obvious challenge for the idea of low-scale metastable (for example gauge) mediation.

  6. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Falsely elevated triiodothyronine values in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsted, L.; Moelholm Hansen, J.E.; Nygaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Five patients with falsely elevated serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) concentrations (>9 nmol/l) in a radioimmunoassay are reported. The high T 3 -values disagreed with the other thyroid variables investigated as well as with the clinical observations. In sera from all patients a normal non-specific binding of T 3 was found, thus excluding abnormal serum-protein-binding of the hormone. An ethanol extraction of T 3 from serum before RIA reduced the T 3 content in serum from all patients to normal levels (2.0-2.4 nmol/l). These findings indicate the presence in the sera of substances, probably of protein nature, that were interfering with the assay by binding the reagent-antibody and not the antigen. Addition of non-immune rabbit serum prevented this interference and normalized the T 3 -values (1.8-2.4 nmol/l). Thus the interfering substance in T 3 -RIA could be an anti-rabbit antibody, the interaction of which can be eliminated by a minor modification of the assay making it possible to differentiate true from false T 3 -values. (au) 16 refs

  8. Il nuovo reato di false comunicazioni sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Corvucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the new offence of false social communication introduced by the Italian law dated 27 may 2015 n.69 in force from 14 June 2015. Considering the modifications added to the new offence of false accounting- basically explained to highlight the novum - the attention is paid on a specific major issue, previously discussed by the fifth section of the Italian Supreme Court competent in this matter after a few months from the moment the new law came in force. The questions applies to the fact whether the fraudulent evidence should remain to be punishable as the new discipline has limited the object of the criminal conduct only to “material relevant facts which are untrue” or to the omission of material relevant facts whose communication is imposed by the law regulating the economic situation, the assets and financial position of the company or of the group to which the company belongs. In this way any reference to the evaluations contained in the text previously in force is eliminated. Omissive conduct is the new definition recalling the two previous rules (art. 2621 and 2622 of the Italian civil code.

  9. The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bower, Gordon H

    2004-11-01

    The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect.

  10. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  11. When are false-positive and false-negative 18F'FDG PET scans really false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.S.; Hicks, R.J.; Fawcett, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A 61-year-old male presented with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. In the absence of wider metastatic disease on conventional staging, he was enrolled in a phase I, dose escalation chemoradiotherapy trial. In this study, therapeutic response to radiotherapy combined with cisplatin and a chemotherapeutic agent which specifically targets hypoxic cells (tirapazamine) was evaluated with serial 18 F-FDG PET scans. Baseline 18 F-FDG PET confirmed locally advanced disease, although a previously undetected lower cervical lymph node was identified and included in the radiotherapy portal. Whole-body PET revealed a small metabolically active area adjacent to the right hemidiaphragm. Respiratory gated, high-resolution helical CT failed to find structural evidence of disease and, as a result, the patient was enrolled in the 7 week therapy regime on the assumption that the PET finding was a false-positive result. Repeat 18 F-FDG PET scans at the middle, end and 12 weeks post-treatment showed excellent therapeutic response in the head and neck which was discordant with clinical and CT findings, and resolution of the metabolically active chest lesion. Despite the negative PET scan, persistent clinical and CT evidence of a residual tumour mass suggested a false-negative result and resulted in a neck lymph node dissection. This showed no evidence of malignant cells. Five months following treatment, the patient presented with pleural effusion at the base on the right lung. Subsequent CT scanning showed a small pleural lesion at the site of initial 18 F-FDG uptake. Biopsy confirmed metastatic disease. The apparent transient resolution of 18 F-FDG uptake in the pleural lesion with treatment presumably reflected a combination of reduced metabolic activity and size due to the partial, but not complete, cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In conclusion, this case emphasizes the importance of pathological review and clinical follow-up in reconciling

  12. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  13. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Yen

    Full Text Available Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR, an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  14. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  15. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  16. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  17. Coincidence of scintigraphic false positive and false negative findings in parathyroid and thyroid adenomas (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mana, O.; Zatta, G.; Boccolari, S.; Barbesti, S.; Tarolo, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    The subtractive double tracer scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl and /sup 99m/Tc is a useful technique in studying parathyroid nodules; nevertheless, this method can give misleading informations especially in presence of thyroid nodules with false positive and false negative findings. In this case report the technique was applied in studying a patient with three nodules (two thyroid adenomas and one parathyroid adenoma), where both scintigraphic and echographic methods provided misleading informations. The selective uptake of /sup 201/Tl in the upper region of the right thyroid lobe gave a false positive finding, while the increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc in a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma of left lobe masked the parathyroid adenoma laying below, giving a false negative finding.

  18. Biochemical properties of the plasma of rats with the experimentally induced hepatitis after oral administration of sodium diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gryshchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an analysis of the metabolic activity of the liver and defined the peculiarities of biochemical parameters and macroelement composition of blood plasma of rats with experimentally induced toxic hepatitis. Hepatopathology was modeled by oral administration of sodium diclofenac at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg of body mass to rats during 14 days. For the preparation of plasma, rat blood was collected from the abdominal aorta into test-tubes with heparin, and then it was centrifuged at 1500 rev./min for 15–20 min. Then we studied biochemical parameters of blood indicators (level of total protein, albumin, total and conjugated bilirubin, glucose, creatinine, urea, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, thymol test value, activities of ALT, AST, LP and GGT, amylase and lipase and also its macroelement composition: concentration of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and chlorine using automatic biochemical analyzer «BioSystem A15» (Spain according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC Experts Panel. The results of the introduction in the laboratory rats of drug-induced toxic hepatitis indicate a decrease of metabolic activity of hepatocytes under this hepatopathology. The results showed a decrease in total protein by 17%, albumin by 11%, glucose by 6% , triacylglycerols by 53%, cholesterol by 54%, and an appreciable increase in thymol test value (by a factor of 2.8. Besides this, disruption of the liver pigment function, development of cytolytic syndrome and intrahepatic cholestasis were revealed in the affected animals. The increased activity of the studied blood enzymes (ALT by 28%, AST by 45%, LP by 30%, GGT by a factor of 2.1 confirmed these disruptions. The increase in AST/ALT by 12% ratio confirmed destructive changes in cell membranes, including mitochondrial membranes, caused by metabolic changes under the toxic influence of sodium diclofenac. The increased activities of α-amylase by

  19. Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expressions in the temporo-mandibular joint condylar cartilage after an experimentally induced osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan-hong; Ma, Xu-chen; Li, Zhi-min; Wu, Deng-cheng

    2007-12-20

    Over 70% of the total tissue weight in the cartilage matrix consists of water, and the early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage is characterized by swelling. Water transport in the cartilage matrix and across the membranes of chondrocytes may be important in normal and pathological conditions of cartilage. The purpose of this study was to identify aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expressions in the mandibular condylar cartilage after experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. An experimental temporomandibular joint OA was induced by partial discectomy in rats. The pathological characteristics of the normal, early-stage, and late-stage osteoarthritic TMJ cartilages were verified by histological techniques. The AQP1 and AQP3 gene expressions in the normal and osteoarthritic cartilages were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis. The cartilage sections were incubated in primary polyclonal antibodies to AQP3; immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine the AQP3 expression shown by its protein level. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3, analyzed using quantitative PCR, revealed that AQP3 mRNA was highly up-regulated in the OA cartilage, which was considered significant. There was no notable difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA between OA and normal controls. With the progressing of the OA, the localization of the AQP3 protein was quite different from that of the normal cartilage. Compared to the normal cartilage, the expressions of AQP3 protein were observed mainly in the proliferative zone and the upper mid-zone chondrocytes at the early-stage of OA, and were observed to appear frequently throughout the mid- and deep zone during the late-stage of OA. The high expression of AQP3 mRNA in the OA cartilage and the different localization of the AQP3 protein suggest that it may play a particular role in OA pathogenesis. Further study of AQP3 function may provide new insight into the understanding of the

  20. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on Left Atrial Pressure in Dogs with experimentally-induced Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Shuji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP. There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine’s effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h, on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Results Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p  .05. LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p  Conclusions LAP was significantly decreased after amlodipine treatment in dogs with surgically-induced MR but not after benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  1. False memory production :effects of self-consistent false information and motivated cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Remembrance of one's personal past and the development of false memories have recently received intense public scrutiny. Based upon self-schema (Markus, 1977) and selfverification (Swann, 1987) theories, two studies were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that a self-schema guides cognitive processing of self-relevant information and thereby influences the construction of a memory that includes false information, particularly more so if this information is self-schema consistent than ...

  2. Adaptive false memory: Imagining future scenarios increases false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Grace, Lydia; van Esch, Lotte

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that rating words for their relevance to a future scenario enhances memory for those words. The current study investigated the effect of future thinking on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. In Experiment 1, participants rated words from 6 DRM lists for relevance to a past or future event (with or without planning) or in terms of pleasantness. In a surprise recall test, levels of correct recall did not vary between the rating tasks, but the future rating conditions led to significantly higher levels of false recall than the past and pleasantness conditions did. Experiment 2 found that future rating led to higher levels of false recognition than did past and pleasantness ratings but did not affect correct recognition. The effect in false recognition was, however, eliminated when DRM items were presented in random order. Participants in Experiment 3 were presented with both DRM lists and lists of unrelated words. Future rating increased levels of false recognition for DRM lures but did not affect correct recognition for DRM or unrelated lists. The findings are discussed in terms of the view that false memories can be associated with adaptive memory functions.

  3. Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2009-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed.

  4. Patterns of False Memory in Patients with Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Wen; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Hua, Mau-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Increased false memory recognition in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) has been widely reported; however, the underlying memory constructive processes remain unclear. The present study explored gist memory, item-specific memory, and monitoring ability in patients with HD. Twenty-five patients (including 13 patients with mild HD and 12 patients with moderate-to-severe HD) and 30 healthy comparison participants (HC) were recruited. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to investigate participants' false recognition patterns, along with neuropsychological tests to assess general cognitive function. Both mild and moderate-to-severe patients with HD showed significant executive functioning and episodic memory impairment. On the DRM tasks, both HD patient groups showed significantly impaired performance in tasks assessing unrelated false recognition and item-specific memory as compared to the HC group; moderate-to-severe patients performed more poorly than mild patients did. Only moderate-severe patients exhibited significantly poorer related false recognition index scores than HCs in the verbal DRM task; performance of HD patient groups was comparable to the HC group on the pictorial DRM task. It appears that diminished verbatim memory and monitoring ability are early signs of cognitive decline during the HD course. Conversely, gist memory is relatively robust, with only partial decline during advanced-stage HD. Our findings suggest that medial temporal lobe function is relatively preserved compared to that of frontal-related structures in early HD. Thus, gist-based memory rehabilitation programs might be beneficial for patients with HD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Facebook False Self-Presentation Behaviors and Negative Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L

    2018-01-01

    As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.

  6. The origin of children's implanted false memories: memory traces or compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Verschuere, Bruno; Meijer, Ewout H; van Oorsouw, Kim

    2012-03-01

    A longstanding question in false memory research is whether children's implanted false memories represent actual memory traces or merely result from compliance. The current study examined this question using a response latency based deception task. Forty-five 8-year-old children received narratives about a true (first day at school) and false event (hot air balloon ride). Across two interviews, 58/32% of the participants developed a partial/full false memory. Interestingly, these children also showed higher false recall on an unrelated DRM paradigm compared to children without a false memory. The crucial finding, however, was that the results of the deception task revealed that children with partial and full false memories were faster to confirm than to deny statements relating to the false event. This indicates that children's implanted false memories reflect actual memory traces, and are unlikely to be explained by mere compliance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  8. Thrombosed false channel in acute aortic dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alerci, M.; Dore, R.; Kluzer, A.; Digiulio, G.; D'Andrea, F.; De Agostini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three cases are reported of acute dissection with complete thrombosis of the false channel, which is a very uncommonevent in DeBakey's I and II type aortic dissections. The 3 patients entered hospital because of severe thoracic pain without any ECG sign of myocardial infarction. Emergency CT showed evidence of pericardial effusion suggesting hemopericardium, enlargement of the ascending aorta and a peripheral semilunar filling defect which caused a slight deformation of the true channel. On precontrast scans, only one case showed inward displacement of peripheral calcifications and high-density aortic wall. No tipical signs of aortic dissection were reported, expect in the first patient - where a double contrast filled lumen, separated by an intimal flap was seen. CT findings are individually discussed. It is emphasized that in all patients more than one CT sign was present at a time. The correct evaluation of these signs together with the clinacal data could lead to the right diagnosis of aortic dissection in spite of the lack of a f???

  9. Locality-sensitive Hashing without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new construction of locality-sensitive hash functions for Hamming space that is covering in the sense that is it guaranteed to produce a collision for every pair of vectors within a given radius r. The construction is efficient in the sense that the expected number of hash collisions......(n)/k, where n is the number of points in the data set and k ∊ N, and differs from it by at most a factor ln(4) in the exponent for general values of cr. As a consequence, LSH-based similarity search in Hamming space can avoid the problem of false negatives at little or no cost in efficiency. Read More: http...... between vectors at distance cr, for a given c > 1, comes close to that of the best possible data independent LSH without the covering guarantee, namely, the seminal LSH construction of Indyk and Motwani (FOCS ′98). The efficiency of the new construction essentially matches their bound if cr = log...

  10. Blind sequential lineup administration reduces both false identifications and confidence in those false identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Steve D; Quiroz, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    One of the most recommended procedures proposed by eyewitness experts is the use of double-blind lineups, in which the administrator does not know the identity of the suspect in the lineup. But despite the near universality of this recommendation, there is surprisingly little empirical research to support the claim that nonblind administration inflates false identifications. What little research has been conducted has shown conflicting findings with regard to the conditions under which nonblind administration affects false identifications, as well as its effects on witness confidence. The current study attempts to elucidate this effect. Student-participants (n = 312) were randomly assigned to play the role of either a lineup administrator (who were either told the identity of the suspect in the lineup or not) or a mock crime witness. Following unbiased instructions, administrators presented either a target-present or target-absent sequential lineup to the witness while being surreptitiously videorecorded. Nonblind administration significantly inflated false, but not correct, identifications, and significantly inflated witness confidence in those false identifications. Video recordings indicated that nonblind administrators were significantly more likely than blind administrators to smile (a) while the witness was viewing a photograph of the suspect, and (b) after a suspect identification. Results provide stronger support for the use of blind lineup administration by broadening the conditions under which nonblind administration is shown to inflate false identifications. Possible reconciliations for conflicting findings in the literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Im, Jung Gi

    2006-01-01

    Fluorodeoxygucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign form malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan, Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases

  12. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  13. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  14. Controlling the Rate of GWAS False Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Damian; Peterson, Christine B; Sobczyk, Piotr; Candès, Emmanuel J; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Sabatti, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of both the number and the complexity of traits of interest, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) in genetic association studies has become an increasingly appealing and accepted target for multiple comparison adjustment. While a number of robust FDR-controlling strategies exist, the nature of this error rate is intimately tied to the precise way in which discoveries are counted, and the performance of FDR-controlling procedures is satisfactory only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between what scientists describe as unique discoveries and the number of rejected hypotheses. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between markers in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often leads researchers to consider the signal associated to multiple neighboring SNPs as indicating the existence of a single genomic locus with possible influence on the phenotype. This a posteriori aggregation of rejected hypotheses results in inflation of the relevant FDR. We propose a novel approach to FDR control that is based on prescreening to identify the level of resolution of distinct hypotheses. We show how FDR-controlling strategies can be adapted to account for this initial selection both with theoretical results and simulations that mimic the dependence structure to be expected in GWAS. We demonstrate that our approach is versatile and useful when the data are analyzed using both tests based on single markers and multiple regression. We provide an R package that allows practitioners to apply our procedure on standard GWAS format data, and illustrate its performance on lipid traits in the North Finland Birth Cohort 66 cohort study. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Spirit View of 'Wishstone' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Scientists working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit decided to examine this rock, dubbed 'Wishstone,' based on data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. That instrument's data indicated that the mineralogy of the rocks in this area is different from that of rocks encountered either on the plains of Gusev Crater or in bedrock outcrops examined so far in the 'Columbia Hills' inside the crater. Spirit used its rock abrasion tool first to scour a patch of the rock's surface with a wire brush, then to grind away the surface to reveal interior material. Placement of the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer on the exposed circle of interior material revealed that the rock is rich in phosphorus. Spirit used its panoramic camera during the rover's 342nd martian day, or sol, (Dec. 18, 2004) to take the three individual images that were combined to produce this false-color view emphasizing the freshly ground dust around the hole cut by the rock abrasion tool. Unusually Rich in Phosophorus The graph in figure 1 compares the elemental makeup of a rock dubbed 'Wishstone' with the average composition of rocks that Spirit examined on the western spur of the 'Columbia Hills.' Wishstone lies farther into the hills than that spur. It is richer in phosphorus than any other Mars rock ever examined. Scientists plan to examine other rocks near Wishstone to help explain the significance of the high phosphorus concentration. The vertical scale is the ratio of the concentration of an element in the hills rocks to the concentration of the same element in a typical volcanic rock from the plains that Spirit crossed to reach the hills.

  16. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  17. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Thorley, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and administered with both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Results showed that a negative mood state increased remember judgments for negative-emotion critical lures, in comparison to neutral-emotion critical lures, on both immediate and delayed testing. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of spreading activation and emotion-enhanced memory, with consideration of the applied forensic implications of such findings.

