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Sample records for relatedness facilitates cooperation

  1. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruch, Jasmin; Heinrich, Lisa; Bilde, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting...

  2. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. The facilitation effect of associative and semantic relatedness in word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we addressed three issues concerning semantic and associative relatedness between two words and how they prime each other. The first issue is whether there is a priming effect of semantic relatedness over and above the effect of associative relatedness. The second issue is how difference in semantic overlap between two words affects priming. In order to specify the semantic overlap we introduce five relation types that differ in number of common semantic components. Three relation types (synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms represent semantic relatedness while two relation types represent associative relatedness, with negligible or no semantic relatedness. Finally, the third issue addressed in this study is whether there is a symmetric priming effect if we swap the position of prime and target, i.e. whether the direction of relatedness between two words affects priming. In two lexical decision experiments we presented five types of word pairs. In both experiments we obtained stronger facilitation for pairs that were both semantically and associatively related. Closer inspection showed that larger semantic overlap between words is paralleled by greater facilitation effect. The effects did not change when prime and target swap their position, indicating that the observed facilitation effects are symmetrical. This outcome complies with predictions of distributed models of memory.

  4. Monogamy and high relatedness do not preferentially favor the evolution of cooperation

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    Nonacs Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses strongly associate nonsocial ancestors of cooperatively-breeding or eusocial species with monogamy. Because monogamy creates high-relatedness family groups, kin selection has been concluded to drive the evolution of cooperative breeding (i.e., the monogamy hypothesis. Although kin selection is criticized as inappropriate for modeling and predicting the evolution of cooperation, there are no examples where specific inclusive fitness-based predictions are intrinsically wrong. The monogamy hypothesis may be the first case of such a flawed calculation. Results A simulation model mutated helping alleles into non-cooperative populations where females mated either once or multiply. Although multiple mating produces sibling broods of lower relatedness, it also increases the likelihood that one offspring will adopt a helper role. Examining this tradeoff showed that under a wide range of conditions polygamy, rather than monogamy, allowed helping to spread more rapidly through populations. Further simulations with mating strategies as heritable traits confirmed that multiple-mating is selectively advantageous. Although cooperation evolves similarly regardless of whether dependent young are close or more distant kin, it does not evolve if they are unrelated. Conclusions The solitary ancestral species to cooperative breeders may have been predominantly monogamous, but it cannot be concluded that monogamy is a predisposing state for the evolution of helping behavior. Monogamy may simply be coincidental to other more important life history characteristics such as nest defense or sequential provisioning of offspring. The differing predictive outcome from a gene-based model also supports arguments that inclusive fitness formulations poorly model some evolutionary questions. Nevertheless, cooperation only evolves when benefits are provided for kin: helping alleles did not increase in frequency in the absence of potential

  5. igh Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Fine Licht, De H.H.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kerstes, N.A.G.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been

  6. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been...... of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare...

  7. The facilitation of groups and networks: capabilities to shape creative cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The facilitator, defined as a process guide of creative cooperation, is becoming more and more in focus to assist groups,teams and networks to meet these challenges. The author defines and exemplifies different levels of creative coorperation. Core capabilities of facilitation are defined...

  8. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    in interprofessional courses and if the model has a potential as mean of pedagogical development and collaboration. Methods The study is based on action research and is a mixed method study. In 2016 the project will gather data in cooperation with lecturers through qualitative methods and a followup on the baseline...... to further explore the potential of the study activity model as a mean of pedagogical development. The qualitative data will be processed by current hermeneutical and phenomenological methods. Outcomes and implications The outcome of the project should provide deeper insight into facilitating IPE and IPC......Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...

  9. Facilitating Consensus in Cooperative Design Processes using animation-based sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2016-01-01

    In the following paper we show how animation can be used as a digital sketching tool to facilitate cooperative work processes when exploring the application of non-idiomatic digital technologies. Focus is on the early stages of the design process, framed as ‘product formation’. Based on the results...... from a action research case study at the North Sea Oceanarium we show that animation can act as a tool to create clear representations of the quality criteria at hand, and thus enable a richer feedback loop between the different stakeholders in the design process. The main contribution...... in cooperative design processes, and detail how the techniques differs from other representational options in the early design process....

  10. Long-distance communication facilitates cooperation among wild spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersick, Andrew S.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Schneider, Jennifer M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Calls that catalyse group defence, as in the mobbing of predators, appear to facilitate cooperation by recruiting receivers to act collectively. However, even when such signals reliably precede cooperative behaviour, the extent to which the calls function as recruitment signals is unclear. Calls might simply arouse listeners’ attention, setting off a cascade of independent responses to the threat. By contrast, they might convey information, for example, about signaller identity and the nature of a threat that affects receivers’ decisions to participate. We explored this distinction by investigating a possible long-distance recruitment call used by spotted hyaenas. These social carnivores live in fission–fusion clans and individuals disperse widely within their territories. Putative recruitment calls must therefore attract receivers that are distant from the inciting threat and free to opt out of risky collective aggression. Hyaenas compete with lions over food, and neighbouring clans sometimes engage in violent border clashes. These high-stakes contests are decided based on numerical asymmetries, so hyaenas can only protect critical resources if the dispersed clan can converge quickly at conflict sites. We recorded and analysed whoop bouts produced in multiple contexts and found that bouts produced in response to signs of lion–hyaena conflict had shorter inter-whoop intervals than spontaneous ‘display’ bouts. In subsequent field playback experiments, resting hyaenas were significantly more likely to move in response to ‘recruitment’ bouts with shortened intervals than to otherwise identical ‘display’ bouts. Whereas only stimulus type predicted movement, lower-ranked subjects responded most quickly, perhaps because their feeding opportunities depend on arriving early at any kill site. Results demonstrate that hyaenas possess a signal that can reliably recruit allies across long distances, despite moderating effects of individual circumstances on

  11. Facilitating Cooperative Learning in Online and Blended Courses: An Example from an Integrated Marketing Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katryna

    2013-01-01

    Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…

  12. From Particular to Popular: Facilitating EFL Mobile-Supported Cooperative Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an action research-based study that adapted a mobile-supported cooperative reading system into regular English as a foreign language (EFL) classes at one Taiwanese elementary school. The current study was comprised of two stages: adaptation and evaluation. During the adaptation stage, a mobile-supported…

  13. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: METHOD OF WORK IN THE CLASSROOM TO FACILITATE THE COEXISTENCE

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    María del Carmen Cano Tornero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication is immersed in the investigations conducted on the application of the methods of Cooperative Learning in the classroom, through the Creativity and taking as resource the use from the TIC. It has as it bases the general Conclusions found and the produced Effects on the development of the activities, in the importance that has the social interaction for the coexistence in any educative scope. We set out an interaction between equal and, student and professor; coordinating interests, collective decision making, mutual aid, through dialogue, and always valuing and trusting the student. To conclude and to affirm, without doubt, that the processes of Interaction in the classroom improve the execution of the students in the cooperative activities.

  14. Three tapasin docking sites in TAP cooperate to facilitate transporter stabilization and heterodimerization

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    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Abrahimi, Parwiz; Mitchell, Susan M.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates peptide antigens into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for loading onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. MHC class I acquires its peptide cargo in the peptide loading complex (PLC), an oligomeric complex that the chaperone tapasin organizes by bridging TAP to MHC class I and recruiting accessory molecules such as ERp57 and calreticulin. Three tapasin binding sites on TAP have been described, two of which are located in the N-terminal domains (N domains) of TAP1 and TAP2. The third binding site is present in the core transmembrane domain (coreTMD) of TAP1 and is only used by the unassembled subunits. Tapasin is required to promote TAP stability, but through which binding site(s) it is acting is unknown. In particular the role of tapasin binding to the coreTMD of TAP1 single chains is mysterious as this interaction is lost upon TAP2 association. In this study, we map the respective binding site in TAP1 to the polar face of the amphipathic transmembrane helix TM9 and identify key residues that are essential to establish the interaction. We find that this interaction is dispensable for the peptide transport function but essential to achieve full stability of human TAP1. The interaction is also required for proper heterodimerization of the transporter. Based on similar results obtained using TAP mutants lacking tapasin binding to either N domain, we conclude that all three tapasin-binding sites in TAP cooperate to achieve high transporter stability and efficient heterodimerization. PMID:24501197

  15. Highlighting relatedness promotes prosocial motives and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Louisa; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sparks, Paul

    2011-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, people have three basic psychological needs: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Of these, the authors reasoned that relatedness need satisfaction is particularly important for promoting prosocial behavior because of the increased sense of connectedness to others that this engenders. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated relatedness, autonomy, competence, or gave participants a neutral task, and found that highlighting relatedness led to higher interest in volunteering and intentions to volunteer relative to the other conditions. Experiment 2 found that writing about relatedness experiences promoted feelings of connectedness to others, which in turn predicted greater prosocial intentions. Experiment 3 found that relatedness manipulation participants donated significantly more money to charity than did participants given a neutral task. The results suggest that highlighting relatedness increases engagement in prosocial activities and are discussed in relation to the conflict and compatibility between individual and social outcomes. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  16. Measuring concept relatedness using language models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, D.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Kraaij, W.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the notion of concept relatedness has attracted considerable attention. A variety of approaches, based on ontology structure, information content, association, or context have been proposed to indicate the relatedness of abstract ideas. We propose a method based on the cross entropy

  17. LOS PRINCIPIOS COOPERATIVOS FACILITADORES DE LA INNOVACIÓN: UN MODELO TEÓRICO/COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES FACILITATORS OF INNOVATION: A THEORETICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MARCUELLO SERVÓS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un modelo teórico que permita poner de relieve cómo la profundización en los principios cooperativos puede ser un instrumento para lograr la supervivencia y la competitividad de la empresa cooperativa. Para ello, desde el ámbito de la dirección estratégica, vinculamos los principios cooperativos con las aportaciones que proporcionan la teoría del capital social. Consideramos que el cumplimiento de dichos principios genera capital social que es un activo intangible facilitador y activador de la capacidad de absorción del conocimiento por parte de la organización, y por tanto de la innovación./The aim of this study is to propose a theoretical model that allows to highlight how the deepening of the cooperative principles can be an instrument for achieving the survival and competitiveness of the cooperative enterprise. To do so, since the area of strategic direction, we link these principles with interesting contributions that provide the theory of social capital. We believe that compliance with the cooperative principles that generates social capital is an intangible asset facilitator and enabler of absorptive capacity of knowledge on the part of the organization, and therefore innovation.

  18. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

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    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  19. Determination of genetic relatedness from low-coverage human genome sequences using pedigree simulations.

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    Martin, Michael D; Jay, Flora; Castellano, Sergi; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-08-01

    We develop and evaluate methods for inferring relatedness among individuals from low-coverage DNA sequences of their genomes, with particular emphasis on sequences obtained from fossil remains. We suggest the major factors complicating the determination of relatedness among ancient individuals are sequencing depth, the number of overlapping sites, the sequencing error rate and the presence of contamination from present-day genetic sources. We develop a theoretical model that facilitates the exploration of these factors and their relative effects, via measurement of pairwise genetic distances, without calling genotypes, and determine the power to infer relatedness under various scenarios of varying sequencing depth, present-day contamination and sequencing error. The model is validated by a simulation study as well as the analysis of aligned sequences from present-day human genomes. We then apply the method to the recently published genome sequences of ancient Europeans, developing a statistical treatment to determine confidence in assigned relatedness that is, in some cases, more precise than previously reported. As the majority of ancient specimens are from animals, this method would be applicable to investigate kinship in nonhuman remains. The developed software grups (Genetic Relatedness Using Pedigree Simulations) is implemented in Python and freely available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Changes in Differentiation-Relatedness During Psychoanalysis.

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    Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.

  1. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female

  2. Relatedness, conflict, and the evolution of eusociality.

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    Xiaoyun Liao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.

  3. Go High or Go Low? Adaptive Evolution of High and Low Relatedness Societies in Social Hymenoptera

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    Peter Nonacs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative groups can increase fitness either by helping kin or interacting with unlike individuals to produce social heterosis. They cannot, however, simultaneously maximize both benefits. This tradeoff between nepotism and diversity is modeled using Hamilton's rule (rb–c > 0, by allowing benefit and cost to be dynamic functions of relatedness (i.e., social heterosis predicts b and c depend on r. Simulations show that evolutionary outcomes tend to maximize either nepotism (with high genetic relatedness, or social heterosis (with low relatedness rather than produce an intermediate outcome. Although genetic diversity can arise through multiple mating, a second possible mechanism—the exchanging of individuals across groups—is similarly effective. Such worker “drifting” is common in many species of social Hymenoptera and may be a form of indirect reciprocity. Drifting individuals increase an unrelated group's productivity by enhancing its genetic diversity, with this effect being reciprocated by other unrelated drifters entering their natal group. The benefits from social heterosis and indirect reciprocity are robust against cheating and show that it is possible to evolve stable cooperation between individuals that are genetically distant or unrelated. As drifting becomes more prevalent colony boundaries may become weakly discriminated, which may predispose toward the evolution of unicoloniality in some species.

  4. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize d...

  5. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers.

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    Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-01-25

    Social networks show striking structural regularities, and both theory and evidence suggest that networks may have facilitated the development of large-scale cooperation in humans. Here, we characterize the social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania. We show that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily. We demonstrate that Hadza camps exhibit high between-group and low within-group variation in public goods game donations. Network ties are also more likely between people who give the same amount, and the similarity in cooperative behaviour extends up to two degrees of separation. Social distance appears to be as important as genetic relatedness and physical proximity in explaining assortativity in cooperation. Our results suggest that certain elements of social network structure may have been present at an early point in human history. Also, early humans may have formed ties with both kin and non-kin, based in part on their tendency to cooperate. Social networks may thus have contributed to the emergence of cooperation.

  6. An explicit semantic relatedness measure based on random walk

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    HU Sihui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The semantic relatedness calculation of open domain knowledge network is a significant issue.In this paper,pheromone strategy is drawn from the thought of ant colony algorithm and is integrated into the random walk which is taken as the basic framework of calculating the semantic relatedness degree.The pheromone distribution is taken as a criterion of determining the tightness degree of semantic relatedness.A method of calculating semantic relatedness degree based on random walk is proposed and the exploration process of calculating the semantic relatedness degree is presented in a dominant way.The method mainly contains Path Select Model(PSM and Semantic Relatedness Computing Model(SRCM.PSM is used to simulate the path selection of ants and pheromone release.SRCM is used to calculate the semantic relatedness by utilizing the information returned by ants.The result indicates that the method could complete semantic relatedness calculation in linear complexity and extend the feasible strategy of semantic relatedness calculation.

  7. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We...... in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation...