  20. The False Premises and False Promises of the Movement to Privatize Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the movement to provide parents with financial incentives to send students to private schools will increase the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic homogeneity of American schools. Six common assumptions about the positive effects of privatizing education are examined and deemed false. Probable costs of tuition vouchers for private…

  1. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkers, Ruud M W J; van der Linden, Marieke; de Almeida, Rafael F; Müller, Nils C J; Bovy, Leonore; Dresler, Martin; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to transiently perturb ongoing mPFC processing immediately before participants performed the DRM-task. We observed the predicted reduction in false recall of critical lures after mPFC perturbation, compared to two control groups, whereas veridical recall and recognition memory performance remained similar across groups. These data provide initial causal evidence for a role of the mPFC in biasing the assimilation of new memories and their consolidation as a function of prior knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Veridical and false recall in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-02-01

    This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and phonological associates (i.e., hybrid condition) of a single, unpresented critical "lure" word. Three parameters of recall performance were measured across these 3 conditions: (a) number of accurately recalled words, (b) order of recall (primacy vs. recency effect), and (c) number of critical lures produced (i.e., false memories). Significant group differences were noted in recall accuracy specific to list type and also list position as well as relative to critical lure productions. Results suggest that certain basic memory processes (i.e., recency effect) and the processing of gist semantic information are largely intact in adults who stutter, but recall of verbatim phonological information and subvocal rehearsal may be deficient.

  3. False memory ≠ false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ost

    Full Text Available The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = -.01. This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent.

  4. When representations conflict with reality: the preschooler's problem with false beliefs and "false" photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, D

    1990-04-01

    It has been argued that young preschoolers cannot correctly attribute a false belief to a deceived actor (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). Some researchers claim that the problem lies in the child's inadequate epistemology (Chandler & Boyes, 1982; Wellman, 1988); as such, it is specific to the child's theory of mind and no such problem should appear in reasoning about nonmental representations. This prediction is tested below in the "false photograph" task: here an actor takes a photograph of an object in location X; the object is then moved to location Y. Preschool subjects are asked: "In the picture, where is the object?" Results indicate that photographs are no easier to reason about than are beliefs. Manipulations to boost performance on the photograph task proved ineffective. Further, an explanation of the failure as a processing limitation having nothing to do with the representational nature of beliefs or photographs was ruled out. It is argued that young children's failure on the false belief task is not due to an inadequate epistemology (though they may have one) and is symptomatic of a larger problem with representations.

  5. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  6. Aural, visual, and pictorial stimulus formats in false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Heather M

    2002-12-01

    The present investigation is an initial simultaneous examination of the influence of three stimulus formats on false memories. Several pilot tests were conducted to develop new category associate stimulus lists. 73 women and 26 men (M age=21.1 yr.) were in one of three conditions: they either heard words, were shown words, or were shown pictures highly related to critical nonpresented items. As expected, recall of critical nonpresented stimuli was significantly greater for aural lists than for visually presented words and pictorial images. These findings demonstrate that the accuracy of memory is influenced by the format of the information encoded.

  7. Misconceptions and false expectations in neutral evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS Y. VALENZUELA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutral evolution results from random recurrent mutation and genetic drift. A small part of random evolution, that which is related to protein or DNA polymorphisms, is the subject of the Neutral Theory of Evolution. One of the foundations of this theory is the demonstration that the mutation rate (m is equal to the substitution rate. Since both rates are independent of population size, they are independent of drift, which is dependent upon population size. Neutralists have erroneously equated the substitution rate with the fixation rate, despite the fact that they are antithetical conceptions. The neutralists then applied the random walk stochastic model to justify alleles or bases that were fixated or eliminated. In this model, once the allele or base frequencies reach the monomorphic states (values of 1.0 or 0.0, the absorbing barriers, they can no longer return to the polymorphic state. This operates in a pure mathematical model. If recurrent mutation occurs (as in biotic real systems fixation and elimination are impossible. A population of bacteria in which m=10-8 base mutation (or substitution/site/generation and the reproduction rate is 1000 cell cycle/year should replace all its genome bases in approximately 100,000 years. The expected situation for all sites is polymorphism for the four bases rather than monomorphism at 1.0 or 0.0 frequencies. If fixation and elimination of a base for more than 500,000 years are impossible, then most of the neutral theory is untenable. A new complete neutral model, which allows for recurrent substitutions, is proposed here based on recurrent mutation or substitution and drift alone. The model fits a binomial or Poisson distribution and not a geometric one, as does neutral theory.

  8. Reasoning from an incompatibility: False dilemma fallacies and content effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Janie; Markovits, Henry; Robert, Serge; Schaeken, Walter

    2018-03-23

    In the present studies, we investigated inferences from an incompatibility statement. Starting with two propositions that cannot be true at the same time, these inferences consist of deducing the falsity of one from the truth of the other or deducing the truth of one from the falsity of the other. Inferences of this latter form are relevant to human reasoning since they are the formal equivalent of a discourse manipulation called the false dilemma fallacy, often used in politics and advertising in order to force a choice between two selected options. Based on research on content-related variability in conditional reasoning, we predicted that content would have an impact on how reasoners treat incompatibility inferences. Like conditional inferences, they present two invalid forms for which the logical response is one of uncertainty. We predicted that participants would endorse a smaller proportion of the invalid incompatibility inferences when more counterexamples are available. In Study 1, we found the predicted pattern using causal premises translated into incompatibility statements with many and few counterexamples. In Study 2A, we replicated the content effects found in Study 1, but with premises for which the incompatibility statement is a non-causal relation between classes. These results suggest that the tendency to fall into the false dilemma fallacy is modulated by the background knowledge of the reasoner. They also provide additional evidence on the link between semantic information retrieval and deduction.

  9. Assessment of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the hepatic vein for detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Keitaro; Hiramoto, Akira; Michishita, Asuka; Takagi, Satoshi; Hoshino, Yuki; Itami, Takaharu; Lim, Sue Yee; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the hepatic vein for the detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES A prospective study was conducted. A catheter was surgically placed in the portal vein of each dog. Hypertension was induced by intraportal injection of microspheres (10 to 15 mg/kg) at 5-day intervals via the catheter. Microsphere injections were continued until multiple acquired portosystemic shunts were created. Portal vein pressure (PVP) was measured through the catheter. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed before and after establishment of hypertension. Time-intensity curves were generated from the region of interest in the hepatic vein. Perfusion variables measured for statistical analysis were hepatic vein arrival time, time to peak, time to peak phase (TTPP), and washout ratio. The correlation between CEUS variables and PVP was assessed by use of simple regression analysis. RESULTS Time to peak and TTPP were significantly less after induction of portal hypertension. Simple regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between TTPP and PVP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CEUS was useful for detecting hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs, which was characterized by a rapid increase in the intensity of the hepatic vein. Furthermore, TTPP, a time-dependent variable, provided useful complementary information for predicting portal hypertension. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because the method described here induced presinusoidal portal hypertension, these results can be applied to idiopathic portal hypertension in humans.

  10. Combined static-dynamic MR urography for the simultaneous evaluation of morphology and function in urinary tract obstruction. II. Findings in experimentally induced ureteric stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrschneider, W.K.; Becker, K.; Hoffend, J.; Clorius, J.H.; Darge, K.; Kooijman, H.; Troeger, J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the diagnostic value of combined static-dynamic MR urography (MRU) for the functional-morphological evaluation of experimentally induced urinary tract obstruction in the piglet. Materials and methods. In 20 piglets unilateral ureteric stenosis was created operatively. Post-surgery repeated comparative examinations were obtained with MRU, diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), excretory urography (EU) and ultrasound (US). MRU was performed as a combination study with a static 3D-IR-TSE sequence and a dynamic 2D-FFE sequence after Gd-DTPA with frusemide administration. Results. MRU allowed complete depiction of the prestenotic urinary tract and of the stenosis in all cases. In 43 comparative studies MRU was superior to EU in 36, EU to MRU in 2. When single kidney function was calculated with both MRU and DRS, results were highly correlated (r = 0.92). When urinary excretion was compared, significant agreement was achieved with concordant findings in 86 % and slightly discordant results in 12 %. Conclusions. Static-dynamic MR urography permits excellent depiction of experimentally induced urinary tract obstruction in piglets and reliable assessment of individual renal function and urinary excretion. Two advantages of the method stand out - it does not require radiation and it permits functional-morphological correlation. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of the effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril maleate on right ventricular myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced pulmonary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Yoko; Orito, Kensuke; Osamura, Kaori; Kanai, Takao; Wakao, Yoshito

    2008-12-01

    To compare the effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril maleate on right ventricular myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced pulmonary stenosis. 24 Beagles. 18 dogs underwent pulmonary arterial banding (PAB) to induce right ventricular pressure overload, and 6 healthy dogs underwent sham operations (thoracotomy only [sham-operated group]). Dogs that underwent PAB were allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments (6 dogs/group): candesartan (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h [PABC group]), enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h [PABE group]), or no treatment (PABNT group). Administration of treatments was commenced the day prior to surgery; control dogs received no cardiac medications. Sixty days after surgery, right ventricular wall thickness was assessed echocardiographically and plasma renin activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and angiotensin I and II concentrations were assessed; all dogs were euthanatized, and collagenous fiber area, cardiomyocyte diameter, and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase-like activities in the right ventricle were evaluated. After 60 days of treatment, right ventricular wall thickness, cardiomyocyte diameter, and collagenous fiber area in the PABNT and PABE groups were significantly increased, compared with values in the PABC and sham-operated groups. Chymase-like activity was markedly greater in the PABE group than in other groups. Results indicated that treatment with candesartan but not enalapril effectively prevented myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced subacute right ventricular pressure overload.

  12. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  13. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2017-04-01

    ventricular bradycardia as true or false. Total monitoring time for each patient was measured, and the number of false alarms per hour was calculated for these six alarm types. Medical records were examined to acquire data on patient characteristics. Results: A total of 461 unique patients (mean age =60±17 years were enrolled, generating a total of 2,558,760 alarms, including all levels of arrhythmia, parameter, and technical alarms. There were 48,404 hours of patient monitoring time, and an average overall alarm rate of 52 alarms/hour. Investigators annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms; 11,345 (89.5% were determined to be false. Two hundred and fifty patients (54% generated at least one of the six annotated alarm types. Two patients generated 6,940 arrhythmia alarms (55%. The number of false alarms per monitored hour for patients’ annotated arrhythmia alarms ranged from 0.0 to 7.7, and the duration of these false alarms per hour ranged from 0.0 to 158.8 seconds. Patient characteristics were compared in relation to 1 the number and 2 the duration of false arrhythmia alarms per 24-hour period, using nonparametric statistics to minimize the influence of outliers. Among the significant associations were the following: age ≥60 years (P=0.013; P=0.034, confused mental status (P<0.001 for both comparisons, cardiovascular diagnoses (P<0.001 for both comparisons, electrocardiographic (ECG features, such as wide ECG waveforms that correspond to ventricular depolarization known as QRS complex due to bundle branch block (BBB (P=0.003; P=0.004 or ventricular paced rhythm (P=0.002 for both comparisons, respiratory diagnoses (P=0.004 for both comparisons, and support with mechanical ventilation, including those with primary diagnoses other than respiratory ones (P<0.001 for both comparisons. Conclusion: Patients likely to trigger a higher number of false arrhythmia alarms may be those with older age, confusion, cardiovascular diagnoses, and ECG features that indicate BBB or

  14. False traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Lazar B; Banzić, Igor; Rich, Norman; Dragaš, Marko; Cvetkovic, Slobodan D; Dimic, Andrija

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of false traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas as well as the outcomes of the patients. A retrospective, 16-year survey has been conducted regarding the cases of patients who underwent surgery for false traumatic aneurysms (FTA) of arteries and traumatic arteriovenous fistulas (TAVF). Patients with iatrogenic AV fistulas and iatrogenic false aneurysms were excluded from the study. There were 36 patients with TAVF and 47 with FTA. In all, 73 (87.95%) were male, and 10 (12.05%) were female, with an average age of 36.93 years (13-82 years). In 25 (29.76%) cases TAVF and FTA appeared combat-related, and 59 (70.24%) were in noncombatants. The average of all intervals between the injury and surgery was 919. 8 days (1 day to 41 years) for FTA and 396.6 days (1 day to 9 years) for TAVF. Most of the patients in both groups were surgically treated during the first 30 days after injury. One patient died on the fourth postoperative day. There were two early complications. The early patency rate was 83.34%, and limb salvage was 100%. There were no recurrent AV fistulas that required additional operations. Because of their history of severe complications, FTA and TAV fistulas require prompt treatment. The treatment is simpler if there is only a short interval between the injury and the operation. Surgical endovascular repair is mostly indicated.

  15. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  16. Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically rel...

  17. Elevated False Recollection of Emotional Pictures in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, David A.; Foster, Katherine T.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Current theories predict opposing effects of emotionally arousing information on false memory. If emotion enhances recollection, then false recollection might be lower for emotional compared to neutral pictures. However, if emotion enhances conceptual relatedness, then false recollection might increase for nonstudied but emotionally related pictures. We contrasted these two factors in younger and older adults, using the International Affective Pictures set. Although both age groups used recol...

  18. Generating false negatives and false positives for As and Mo concentrations in groundwater due to well installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ilka; Pichler, Thomas

    2018-08-01

    Groundwater monitoring relies on the acquisition of 'representative' groundwater samples, which should reflect the ambient water quality at a given location. However, drilling of a monitoring well for sample acquisition has the potential to perturb groundwater conditions to a point that may prove to be detrimental to the monitoring objective. Following installation of 20 monitoring wells in close geographic proximity in central Florida, opposing concentration trends for As and Mo were observed. In the first year after well installation As and Mo concentrations increased in some wells by a factor of 2, while in others As and Mo concentrations decreased by a factor of up to 100. Given this relatively short period of time, a natural change in groundwater composition of such magnitude is not expected, leaving well installation itself as the likely cause for the observed concentration changes. Hence, initial concentrations were identified as 'false negatives' if concentrations increased with time or as 'false positives' if concentrations decreased. False negatives were observed if concentrations were already high, i.e., the As or Mo were present at the time of drilling. False positives were observed if concentrations were relatively lower, i.e., As or Mo were present at low concentrations of approximately 1 to 2μg/L before drilling, but then released from the aquifer matrix as a result of drilling. Generally, As and Mo were present in the aquifer matrix in either pyrite or organic matter, both of which are susceptible to dissolution if redox conditions change due to the addition of oxygen. Thus, introduction of an oxidant into an anoxic aquifer through use of an oxygen saturated drilling fluid served as the conceptual model for the trends where concentrations decreased with time. Mixing between drilling fluid and groundwater (i.e., dilution) was used as the conceptual model for scenarios where increasing trends were observed. Conceptual models were successfully tested

  19. The robustness of false memory for emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette-Symons, Brandy A

    2018-02-01

    Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets. Under the shorter retention interval, emotion increased false alarms and reduced accuracy. Under the longer retention interval emotion increased hit rates and FAR, resulting in reduced accuracy and/or bias. At both retention intervals, the pattern of valence effects differed based on the arousal associated with the picture sets. Emotional pictures were found to be more related than neutral pictures in each set; however, the influence of relatedness alone does not provide an adequate explanation for all emotional differences. The results demonstrate substantial emotional differences in picture recognition that vary based on valence, arousal and retention interval.

  20. [Vaccines: building on scientific excellence and dispelling false myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The EU and Italian institutions have recently reiterated their commitment to harmonize and implement vaccination policies as a fundamental strategy for public health. Nonetheless, vaccines are losing public confidence. False myths related to vaccine adverse reactions and commercial interests, combined with the recent judgements of the Court and the "Fluad® episode", are fuelling vaccine hesitancy. In such a context, a lively debate is ongoing in Italian scientific community. Aim of this contribution is to recall the available solid scientific evidence demonstrating that vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools ever invented and recall the economic data that support the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation. As every other medicine, vaccines are registered after large and solid clinical trials have been conducted. Immunization schedules are proposed by experts in the field of clinical medicine, epidemiology and public health on the basis of the available scientific evidence, and then implemented by policy makers also taking into consideration resources allocation and financial sustainability. The false myth that vaccines are offered because of economic interests is to be dispelled;moreover, researchers, policy makers, scientific societies and the healthcare community at large should renew commitment to invest in health education and communication on vaccines, always disclosing potential conflicts of interests.

  1. THE XO PLANETARY SURVEY PROJECT: ASTROPHYSICAL FALSE POSITIVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poleski, Radosaw; McCullough, Peter R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Burke, Christopher J.; Machalek, Pavel; Janes, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Searches for planetary transits find many astrophysical false positives as a by-product. There are four main types analyzed in the literature: a grazing-incidence eclipsing binary (EB) star, an EB star with a small radius companion star, a blend of one or more stars with an unrelated EB star, and a physical triple star system. We present a list of 69 astrophysical false positives that had been identified as candidates of transiting planets of the on-going XO survey. This list may be useful in order to avoid redundant observation and characterization of these particular candidates that have been independently identified by other wide-field searches for transiting planets. The list may be useful for those modeling the yield of the XO survey and surveys similar to it. Subsequent observations of some of the listed stars may improve mass-radius relations, especially for low-mass stars. From the candidates exhibiting eclipses, we report three new spectroscopic double-line binaries and give mass function estimations for 15 single-line spectroscopic binaries.