  8. DNA-mediated cooperativity facilitates the co-selection of cryptic enhancer sequences by SOX2 and PAX6 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Pillay, Shubhadra; Huang, Yong-Heng; Jayabal, Sriram; Udayasuryan, Barath; Veerapandian, Veeramohan; Kolatkar, Prasanna; Cojocaru, Vlad; Pervushin, Konstantin; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-02-18

    Sox2 and Pax6 are transcription factors that direct cell fate decision during neurogenesis, yet the mechanism behind how they cooperate on enhancer DNA elements and regulate gene expression is unclear. By systematically interrogating Sox2 and Pax6 interaction on minimal enhancer elements, we found that cooperative DNA recognition relies on combinatorial nucleotide switches and precisely spaced, but cryptic composite DNA motifs. Surprisingly, all tested Sox and Pax paralogs have the capacity to cooperate on such enhancer elements. NMR and molecular modeling reveal very few direct protein-protein interactions between Sox2 and Pax6, suggesting that cooperative binding is mediated by allosteric interactions propagating through DNA structure. Furthermore, we detected and validated several novel sites in the human genome targeted cooperatively by Sox2 and Pax6. Collectively, we demonstrate that Sox-Pax partnerships have the potential to substantially alter DNA target specificities and likely enable the pleiotropic and context-specific action of these cell-lineage specifiers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Resistance and relatedness on an evolutionary graph

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    Maciejewski, Wes

    2012-01-01

    When investigating evolution in structured populations, it is often convenient to consider the population as an evolutionary graph—individuals as nodes, and whom they may act with as edges. There has, in recent years, been a surge of interest in evolutionary graphs, especially in the study of the evolution of social behaviours. An inclusive fitness framework is best suited for this type of study. A central requirement for an inclusive fitness analysis is an expression for the genetic similarity between individuals residing on the graph. This has been a major hindrance for work in this area as highly technical mathematics are often required. Here, I derive a result that links genetic relatedness between haploid individuals on an evolutionary graph to the resistance between vertices on a corresponding electrical network. An example that demonstrates the potential computational advantage of this result over contemporary approaches is provided. This result offers more, however, to the study of population genetics than strictly computationally efficient methods. By establishing a link between gene transfer and electric circuit theory, conceptualizations of the latter can enhance understanding of the former. PMID:21849384

  10. Pacific Islanders and Amerindian relatedness according to HLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups of populations, like the presence of South American sweet potato in earlier .... Aymara (Bolivia), Uros (Peru) and Lamas (Peru) populations were .... Redish to yellow colours mean a gradient of HLA relatedness according to geography.

  11. On the impact of relatedness on SNP association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Tönjes, Anke; Scholz, Markus

    2017-12-06

    When testing for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) associations in related individuals, observations are not independent. Simple linear regression assuming independent normally distributed residuals results in an increased type I error and the power of the test is also affected in a more complicate manner. Inflation of type I error is often successfully corrected by genomic control. However, this reduces the power of the test when relatedness is of concern. In the present paper, we derive explicit formulae to investigate how heritability and strength of relatedness contribute to variance inflation of the effect estimate of the linear model. Further, we study the consequences of variance inflation on hypothesis testing and compare the results with those of genomic control correction. We apply the developed theory to the publicly available HapMap trio data (N=129), the Sorbs (a self-contained population with N=977 characterised by a cryptic relatedness structure) and synthetic family studies with different sample sizes (ranging from N=129 to N=999) and different degrees of relatedness. We derive explicit and easily to apply approximation formulae to estimate the impact of relatedness on the variance of the effect estimate of the linear regression model. Variance inflation increases with increasing heritability. Relatedness structure also impacts the degree of variance inflation as shown for example family structures. Variance inflation is smallest for HapMap trios, followed by a synthetic family study corresponding to the trio data but with larger sample size than HapMap. Next strongest inflation is observed for the Sorbs, and finally, for a synthetic family study with a more extreme relatedness structure but with similar sample size as the Sorbs. Type I error increases rapidly with increasing inflation. However, for smaller significance levels, power increases with increasing inflation while the opposite holds for larger significance levels. When genomic control

  12. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

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    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  14. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  15. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  16. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  17. Industry Relatedness and Post-Acquisition Innovative Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cefis, Elena; Marsili, Orietta; Rigamonti, Damiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how characteristics of acquiring and acquired firms influence the curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between relatedness and post-acquisition innovative performance. Using a relatedness index based on industry co-occurrence in a sample of 1,736 Dutch acquisitions, we...... find that acquirer's internal R&D and acquisition experience, and the small size of acquired firms, help to reach a balance between exploration of novelty and exploitation of synergies in unrelated acquisitions, and to achieve higher post-acquisition performance. However, while the acquirer's R......&D increases flexibility in the acquisition process in presence of deviations from the optimal level of relatedness, acquisition experience may enhance rigidities....

  18. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  19. 29 CFR 1904.5 - Determination of work-relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poisoning from food supplied by the employer, the case would be considered work-related. (v) The injury or... hotel, motel, or into an other temporary residence, he or she establishes a “home away from home.” You... temporary residence for their work-relatedness in the same manner as you evaluate the activities of a non...

  20. Consumers’ perception of relatedness in mental representations of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    The work in this thesis investigates relatedness (as perceived by consumers) in mental representations of products. Just as other objects that are part of the physical world, products are represented in consumers’ minds in the form of concepts. Concepts hold consumers’ knowledge about a product.

  1. Measuring autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of literature on users‟ need satisfaction from the psychological (mental and emotional) aspects of the variable as it affects usage of reference sources and services hence this study to measure autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs‟ satisfaction on use of reference sources and services ...

  2. Relatedness as driver of regional diversification : a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Relatedness as driver of regional diversification: a research agenda. Regional Studies. The regional diversification literature claims that regions diversify in new activities related to their existing activities from which new activities draw on and combine local capabilities. The paper offers a

  3. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  4. Gender differences in the family-relatedness of relocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, J.; Pluut, Helen; Büttgen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a dyadic study design, the present study draws on research into the family-relatedness of work decisions to examine the impact of the spouse's characteristics on an employee's willingness to engage in job-related relocation. With a sample of 1234 employees, the results show that spousal

  5. Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Frommen, Joachim Gerhard; Josi, Dario; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Predation risk is a major ecological factor selecting for group living. It is largely ignored, however, as an evolutionary driver of social complexity and cooperative breeding, which is attributed mainly to a combination of habitat saturation and enhanced relatedness levels. Social cichlids neither

  6. Preferences of newborn mice for odours indicating closer genetic relatedness: is experience necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todrank, Josephine; Busquet, Nicolas; Baudoin, Claude; Heth, Giora

    2005-10-07

    Evidence from studies with adult rodents indicates that individual recognition enables distinctions between familiar individuals irrespective of relatedness (but including close kin) and a separate mechanism enables discriminations based on genetic relatedness without prior familiarity. For example, adult mice could assess the extent of their genetic relatedness to unfamiliar individuals using perceptual similarities between their individual odours. The ontogeny of this genetic relatedness assessment mechanism, however, had not been investigated. Here, in two-choice tests, newborn mice differentially preferred odours of more genetically similar lactating females (paternal aunts to unrelated conspecific and conspecific to heterospecific) even without prior direct exposure to adults with the tested genotypes. The results provide a direct demonstration of genetic relatedness assessment abilities in newborns and show that experience with parental odours is not necessary for genetic relatedness distinctions. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether exposure to odours of other foetuses in the womb or littermates shortly after birth affects this genetic relatedness assessment process.