  2. I Imagine, I Experience, I Like: The False Experience Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Priyali Rajagopal; Nicole Votolato Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    False memories refer to the mistaken belief that an event that did not occur did occur. Much of the research on false memories has focused on the antecedents to and the characteristics of such memories, with little focus on the consequences of false memories. In this research, we show that exposure to an imagery-evoking ad can result in an erroneous belief that an individual has experienced the advertised brand. We also demonstrate that such false experiential beliefs function akin to genuine...

  3. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users.…

  4. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Discourse Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Lists and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories:…

  6. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  7. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination.

  8. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination

  9. Working memory affects false memory production for emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Ciriello, Alfonso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Whereas a link between working memory (WM) and memory distortions has been demonstrated, its influence on emotional false memories is unclear. In two experiments, a verbal WM task and a false memory paradigm for negative, positive or neutral events were employed. In Experiment 1, we investigated individual differences in verbal WM and found that the interaction between valence and WM predicted false recognition, with negative and positive material protecting high WM individuals against false remembering; the beneficial effect of negative material disappeared in low WM participants. In Experiment 2, we lowered the WM capacity of half of the participants with a double task request, which led to an overall increase in false memories; furthermore, consistent with Experiment 1, the increase in negative false memories was larger than that of neutral or positive ones. It is concluded that WM plays a critical role in determining false memory production, specifically influencing the processing of negative material.

  10. The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

    2005-01-01

    The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

  11. The '419 Scam': An Unacceptable 'Power of the False'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scannell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the more virulent manifestations of a burgeoning virtual world is the very physical waste that underwrites its proliferation. Illegal e-waste dumping in Western Africa not only wreaks havoc on the ecosystems of its destination countries, but also bolsters the arsenal of the "419 scammers" and 'data miners,' in turn. As the pernicious nature of such online fraud is protested by Western media, and the global economic inequalities that foster such deception is conveniently ignored, the material vestiges of Western privilege are unwittingly recycled into the war machines of the '419 scam.' Wilfully blind to the global conditions that perpetuate the fraud, '419'" vigilantes or 'scambaiters' take it upon themselves to hunt the scammers as a way of 'turning the tables' on their operations. An online sport steeped in colonial tradition, the redoubtable scambaiters proudly display their "trophy" catches on online forums such 419eater.com and 419baiter.com. In contradistinction to the issues of morality that pervade the commentary on methods of the 419 scammers and scambaiters alike, this paper will focus instead, on the multiple creative possibilities, that are actualised by these encounters. It is argued, that such exchanges, even in their current lamentable state, at least facilitate unforeseen connections between parts of the world that had never once spoken at all. That the successful facilitation of these scams, whether on the part of scammer or scambaiter, require a level of research into their respective subjects, that brings Africa and the West into an unprecedented 'intimacy,' Even if the outcomes are ultimately antagonistic, and the relations produced "false" ones, this paper asks whether they might be identified as the nascent stages of a more productive 'powers of the false.' to make use of a concept by philosopher, Gilles Deleuze. That the forgery and fantasy used to negotiate the scams might actually have the effect of furthering

  12. Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas

    OpenAIRE

    Salesa, Manuel J.; Antón, Mauricio; Peigné, Stéphane; Morales, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The “false thumb” of pandas is a carpal bone, the radial sesamoid, which has been enlarged and functions as an opposable thumb. If the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) are not closely related, their sharing of this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. The discovery of previously unknown postcranial remains of a Miocene red panda relative, Simocyon batalleri, from the Spanish site of Batallones-1 (Madrid), now shows that this animal had a false t...

  13. Lung structure-respiratory function relationships in experimentally-induced bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Madron, E de; Harkema, J R

    1988-12-01

    Histopathology and respiratory function of rats with three different types and distributions of lower lung inflammation were compared to better understand lung structure-function relationships. Rats were exposed 21 h/day for 7 days to 0.8 ppm ozone (O{sub 3}), sham-exposed as controls, or given 5 mg/kg bacterial endotoxin either intratracheally (ITE) or intraperitoneally (IPE). Respiratory function was measured 24 h after the end of treatment, than the rats were sacrificed and the distribution of inflammation was evaluated morphometrically. Chronic centriacinar inflammation with formation of new respiratory bronchioles caused an obstructive functional impairment in the O{sub 3} rats, which was clearly distinguished from the restrictive impairments resulting from acute inflammation in ITE and IPE rats. Only the magnitudes of changes related to the distribution of inflammation differentiated the ITE and IPE groups. Flow parameters previously thought sensitive to large airway resistance were changed in the O{sub 3} rats. Alveolar luminal inflammatory exudate affected quasistatic compliance more than septal inflammation in ITE and IPE rats. Quasistatic chord compliance was the most sensitive of three indices of pressure-volume relationships. The findings in this study improve the basis for interpreting respiratory function changes of rats. (author)

  14. Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bhatia, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States and discovery and development of safe chemopreventive drugs is urgently needed. The fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum) is gaining importance because of its various health benefits. This study was initiated to investigate chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) rat mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were orally administered with PE (0.2-5.0 g/kg), starting 2 wk before and 16 wk following DMBA treatment. PE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden, and reversed histopathological changes. PE dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in mammary tumors. Immunohistochemical studies showed that PE increased intratumor Bax, decreased Bcl2 and manifested a proapoptotic shift in Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In addition, our gene expression study showed PE-mediated upregulation of Bad, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and cytochrome c in mammary tumors. Thus, PE exerts chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 in concert with caspase cascades. Pomegranate bioactive phytoconstituents could be developed as a chemopreventive drug to reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  15. A contradição entre universalidade da cultura humana e o esvaziamento das relações sociais: por uma educação que supere a falsa escolha entre etnocentrismo ou relativismo cultural The contradiction between the universality of human culture and the void of social relations: for an education to overcome the false choice between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Duarte

    2006-12-01

    and, to that end, have suffocated and destroyed much of the wealth contained in local cultures. To postmodernism the problem does not reside in the bourgeois vision of human culture, but in the very idea that a universal culture can exist. Postmodernists declare that any educational project based on the idea of the existence or possibility of a universal culture is a conservative, authoritarian, ethnocentric project. This text argues for the thesis that the Marxian conception of the historic process of constitution of the universal human wealth incorporates the theoretical elements necessary to overcome the false option, postulated by the various postmodernist trends, between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. In Marx, the universalization of human culture in the capitalist society takes place through the universalization of the exchange value of the goods as the fundamental mediation of social relations. It is, therefore, a dialectical process in which the humanization and the alienation of the human genre and of the individuals occur at the same time. The text concludes with the presentation of the challenges that, based on this Marxian conception of universal wealth, must be faced in the process of constructing a Marxist pedagogy.

  16. Affect influences false memories at encoding: evidence from recognition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2011-08-01

    Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after learning word lists designed to produce false memories. Control groups did not experience a mood induction. We found that sad moods reduced false memories only when induced before learning. Signal detection analyses confirmed that sad moods induced prior to learning reduced activation of nonpresented critical lures suggesting that they came to mind less often. Affective states, however, did not influence retrieval effects. We conclude that negative affective states promote item-specific processing, which reduces false memories in a similar way as using an explicitly guided cognitive control strategy. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. The importance of material-processing interactions in inducing false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C K; McDermott, Kathleen B; Watson, Jason M; Gallo, David A

    2005-04-01

    Deep encoding, relative to shallow encoding, has been shown to increase the probability of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Thapar & McDermott, 2001; Toglia, Neuschatz, & Goodwin, 1999). In two experiments, we showed important limitations on the generalizability of this phenomenon; these limitations are clearly predicted by existing theories regarding the mechanisms underlying such false memories (e.g., Roediger, Watson, McDermott, & Gallo, 2001). Specifically, asking subjects to attend to phonological relations among lists of phonologically associated words (e.g., weep, steep, etc.) increased the likelihood of false recall (Experiment 1) and false recognition (Experiment 2) of a related, nonpresented associate (e.g., sleep), relative to a condition in which subjects attended to meaningful relations among the words. These findings occurred along with a replication of prior findings (i.e., a semantic encoding task, relative to a phonological encoding task, enhanced the likelihood of false memory arising from a list of semantically associated words), and they place important constraints on theoretical explanations of false memory.

  18. Significance of local cerebral glucose utilization determined by the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method in experimentally induced coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, O.; Kobayashi, M.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S. (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral lesions made in the midbrain reticular formation of the rat produced behavioral akinesia. These animals neither ate nor drank. EEGs of these animals usually showed high voltage slow waves at rest. Slight EEG arousal response was demonstrated by clapping, touching and pinching only in rats with moderate impairment. Concerning the rates of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) measured by means of the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C) deoxyglucose method, 13 structures exhibited significant reductions in 28 gray structures examined when compared with sham operated rats. Lesions in the midbrain reticular formation resulted in reduction of LCGU in the neocortex, ventral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and medial and lateral geniculated bodies, mamillary body, septal nucleus and caudateputamen. Structures which did not show any significant change in LCGU were those related to the paleo and archi-cortices. These findings suggest the existence of two types of ascending activating systems. Administration of 30 mg/kg of pentobarbital reduced LCGU diffusely throughout the brain. When thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was administered to rats with lesions in the midbrain reticular formation, reversal of the reduction of LCGU was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mamillary body. Reversal of LCGU in the dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus was especially significant and its level exceeded the level of the sham control value. This suggests TRH might exert its function through the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and mamillary body. When TRH was administered to rats treated with pentobarbital, significant reversal was observed in the following structures: the lateral and ventral nucleus of the thalamus, dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, pontine gray matter, and raphe nucleus.

  19. Costs and benefits of experimentally induced changes in the allocation of growth versus immune function under differential exposure to ectoparasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pitala

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology has focused on the costs of investment in immunocompetence. However, understanding optimal resource allocation to immune defence requires also identification of its benefits, which are likely to occur only when parasites are abundant.We manipulated the abundance of parasitic hen fleas in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus nests, and supplemented their hosts, the nestlings, with methionine (a sulphur amino acid enhancing cell-mediated immunity during day 3-6. We found a significant interaction between these two experimental factors on the development of immune defences and growth rates. Only in parasitized nests did methionine supplementation boost immune (PHA response, and did nestling with experimentally increased immunocompetence show a relatively faster growth rate than control nestlings between days 6-9. Hence, the allocation of resources into immune defence and its growth-benefits are apparent only in presence of parasites. The main cost of methionine-induced increased allocation to the immune system was an increase in mortality, independently of ectoparasites. Nestlings in all treatments compensated initial growth reduction and all reached equal body size at day 16 (just prior to fledging, indicating a lack of long-term benefits. In addition, methionine treatment tended (P = 0.09 to lower circulating plasma immunoglobulin levels, possibly indicating a trade-off between the cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system.We found no strong benefits of an increased investment in immunocompetence in a parasite-rich environment. Any deviation from the growth trajectory (due to changes in allocation induced by methionine is largely detrimental for survival. Hence, while costs are apparent identifying the benefits of investment in immunocompetence during ontogeny is challenging.

  20. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wicks, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system improves radar signal processor performance by increasing target probability of detection and reducing probability of false alarm in a severe radar clutter environment...

  1. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  2. Rivastigmine alleviates experimentally induced colitis in mice and rats by acting at central and peripheral sites to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shifrin

    Full Text Available The cholinergic anti-inflammatory system and α7 nicotinic receptors in macrophages have been proposed to play a role in neuroimmunomodulation and in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. We investigated the ability of a cholinesterase (ChE inhibitor rivastigmine, to improve the pathology of ulcerative colitis by increasing the concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the brain and periphery. In combination with carbachol (10 µM, rivastigmine (1 µM significantly decreased the release of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and this effect was abolished by α7 nicotinic receptor blockade by bungarotoxin. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg but not (0.5 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously once daily in BALB/c mice with colitis induced by 4% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS, reduced the disease activity index (DAI by 60% and damage to colon structure. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and IL-6 by >60%, and the infiltration of CD11b expressing cells by 80%. These effects were accompanied by significantly greater ChE inhibition in cortex, brain stem, plasma and colon than that after 0.5 mg/kg. Co-administration of rivastigmine (1 mg/kg with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly increased the number of CD11b expressing cells in the colon but did not change DAI compared to those treated with rivastigmine alone. Rivastigmine 1 and 2 mg given rectally to rats with colitis induced by rectal administration of 30 mg dintrobezene sulfonic acid (DNBS also caused a dose related reduction in ChE activity in blood and colon, the number of ulcers and area of ulceration, levels of TNF-α and in MPO activity. The study revealed that the ChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to reduce gastro-intestinal inflammation by actions at various sites at which it preserves ACh. These include ACh released from vagal nerve endings that activates alpha7 nicotinic receptors on circulating macrophages

  3. Atheroprotective effects of pure tocotrienol supplementation in the treatment of rabbits with experimentally induced early and established atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuhairah Abdul Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease -related deaths worldwide. The atheroprotective properties of pure tocotrienols (T3 in the absence of alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP in vitamin E has not been extensively examined. Aim: To determine the atheroprotective properties of T3 in early and established atherosclerosis rabbits. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups, B1 and B2 which represent early [fed 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD for 2 weeks] and established (fed 1% HCD for 8 weeks atherosclerosis. Each group was subdivided into three intervention arms: 1 T3–4 mg/kg, 2 T3–15 mg/kg and 3 vehicle without T3 (T3 negative for 8 weeks. Serial fasting blood samples were obtained for lipid profile, and whole lengths of aorta were used to determine tissue markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and plaque stability. Results: In B1, atherosclerotic lesion in T3–4 mg/kg group was significantly reduced (p=0.008, while aortic tissue expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12 was reduced in T3–4 mg/kg compared to T3-negative rabbits group (0.2±0.1 vs. 28.5±3.1%; 3.0±1.6 vs. 14.0±1.7%; and 5.2±2.2 vs. 27.7±0.8%, respectively, p<0.05. T3–15 mg/kg group showed reduction in VCAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6 and MMP-12 (3.9±1.9 vs. 28.5±3.1%; 10.3±0.5 vs. 59.8±8.5%; 2.6±1.7 vs. 14.0±1.7%; and 16.2±3.2 vs. 27.7 0.8%, respectively, p<0.05. In B2, T3–4 mg/kg group reduced aortic tissue expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6, MMP-12 and MMP-9 compared to T3-negative rabbits group (29.9±2.4 vs. 55.3±1.3%; 26.7±1.5 vs. 60.5±7.6%; 15.7±0.7 vs. 27.7±4.8%; 34.8±2.7 vs. 46.5±3.4%; and 25.89±3.9 vs. 45.9±1.7%, respectively, p<0.05. T3–15 mg/kg group showed reduced VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6, MMP-12 and MMP-9 (20.5±3.3 vs. 35.6±2.5%; 24.9±1.3 vs. 55.3±1.3%; 29.9

  4. The neural correlates of gist-based true and false recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    When information is thematically related to previously studied information, gist-based processes contribute to false recognition. Using functional MRI, we examined the neural correlates of gist-based recognition as a function of increasing numbers of studied exemplars. Sixteen participants incidentally encoded small, medium, and large sets of pictures, and we compared the neural response at recognition using parametric modulation analyses. For hits, regions in middle occipital, middle temporal, and posterior parietal cortex linearly modulated their activity according to the number of related encoded items. For false alarms, visual, parietal, and hippocampal regions were modulated as a function of the encoded set size. The present results are consistent with prior work in that the neural regions supporting veridical memory also contribute to false memory for related information. The results also reveal that these regions respond to the degree of relatedness among similar items, and implicate perceptual and constructive processes in gist-based false memory. PMID:22155331

  5. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  7. Motivated reconstruction: The effect of brand commitment on false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicole Votolato; Rajagopal, Priyali

    2018-06-01

    Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews. Further, these differences across brand commitment are attenuated when respondents are primed with an accuracy motivation, suggesting that the biasing effects of commitment are likely because of the motivation to defend the committed brand. Finally, we find that differences in false memories subsequently lead to differences in intentions to spread word-of-mouth (e.g., recommend the product to friends), suggesting that the consequences of false product experience memories can be significant for marketers and consumers. Our findings contribute to the literatures in false memory and marketing by documenting a motivated bias in false memories because of brand commitment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The spread of true and false news online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi, Soroush; Roy, Deb; Aral, Sinan

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. We found that false news was more novel than true news, which suggests that people were more likely to share novel information. Whereas false stories inspired fear, disgust, and surprise in replies, true stories inspired anticipation, sadness, joy, and trust. Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

  10. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  11. Recollection Rejection: How Children Edit Their False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new measure of children's use of an editing operation that suppresses false memories by accessing verbatim traces of true events. Application of the methodology showed that false-memory editing increased dramatically between early and middle childhood. Measure reacted appropriately to experimental manipulations. Developmental reductions…

  12. Do Children "DRM" Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Richard L.; Warren, Amye R.; Shelton, Jill T.; Price, Jodi; Reed, Andrea W.; Williams, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but…

  13. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  14. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  15. Making up History: False Memories of Fake News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Polage

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that information that is repeated is more likely to be rated as true than information that has not been heard before. The current experiment examines whether familiarity with false news stories would increase rates of truthfulness and plausibility for these events. Further, the experiment tested whether false stories that were familiar would result in the creation of a false memory of having heard the story outside of the experiment. Participants were exposed to false new stories, each portrayed by the investigator as true news stories. After a five week delay, participants who had read the false experimental stories rated them as more truthful and more plausible than participants who had not been exposed to the stories. In addition, there was evidence of the creation of false memories for the source of the news story. Participants who had previously read about the stories were more likely to believe that they had heard the false stories from a source outside the experiment. These results suggest that repeating false claims will not only increase their believability but may also result in source monitoring errors.