  7. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  8. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  9. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  10. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  11. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  12. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  13. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  14. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  15. The Cascading Development of Autonomy and Relatedness From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623

  16. The cascading development of autonomy and relatedness from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hessel, Elenda T; Molloy, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21 was examined among 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The role of attention and relatedness in emotionally enhanced memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Schimmack, Ulrich; Paterson, Theone; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-02-01

    Examining the positive and negative pictures separately revealed that emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for positive pictures was mediated by attention, with no significant influence of emotional arousal, whereas the reverse was true of negative pictures. Consistent with this finding, in Experiment 2 EEM for negative pictures was found even when task emphasis was manipulated so that equivalent attention was allocated to negative and neutral pictures. The results show that attention and semantic relatedness contribute to EEM, with the extent varying with emotional valence. Negative emotion can influence memory independently of these 2 factors. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  19. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  20. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  1. Student Perceptions and Motivation in the Classroom: Exploring Relatedness and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette; Dodge, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    According to Self-Determination Theory, feelings of relatedness and value of a behavior are critical factors that affect internalization and integration. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors that influence relatedness and value in an academic setting. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of autonomy, mastery goals,…

  2. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  3. A/r/tographic Collaboration as Radical Relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bickel PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine a/r/tographical collaboration in a community-engaged research study investigating immigrant understandings of home and place. The study, The City of Richgate, involves a complex collaboration between community members, community organizations, educational institutions, and a research team comprising artist-educators. The study crosses border zones of cultural, ethnic, geographic, institutional, public, private, and disciplinary boundaries, reflecting the ever-changing character of postmodern reality. In this paper the authors reflect critically and theoretically on the lived experience of radical relatedness found within the complex collaboration, particularly within the a/r/tographic research team. This offers a qualitative methodology of radical collaboration applicable to many fields of inquiry in the academy, art world, and community.

  4. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  5. An Approach to Measuring Semantic Relatedness of Geographic Terminologies Using a Thesaurus and Lexical Database Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zugang Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In geographic information science, semantic relatedness is important for Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR, Linked Geospatial Data, geoparsing, and geo-semantics. But computing the semantic similarity/relatedness of geographic terminology is still an urgent issue to tackle. The thesaurus is a ubiquitous and sophisticated knowledge representation tool existing in various domains. In this article, we combined the generic lexical database (WordNet or HowNet with the Thesaurus for Geographic Science and proposed a thesaurus–lexical relatedness measure (TLRM to compute the semantic relatedness of geographic terminology. This measure quantified the relationship between terminologies, interlinked the discrete term trees by using the generic lexical database, and realized the semantic relatedness computation of any two terminologies in the thesaurus. The TLRM was evaluated on a new relatedness baseline, namely, the Geo-Terminology Relatedness Dataset (GTRD which was built by us, and the TLRM obtained a relatively high cognitive plausibility. Finally, we applied the TLRM on a geospatial data sharing portal to support data retrieval. The application results of the 30 most frequently used queries of the portal demonstrated that using TLRM could improve the recall of geospatial data retrieval in most situations and rank the retrieval results by the matching scores between the query of users and the geospatial dataset.

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  7. The relations among relatedness needs, subjective well-being, and depression of Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, SuGyun; Jeon, JeeHye; Chong, YoungSook; An, JeongShin

    2015-01-01

    The first part of the study examined what the relatedness needs Korean elderly have in close relationships (spouse, children, friends) are. The most salient needs were "love and care" for spouse and "contact and often meeting" for children and friends. The second part of the study assessed the relations among the difference between expectation and satisfaction of relatedness needs, subjective well-being, and depression of Korean elderly. Regression analyses showed that the difference between expectation and satisfaction of relatedness needs for spouse and children significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression. Finally, gender differences are discussed in terms of the patriarchal culture of Korean society.

  8. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  9. Phylogenetic relatedness predicts priority effects in nectar yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G.; Belisle, Melinda; Fukami, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Priority effects, in which the outcome of species interactions depends on the order of their arrival, are a key component of many models of community assembly. Yet, much remains unknown about how priority effects vary in strength among species in a community and what factors explain this variation. We experimented with a model natural community in laboratory microcosms that allowed us to quantify the strength of priority effects for most of the yeast species found in the floral nectar of a hummingbird-pollinated shrub at a biological preserve in northern California. We found that priority effects were widespread, with late-arriving species experiencing strong negative effects from early-arriving species. However, the magnitude of priority effects varied across species pairs. This variation was phylogenetically non-random, with priority effects stronger between closer relatives. Analysis of carbon and amino acid consumption profiles indicated that competition between closer relatives was more intense owing to higher ecological similarity, consistent with Darwin's naturalization hypothesis. These results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness between potential colonists may explain the strength of priority effects and, as a consequence, the degree to which community assembly is historically contingent. PMID:21775330

  10. Pathways to social evolution: reciprocity, relatedness, and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeremy; Akçay, Erol

    2014-08-01

    Many organisms live in populations structured by space and by class, exhibit plastic responses to their social partners, and are subject to nonadditive ecological and fitness effects. Social evolution theory has long recognized that all of these factors can lead to different selection pressures but has only recently attempted to synthesize how these factors interact. Using models for both discrete and continuous phenotypes, we show that analyzing these factors in a consistent framework reveals that they interact with one another in ways previously overlooked. Specifically, behavioral responses (reciprocity), genetic relatedness, and synergy interact in nontrivial ways that cannot be easily captured by simple summary indices of assortment. We demonstrate the importance of these interactions by showing how they have been neglected in previous synthetic models of social behavior both within and between species. These interactions also affect the level of behavioral responses that can evolve in the long run; proximate biological mechanisms are evolutionarily stable when they generate enough responsiveness relative to the level of responsiveness that exactly balances the ecological costs and benefits. Given the richness of social behavior across taxa, these interactions should be a boon for empirical research as they are likely crucial for describing the complex relationship linking ecology, demography, and social behavior. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    smith, jeff; Van Dyken, J. David; Zee, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hamilton’s rule states that cooperation will evolve if the fitness cost to actors is less than the benefit to recipients multiplied by their genetic relatedness. This rule makes many simplifying assumptions, however, and does not accurately describe social evolution in organisms like microbes where selection is both strong and nonadditive. We derived a generalization of Hamilton’s rule and measured its parameters in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria. Nonadditivity made cooperative sporulation surpr...

  12. Autonomy and relatedness in psychopathology and treatment: a cross-cultural formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T

    2001-02-01

    A cross-cultural view of psychopathology is proposed, contending that there are two basic systems of self-organization. These two systems of self-organization, labeled autonomy and relatedness, are essential to a person's well-being regardless of the culture or society to which the person belongs. The degree of autonomy and relatedness required to maintain mental health in a specific society is affected by cultural mores. People in collectivistic (primarily non-Western) cultures require high levels of relatedness and moderate levels of autonomy to maintain mental health. People in individualistic (primarily Western) cultures require high levels of autonomy and moderate levels of relatedness to maintain mental health. This view, based on a review of past work in various areas of psychology, is discussed in the context of various forms of psychotherapy existing in individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

  13. The effect of relatedness on the response of Adalia bipunctata L. to oviposition deterring cues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martini, X.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 1 (2013), s. 14-19 ISSN 0007-4853 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Coccinellidae * relatedness * kin * larval tracks * oviposition deterring pheromone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2013

  14. Autonomy and Relatedness in Inner-City Families of Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuolis, Jessica; Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Liddle, Howard A

    2006-01-01

    This study examined parent-adolescent autonomous-relatedness functioning in inner-city, ethnic minority families of adolescents exhibiting drug abuse and related problem behaviors. Seventy-four parent-adolescent dyads completed a structured interaction task prior to the start of treatment that was coded using an established autonomous-relatedness measure. Adolescent drug use, externalizing, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Parents and adolescents completed assessment instruments measuring parenting style and family conflict. Confirmatory factor analysis found significant differences in the underlying dimensions of parent and adolescent autonomous-relatedness in this sample versus previous samples. It was also found that autonomous-relatedness was associated with worse adolescent symptomatology and family impairment. Results based on both self-report and observational measures contribute to the understanding of key family constructs in this population and provide insight for both researchers and the treatment community.