  16. False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

    2004-11-01

    The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding.

  17. Too Good to be False : Nonsignificant Results Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, Chris H J; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Van Assen, M. A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant

  18. Too Good to be False: Nonsignificant Results Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H. J. Hartgerink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant findings may just be ‘too good to be false’. We examined evidence for false negatives in nonsignificant results in three different ways. We adapted the Fisher test to detect the presence of at least one false negative in a set of statistically nonsignificant results. Simulations show that the adapted Fisher method generally is a powerful method to detect false negatives. We examined evidence for false negatives in the psychology literature in three applications of the adapted Fisher method. These applications indicate that (i the observed effect size distribution of nonsignificant effects exceeds the expected distribution assuming a null-effect, and approximately two out of three (66.7% psychology articles reporting nonsignificant results contain evidence for at least one false negative, (ii nonsignificant results on gender effects contain evidence of true nonzero effects, and (iii the statistically nonsignificant replications from the Reproducibility Project Psychology (RPP do not warrant strong conclusions about the absence or presence of true zero effects underlying these nonsignificant results. We conclude that false negatives deserve more attention in the current debate on statistical practices in psychology. Potentially neglecting effects due to a lack of statistical power can lead to a waste of research resources and stifle the scientific discovery process.

  19. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  20. Epidemiology, public health, and the rhetoric of false positives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, Aaron; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As an observational science, epidemiology is regarded by some researchers as inherently flawed and open to false results. In a recent paper, Boffetta et al. [Boffetta P, McLaughlin JK, LaVecchia C, Tarone RE, Lipworth L, Blot WJ. False-positive results in cancer epidemiology: a plea f...

  1. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm PREZIOSO (FR), the lowest bidder, for the provision of paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 538 419 euros (830 381 Swiss francs), not subject to revision for the first two years. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial threeyear period.

  2. Effect of rotary or manual instrumentation, with or without a calcium hydroxide/1% chlorhexidine intracanal dressing, on the healing of experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Andiara; Silva, Léa A B; Leonardo, Mario R; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Rossi, Marcos A

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate the healing of experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions in dogs at 30, 75, and 120 days after root canal instrumentation with rotary NiTi files or manual K-files, with or without a calcium hydroxide/1% chlorhexidine paste intracanal dressing. The second, third, and fourth mandibular premolars and the second and third maxillary premolars of 5 dogs (12 to 18 months of age, weighing 8 to 15 kg) were selected for treatment (a total of 82 root canals). After pulp removal, the root canals were left exposed to the oral cavity for 7 days to allow microbial contamination, after which the root canals were sealed with ZOE cement until periapical lesions were confirmed with radiography. Group I and II teeth were instrumented with manual K-files using the crown-down technique. In group III and IV teeth, NiTi rotary files were used. The apical delta was perforated by using #20 to #30 K-files at the length of the tooth, thus creating a standardized apical opening. The apical stop was enlarged to size 70, with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation at each file change. Teeth in groups II and IV were dressed with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 )/1% chlorhexidine (CHX) paste for 15 days before root filling. Group I and III teeth did not receive an intracanal dressing. The access openings of the teeth were permanently restored with silver amalgam condensed on a glass ionomer cement base. Pairs of standardized periapical radiographs were taken at the beginning of the treatment (0 days) and at 30, 75, and 120 days after filling. There was no significant difference in the rate of radiographic healing of the periapical lesions between manual and rotary instrumentation. Radiographs taken at 120 days showed that the treatment with Ca(OH) 2 /1% CHX paste resulted in a significant reduction in mean size of the periapical lesions in comparison to single-session treatment. These findings were also true for histologic observations. The findings support the hypothesis that

  3. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period...... in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s): Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal......Background: Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake.  Methods: We calculated the ratio...

  4. Reduction of lymph tissue false positives in pulmonary embolism detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Bernard; Liang, Jianming; Bi, Jinbo; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious medical condition, characterized by the partial/complete blockage of an artery within the lungs. We have previously developed a fast yet effective approach for computer aided detection of PE in computed topographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA),1 which is capable of detecting both acute and chronic PEs, achieving a benchmark performance of 78% sensitivity at 4 false positives (FPs) per volume. By reviewing the FPs generated by this system, we found the most dominant type of FP, roughly one third of all FPs, to be lymph/connective tissue. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that specifically aims at reducing this FP type. Our idea is to explicitly exploit the anatomical context configuration of PE and lymph tissue in the lungs: a lymph FP connects to the airway and is located outside the artery, while a true PE should not connect to the airway and must be inside the artery. To realize this idea, given a detected candidate (i.e. a cluster of suspicious voxels), we compute a set of contextual features, including its distance to the airway based on local distance transform and its relative position to the artery based on fast tensor voting and Hessian "vesselness" scores. Our tests on unseen cases show that these features can reduce the lymph FPs by 59%, while improving the overall sensitivity by 3.4%.

  5. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  6. "That never happened": adults' discernment of children's true and false memory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D; Shestowsky, Donna; Segovia, Daisy A; Goodman, Gail S; Schaaf, Jennifer M; Alexander, Kristen Weede

    2012-10-01

    Adults' evaluations of children's reports can determine whether legal proceedings are undertaken and whether they ultimately lead to justice. The current study involved 92 undergraduates and 35 laypersons who viewed and evaluated videotaped interviews of 3- and 5-year-olds providing true or false memory reports. The children's reports fell into the following categories based on a 2 (event type: true vs. false) × 2 (child report: assent vs. denial) factorial design: accurate reports, false reports, accurate denials, and false denials. Results revealed that adults were generally better able to correctly judge accurate reports, accurate denials, and false reports compared with false denials: For false denials, adults were, on average, "confident" that the event had not occurred, even though the event had in fact been experienced. Participant age predicted performance. These findings underscore the greater difficulty adults have in evaluating young children's false denials compared with other types of reports. Implications for law-related situations in which adults are called upon to evaluate children's statements are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sleep does not cause false memories on a story-based test of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Elaine; Carter, Neil; McMurtrie, Hazel; Willner, Paul; Blagrove, Mark T

    2017-07-01

    Sleep contributes to the consolidation of memories. This process may involve extracting the gist of learned material at the expense of details. It has thus been proposed that sleep might lead to false memory formation. Previous research examined the effect of sleep on false memory using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Mixed results were found, including increases and decreases in false memory after sleep relative to wake. It has been questioned whether DRM false memories occur by the same processes as real-world false memories. Here, the effect of sleep on false memory was investigated using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Veridical memory deteriorated after a 12-h period of wake, but not after a 12-h period including a night's sleep. No difference in false memory was found between conditions. Although the literature supports sleep-dependent memory consolidation, the results here call into question extending this to a gist-based false memory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  9. Lexical association and false memory for words in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The average co-occurrence rate of the list word and the critical word was calculated based on two large Chinese corpuses. List-level analyses revealed that the correlation between the American and Taiwanese participants was significant only in false recognition. More importantly, the co-occurrence rate was significantly correlated with false recall and recognition of Taiwanese participants, and not of American participants. In addition, the backward association strength based on Nelson et al. (The University of South Florida word association, rhyme and word fragment norms, 1999) was significantly correlated with false recall of American participants and not of Taiwanese participants. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between language experiences and lexical association in creating false memory for word lists.

  10. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  11. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  12. What Drives False Memories in Psychopathology? A Case for Associative Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Muris, Peter; Howe, Mark L; Merckelbach, Harald

    2017-11-01

    In clinical and court settings, it is imperative to know whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression may make people susceptible to false memories. We conducted a review of the literature on false memory effects in participants with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression. When emotional associative material was presented to these groups, their levels of false memory were raised relative to those in relevant comparison groups. This difference did not consistently emerge when neutral or nonassociative material was presented. Our conclusion is supported by a quantitative comparison of effect sizes between studies using emotional associative or neutral, nonassociative material. Our review suggests that individuals with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression are at risk for producing false memories when they are exposed to information that is related to their knowledge base.

  13. What Drives False Memories in Psychopathology? A Case for Associative Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Muris, Peter; Howe, Mark L.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2017-01-01

    In clinical and court settings, it is imperative to know whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression may make people susceptible to false memories. We conducted a review of the literature on false memory effects in participants with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression. When emotional associative material was presented to these groups, their levels of false memory were raised relative to those in relevant comparison groups. This difference did not consistently emerge when neutral or nonassociative material was presented. Our conclusion is supported by a quantitative comparison of effect sizes between studies using emotional associative or neutral, nonassociative material. Our review suggests that individuals with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression are at risk for producing false memories when they are exposed to information that is related to their knowledge base. PMID:29170722

  14. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  15. Effect of Alternate Nostril Breathing Exercise on Experimentally Induced Anxiety in Healthy Volunteers Using the Simulated Public Speaking Model: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ashwin; Urval, Rathnakar P; Shenoy, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST). Visual Analog Mood Scale and Self-Statements during Public Speaking scale were used to measure the mood state at different phases of the SPST. The psychometric scores of both groups were comparable at baseline. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of phase ( p < 0.05), but group and gender did not have statistically significant influence on the mean anxiety scores. However, the test group showed a trend towards lower mean scores for the anxiety factor when compared with the control group. Considering the limitations of this pilot study and the trend seen towards lower anxiety in the test group, alternate nostril breathing may have potential anxiolytic effect in acute stressful situations. A study with larger sample size is therefore warranted. This trial is registered with CTRI/2014/03/004460.

  16. Gross and histologic evaluation of effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product on experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lara M; Mayer, Joerg; Cutler, Daniel C; Rissi, Daniel R; Divers, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product for the treatment of experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). ANIMALS 16 healthy subadult green iguanas. PROCEDURES Iguanas were anesthetized, and three 5-mm cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from each iguana (day 0). Iguanas were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups, each of which had a control treatment. Wounds in the topical treatment group received silver sulfadiazine, a topical antimicrobial product, or no treatment. Wounds in the laser treatment group received treatment with a class 4 laser at 5 or 10 J/cm 2 or no treatment. Wound measurements were obtained daily for 14 days. Iguanas were euthanized, and treatment sites were evaluated microscopically to detect ulceration, bacterial contamination, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity. RESULTS On day 14, wounds treated with a laser at 10 J/cm 2 were significantly smaller than those treated with silver sulfadiazine, but there were no other significant differences among treatments. Histologically, there were no significant differences in ulceration, bacterial infection, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity among treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Photobiomodulation at 10 J/cm 2 appeared to be a safe treatment that was tolerated well by green iguanas, but it did not result in substantial improvement in histologic evidence of wound healing, compared with results for other treatments or no treatment.

  17. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Protective effect of C-peptide on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy and the possible link between C-peptide and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbassuoni, Eman A; Aziz, Neven M; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Renal injury markers measured were serum urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and angiotensin II, and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, Bcl-2, and NO in renal tissue. In conclusion, diabetic induction resulted in islet degenerations and decreased insulin secretion with its metabolic consequences and subsequent renal complications. C-Peptide deficiencies in diabetes might have contributed to the metabolic and renal error, since C-peptide treatment to the diabetic rats completely corrected these errors. The beneficial effects of C-peptide are partially antagonized by L-NAME coadministration, indicating that NO partially mediates C-peptide effects.

  19. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Women with dysmenorrhoea are hypersensitive to experimentally induced forearm ischaemia during painful menstruation and during the pain-free follicular phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C

    2015-07-01

    Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  1. Effect of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and role of renin angiotensin system blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka S Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study, the effects of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and the role of renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 96 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after pre-determined intervals. Losartan and Enalapril were given to different subgroups of rats following relief of obstruction. Results: The severity of dilatation on the contralateral kidney varied with duration of ipsilateral obstruction longer the duration more severe the dilatation. There is direct correlation between renal parenchymal damage, pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ fibrosis, inflammation and severity of pelvi-calyceal system dilatation of contralateral kidney with duration of ipsilateral PUJ obstruction. Conclusions: Considerable injury is also inflicted to the contralateral normal kidney while ipsilateral kidney remains obstructed. Use of RAS blocking drugs has been found to significantly improve renal recovery on the contralateral kidney. It can, thus, be postulated that contralateral renal parenchymal injury was mediated through activation of RAS.

  2. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories.

  3. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  4. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  5. Transcatheter Embolization of Pulmonary Artery False Aneurysm Associated with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Mimura, H.; Yasui, K.; Okumura, Y.; Dendo, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Takahara, M.; Hiraki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman with primary pulmonary hypertension presented with recurrent hemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced CT of the chest demonstrated the enhanced mass surrounded by consolidation related to parenchymal hemorrhage. Pulmonary angiography suggested that the mass was a pulmonary artery false aneurysm. After a microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the parent artery of the falseaneurysm, the false aneurysm was successfully treated by transcatheterembolization with coils. Her hemoptysis has never recurred

  6. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  7. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  8. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  9. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  10. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  11. False-positive 111In-pentetreotide Uptake in Gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Alshammari, Alshaima

    2013-01-01

    111 In-pentetreotide [ 111 In-octreoscan] is the most widely used radiolabeled somatostatin analog for evaluating neuroendocrine tumor overexpression of somatostatin receptors. False-positives studies of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy have been reported and often the cause is unexplained but assumed to be due to high number of somatostatin receptors in other pathologies. Causes of false-positives include visualization of the gallbladder, nasal mucosa and pulmonary hilar areas in respiratory infections, thyroid abnormalities, accessory spleens, recent Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA's) and activity at the site of a recent surgical incision. In infection or inflammation the cause of false-positive uptake is probably the result of tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. In this case report, we report, a 44-year-old male patient with false-positive 111 In-pentetreotide uptake due to gastritis

  12. Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides on infestation by the sesame leafroller, Antigastra catalaunalis, the green semilooper, Chrysodeixis acuta and the parasitiod, Apanteles syleptae.

  13. Decreased susceptibility to false memories from misinformation in hormonal contraception users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nicole; Patihis, Lawrence; Nielsen, Shawn E

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones are increasingly implicated in memory formation. Recent literature has documented a relationship between hormones and emotional memory and sex differences, which are likely related to hormones, have long been demonstrated in a variety of mnemonic domains, including false memories. Hormonal contraception (HC), which alters sex hormones, has been associated with a bias towards gist memory and away from detailed memory in women who use it during an emotional memory task. Here, we investigated whether HC was associated with changes in susceptibility to false memories, which may be related to the formation of gist memories. We tested false memory susceptibility using two well-validated false memory paradigms: the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, and a story-based misinformation task. We found that hormonal contraceptive users were less susceptible to false memories compared to non-users in the misinformation task, and no differences were seen between groups on the DRM task. We hypothesise that the differences in false memories from the misinformation task may be related to hormonal contraceptive users' memory bias away from details, towards gist memory.

  14. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  15. When true memory availability promotes false memory: evidence from confabulating patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Ghetti, Simona; Frattarelli, Massimo; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    -confabulating amnesics, confabulators characterized true and false memories with irrelevant information related to test items. Results are interpreted in light of confabulators' monitoring deficits.

  16. The false alarm at Forsmark March 6th 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultaaker, Oe.

    1986-01-01

    118 households were interviewed by telephone. Additional interviews were made with the representatives of the nuclear plant, county alarming center, Radio Uppland and the authorities in question. Six out of ten households heard the false alarm. Less than one out of twenty believed that it was an alarm caused by real danger and seven out of ten think that there will be more false alarms. (G.B.)

  17. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  18. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, C.; Howe, M. L.; Knott, L.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that false memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only examined the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current stud...

  19. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  20. Intellectual factors in false memories of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Li, Jun

    2018-07-01

    The current study explored the intellectual factors in false memories of 139 patients with schizophrenia, using a recognition task and an IQ test. The full-scale IQ score of the participants ranged from 57 to 144 (M = 100, SD = 14). The full IQ score had a negative correlation with false recognition in patients with schizophrenia, and positive correlations with high-confidence true recognition and discrimination rates. Further analyses with the subtests' scores revealed that false recognition was negatively correlated with scores of performance IQ (and one of its subtests: picture arrangement), whereas true recognition was positively correlated with scores of verbal IQ (and two of its subtests: information and digit span). High-IQ patients had less false recognition (overall or high-confidence false recognition), more high-confidence true recognition, and higher discrimination abilities than those with low IQ. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive mechanism in false memory of patients with schizophrenia, and are of practical relevance to the evaluation of memory reliability in patients with different intellectual levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of depressive disorder on false memory for emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Hua, Mau-Sun

    2009-01-01

    This study explored with a false memory paradigm whether (1) depressed patients revealed more false memories and (2) whether more negative false than positive false recognition existed in subjects with depressive disorders. Thirty-two patients suffering from a major depressive episode (DSM-IV criteria), and 30 age- and education-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. After the presentation of a list of positive, negative, and neutral association items in the learning phase, subjects were asked to give a yes/no response in the recognition phase. They were also asked to rate 81 recognition items with emotional valence scores. The results revealed more negative false memories in the clinical depression group than in the normal control group; however, we did not find more negative false memories than positive ones in patients. When compared with the normal group, a more conservative response criterion for positive items was evident in patient groups. It was also found that when compared with the normal group, the subjects in the depression group perceived the positive items as less positive. On the basis of present results, it is suggested that depressed subjects judged the emotional information with criteria different from normal individuals, and patients' emotional memory intensity is attenuated by their mood.