  15. Autonomy and Relatedness in Inner-City Families of Substance Abusing Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Samuolis, Jessica; Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined parent-adolescent autonomous-relatedness functioning in inner-city, ethnic minority families of adolescents exhibiting drug abuse and related problem behaviors. Seventy-four parent-adolescent dyads completed a structured interaction task prior to the start of treatment that was coded using an established autonomous-relatedness measure. Adolescent drug use, externalizing, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Parents and adolescents completed assessment instruments mea...

  16. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  17. PENGELOLAAN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY DALAM MEMEDIASI DUKUNGAN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RELATEDNESS TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Muhimatul Ifada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines whether or not and how information technology (IT relatedness influences corporate performance. This study proposes that knowledge management (KM is a critical organizational capability through which IT influences firm performance. Measurement of IT relatedness and KM capability uses a reflective second-order factor modeling approach for capturing complementarities among the four dimensions of IT relatedness (IT strategy making processes, IT vendor management processes, IT human resource management processes and IT infrastructure and for capturing complementarities among the three dimensions of KM capability (product KM capability, customer KM capability, and managerial KM capability. A survey was conducted among 93 branch managers of banking in Central Java. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used to analyze the data using the software program of SmartPLS (Partial Least Square. The findings support for the hypotheses of the study. IT relatedness of business units enhances the cross unit KM capability of the corporate. The KM capability creates and exploits cross-unit synergies from the product, customer, and managerial knowledge resources of the corporate. These synergies increase the corporate performance. IT relatedness of business units positively influences corporate performance. IT relatedness also has significant indirect effects on corporate performance through the mediation of KM capability.

  18. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  19. Impact of Semantic Relatedness on Associative Memory: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Desaunay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP, we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs. We observed semantic (related and unrelated pairs and condition effects (old, rearranged and new pairs on the early mid-frontal potential. First, a lower amplitude was shown for identical and rearranged semantically related pairs, which might reflect a retrieval process driven by semantic cues. Second, among semantically unrelated pairs, we found a larger negativity for identical pairs, compared to rearranged and new ones, suggesting additional retrieval processing that focuses on associative information. We also observed an LPC old/new effect with a mid-parietal and a right occipito-parietal topography for semantically related and unrelated old pairs, demonstrating a recollection phenomenon irrespective of the degree of association. These findings suggest that associative recognition using visual stimuli begins at early stages of retrieval, and differs according to the degree of semantic relatedness among items. However, either strategy may ultimately lead to recollection processes.

  20. Facilitating participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, Bo

    2018-01-01

    the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...

  1. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  2. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pfefferle

    Full Text Available In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed 'coo' calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico. We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in 'coo' call structure, whereas 'coo' structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching, but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely innate

  3. The Emergence of Regional Immigrant Concentrations in USA and Australia: A Spatial Relatedness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000–2010) and Australian postal areas (2006–2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting. PMID:25966371

  4. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  5. A generalization of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff; Van Dyken, J David; Zee, Peter C

    2010-06-25

    Hamilton's rule states that cooperation will evolve if the fitness cost to actors is less than the benefit to recipients multiplied by their genetic relatedness. This rule makes many simplifying assumptions, however, and does not accurately describe social evolution in organisms such as microbes where selection is both strong and nonadditive. We derived a generalization of Hamilton's rule and measured its parameters in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria. Nonadditivity made cooperative sporulation remarkably resistant to exploitation by cheater strains. Selection was driven by higher-order moments of population structure, not relatedness. These results provide an empirically testable cooperation principle applicable to both microbes and multicellular organisms and show how nonlinear interactions among cells insulate bacteria against cheaters.

  6. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  7. Benchmarking Relatedness Inference Methods with Genome-Wide Data from Thousands of Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstetter, Monica D; Dyer, Thomas D; Lehman, Donna M; Curran, Joanne E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Mezey, Jason G; Williams, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    Inferring relatedness from genomic data is an essential component of genetic association studies, population genetics, forensics, and genealogy. While numerous methods exist for inferring relatedness, thorough evaluation of these approaches in real data has been lacking. Here, we report an assessment of 12 state-of-the-art pairwise relatedness inference methods using a data set with 2485 individuals contained in several large pedigrees that span up to six generations. We find that all methods have high accuracy (92-99%) when detecting first- and second-degree relationships, but their accuracy dwindles to 76% of relative pairs. Overall, the most accurate methods are Estimation of Recent Shared Ancestry (ERSA) and approaches that compute total IBD sharing using the output from GERMLINE and Refined IBD to infer relatedness. Combining information from the most accurate methods provides little accuracy improvement, indicating that novel approaches, such as new methods that leverage relatedness signals from multiple samples, are needed to achieve a sizeable jump in performance. Copyright © 2017 Ramstetter et al.

  8. Genetic relatedness of low solitary nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Sahebzadeh

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3-4 and 3-5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19-20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea.

  9. User Interfaces for Cooperative Remote Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodges, Larry

    1998-01-01

    .... We seek to develop new methods to facilitate cooperative remote design utilizing both high-bandwidth networking capability and virtual reality with appropriate graphical interfaces to support the collaborative effort...

  10. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  11. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  12. Attribution models and the Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Berlanga, Sebastian; Vilella, Cori

    2017-01-01

    The current paper studies the attribution model used by Google Analytics. Precisely, we use the Cooperative Game Theory to propose a fair distribution of the revenues among the considered channels, in order to facilitate the cooperation and to guarantee stability. We define a transferable utility convex cooperative game from the observed frequencies and we use the Shapley value to allocate the revenues among the di erent channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of an advertising...

  13. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  14. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  15. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  16. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  17. Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Taylor; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that classical psychedelic compounds can induce lasting changes in personality traits, attitudes and beliefs in both healthy subjects and patient populations. Here we sought to investigate the effects of psilocybin on nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). This open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design studied the effects of psilocybin on measures of nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with moderate to severe TRD ( n=7) versus age-matched non-treated healthy control subjects ( n=7). Psilocybin was administered in two oral dosing sessions (10 mg and 25 mg) 1 week apart. Main outcome measures were collected 1 week and 7-12 months after the second dosing session. Nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective were assessed using the Nature Relatedness Scale (NR-6) and Political Perspective Questionnaire (PPQ-5), respectively. Nature relatedness significantly increased ( t(6)=-4.242, p=0.003) and authoritarianism significantly decreased ( t(6)=2.120, p=0.039) for the patients 1 week after the dosing sessions. At 7-12 months post-dosing, nature relatedness remained significantly increased ( t(5)=-2.707, p=0.021) and authoritarianism remained decreased at trend level ( t(5)=-1.811, p=0.065). No differences were found on either measure for the non-treated healthy control subjects. This pilot study suggests that psilocybin with psychological support might produce lasting changes in attitudes and beliefs. Although it would be premature to infer causality from this small study, the possibility of drug-induced changes in belief systems seems sufficiently intriguing and timely to deserve further investigation.