  2. Is it wise to leave some false targets unprotected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers a system consisting of genuine elements and false targets that cannot be distinguished by the attacker's observation. The false targets can be destroyed with much less effort than the genuine elements. To enhance the attack efficiency the attacker uses a double attack strategy in which it tries first to eliminate with optimal effort as many false targets as possible in the first attack and then distributes its entire remaining resource among all surviving targets in the second attack. It is assumed that the defender can protect some of the false targets whereas the attacker attacks all targets it can observe. In both attacks the attacking resource is distributed evenly among the attacked targets. The model for evaluating the system vulnerability in the double attack is suggested for parallel and series systems. This model considers the cases of perfect and imperfect detection of the targets destroyed in the first attack. The defense strategy is analyzed based on a two period minmax game. The methodology of optimal attack and defense strategies analysis is demonstrated. In is shown that under certain conditions (high contest intensity, scarce defense resource, low FT cost, high probability of wrong identification of destroyed targets by the attacker) the defender benefits from protecting a subset of the false targets. An algorithm for determining the optimal number of false targets that should be protected is suggested

  3. Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

  4. Intersubject Differences in False Nonmatch Rates for a Fingerprint-Based Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Breebaart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The intersubject dependencies of false nonmatch rates were investigated for a minutiae-based biometric authentication process using single enrollment and verification measurements. A large number of genuine comparison scores were subjected to statistical inference tests that indicated that the number of false nonmatches depends on the subject and finger under test. This result was also observed if subjects associated with failures to enroll were excluded from the test set. The majority of the population (about 90% showed a false nonmatch rate that was considerably smaller than the average false nonmatch rate of the complete population. The remaining 10% could be characterized as “goats” due to their relatively high probability for a false nonmatch. The image quality reported by the template extraction module only weakly correlated with the genuine comparison scores. When multiple verification attempts were investigated, only a limited benefit was observed for “goats,” since the conditional probability for a false nonmatch given earlier nonsuccessful attempts increased with the number of attempts. These observations suggest that (1 there is a need for improved identification of “goats” during enrollment (e.g., using dedicated signal-driven analysis and classification methods and/or the use of multiple enrollment images and (2 there should be alternative means for identity verification in the biometric system under test in case of two subsequent false nonmatches.

  5. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  6. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  7. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  8. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  9. Not strange but not true: self-reported interest in a topic increases false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Anthony; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    People are more likely to recall both true and false information that is consistent with their pre-existing stereotypes, schemata and desires. In addition, experts in a particular field are more likely to experience false memory in relation to their area of expertise. Here, we investigate whether level of interest, as distinct from level of knowledge, and in the absence of self-professed expertise, is associated with increased false memory. 489 participants were asked to rank 7 topics from most to least interesting. They were then asked if they remembered the events described in four news items related to the topic they selected as the most interesting and four items related to the topic selected as least interesting. In each case, three of the events depicted had really happened and one was fictional. A high level of interest in a topic increased true memories for the topic and doubled the frequency of false memories, even after controlling for level of knowledge. We interpret the results in the context of the source-monitoring framework and suggest that false memories arise as a result of interference from existing information stored in domain-related schemata.

  10. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bernard

    Full Text Available Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  11. False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L; Imhof, H; Lang, W

    2001-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with a whole head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) during the test phases of word recognition experiments. Healthy young subjects had to discriminate between previously presented and new words. During prior study phases two different levels of word processing were provided according to two different kinds of instructions (shallow and deep encoding). Event-related fields (ERFs) associated with falsely recognized words (false alarms) were found to depend on the depth of processing during the prior study phase. False alarms elicited higher brain activity (as reflected by dipole strength) in case of prior deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset at temporal brain areas. Between 500 and 700 ms we found evidence for differences in the involvement of neural structures related to both conditions of false alarms. Furthermore, the number of false alarms was found to depend on depth of processing. Shallow encoding led to a higher number of false alarms than deep encoding. All data are discussed as strong support for the ideas that a certain level of word processing is performed by a distinct set of neural systems and that the same neural systems which encode information are reactivated during the retrieval.

  12. Skin irritation, false positives and the local lymph node assay: a guideline issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Since the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) there have been commentaries suggesting that the irritant properties of substances can give rise to false positives. As toxicology aspires to progress rapidly towards the age of in vitro alternatives, it is of increasing importance that issues relating to assay selectivity and performance are understood fully, and that true false positive responses are distinguished clearly from those that are simply unpalatable. In the present review, we have focused on whether skin irritation per se is actually a direct cause of true false positive results in the LLNA. The body of published work has been examined critically and considered in relation to our current understanding of the mechanisms of skin irritation and skin sensitisation. From these analyses it is very clear that, of itself, skin irritation is not a cause of false positive results. The corollary is, therefore, that limiting test concentrations in the LLNA for the purpose of avoiding skin irritation may lead, unintentionally, to false negatives. Where a substance is a true false positive in the LLNA, the classic example being sodium lauryl sulphate, explanations for that positivity will have to reach beyond the seductive, but incorrect, recourse to its skin irritation potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alpha-fetoprotein is present in the fetal fluids and is increased in plasma of mares with experimentally induced ascending placentitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canisso, Igor F; Ball, Barry A; Scoggin, Kirsten E; Squires, Edward L; Williams, Neil M; Troedsson, Mats H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in fetal fluids (FF), and (ii) compare plasma concentrations of AFP in mares with placentitis (n=17) and gestationally age-matched control mares (n=17). Fetal fluid sampling (FFS, n=7/group) was performed at 0, 5 and 12 days post inoculation (DPI) or until abortion. Plasma was harvested daily for 12 days or until abortion. Placentitis was induced via intracervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Proteins present in the FF were resolved by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotting was used to detect the presence of AFP in fetal fluids. Concentrations of AFP in FF and plasma were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mixed models for DPI, and for days from abortion (DFA) were used to analyze plasma concentrations of AFP. A protein band ∼68kDa consistent with the AFP size was present in all samples of fetal fluids examined. Immunoblotting for AFP revealed a single protein band (∼68kDa) in all samples. Concentrations of AFP in FF appeared higher than those in maternal plasma. There were effects of time (DPI p<0.0001; DFA p=0.0002) and time-by-group interactions (DPI*Group p<0.06; Group*DFA p<0.001). This study confirmed that AFP is present in the FF of mares during the third trimester of pregnancy. Experimentally induced placentitis was associated with an elevation in maternal plasma concentrations of AFP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A long-term in vivo investigation on the effects of xenogenous based, electrospun, collagen implants on the healing of experimentally-induced large tendon defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Moshiri, A; Parizi Meimandi, A; Silver, I A

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of novel 3-dimensional (3-D) collagen implants on the healing of large, experimentally-induced, tendon-defects in rabbits. Forty mature male white New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into treated and control groups. Two cm of the left Achilles tendon was excised and the gap was spanned by Kessler suture. In the treated group, a novel 3-D collagen implant was inserted between the cut ends of the tendon. No implant was used in the control group. During the course of the experiment the bioelectrical characteristics of the healing and normal tendons of both groups were investigated weekly. At 120 days post injury (DPI), the tendons were dissected and inspected for gross pathology, examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and their biomechanical properties, percentage dry matter and hydroxyproline concentration assessed. The collagen implant significantly improved the bioelectrical characteristics, gross appearance and tissue alignment of the healed, treated tendons, compared to the healed, control scars. It also significantly increased fibrillogenesis, diameter and density of the collagen fibrils, dry matter content, hydroxyproline concentration, maximum load, stiffness, stress and modulus of elasticity of the treated tendons, as compared to the control tendons. Treatment also significantly decreased peri-tendinous adhesions, and improved the hierarchical organization of the tendon from the collagen fibril to fibre-bundle level. 3-D xenogeneic-based collagen implants induced newly regenerated tissue that was ultrastructurally and biomechanically superior to tissue that was regenerated by natural unassisted healing. This type of bioimplant was biocompatible, biodegradable and appeared suitable for clinical use.

  15. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  16. Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats. Thirty two cats with no ocular abnormalities were used. Groups (n=8/each were formed with healthy cats that received 5mg g-1 of oral firocoxib (FH or no treatment (CH on day 0; seropositive cats for anti -T. gondii specific immunoglobulin G (IgG were grouped (n=8/each and treated in a similar fashion (FT and CT. On day 1, cats of all groups received the same treatment protocol, and 1h later, aqueocentesis was performed under general anesthesia (M0. Following 1h, the same procedure was repeated (M1. Quantitation of aqueous humor total protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined. Aqueous samples of seropositive cats were tested for anti- T. gondii specific IgG. In M0, aqueous samples of CT showed a significantly higher concentration of PGE2 in comparison with other groups (P<0.05. In all groups, PGE2 concentration increased significantly from M0 to M1 (P=0.001. PGE2 values did not change significantly between groups in M1 (P=0.17. Anti- T. gondii specific IgG were reported only in samples of M1, and aqueous titers did not change significantly between FT and CT (P=0.11. Although we have observed that aqueous humor PGE2 levels were significantly higher in cats of CT group during M0, such increase was not able to break the blood-aqueous barrier and cause anterior uveitis. Firocoxib did not prevent intraocular inflammation after aqueocentesis, in healthy and toxoplasmosis-seropositive cats.

  17. Effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Maria; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Vignera, Sandro La; Chrousos, George P

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia, although the locus that is principally responsible for the hypercorticosteronism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hyperthyroidism on the functional integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, to identify the locus in the HPA axis that is principally affected, and address the time-dependent effects of alterations in thyroid status. The functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in vitro and in situ in sham-thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats given placebo or in thyroidectomized rats given pharmacological dose (50 μg) of thyroxin for 7 or 60 days. Basal plasma corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were significantly increased in short- and long-term hyperthyroid rats, and by 60 days. Basal plasma ACTH levels were similar to controls. Both hypothalamic CRH content and the magnitude of KCL- and arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced CRH release from hypothalamic culture were increased in long-term hyperthyroid rats. There was a significant increase in the content of both ACTH and β-endorphin in the anterior pituitaries of both short- and long-term hyperthyroid animals. Short-term hyperthyroid rats showed a significant increase in basal POMC mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary, and chronically hyperthyroid animals showed increased stress-induced POMC mRNA expression. Adrenal cultures taken from short-term hyperthyroid rats responded to exogenous ACTH with an exaggerated corticosterone response, while those taken from 60-day hyperthyroid animals showed responses similar to controls. The findings show that hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia and HPA axis dysfunction that becomes more pronounced as the duration of hyperthyroidism increases. The evidence suggests that experimentally induced hyperthyroidism is associated with central hyperactivity of the HPA axis.

  18. Investigation into the effects of using two or four acupuncture needles with bidirectional rotation on experimentally-induced contact heat pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I

    2015-02-01

    There is growing evidence from experimental studies that the acupuncture dose or technique influences the speed of onset of hypoalgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture using two or four needles on experimental contact thermal pain in healthy volunteers. Forty two participants were randomised into three groups: four-needle group (LI4, LI11, LI10, TE5), two-needle group (verum at LI4, LI11 and mock at LI10, TE5) and mock acupuncture group (LI4, LI11, LI10, TE5). Each participant rated pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) to a series of noxious stimuli administered to the forearm 2°C above the heat pain threshold during needling and immediately after removal of the needles. Experimentally-induced heat pain intensity (VAS) during and after the intervention was lower than pre-intervention but there were no statistically significant differences in this change between groups. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the time taken for pain intensity to decrease by 33% from pre-intervention. However, a 33% decrease in pain intensity within 3 min of needle insertion was observed for 13 participants (92.9%) in the four-needle group compared with 66.7% of participants in the two-needle group and 57.1% in the mock acupuncture group. There was less variance in VAS in the four-needle group, suggesting more consistency in hypoalgesic response when using more needles. There is tentative evidence that four needles may be superior to two needles in generating rapid onset hypoalgesia. The findings suggest that further investigation is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Shannon; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-01-01

    Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay) did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  20. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon McKeon

    Full Text Available Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  1. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  2. Emotion and false memory: The context-content paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2016-12-01

    False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different. Paradoxically, we find that in experiments on spontaneous and implanted false memories, negatively valenced content foments distortion, but negatively valenced moods protect against it. In addition, correlational data show that enduring negative natural moods (e.g., depression) foment false memory. Current opponent-process models of false memory, such as fuzzy-trace theory, are able to explain the content-context dissociation: Variations in emotional content primarily affect memory for the gist of events, whereas variations in emotional context primarily affect memory for events' exact verbatim form. Important questions remain about how these effects are modulated by variations in memory tests and in arousal. Promising methods of tackling those questions are outlined, especially designs that separate the gist and verbatim influences of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. False recognition of facial expressions of emotion: causes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Carrera, Pilar; Barchard, Kimberly A; Gacitua, Marta

    2008-08-01

    This article examines the importance of semantic processes in the recognition of emotional expressions, through a series of three studies on false recognition. The first study found a high frequency of false recognition of prototypical expressions of emotion when participants viewed slides and video clips of nonprototypical fearful and happy expressions. The second study tested whether semantic processes caused false recognition. The authors found that participants made significantly higher error rates when asked to detect expressions that corresponded to semantic labels than when asked to detect visual stimuli. Finally, given that previous research reported that false memories are less prevalent in younger children, the third study tested whether false recognition of prototypical expressions increased with age. The authors found that 67% of eight- to nine-year-old children reported nonpresent prototypical expressions of fear in a fearful context, but only 40% of 6- to 7-year-old children did so. Taken together, these three studies demonstrate the importance of semantic processes in the detection and categorization of prototypical emotional expressions.

  4. False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of perceptual similarity but not semantic association on false recognition in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Burnside

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated semantic and perceptual influences on false recognition in older and young adults in a variant on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In two experiments, participants encoded intermixed sets of semantically associated words, and sets of unrelated words. Each set was presented in a shared distinctive font. Older adults were no more likely to falsely recognize semantically associated lure words compared to unrelated lures also presented in studied fonts. However, they showed an increase in false recognition of lures which were related to studied items only by a shared font. This increased false recognition was associated with recollective experience. The data show that older adults do not always rely more on prior knowledge in episodic memory tasks. They converge with other findings suggesting that older adults may also be more prone to perceptually-driven errors.

  6. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulian Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The false discovery proportion (FDP, the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.

  8. Diagnostic Invasiveness and Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, Bruno M.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We undertook a study to assess whether women with false-positivemammography have worse psychosocial consequences if managed with aworkup that involves a biopsy (invasive group) than if managed with only additional imaging (noninvasive group). METHODS: We performed subgroup analysis...... of a cohort study of 454 womenwith abnormal screening mammography and 908 matched control women withnormal results. Using a condition-specific questionnaire (Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer), we assessed 12 psychosocial consequences at 5 time points (0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months after final diagnosis......) and compared the 2 groups of women with false-positives (invasive and noninvasive management groups). RESULTS: Among the 252 women with false-positive mammography eligible forthis study, psychosocial consequences were similar for those managed invasivelyand those managed noninvasively during the 36 months...

  9. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  10. Psychosomatic disorders of gravida status: false and denied pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, William D; Nicolson, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the literature on two dramatic psychosomatic disorders of reproduction and offer a potential classification of pregnancy denial. Information on false and denied pregnancies is summarized by comparing the descriptions, differential diagnoses, epidemiology, patient characteristics, psychological factors, abdominal tone, and neuroendocrinology. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide is reviewed. False and denied pregnancies have fooled women, families, and doctors for centuries as the body obscures her true condition. Improvements in pregnancy testing have decreased reports of false pregnancy. However, recent data suggests 1/475 pregnancies are denied to 20 weeks, and 1/2455 may go undiagnosed to delivery. Factors that may contribute to the unconscious deception include abdominal muscle tone, persistent corpus luteum function, and reduced availability of biogenic amines in false pregnancy, and posture, fetal position, and corpus luteum insufficiency in denied pregnancy. For each condition, there are multiple reports in which the body reveals her true pregnancy status as soon as the woman is convinced of her diagnosis. Forensic literature on denied pregnancy focused on the woman's rejection of motherhood, while psychiatric studies have revealed that trauma and dissociation drive her denial. False pregnancy has firm grounding as a classic psychosomatic disorder. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide has led to misleading forensic data, which obscures the central role of trauma and dissociation. A reappraisal of pregnancy denial confirms it as the somatic inverse of false pregnancy. With that perspective, clinicians can help women understand their pregnancy status to avoid unexpected deliveries with tragic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  12. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, L.; Thorley, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and a...

  13. Effect of False Confidence on Asset Allocation Decisions of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether false confidence, as characterized by a high level of personal mastery and a low level of intelligence (IQ, results in frequent investor trading and subsequent investor wealth erosion across time. Using the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY79, change in wealth and asset allocation across time is modeled as a function of various behavioral, socio-economic and demographic variables drawn from prior literature.  Findings of this research reveal that false confidence is indeed a predictor of trading activity in individual investment assets, and it also has a negative impact on individual wealth creation across time.