  18. Multibusiness firms and performance in Italy. What role does relatedness play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio La Rocca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of diversification strategy on corporate value for a sample of Italian companies. It accounts for both the level of diversification and relatedness components. Empirical analyses show a U-shaped curvilinear relationship between diversification and value. In contrast to the mainstream literature, our results highlight that related diversification has a negative effect, while unrelated diversification is a value-creating strategy. JEL classification: L25, M10, Keywords: Product diversification, Multi-business firm, Relatedness, Firm performance, Firm value

  19. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chengyi; Zhang Juanjuan; Wang Jinsong; Wang Yiling

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly. (general)

  20. Principals and Self-Determination Theory (SDT): What Trends Are Seen in Levels of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy-Harter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study builds upon Deci and Ryan's (1985) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) which states that humans must meet three basic psychological needs for optimal well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore trends in principals' experiences in the areas of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.…

  1. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, H.; Broeckhuysen, S. van; Bühring, M.; Kool, M.B.; Dulmen, S. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, and Emotional Functioning: Relatedness and Particular Impact on Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, Tanja; Sterkenburg, Paula; Bohm, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Persons with an intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behaviour (CB), especially in cases of co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the relatedness and impact of ASD, the severity of ID, and the level of emotional

  4. Environmentally Active People: The Role of Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anna N.; Fielding, Kelly S.; Louis, Winnifred R.

    2016-01-01

    To identify pathways to lower environmental impacts, this research examined the motivation and antecedents of motivation (autonomy, relatedness, competence), of environmentally active people. Previous research suggests that people with more self-determined motivation for pro-environmental behavior (PEB) should carry out more PEBs, and have lower…

  5. Fostering Students' Moderation Competence: The Interplay between Social Relatedness and Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgermeister, Anika; Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students' self-determination affected students' sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two components and the students' performance during a moderation…

  6. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  7. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  8. Who Makes the Choice? Rethinking the Role of Autonomy and Relatedness in Chinese Children's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Hua; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56,…

  9. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  10. Longitudinal associations of autonomy, relatedness, and competence with the well-being of nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Westerhof, G.J.; Kloos, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective. As proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residents’ needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological

  11. Relatedness Need Satisfaction, Intrinsic Motivation, and Engagement in Secondary School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Agbuga, Bülent; Liu, Jiling; McBride, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Using self-determination theory, this study examined unique contributions of relatedness need satisfaction (to both teachers and peers) to intrinsic motivation and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) over and above those of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction among Turkish students in secondary school…

  12. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  13. The Role of Maternal Support of Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness in Children's Interests and Mastery Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lehtinen, Erno; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which mothers' support for their children's sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness predicts their children's interest in math and reading, and also their mastery orientation, during the transition to primary school. One hundred fifty-two children were examined twice during their first grade year…

  14. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  15. Unsatisfied relatedness, not competence or autonomy, increases trait anger through the right amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Kong, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Yuanfang; Lin, Danhua; Liu, Jia

    2017-10-01

    Anger is a common negative emotion in social life. Behavioral research suggests that unsatisfied relatedness, autonomy, and competence are related to anger. However, it remains unclear whether these unsatisfied needs all contribute to anger or just a particular unsatisfied need is the main source of anger. In addition, little is known about the neural substrate between unsatisfied needs and anger. To address these two questions, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the neural substrate underlying the relation between unsatisfied needs and trait anger. Behaviorally, we found that although all three unsatisfied needs were correlated with trait anger, unsatisfied relatedness was the only factor that was uniquely related to trait anger. Neurally, the gray matter volume of the right amygdala was correlated with trait anger, which fits nicely with the role of the amygdala as a core region for processing anger. Importantly, the right amygdala mediated the total effect of unsatisfied relatedness on trait anger, even after controlling for general personality dispositions. Our results contribute to the theoretical conceptualization of anger by elucidating the unique role of unsatisfied relatedness in anger and the neural substrate underlying such relation.

  16. Cultivating American- and Japanese-Style Relatedness through Mother-Child Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether European American and Japanese mothers' speech to preschoolers contained exchange- and alignment-oriented structures that reflect and possibly support culture-specific models of self-other relatedness. In each country 12 mothers were observed in free play with their 3-year-olds. Maternal speech was coded for…

  17. Does relatedness of natives used for soil conditioning influence plant-soil feedback of exotics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Petr; Plačková, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2011), s. 331-340 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phylogenetic relatedness * plant invasions * soil microbiota Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2011

  18. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  19. Fostering relatedness between children and virtual agents through reciprocal self-disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, F.; Broekens, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge in developing companion agents for children is keeping them interested after novelty effects wear off. Self Determination Theory posits that motivation is sustained if the human feels related to another human. According to Social Penetration Theory, relatedness can be established

  20. Adolescent Autonomy-Relatedness and the Family in Cultural Context: What Is Optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    This review examines self-family-culture links from a cultural and global perspective utilizing Kagitcibasi's Family Change Theory and Self Theory as general frameworks. These theories have the "autonomous-related self" at their point of intersection. Autonomy and relatedness dynamics is the key to understanding the self, and family…

  1. Effects of Teacher-to-Student Relatedness on Adolescent Male Motivation in a Weight Training Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…

  2. Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition in Normal and Disrupted Personality Development: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2013-01-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span--the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of…

  3. Genetic relatedness and spatial associations of dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Innes; Mary Brooke McEachern; Dirk H. Van Vuren; John M. Eadie; Douglas A. Kelt; Michael L. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    We studied the association between space sharing and kinship in a solitary rodent, the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes). Genetic relatedness was inversely correlated with geographic distance for female woodrats but not for males, a pattern consistent with female philopatry and male dispersal. However, some female neighbors were unrelated, suggesting the...

  4. The Family-Relatedness of Work Decisions: A Framework and Agenda for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of…

  5. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were

  6. Individuality and relatedness in middle and late adulthood. A study of women and men in the Netherlands, East-, and West-Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.

    2003-01-01

    Individuality and relatedness are two comprehensive orientations during the whole life course. Scientific knowledge regarding the subjective importance and meaning of individuality and relatedness in middle and late adulthood is scarcely available. This thesis investigates the quantitative as well

  7. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  9. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  10. Cooperating to learn teaching to cooperate: adviser processes for program implement CA/AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón LAGO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present some results of advise strategy to introduce cooperative learning from the «Cooperating to Learn/ Learning to Cooperate» CL/LC Programme. The first part situates the research project and the research objective focused on how introduction of CL/LC program through a process of advice facilitates permanent improvements to the inclusion of students. In the second we analyzed the phases and tasks of an adviser process for the introduction of cooperative learning and three stages to build on cooperative learning in school: the introduction, generalization and consolidation. The third part is the central part. We describe five process of adviser to implement cooperative learning which we can observe different degrees and modalities of collaboration between teachers and counselors and between teachers. Is possible the first step of a network centers to work cooperatively.

  11. Associations Among Psychologically Controlling Parenting, Autonomy, Relatedness, and Problem Behaviors During Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Francesca; Ingoglia, Sonia; Inguglia, Cristiano; Lo Coco, Alida; Lo Cricchio, Maria Grazia; Musso, Pasquale; Cheah, Charissa; Rose, Laura; Gutow, Mindy R

    2017-05-19

    The present study aimed to investigate the relations among perceived parental psychological control (PPC), autonomy and relatedness, and negative outcomes during emerging adulthood in two cultural contexts: Italy and the USA. More specifically, we explored the mechanisms through which dependency-oriented PPC (DPPC) and achievement-oriented PPC (APPC) are associated with both internalizing and externalizing difficulties, focusing on the mediating role of autonomy and relatedness. Participants were 418 European-American and 359 Italian college students. Results indicated that the expressions of PPC with regard to dependency and achievement were related to emerging adults' negative outcomes through different pathways, and these effects were moderated by the cultural group. The implications of the findings for future related empirical investigations and clinical interventions were discussed.