  14. Late time properties of a decaying false vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanowski, K.

    2014-01-01

    The false vacuum states are unstable and they decay by tunneling. Some of them may survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t 2 for t → ∞. (author)

  15. Diagnosis of false proximal anastomosis aneurysms after aortofemoral reconstructive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Dan, V.N.; Karazeev, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the diagnostic aspects of false aneurysms of proximal anastomosis of prostheses with the aorta on the basis of examination of 9 patients aged 3-65 years after aortofemoral reconstructive operations. The periods of the occurrence of false aneurysms were 2 weeks to 6 years. The causes of anastomosis aneurysms: infection, endartectomy fro the aorta at the site of applied anastomosis, progressive underlying disease. The authors provide strong evidence for a high informative value of various examinations, including ultrasound echoscanning, computer tomography, radioopaque aortography

  16. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    . A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue...

  17. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  18. False-positive results in pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezin, Julien; Bosco-Levy, Pauline; Pariente, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    False-positive constitute an important issue in scientific research. In the domain of drug evaluation, it affects all phases of drug development and assessment, from the very early preclinical studies to the late post-marketing evaluations. The core concern associated with this false-positive is the lack of replicability of the results. Aside from fraud or misconducts, false-positive is often envisioned from the statistical angle, which considers them as a price to pay for type I error in statistical testing, and its inflation in the context of multiple testing. If envisioning this problematic in the context of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance however, that both evaluate drugs in an observational settings, information brought by statistical testing and the significance of such should only be considered as additional to the estimates provided and their confidence interval, in a context where differences have to be a clinically meaningful upon everything, and the results appear robust to the biases likely to have affected the studies. In the following article, we consequently illustrate these biases and their consequences in generating false-positive results, through studies and associations between drug use and health outcomes that have been widely disputed. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. APHRODITE: an Anomaly-based Architecture for False Positive Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    We present APHRODITE, an architecture designed to reduce false positives in network intrusion detection systems. APHRODITE works by detecting anomalies in the output traffic, and by correlating them with the alerts raised by the NIDS working on the input traffic. Benchmarks show a substantial

  20. A Screening Mechanism Differentiating True from False Pain during Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Lin, Xiao-Xiao; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2017-09-13

    Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures. The results revealed that pain vs. no-pain information is differentiated in the very early ERP components, i.e., the N1/P1 for the face and arm pictures categories and the VPP/N170 for the facial expression category while the mid-latency ERP components, N2 and P3, played key roles in differentiating true from false situations. The complex of N2 and P3 components may serve as a screening mechanism through which observers allocate their attentions to more important or relevant events and screen out false environmental information. This is the first study to describe and provide a time course of the screening process during pain empathy. These findings shed new light on the understanding of empathic processing.

  1. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  2. False consensus in situational judgment tests : What would others do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Köbis, N.C.; Ronay, R.; Cremers, M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an alternative response instruction to reduce the fakability of situational judgment tests. This novel instruction is based on the false consensus effect, a robust social psychological bias whereby people infer that the majority of other people’s thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors are

  3. The False Consensus Bias as Applied to Psychologically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adolescents who described themselves as depressed or suicidal and 43 nondisturbed adolescents read article about child's suicidal or viral illness death. Both groups viewed suicidal child and family more negatively than family and child with viral illness. Consistent with false consensus hypothesis, psychologically disturbed adolescents…

  4. A Computerized Demonstration of the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Replicates a classic psychology laboratory experiment where students either endorsed or refuted personal statements and estimated how other people would respond. Students always overestimated an affirmative response on the statements they endorsed, thus illustrating the false consensus effect. Includes a list of the statements and statistical…

  5. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  6. Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…

  7. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  8. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zeelenberg (René); G. Plomp; J.G.W. Raaijmakers (Jeroen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in

  9. False Memories for Shape Activate the Lateral Occipital Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M.; Slotnick, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has shown that false memories arise from higher-level conscious processing regions rather than lower-level sensory processing regions. In the present study, we assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC)--a lower-level conscious shape processing region--was associated with false…

  10. Activation of Imaginal Information on True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou; Pierce, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the activation of imaginal information on true and false memories. Participants studied a series of concrete objects in pictures or words. The imagery group (n = 96) was instructed to form images and the control group (n = 96) was not instructed to do so. Both groups were then given a standard recognition memory test and…

  11. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Plomp, G.; Zeelenberg, R.

    2003-01-01

    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design

  12. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  13. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

  15. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Magidson, Tali; Gross, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    canonized as fact. Data-dredging, p-hacking, and similar behaviors exacerbate the problem. Should negative results become easier to publish as a claim approaches acceptance as a fact, however, true and false claims would be more readily distinguished. To the degree that the model reflects the real world...

  16. False Advertising and Antitrust Law: Sometimes the Twain Should Meet

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Colbath; Nadezhda Nikonova

    2014-01-01

    Although it is easier to bring a false advertising claim under the Lanham Act than under the Sherman Act, the Lanham Act’s available remedies are not as robust. Bruce Colbath & Nadezhda Nikonova (Sheppard Mullin)

  17. Teacher Education and the Enduring Significance of "False Empathy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…

  18. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  19. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  20. Two-headed butterfly vs. mantis: do false antennae matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania G. López-Palafox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The colour patterns and morphological peculiarities of the hindwings of several butterfly species result in the appearance of a head at the rear end of the insect’s body. Although some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the “false head” deflects predator attacks towards the rear end of the butterfly, more research is needed to determine the role of the different components of the “false head”. We explored the role of hindwing tails (presumably mimicking antennae in predator deception in the “false head” butterfly Callophrys xami. We exposed butterflies with intact wings and with hindwing tails experimentally ablated to female mantises (Stagmomantis limbata. We found no differences in the number of butterflies being attacked and the number of butterflies escaping predation between both groups. However, our behavioural observations indicate that other aspects of the “false head” help C. xami survive some mantis attacks, supporting the notion that they are adaptations against predators.

  1. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  2. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  3. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  4. Evaluation of false positivity and cross reactivity in the investigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the causes of false positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus test results (F+HIV), cross reactivity of HIV antibodies with other non HIV antibodies, and efficiency of the serial and parallel testing algorithms. 100 blood samples randomly collected from clients attending the Heart to Heart HIV counseling and ...

  5. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.

    1976-01-01

    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  6. A false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a cosmopolite trematode that can infect human bile ducts but tends to live in cattle or other grazing mammals. Our aim is to stress the relevance of adequate diagnostic methods and of exact medical history in order to detect any possible clinical case.

  7. Educational Needs and Causes of False Diagnosis of Atypical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The entity of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in The Bethesda System 2001 for reporting cervical cytology is characterized by equivocal diagnosis, poor reproducibility and debatable management. This retrospective study was done to analyse the causes of false ASCUS if any and identify the ...

  8. Semantic processes leading to true and false memory formation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Ramsay, Ian; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Carter, Cameron S; Ragland, J Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Encoding semantic relationships between items on word lists (semantic processing) enhances true memories, but also increases memory distortions. Episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are strongly driven by failures to process semantic relations, but the exact nature of these relational semantic processing deficits is not well understood. Here, we used a false memory paradigm to investigate the impact of implicit and explicit semantic processing manipulations on episodic memory in SZ. Thirty SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) studied Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists of semantically associated words. Half of the lists had strong implicit semantic associations and the remainder had low strength associations. Similarly, half of the lists were presented under "standard" instructions and the other half under explicit "relational processing" instructions. After study, participants performed recall and old/new recognition tests composed of targets, critical lures, and unrelated lures. HC exhibited higher true memories and better discriminability between true and false memory compared to SZ. High, versus low, associative strength increased false memory rates in both groups. However, explicit "relational processing" instructions positively improved true memory rates only in HC. Finally, true and false memory rates were associated with severity of disorganized and negative symptoms in SZ. These results suggest that reduced processing of semantic relationships during encoding in SZ may stem from an inability to implement explicit relational processing strategies rather than a fundamental deficit in the implicit activation and retrieval of word meanings from patients' semantic lexicon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  10. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  11. Speaker information affects false recognition of unstudied lexical-semantic associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Sahil; Fox, Neal P; Blumstein, Sheila E

    2018-05-01

    Recognition of and memory for a spoken word can be facilitated by a prior presentation of that word spoken by the same talker. However, it is less clear whether this speaker congruency advantage generalizes to facilitate recognition of unheard related words. The present investigation employed a false memory paradigm to examine whether information about a speaker's identity in items heard by listeners could influence the recognition of novel items (critical intruders) phonologically or semantically related to the studied items. In Experiment 1, false recognition of semantically associated critical intruders was sensitive to speaker information, though only when subjects attended to talker identity during encoding. Results from Experiment 2 also provide some evidence that talker information affects the false recognition of critical intruders. Taken together, the present findings indicate that indexical information is able to contact the lexical-semantic network to affect the processing of unheard words.

  12. Using the false memory paradigm to test two key elements of alcohol expectancy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Richard R; Goldman, Mark S; Noll, Jane A

    2004-05-01

    Two key aspects of alcohol expectancy theory--(a) that memories about alcohol effects are stored as relatively cohesive templates of information and (b) that these templates are automatically activated in alcohol-related contexts--were tested using the Deese-Roediger- McDermott false memory paradigm. Alcohol expectancy adjectives were studied, and false memory for expectancy target words was tested in neutral and alcohol contexts. Results indicated that in the alcohol context heavier drinkers showed more false memory for alcohol expectancy words than they did in a neutral context. Differences were not found for lighter drinkers. These results were consistent with alcohol expectancy theory, which was then compared with various forms of association theory in explaining these results and larger issues in the addiction field. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  13. The effect of cognitive load on hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining hemispheric asymmetries in false memory have shown that the right hemisphere (RH) is more susceptible to false memories compared to the left hemisphere (LH). Theories suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory may be due to differences in representational coding and the use of top-down mechanisms in each hemisphere. In the current study, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm was used in conjunction with divided visual field presentation to examine the role of top-down mechanisms in hemispheric asymmetries of true and false memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of related words while completing secondary cognitive load tasks. In Experiment 2, the secondary tasks were administered during memory retrieval instead of memory encoding. Results revealed that cognitive loads imposed during the study phase influenced veridical memory in the LH more than the RH, but cognitive loads imposed during retrieval did not influence veridical memory in either hemisphere. Surprisingly, false memory rates were not influenced by cognitive loads and were higher in the LH. These data provide evidence that, at least for veridical memory, top-down control mechanisms are used more readily for the encoding of information into memory in the LH compared to the RH.

  14. Is there a positive bias in false recognition? Evidence from confabulating amnesia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Nura H; Morris, Robin G; Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Although there is some evidence for a positive emotional bias in the content of confabulations in brain damaged patients, findings have been inconsistent. The present study used the semantic-associates procedure to induce false recall and false recognition in order to examine whether a positive bias would be found in confabulating amnesic patients, relative to non-confabulating amnesic patients and healthy controls. Lists of positive, negative and neutral words were presented in order to induce false recall or false recognition of non-presented (but semantically associated) words. The latter were termed 'critical intrusions'. Thirteen confabulating amnesic patients, 13 non-confabulating amnesic patients and 13 healthy controls were investigated. Confabulating patients falsely recognised a higher proportion of positive (but unrelated) words, compared with non-confabulating patients and healthy controls. No differences were found for recall memory. Signal detection analysis, however, indicated that the positive bias for false recognition memory might reflect weaker memory in the confabulating amnesic group. This suggested that amnesia patients with weaker memory are more likely to confabulate and the content of these confabulations are more likely to be positive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of false positives in 5-ALA induced photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Kok, Esther T.; Jonges, Trudy G. N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a technique that enhances the detection of tumors during cystoscopy using a photosensitizer which accumulates primarily in cancerous cells and will fluoresce when illuminated by violetblue light. A disadvantage of PDD is the relatively low specificity. In this retrospective study we aimed to identify predictors for false positive findings in PDD. Factors such as gender, age, recent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT), previous intravesical therapy (IVT) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were examined for association with the false positive rates in a multivariate analysis. Data of 366 procedures and 200 patients were collected. Patients were instilled with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) intravesically and 1253 biopsies were taken from tumors and suspicious lesions. Female gender and TURBT are independent predictors of false positives in PDD. However, previous intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin is also an important predictor of false positives. The false positive rate decreases during the first 9-12 weeks after the latest TURBT and the latest intravesical chemotherapy. Although shortly after IVT and TURBT false positives increase, PDD improves the diagnostic sensitivity and results in more adequate treatment strategies in a significant number of patients.

  16. The role of backward associative strength in false recognition of DRM lists with multiple critical words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María S; Arndt, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words. In forty-eight English DRM lists, we manipulated BAS while controlling forward associative strength (FAS). Lists included four words (e.g., prison, convict, suspect, fugitive) simultaneously associated with two critical words (e.g., CRIMINAL, JAIL). The results indicated that true recognition was similar in high-BAS and low-BAS lists, while false recognition was greater in high-BAS lists than in low-BAS lists. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between false recognition and the probability of a resonant connection between the studied words and their associates. These findings suggest that BAS and resonant connections influence false recognition, and extend prior research using DRM lists associated with a single critical word to studies of DRM lists associated with multiple critical words.

  17. False recognition in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease – disinhibition or amnesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Flanagan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory recall processes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD can be similarly impaired, whereas recognition performance is more variable. A potential reason for this variability could be false-positive errors made on recognition trials and whether these errors are due to amnesia per se or a general over-endorsement of recognition items regardless of memory. The current study addressed this issue by analysing recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT in 39 bvFTD, 77 AD and 61 control participants from two centres (India, Australia, as well as disinhibition assessed using the Hayling test. Whereas both AD and bvFTD patients were comparably impaired on delayed recall, bvFTD patients showed intact recognition performance in terms of the number of correct hits. However, both patient groups endorsed significantly more false-positives than controls, and bvFTD and AD patients scored equally poorly on a sensitivity index (correct hits - false-positives. Furthermore, measures of disinhibition were significantly associated with false positives in both groups, with a stronger relationship with false-positives in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed similar neural correlates of false positive endorsement across bvFTD and AD, with both patient groups showing involvement of prefrontal and Papez circuitry regions, such as medial temporal and thalamic regions, and a DTI analysis detected an emerging but non-significant trend between false positives and decreased fornix integrity in bvFTD only. These findings suggest that false-positive errors on recognition tests relate to similar mechanisms in bvFTD and AD, reflecting deficits in episodic memory processes and disinhibition. These findings highlight that current memory tests are not sufficient to accurately distinguish between bvFTD and AD patients.

  18. Processing of false belief passages during natural story comprehension: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylaki, Katerina D; Nagels, Arne; Tune, Sarah; Wiese, Richard; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-11-01

    The neural correlates of theory of mind (ToM) are typically studied using paradigms which require participants to draw explicit, task-related inferences (e.g., in the false belief task). In a natural setup, such as listening to stories, false belief mentalizing occurs incidentally as part of narrative processing. In our experiment, participants listened to auditorily presented stories with false belief passages (implicit false belief processing) and immediately after each story answered comprehension questions (explicit false belief processing), while neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All stories included (among other situations) one false belief condition and one closely matched control condition. For the implicit ToM processing, we modeled the hemodynamic response during the false belief passages in the story and compared it to the hemodynamic response during the closely matched control passages. For implicit mentalizing, we found activation in typical ToM processing regions, that is the angular gyrus (AG), superior medial frontal gyrus (SmFG), precuneus (PCUN), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) as well as in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) billaterally. For explicit ToM, we only found AG activation. The conjunction analysis highlighted the left AG and MTG as well as the bilateral IFG as overlapping ToM processing regions for both implicit and explicit modes. Implicit ToM processing during listening to false belief passages, recruits the left SmFG and billateral PCUN in addition to the "mentalizing network" known form explicit processing tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. vaccination using profilin and NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Soon Lillehoj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE were investigated using an Eimeria maxima (E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed. Methods Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline, profilin, profilin plus necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB, profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106, and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101. After post-hatch birds were challenged with our NE experimental disease model, body weights, intestinal lesions, serum antibody levels to NetB, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were measured. Results Chickens in ovo vaccinated with recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS106 and recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS101 showed significantly increased body weight gains and reduced gut damages compared with the profilin-only group, respectively. Greater antibody response to NetB toxin were observed in the profilin plus NetB/IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB/IMS 101 groups compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, diminished levels of transcripts encoding for proinflammatory cytokines such as lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interleukin-8 were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens in ovo injected with profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 101 compared with profilin protein alone bird. Conclusion These results suggest that the Montanide IMS adjuvants potentiate host immunity to experimentally-induced avian NE when administered in ovo in conjunction with the profilin and

  20. The impact of sleep on true and false memory across long delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Payne, Jessica D

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of sleep on memory has a long history, sleep's role in the formation of false memories is less clear. Moreover, virtually nothing is known about the development of false memories beyond delays of about 12h. Here, for the first time, we assess post-sleep development of true and false memories across longer delay intervals of 24 and 48h. Although technically a false memory, remembering information that is related to the theme, or gist, of an experience can be considered an adaptive process. Some evidence suggests that sleep, compared to a wake period, increases both true and gist-based false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, but not all studies have returned this result, and most studies cannot rule out the possibility that sleep is merely protecting the information from interference, as opposed to actively aiding its consolidation. Here, to equate amount of time spent awake and asleep across groups, we assess how the positioning of sleep relative to memory encoding impacts retention across longer delays of 24 and 48h. Participants encoded 16 DRM lists in the morning (WAKE 1st Groups) or evening (SLEEP 1st Groups), and were tested either 24 or 48h later at the same time of day. Results demonstrate that true memory is better when participants sleep soon after learning. Sleeping first also increased false memory, but only in low performers. Importantly, and similar to previous studies, we found a negative correlation between slow-wave sleep (SWS) and false memory, suggesting that SWS may be detrimental for semantic/gist processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The "Facebook-self": characteristics and psychological predictors of false self-presentation on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Or, Oren; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Turel, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present and empirically examine a new phenomenon related to social networking sites, such as Facebook, the "false Facebook-self." Arguably false self-presentation on Facebook is a growing phenomenon, and in extreme cases; i.e., when ones Facebook image substantially deviates from their true image, it may serve as a gateway behavior to more problematic behaviors which may lead to psychological problems and even pathologies. In this study we show that certain users are more vulnerable to such false self-presentation than others. The study involved 258 Facebook users. Applying ANOVA and SEM analyses we show that users with low self-esteem and low trait authenticity are more likely than others to present a Facebook-self which deviates from their true selves. These social-interaction-related traits are influenced by one's upbringing and the anxious and avoidant attachment styles he or she has developed. Several cases (7.5%) with large gaps between the true and false Facebook-self were detected, which implies that future research should consider the adverse consequences and treatments of high levels of false Facebook-self.