  12. [Influence of autonomy support, social goals and relatedness on amotivation in physical education classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan A; Parra Rojas, Nicolás; González-Cutre Coll, David

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze some factors that influence amotivation in physical education classes. A sample of 399 students, of ages 14 to 16 years, was used. They completed the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale in Exercise Settings (PASSES), the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), the factor of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) adapted to physical education and the amotivation> factor of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC). The psychometric properties of the PASSES were analyzed, as this scale had not been validated to the Spanish context. In this analysis, the scale showed appropriate validity and reliability. The results of the structural equation model indicated that social responsibility and social relationship goals positively predicted perception of relatedness, whereas the context of autonomy support did not significantly predict it. In turn, perception of relatedness negatively predicted amotivation. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing students' positive motivation.

  13. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Obery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267. Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational newsletters, and social media channels. Analysis of the data was conducted using both partial least squares and covariance based structural equation modeling to explore the relationships between the constructs. Additionally, qualitative definitions of proenvironmental behavior were investigated in order to address potential gaps between self-reported and observed behaviors. Quantitative findings show a renewed positive connection between science education, nature relatedness, and proenvironmental behaviors. Furthermore, qualitative findings suggest positive relationships between how publicly people are willing to share their passion for the outdoors and their willingness to engage in proenvironmental behaviors.

  14. The efficacy of exergames for social relatedness in online physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Kooiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online physical education (OLPE has been viewed as an oxymoron. Physical education curriculum at all levels seeks to help learners grow socially in the way they interact and deal with diverse and challenging fellow students and settings. Students who have no contact with other students while they are at home for various reasons may not be able to learn the proper response to the challenges of social participation or benefits derived from social contact. This study looked at the efficacy of remote exergame participation between students aged 11–18 (N = 124. The results show that exergaming over the Internet can provide students with a social experience that results in increased relatedness between participants versus playing by themselves against a non-player character (NPC. This relatedness can help students access the social standards for physical education when enrolled in OLPE.

  15. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Pollet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610, we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  16. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pollet, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  17. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  18. Multibusiness firms and performance in Italy. What role does relatedness play?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio La Rocca; Tiziana La Rocca; F. Javier Sánchez Vidal

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of diversification strategy on corporate value for a sample of Italian companies. It accounts for both the level of diversification and relatedness components. Empirical analyses show a U-shaped curvilinear relationship between diversification and value. In contrast to the mainstream literature, our results highlight that related diversification has a negative effect, while unrelated diversification is a value-creating strategy. JEL classification: L25, M10, K...

  19. Antigenic relatedness of primate procollagens as determined by a competitive radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubman, M.B.; Goldberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay specific for the nonhelical carboxy terminal portion of human type I procollagen was used to study the antigenic relatedness of primate procollagens. The assay identified reactive antigen in primate sera and in the media of primate fibroblast cultures. The displacement curves generated in the assay indicated that human and ape type I procollagens have antigenically identical carboxy terminal determinants which are partially cross-reactive with those from Old and New World monkeys. (author)

  20. The Mediating Role of Autonomy and Relatedness on Maternal and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2018-02-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of both mother and child interactive behaviors, which granted or undermined autonomy and relatedness, on the bidirectional and longitudinal association between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing behaviors, as well as the association between maternal substance use and child externalizing behaviors. Child's sex and mother's drug of choice were explored as potential moderators of the mediation relationship. Data were collected from 183 dyads including treatment-seeking substance using mothers and their children (95 males, aged between 8 and 16 years old). Structural equation modeling analysis showed girls' internalizing and externalizing behaviors at the 3-month follow-up were negatively associated with the same behaviors at the 12-month follow-up through increased relatedness undermining behaviors from their mothers at the 6-month follow-up. Among mothers with opioids as their drug of choice (DOC), children's externalizing behaviors at the 3-month follow-up were positively associated with mothers' substance use at the 12-month follow-up through the elevated levels of mothers' relatedness undermining behaviors at the 6-month follow-up. Among mothers with alcohol as their DOC, maternal depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up were positively related to children's internalizing behaviors at the 12-month follow-up through reduced relatedness undermining behaviors exhibited by mothers at the 6-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to attempt to unravel these longitudinal and bidirectional influences as well as the moderated mediation pathways among families with a substance using mothers.

  1. Correlated pay-offs are key to cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G.; Riehl, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general belief that cooperation and altruism in social groups result primarily from kin selection has recently been challenged, not least because results from cooperatively breeding insects and vertebrates have shown that groups may be composed mainly of non-relatives. This allows testing predictions of reciprocity theory without the confounding effect of relatedness. Here, we review complementary and alternative evolutionary mechanisms to kin selection theory and provide empirical examples of cooperative behaviour among unrelated individuals in a wide range of taxa. In particular, we focus on the different forms of reciprocity and on their underlying decision rules, asking about evolutionary stability, the conditions selecting for reciprocity and the factors constraining reciprocal cooperation. We find that neither the cognitive requirements of reciprocal cooperation nor the often sequential nature of interactions are insuperable stumbling blocks for the evolution of reciprocity. We argue that simple decision rules such as ‘help anyone if helped by someone’ should get more attention in future research, because empirical studies show that animals apply such rules, and theoretical models find that they can create stable levels of cooperation under a wide range of conditions. Owing to its simplicity, behaviour based on such a heuristic may in fact be ubiquitous. Finally, we argue that the evolution of exchange and trading of service and commodities among social partners needs greater scientific focus. PMID:26729924

  2. A motivation model for interaction between parent and child based on the need for relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eOgino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In communication between parents and children, various kinds of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations affect the emotions that encourage actions to promote more interactions. This paper presents a motivation model for the interaction between an infant and a caregiver which models relatedness, one of the most important basic psychological needs, as a variable that increases with experiences of emotion sharing. Relatedness is not only an important factor of pleasure but also a meta-factor which affects other factors such as stress and emotion mirroring. In the simulation experiment, two agents, each of which has the proposed motivation model, show emotional communication depending on the relatedness level that is similar to actual human communication. Especially, the proposed model can reproduce a finding described by the "still-face paradigm", in which an infant shows unpleasant emotion when a caregiver suddenly stops facial expressions. The proposed model is implemented in an artificial agent with a recognition system for gestures and facial expressions. The baby-like agent successfully interacts with an actual human and shows reactions comparable to the "still-face paradigm".

  3. Longitudinal Associations of Autonomy, Relatedness, and Competence with the Well-being of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Noortje; Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2018-02-24

    As proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs to the subjective well-being of nursing home residents and to determine whether a balance among the satisfaction of the three needs is important for well-being. Participants in this longitudinal survey study included 128 physically frail residents (mean age 85 years) at four Dutch nursing homes. Satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs was measured at baseline, and depressive feelings and life satisfaction 5-8 months later. Absolute differences between the three basic need satisfaction scores were summed to create a score of need satisfaction balance. All three needs were related to both well-being measures over time, although autonomy had the strongest relationships. Only autonomy and competence were uniquely associated with depressive feelings, and only autonomy was uniquely associated with life satisfaction. The need satisfaction balance score was related to well-being independent of the autonomy and relatedness scores. These results confirm that all three basic psychological needs are important for nursing home residents' well-being, with autonomy having the strongest and most consistent relationship to their well-being. Additionally, high satisfaction of one need does not compensate for low satisfaction of another. Supporting residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence should, therefore, have a central role in nursing home culture-change interventions.