  3. The “Facebook-self”: characteristics and psychological predictors of false self-presentation on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Or, Oren; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Turel, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present and empirically examine a new phenomenon related to social networking sites, such as Facebook, the “false Facebook-self.” Arguably false self-presentation on Facebook is a growing phenomenon, and in extreme cases; i.e., when ones Facebook image substantially deviates from their true image, it may serve as a gateway behavior to more problematic behaviors which may lead to psychological problems and even pathologies. In this study we show that certain users are more vulnerable to such false self-presentation than others. The study involved 258 Facebook users. Applying ANOVA and SEM analyses we show that users with low self-esteem and low trait authenticity are more likely than others to present a Facebook-self which deviates from their true selves. These social-interaction-related traits are influenced by one’s upbringing and the anxious and avoidant attachment styles he or she has developed. Several cases (7.5%) with large gaps between the true and false Facebook-self were detected, which implies that future research should consider the adverse consequences and treatments of high levels of false Facebook-self. PMID:25741299

  4. The “Facebook-self”: characteristics and psychological predictors of false self-presentation on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Gil-Or

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present and empirically examine a new phenomenon related to social networking sites, such as Facebook, the “false Facebook-self.” Arguably false self-presentation on Facebook is a growing phenomenon, and in extreme cases; i.e., when ones Facebook image substantially deviates from their true image, it may serve as a gateway behavior to more problematic behaviors which may lead to psychological problems and even pathologies. In this study we show that certain users are more vulnerable to such false self-presentation than others. The study involved 258 Facebook users. Applying ANOVA and SEM analyses we show that users with low self-esteem and low trait authenticity are more likely than others to present a Facebook-self which deviates from their true selves. These social-interaction-related traits are influenced by one’s upbringing and the anxious and avoidant attachment styles he or she has developed. Several cases (7.5% with large gaps between the true and false Facebook-self were detected, which implies that future research should consider the adverse consequences and treatments of high levels of false Facebook-self.

  5. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Flegal, Kristin E.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and lon...

  6. The "False Consensus Effect": An Egocentric Bias in Social Perception and Attribution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lee; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Evidence from four studies demonstrates that social observers tend to perceive a "false consensus" with respect to the relative commonness of their own responses. Implications of these findings for our understanding of social perception phenomena and for the analysis of the divergent perceptions of actors and observers are discussed. (Editor/RK)

  7. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  8. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  9. Developmentally Invariant Dissociations in Children's True and False Memories: Not All Relatedness Is Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    The role of categorical versus associative relations in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-old children's true and false memories was examined using the Deese--Roediger--McDermott (DRM) paradigm and categorized lists of pictures or words with or without category labels as primes. For true items, recall increased with age and categorized lists were better…

  10. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  11. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  12. The Role of Memory Activation in Creating False Memories of Encoding Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Using 3 experiments, I examined false memory for encoding context by presenting Deese-Roediger-McDermott themes (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in usual-looking fonts and by testing related, but unstudied, lure items in a font that was shown during encoding. In 2 of the experiments, testing lure items in the font used to study their…

  13. Sociolinguistic Awareness and False Belief in Young Cantonese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him; Mak, Wing Yan; Luo, Xueying; Xiao, Wen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether sociolinguistic awareness and false belief were uniquely related in 3- and 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children learning English as a second language. The English-use background of these children varied so that they possessed sociolinguistic awareness to different degrees. Results indicated that sociolinguistic…

  14. Language and False-Belief Task Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Seung, Hye Kyeung; Lee, Hyeonjin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Language is related to false-belief (FB) understanding in both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined the role of complementation and general language in FB understanding. Of interest was whether language plays similar or different roles in the groups' FB performance.…

  15. False Negative Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Results in Primary Thyroid Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Joong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koh, Myoung Ju; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) is one of the methods used to diagnose thyroid lymphoma, but it has a relatively high false-negative rate. The authors report a case of a primary thyroid lymphoma associated with underlying lymphocytic thyroiditis that was initially misdiagnosed as lymphocytic thyroiditis based on US-FNA findings

  16. Chernobyl, the true, the false and the uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This work makes the part between the true and the false information in France about the Chernobyl accident that have been read in different newspapers during the last years. This document is divide in three parts: what is true, what is false, what is uncertain. In each part are noticed extracts from newspapers face to the synthesis of thoughts about them. It is the fourth edition, the first one was in April 1990, the second one was in 1992 after a report from IAEA on the radiological consequences, the third edition was born in 1994 with the emergence of thyroid cancers especially among children, this fourth edition of 1996 takes into account the sanitary report given by the World Health Organisation experts in 1995. It confirms the progression of thyroid cancers and the absence of any other cancer as well leukemia. (N.C.)

  17. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  18. False memory and the associative network of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Minkyung; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-02-01

    This research examines the relationship between individuals' levels of life satisfaction and their associative networks of happiness. Study 1 measured European Americans' degree of false memory of happiness using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scores on the Satisfaction With Life Scale predicted the likelihood of false memory of happiness but not of other lure words such as sleep . In Study 2, European American participants completed an association-judgment task in which they judged the extent to which happiness and each of 15 positive emotion terms were associated with each other. Consistent with Study 1's findings, chronically satisfied individuals exhibited stronger associations between happiness and other positive emotion terms than did unsatisfied individuals. However, Koreans and Asian Americans did not exhibit such a pattern regarding their chronic level of life satisfaction (Study 3). In combination, results suggest that there are important individual and cultural differences in the cognitive structure and associative network of happiness.

  19. [False traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, M; Talha, H; El Idrissi, R; Lahraoui, Y; Ouazzani, L; Oubejja, H; Erraji, M; Zerhouni, H; Ettayebi, F

    2014-12-01

    Most aneurysms of hand arteries are traumatic. It is a generally rare unrecognized pathology. Complications are serious (embolism and thromboses of interdigital arteries). Two main causes can be recalled: acute trauma, with development of a false aneurysm; repeated microtrauma (hand hammer syndrome), with occurrence of an arterial dysplasic aneurysm. The diagnosis is based on the presence of a pulsatile mass, with finger dysesthesia, unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. It is confirmed by duplex Doppler. Arteriography is necessary but can be replaced by an angio-MR. We report a case of false traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager. This case illustrates this rare condition and opens discussion on therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. False Balance in Climate Change Reporting Among TV Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Maibach, E.; Boykoff, M.; Broeckelman-Post, M.; Myers, T.; Perkins, D. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    False balance is the journalistic practice of giving equal weight to both sides of a story, regardless of an established truth and validity on one side. Despite widespread scientific agreement about the anthropogenic causes of climate change, false balance on the subject of climate change remains common in television despite a documented decline in other media. In this exploratory study, 452 American TV meteorologists were surveyed about their climate change beliefs and asked how often and why they present an opposing viewpoint when they present about human contributions to climate change. The results indicate that this practice is fairly common, with nearly 30% of TV meteorologists presenting an opposing viewpoint at least half the time or more frequently when they present about climate change. Weathercasters described including an opposing viewpoint in their stories for many different reasons, including that it is essential to objective and balanced reporting, that it is used to acknowledge different audience viewpoints, and because the science is perceived to be uncertain. The results also suggest that being more certain that climate change is happening, that it is primarily caused by humans, and perceiving the full extent of the scientific consensus about human-caused climate change, are associated with decreased frequency of presenting an opposing viewpoint. This is the first time the issue of false balance has been studied in the context of TV weathercasters, and while more research is needed, these results provide some preliminary evidence to suggest that increasing weathercasters' understanding of the scientific consensus of human caused climate change may help reduce false balance reporting. Furthermore, as meteorologists and weathercasters become more prominent reporters of local climate news, it will be important for them to have techniques to accurately report the science, while maintaining their sense of objectivity.

  1. The False Consensus Effect: Deconstruction and Reconstruction of an Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Engelmann; Martin Strobel

    2004-01-01

    We present a striking example of the deconstruction and reconstruction or an anomaly. In line with previous experiments we show in a one-shot setting that the allegedly robust false consensus effect disappears if representative information is readily available. But the effect reappears if a small cognitive effort is required to retrieve the information. Most subjects apparently ignore valuable information if it is not handed to them on a silver platter. We conclude that the relevance of the f...

  2. Neural Global Pattern Similarity Underlies True and False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhifang; Zhu, Bi; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-22

    The neural processes giving rise to human memory strength signals remain poorly understood. Inspired by formal computational models that posit a central role of global matching in memory strength, we tested a novel hypothesis that the strengths of both true and false memories arise from the global similarity of an item's neural activation pattern during retrieval to that of all the studied items during encoding (i.e., the encoding-retrieval neural global pattern similarity [ER-nGPS]). We revealed multiple ER-nGPS signals that carried distinct information and contributed differentially to true and false memories: Whereas the ER-nGPS in the parietal regions reflected semantic similarity and was scaled with the recognition strengths of both true and false memories, ER-nGPS in the visual cortex contributed solely to true memory. Moreover, ER-nGPS differences between the parietal and visual cortices were correlated with frontal monitoring processes. By combining computational and neuroimaging approaches, our results advance a mechanistic understanding of memory strength in recognition. What neural processes give rise to memory strength signals, and lead to our conscious feelings of familiarity? Using fMRI, we found that the memory strength of a given item depends not only on how it was encoded during learning, but also on the similarity of its neural representation with other studied items. The global neural matching signal, mainly in the parietal lobule, could account for the memory strengths of both studied and unstudied items. Interestingly, a different global matching signal, originated from the visual cortex, could distinguish true from false memories. The findings reveal multiple neural mechanisms underlying the memory strengths of events registered in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366792-11$15.00/0.

  3. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  4. False coronary dissection with the new Monorail angioplasty balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugas, E; Cequier, A R; Sabaté, X; Jara, F

    1990-01-01

    During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, the appearance of persistent staining in the vessel by contrast media suggests coronary dissection. We report seven patients in whom a false image of severe coronary dissection was observed during angioplasty performed with the new Monorail balloon catheter. This image emerges at the moment of balloon inflation, is distally located to the balloon, and disappears with balloon catheter deflation. No complications were associated with the appearance of this image.

  5. Detecting false positive sequence homology: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M Stanley; Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Clement, Mark J; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-02-24

    Accurate detection of homologous relationships of biological sequences (DNA or amino acid) amongst organisms is an important and often difficult task that is essential to various evolutionary studies, ranging from building phylogenies to predicting functional gene annotations. There are many existing heuristic tools, most commonly based on bidirectional BLAST searches that are used to identify homologous genes and combine them into two fundamentally distinct classes: orthologs and paralogs. Due to only using heuristic filtering based on significance score cutoffs and having no cluster post-processing tools available, these methods can often produce multiple clusters constituting unrelated (non-homologous) sequences. Therefore sequencing data extracted from incomplete genome/transcriptome assemblies originated from low coverage sequencing or produced by de novo processes without a reference genome are susceptible to high false positive rates of homology detection. In this paper we develop biologically informative features that can be extracted from multiple sequence alignments of putative homologous genes (orthologs and paralogs) and further utilized in context of guided experimentation to verify false positive outcomes. We demonstrate that our machine learning method trained on both known homology clusters obtained from OrthoDB and randomly generated sequence alignments (non-homologs), successfully determines apparent false positives inferred by heuristic algorithms especially among proteomes recovered from low-coverage RNA-seq data. Almost ~42 % and ~25 % of predicted putative homologies by InParanoid and HaMStR respectively were classified as false positives on experimental data set. Our process increases the quality of output from other clustering algorithms by providing a novel post-processing method that is both fast and efficient at removing low quality clusters of putative homologous genes recovered by heuristic-based approaches.

  6. False-vacuum decay in generalized extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang Yun; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL; Vadas, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    We study false-vacuum decay in the context of generalized extended inflationary theories, and compute the bubble nucleation rates for these theories in the limit of G N →0. We find that the time dependence of the nucleation rate can be exponentially strong through the time dependence of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field. This can have a pronounced effect on whether extended inflation can be succesfully implemented. (orig.)

  7. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  8. The false spring of 2012, earliest in North American record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, T.R.; Henebry, G.M.; de Beurs, K. M.; Schwartz, M.D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Moore, David

    2013-01-01

    Phenology - the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate - is becoming an essential tool for documenting, communicating, and anticipating the consequences of climate variability and change. For example, March 2012 broke numerous records for warm temperatures and early flowering in the United States [Karl et al., 2012; Elwood et al., 2013]. Many regions experienced a “false spring,” a period of weather in late winter or early spring sufficiently mild and long to bring vegetation out of dormancy prematurely, rendering it vulnerable to late frost and drought.As global climate warms, increasingly warmer springs may combine with the random climatological occurrence of advective freezes, which result from cold air moving from one region to another, to dramatically increase the future risk of false springs, with profound ecological and economic consequences [e.g., Gu et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2011; Augspurger, 2013]. For example, in the false spring of 2012, an event embedded in long-term trends toward earlier spring [e.g., Schwartz et al., 2006], the frost damage to fruit trees totaled half a billion dollars in Michigan alone, prompting the federal government to declare the state a disaster area [Knudson, 2012].

  9. Testing a flexible method to reduce false monsoon onsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve

    Full Text Available To generate information about the monsoon onset and withdrawal we have to choose a monsoon definition and apply it to data. One problem that arises is that false monsoon onsets can hamper our analysis, which is often alleviated by smoothing the data in time or space. Another problem is that local communities or stakeholder groups may define the monsoon differently. We therefore aim to develop a technique that reduces false onsets for high-resolution gridded data, while also being flexible for different requirements that can be tailored to particular end-users. In this study, we explain how we developed our technique and demonstrate how it successfully reduces false onsets and withdrawals. The presented results yield improved information about the monsoon length and its interannual variability. Due to this improvement, we are able to extract information from higher resolution data sets. This implies that we can potentially get a more detailed picture of local climate variations that can be used in more local climate application projects such as community-based adaptations.

  10. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  11. False recall in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm: The roles of gist and associative strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, David R.; McRae, Ken; Katz, Albert N.

    2011-01-01

    Theories of false memories, particularly in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm, focus on word association strength and gist. Backward associative strength (BAS) is a strong predictor of false recall in this paradigm. However, other than being defined as a measure of association between studied list words and falsely recalled nonpresented critical words, there is little understanding of this variable. In Experiment 1, we used a knowledge-type taxonomy to classify the semantic relations in DRM stimuli. These knowledge types predicted false-recall probability, as well as BAS itself, with the most important being situation features, synonyms, and taxonomic relations. In three subsequent experiments, we demonstrated that lists composed solely of situation features can elicit a gist and produce false memories, particularly when monitoring processes are made more difficult. Our results identify the semantic factors that underlie BAS and suggest how considering semantic relations leads to a better understanding of gist formation. PMID:21506047

  12. Arousal?But Not Valence?Reduces False Memories at Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood indu...

  13. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  14. Arousal—But Not Valence—Reduces False Memories at Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods–similar in arousal levels–correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval. PMID:26938737

  15. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  16. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mirandola

    Full Text Available Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1 whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2 whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently, compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  17. Sherlock Holmes and child psychopathology assessment approaches: the case of the false-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P S; Watanabe, H

    1999-02-01

    To explore the relative value of various methods of assessing childhood psychopathology, the authors compared 4 groups of children: those who met criteria for one or more DSM diagnoses and scored high on parent symptom checklists, those who met psychopathology criteria on either one of these two assessment approaches alone, and those who met no psychopathology assessment criterion. Parents of 201 children completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), after which children and parents were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (version 2.1). Children and parents also completed other survey measures and symptom report inventories. The 4 groups of children were compared against "external validators" to examine the merits of "false-positive" and "false-negative" cases. True-positive cases (those that met DSM criteria and scored high on the CBCL) differed significantly from the true-negative cases on most external validators. "False-positive" and "false-negative" cases had intermediate levels of most risk factors and external validators. "False-positive" cases were not normal per se because they scored significantly above the true-negative group on a number of risk factors and external validators. A similar but less marked pattern was noted for "false-negatives." Findings call into question whether cases with high symptom checklist scores despite no formal diagnoses should be considered "false-positive." Pending the availability of robust markers for mental illness, researchers and clinicians must resist the tendency to reify diagnostic categories or to engage in arcane debates about the superiority of one assessment approach over another.

  18. Perceptions of a fluid consensus: uniqueness bias, false consensus, false polarization, and pluralistic ignorance in a water conservation crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Benoît; Norton, Michael I

    2003-05-01

    A 5-day field study (N = 415) during and right after a shower ban demonstrated multifaceted social projection and the tendency to draw personality inferences from simple behavior in a time of drastic consensus change. Bathers thought showering was more prevalent than did non-bathers (false consensus) and respondents consistently underestimated the prevalence of the desirable and common behavior--be it not showering during the shower ban or showering after the ban (uniqueness bias). Participants thought that bathers and non-bathers during the ban differed greatly in their general concern for the community, but self-reports demonstrated that this gap was illusory (false polarization). Finally, bathers thought other bathers cared less than they did, whereas non-bathers thought other non-bathers cared more than they did (pluralistic ignorance). The study captures the many biases at work in social perception in a time of social change.

  19. False alarms and incorrect rejections in an information security center: correlation with the frequency of incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thiers; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the actions taken by operators aimed at preventing and combating information security incidents at a banking organization. The work utilizes the theoretical framework of ergonomics and cognitive psychology. The method is workplace ergonomic analysis. Its focus is directed towards examining the cognitive dimension of the work environment with special attention to the occurrence of correlations between variability in incident frequency and the results of sign detection actions. It categorizes 45,142 operator decisions according to the theory of signal detection (Sternberg, 2000). It analyzes the correlation between incident proportions (indirectly associated with the cognitive efforts demanded from the operator) and operator decisions. The study demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation between incident proportions and false positive decisions (false alarms). However, this correlation could not be observed in relation to decisions of the false-negative type (incorrect rejection).

  20. Associative false consumer memory: effects of need for cognition and encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2018-04-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of product-attribute associations on false consumer memory. In both experiments, subjects were presented with sets of related product attributes under incidental encoding conditions. Later, recognition memory was tested with studied attributes, non-studied but associated attributes (critical lures) and non-studied unrelated attributes. In Experiment 1, the effect of Need for Cognition (NFC) was assessed. It was found that individuals high in NFC recognised more presented attributes and falsely recognised more associative critical lures. The increase in both true and associative false memory was accompanied by a greater number of responses that index the retrieval of detailed episodic-like information. Experiment 2, replicated the main findings through an experimental manipulation of the encoding task that required subjects to consider purchase likelihood. Explanations for these findings are considered from the perspective of activation processes and knowledge structures in the form of gist-based representations.

  1. Categorizing Mistaken False Positives in Regulation of Human and Environmental Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Krayer von Krauss, Martin Paul; Tickner, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the concerns often voiced by critics of the precautionary principle is that a widespread regulatory application of the principle will lead to a large number of false positives (i.e., over-regulation of minor risks and regulation of nonexisting risks). The present article proposes a general......," including: real risks, "The jury is still out," nonregulated proclaimed risks, "Too narrow a definition of risk," and risk-risk tradeoffs. These categories are defined and examples are presented in order to illustrate their key characteristics. On the basis of our analysis, we were able to identify only...... four cases that could be defined as regulatory false positives in the light of today's knowledge and recognized uncertainty: the Southern Corn Leaf Blight, the Swine Flu, Saccharin, and Food Irradiation in relation to consumer health. We conclude that concerns about false positives do not represent...

  2. Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an interactive helping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buttelmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of circumstances requires an understanding of their psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the great apes, understand many psychological states of others, for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so far there is little evidence that they possess the key marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal (implicit false-belief test which is passed by human 1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, bonobos (Pan paniscus, and orangutans (Pongo abelii, distinguish between true and false beliefs in their helping behavior. Great apes thus may possess at least some basic understanding that an agent's actions are based on her beliefs about reality. Hence, such understanding might not be the exclusive province of the human species.

  3. The risk factor of false-negative and false-positive for T-SPOT.TB in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Li, Yan

    2018-02-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd). Statistics were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 using logistic regression. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was 92.83% (233/251; 95%CI 0.8872-0.9557) and 83.67% (82/98; 95%CI 0.7454-0.9010), respectively. Patients with tuberculous meningitis were more likely to have false-negative results (OR 17.4, 95%CI 3.068-98.671; P.05). Tuberculous meningitis was a risk factor of false-negative for T-SPOT.TB, while cured TB was a risk factor of false-positive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Falsely Elevated Plasma Creatinine Due to an Immunoglobulin M Paraprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Mitchell R; Vijayan, Anitha; Trulock, Elbert P; Witt, Chad A; Kohler, Giselle D; Scott, Mitchell G

    2016-11-01

    The most common method for measuring plasma creatinine is based on its reaction with picric acid. However, enzymatic methods are becoming more popular due to improved specificity. We present a case of falsely elevated plasma creatinine values obtained by an enzymatic method that turned out to be due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. A 63-year-old woman evaluated for lung transplantation had falsely increased plasma creatinine levels (1.54-1.71mg/dL; corresponding to estimated glomerular filtration rates of 32-36 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) as measured by the Roche Creatinine plus enzymatic assay when compared with the picric acid-based procedure and several other enzymatic methods, which gave plasma creatinine values of 0.7 to 0.8mg/dL. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an IgM κ light chain paraprotein. Removal of high-molecular-weight (>30kDa) proteins by ultrafiltration reduced the patient's plasma creatinine level by the Roche enzymatic method to 0.7mg/dL. Addition of the patient's immunoglobulin fraction to plasma from other patients with normal plasma creatinine levels resulted in values that were increased by 0.58 to 0.62mg/dL. Furthermore, removal of non-IgM immunoglobulins with protein G-coupled beads did not eliminate the interference from the patient's plasma. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that falsely elevated plasma creatinine values by the Roche enzymatic method can be due to an IgM paraprotein. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. False targets vs. redundancy in homogeneous parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    System defense against natural threats and disasters that have a stochastic nature includes providing redundancy and protecting system elements. The defense against strategic intentional attacks can also include deploying false targets aimed at misleading the attacker. Distribution of the available resources among different defensive means is an important problem that arises in organizing the defense of complex civil infrastructures, industrial systems or military objects. The article considers defense resource allocation in a system exposed to external intentional attack. The expected damage caused by the attack is evaluated as system unsupplied demand. The defender distributes its limited resource between deploying redundant genuine elements and false elements, both of which are targets of attack. The attacker attacks a subset of the elements and distributes its limited resource evenly among the attacked elements. Two cases are considered: in the first one the number of attacked elements and the vulnerability of each genuine element are fixed and the defense resource distribution is determined as a solution of an optimization problem; in the second one the number of attacked elements is the attacker's free choice variable and the element's vulnerability depends on a contest determined by the defender's and attacker's resources allocated to each element. The defender's optimal resource distribution strategy is determined as a solution of a two-period minmax game. It is shown that the optimal number of genuine elements decreases monotonically with the growth of the element cost and vulnerability, whereas the optimal number of false elements demonstrates non-monotonic behavior. The contest intensity is an important factor influencing the optimal defense resource distribution. It cannot be ignored when the defense strategy is determined, and it thus also impacts the attack strategy

  7. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, N.; Bennett, E.; Thomas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Tratamento farmacológico da hiperalgesia experimentalmente induzida pelo núcleo pulposo Pharmacologic treatment of hyperalgesia experimentally induced by nucleus pulposus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de drogas anti-inflamatórias (dexametasona, indometacina, atenolol, indometacina e atenolol e analgésica (morfina sobre a hiperalgesia experimentalmente induzida pelo núcleo pulposo em contato com o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L5. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos com peso de 220 a 250g foram utilizados no estudo. A indução da hiperalgesia foi realizada por meio do contato de fragmento de núcleo pulposo retirado da região sacrococcígea e colocado sobre o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L5. Os 30 animais foram divididos em grupos experimentais de acordo com a droga utilizada. As drogas foram administradas durante duas semanas a partir da realização do procedimento cirúrgico para a indução da hiperalgesia. A hiperalgesia mecânica e térmica foram avaliadas por meio do teste da pressão constante da pata, von Frey eletrônico e Hargraves por um período de sete semanas. RESULTADOS: A maior redução da hiperalgesia foi observada no grupo de animais tratados pela morfina, seguido pela dexametasona, indometacina e atenolol. A redução da hiperalgesia foi observada após a interrupção da administração das drogas, com exceção do grupo de animais tratados com morfina, nos quais ocorreu aumento da hiperalgesia após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A hiperalgesia induzida pelo contato do núcleo pulposo com o gânglio da raiz dorsal pode ser reduzida com a administração de anti-inflamatórios e analgésicos, tendo sido observado a maior redução da hiperalgesia com a administração da morfina e dexametasona.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol, indomethacin and atenolol and analgesic drugs (morphine on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by nucleus pulposus (NP contact with the L5- dorsal root ganglion (DRG. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats with weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. The hyperalgesia was induced by

  9. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-12-01

    We examine the bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We compute the leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. We find that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum, at late times the nucleation rate is time independent. 21 refs

  10. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  11. The false gardener in Lope de Vega's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Trambaioli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic mask of the false gardener, one of the many types of noble disguised as a peasant, is specially frequent in Lope de Vega’s urban comedy; if in the main plot the love gardener courts his lover taking profit of the disguise, in the comic plot the dramatic type is parodied thanks to his links with real peasants; about 1615, Lope, already masked as Belardo in the Romancero, makes use of this dramatic type as a spokesman of his personal courtly ambitions.

  12. Hemispheric asymmetries in discourse processing: evidence from false memories for lists and texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.] to examine the hypothesis that difference between the two cerebral hemispheres in discourse processing may be due, at least partly, to memory representations for implicit text-related semantic information. Specifically, we tested the susceptibility of the left hemisphere (LH) and RH to unpresented target words following the presentation of semantically related words appearing in either word lists or short texts. Findings showed that the RH produced more false alarms than the LH for unpresented target words following either word lists or texts. These findings reveal hemispheric differences in memory for semantically related information and suggest that RH advantage in long-term maintenance of a wide range of text-related word meanings may be one aspect of its unique contribution to the construction of a discourse model. The results support the RH coarse semantic coding theory [Beeman, M. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In M. Beeman & C. Chiarello (Eds.), Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (pp. 255-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.] and suggest that hemispheric differences in semantic processing during language comprehension extend also to verbal memory.

  13. False identification use among college students increases the risk for alcohol use disorder: Results of a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well known that using false identification (ID) is a common method by which underage youth in the US obtain alcohol. While false ID use is associated with high-risk drinking patterns, its association with alcohol use disorder (AUD), independent of other risk factors, has not been firmly established. Methods Participants were 1,015 college students recruited from one university and assessed annually during their first four years of college. Latent variable growth curve modeling was used to identify significant predictors of false ID use and test the hypothesis that false ID use increased the risk for AUD, by increasing the frequency and/or quantity of alcohol use. Several other hypothesized risk factors for AUD were accounted for, including demographics (sex, race, living situation, religiosity, socioeconomic status), individual characteristics (childhood conduct problems, sensation-seeking, age at first drink), high school behaviors (high school drinking frequency, drug use), family factors (parental monitoring, parental alcohol problems), perception of peer drinking norms, and other factors related to false ID use. Results False IDs were used by almost two-thirds (66.1%) of the sample. False ID use frequency was positively associated with baseline quantity and frequency of alcohol use, independent of all other factors tested. False ID use was not directly related to AUD risk, but indirectly predicted increases in AUD risk over time through its association with greater increases in alcohol use frequency over time. Several predictors of false ID use frequency were also identified. Conclusions False ID use may contribute to AUD risk by facilitating more frequent drinking. If replicated, these findings highlight the potential public health significance of policies that enforce sanctions against false ID use. Students who use false IDs represent an important target population for alcohol prevention activities. PMID:24134075

  14. Assessment method to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, P.T.; Eggers, R.F.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    A method has been developed to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms of material loss in a nuclear facility. The computer program DETRES-1 was developed. The program first assigns the true values of control unit components receipts, shipments, beginning and ending inventories. A normal random number generator is used to generate measured values of each component. A loss estimator is calculated from the control unit's measured values. If the loss estimator triggers a detection alarm, a response is simulated. The response simulation is divided into two phases. The first phase is to simulate remeasurement of the components of the detection loss estimator using the same or better measurement methods or inferences from surrounding control units. If this phase of response continues to indicate a material loss, phase of response simulating a production shutdown and comprehensive cleanout is initiated. A new loss estimator is found, and tested against the alarm thresholds. If the estimator value is below the threshold, the original detection alarm is considered resolved; if above the threshold, an unresolved alarm has occurred. A tally is kept of valid alarms, unresolved false alarms, and failure to alarm upon a true loss

  15. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: False Positive in an I-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Cristina Rodriguez; Candil, Aida Ortega; Galvan, Eliseo Vano; Martin, Maria Nieves Cabrera; Delgado, Jose Luis Carreras [Clinico San Carlos Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    A 55-year-old man with a personal his history of left pheochromocytoma 2 years previously presented with an abdominal ultrasound showed a large left upper quadrant solid mass (calipers), with heterogeneous echogenicity and central cystic degeneration areas or necrosis. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT was performed as ACC was suspected. ACC is an uncommon malignant neoplasm of unknown cause; however, smoking and oral contraceptives may be risk factors. Patients usually present with advanced-stage disease and have poor prognosis, with a 2-year recurrence rate that ranges form 73 to 86 %. An MIBG scan was performed after injection of 185 MBq of I-123 MIBG intravenously. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/CT scan showed abnormal isotope accumulation in the tumor region. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor. The histology was of ACC, with areas of necrosis and cystic areas, so the result of the MIBG scan was a false positive. Authors divided false-positive MIBG studies into three categories. The first category is neuroendocrine lesions other than pheochromocytomas (tumors of the APUD series). the second category consists in adrenal lesions other than pheochromocytomas (adenomas, ACC) the reasons for this abnormal uptake are unclear. The third category consists of tracer uptake adjacent to the adrenal due to abnormalities in the route of excretion.

  16. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    KAUST Repository

    Sampson, J. N.

    2013-04-09

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  17. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. False Computed Tomography Findings in Bilateral Choanal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsheikh, Ezzeddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Choanal atresia (CA is a challenging surgical problem defined as a failure in the development of communication between the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Objective The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT findings in cases with bilateral choanal atresia. Methods The study involved performing axial and coronal non-contrast CT scanning with 2–3 mm sections on14 neonates that had bilateral CA. We used fiberoptic nasal endoscopy to confirm the diagnosis. We evaluated coronal CT to study the skull base area in such neonates. Results This study included 14 neonates with bilateral CA; with mean age of 7 ± 3.5 days. Mixed atretic plates were found in 12 (85.7% cases while two (14.3% had pure bony atresia. Isolated CA was detected in 9 cases (64.3% and 5 (35.7% cases had associated anomalies. Coronal CT showed soft tissue density in the nasal cavity that appeared to extend through an apparent defect in the nasal roof (cribriform plate, falsely diagnosed by radiologists as associated encephalocele. At the time of surgical repair, all patients showed thick tenacious mucous secretions in both nasal cavities and revealed no encephalocele. Nasal roof remained intact in all cases. Conclusion The thick secretion of bilateral CA could give a false encephalocele appearance on the CT. It is highly recommended to perform proper suction of the nasal cavity of suspected CA cases just before CT scanning.

  19. Angular glint effects generation for false naval target verisimility requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, Theodoros G; Galanis, Konstantinos G; Katsikas, Sokratis K

    2009-01-01

    A stimulating problem in the generation of coherent countermeasures for high range resolution radar systems is the inclusion of angular glint effects in the preparation of the false target mask. Since angular glint is representative of extended naval targets, this inclusion increases the credibility factor of the decoy playback signal at the adversary radar-operator station. In this paper, the ability of an interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) simulator to provide a proof of concept towards the clarification of this challenging task is ascertained. The solution consists of three novel vector representations of the generated data, which are proven to behave according to the laws of physics governing the glint phenomenon. The first depiction is the angular glint injection at the target which is followed by the representation of the wavefront distortion at the radar. A value-added time procession integration of the target in pure roll motion provides an expected by ISAR theory side-view image of the naval extended false target. The effectiveness of the proposed approach through verification and validation of the results by using the method of pictorial evidence is established. A final argument is raised on the usage of this software tool for actual obfuscation and deception actions for air defence at sea applications

  20. False anglicisms in the Spanish language of fashion and beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Balteiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many works have already dealt with anglicisms in Spanish, especially in science and information technologies. However, despite the high and growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, it has received comparative less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies than that of other areas, such as science or business. For several reasons, which include prestige or peer pressure, Spanish has not only adopted English words with new meanings and usage, but also contains other forms based on English patterns which users seem to consider more accurate or expressive. This paper concentrates on false anglicisms as indicators of some of the special relationships and influences between languages arising from the pervasive presence of English. We shall look at the Spanish language of fashion, which, in addition to genuine anglicisms, has for some time been using English words with different meanings, or even created items of its own (or imported them from other languages with the appearance of English words. These false anglicisms, which have proven extremely popular in receiving languages (not only in Spanish have frequently been disseminated by youth magazines and the new digital media, both in general spheres and in fashion-specific contexts.