  4. A new concept of relatedness and its significance to the theory of social evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Drummond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on primitively social groups of Hymenoptera have been somewhat contradictory with respect to kin recognition, degree of relatedness and social evolution. This study presents a new concept of "relatedness coefficient". Called "aggregated relatedness", the hypothesis here introduced proposes that genes shared by any two individuals affect formation of family units to an extent dependent on their frequency and manner of dispersion in neighboring populations.Dados de campo de espécies de Hymenoptera primitivamente sociais têm se mostrado contraditórios quanto ao papel do reconhecimento de parentes e do grau de parentesco na evolução social. Nesse trabalho um novo conceito de "coeficiente de parentesco" foi desenvolvido. Esta nova hipótese foi chamada de "parentesco agregado". Nesse conceito, genes compartilhados por dois indivíduos quaisquer têm importância significativa na formação das unidades familiares, dependendo de suas freqüências e da forma como estão distribuídos na população circunvizinha a esta unidade familiar.

  5. Adaptation to nursing home: The role of leisure activities in light of motivation and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Emin; De Benedetto, Giorgio; Gallouj, Karim

    Based on the motivational sequence described in Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the relationship between relatedness, motivation, adaptation and leisure in nursing homes. We formulated the hypothesis that the variables of the study would be found in an integrative mediational sequence: Participation in leisure activities→Relatedness→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes. Participants (N=112, mean age=84.17) were invited to complete questionnaires assessing these variables. Results of the path analysis found an unsatisfactory fit for this model but revealed another model (Model 2) with a good fit index: Relatedness→Participation in leisure activities→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes→Relatedness. Model 2 fitted better than model 1: the Chi-square values were not significant, Chi 2 (df=2)=5.1, p=0.078 and other indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.930, RMSEA=0.049 and NFI=0.918). These results suggest that feeling connected and secure in the relationships with others, and integrated as an individual to the group contribute to enhance leisure practice, self-determined motivation, and finally adaptation to life environment. Consequently, the relatedness promotes leisure activities practice which represents a central adaptive behavior in nursing homes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Could relatedness help explain why individuals lead in bottlenose dolphin groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer S; Wartzok, Douglas; Heithaus, Michael; Krützen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other). We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%). Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders.

  7. Could relatedness help explain why individuals lead in bottlenose dolphin groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Lewis

    Full Text Available In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other. We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%. Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders.

  8. Is prospective memory enhanced by cue-action semantic relatedness and enactment at encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonina; Ellis, Judi; Freeman, Jayne

    2012-09-01

    Benefits and costs on prospective memory performance, of enactment at encoding and a semantic association between a cue-action word pair, were investigated in two experiments. Findings revealed superior performance for both younger and older adults following enactment, in contrast to verbal encoding, and when cue-action semantic relatedness was high. Although younger adults outperformed older adults, age did not moderate benefits of cue-action relatedness or enactment. Findings from a second experiment revealed that the inclusion of an instruction to perform a prospective memory task led to increments in response latency to items from the ongoing activity in which that task was embedded, relative to latencies when the ongoing task only was performed. However, this task interference 'cost' did not differ as a function of either cue-action relatedness or enactment. We argue that the high number of cue-action pairs employed here influenced meta-cognitive consciousness, hence determining attention allocation, in all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rival male relatedness does not affect ejaculate allocation as predicted by sperm competition theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Thomas

    Full Text Available When females are sexually promiscuous, the intensity of sperm competition for males depends on how many partners females mate with. To maximize fitness, males should adjust their copulatory investment in relation to this intensity. However, fitness costs associated with sperm competition may not only depend on how many males a female has mated with, but also how related rival males are. According to theoretical predictions, males should adjust their copulatory investment in response to the relatedness of their male rival, and transfer more sperm to females that have first mated with a non-sibling male than females that have mated to a related male. Here, for the first time, we empirically test this theory using the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We expose male crickets to sperm competition from either a full sibling or non-sibling male, by using both the presence of a rival male and the rival male's actual competing ejaculate as cues. Contrary to predictions, we find that males do not adjust ejaculates in response to the relatedness of their male rival. Instead, males with both full-sibling and non-sibling rivals allocate sperm of similar quality to females. This lack of kin biased behaviour is independent of any potentially confounding effect of strong competition between close relatives; kin biased behaviour was absent irrespective of whether males were raised in full sibling or mixed relatedness groups.

  10. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  11. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  12. An Accurate Method for Inferring Relatedness in Large Datasets of Unphased Genotypes via an Embedded Likelihood-Ratio Test

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bercovici, Sivan

    2013-01-01

    , accurate and efficient detection of hidden relatedness becomes a challenge. To enable disease-mapping studies of increasingly large cohorts, a fast and accurate method to detect IBD segments is required. We present PARENTE, a novel method for detecting

  13. Using facilitative skills in project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...... cooperation, mediated by interconnected and diversified systems, is becoming more and more common. These relatively new forms of interaction imply new demands on skills and methods facilitating project cooperation within and among various organizations. Given the pervasiveness of these demands, project...... managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...

  14. Agricultural Cooperatives and Dilemmas of Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Thomas W.; Heffernan, William D.; Hendrickson, Mary K.

    2001-01-01

    The context of agricultural cooperatives is undergoing major change with the development of various food and information monitoring technologies. Large multi-nationals have moved to take advantage of these developments with the construction of agri-food chains. These chains are being facilitated via various mergers, acquisitions, and alliances, with the power, and deepening power of such deep-pocket organizations as Cargill, ADM, and ConAgra. Cooperatives have been integrated into these chain...

  15. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kalisvaart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists. METHODS: Interviews with patients and therapists yielded statements about components of body-relatedness. Patients and therapists individually sorted these statements according to similarity. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to these sortings. Analysis of variance was used to compare the perceived importance of the statements between patients and therapists. RESULTS: The hierarchical structure included 71 characteristics of body-relatedness. It consisted of three levels with eight clusters at the lowest level: 1 understanding, 2 acceptance, 3 adjustment, 4 respect for the body, 5 regulation, 6 confidence, 7 self-esteem, and 8 autonomy. The cluster 'understanding' was considered most important by patients and therapists. Patients valued 'regulating the body' more than therapists. CONCLUSION: According to patients with somatoform disorders and their therapists, body-relatedness includes awareness of the body and self by understanding, accepting and adjusting to bodily signals, by respecting and regulating the body, by confiding and esteeming oneself and by being autonomous. This definition and structure of body-relatedness may help professionals to improve interdisciplinary communication, assessment, and treatment, and it may help patients to better understand their symptoms and treatment. (German language abstract, Abstract S1; Spanish language abstract, Abstract S2.

  16. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisvaart, Hanneke; van Broeckhuysen, Saskia; Bühring, Martina; Kool, Marianne B; van Dulmen, Sandra; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists. Interviews with patients and therapists yielded statements about components of body-relatedness. Patients and therapists individually sorted these statements according to similarity. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to these sortings. Analysis of variance was used to compare the perceived importance of the statements between patients and therapists. The hierarchical structure included 71 characteristics of body-relatedness. It consisted of three levels with eight clusters at the lowest level: 1) understanding, 2) acceptance, 3) adjustment, 4) respect for the body, 5) regulation, 6) confidence, 7) self-esteem, and 8) autonomy. The cluster 'understanding' was considered most important by patients and therapists. Patients valued 'regulating the body' more than therapists. According to patients with somatoform disorders and their therapists, body-relatedness includes awareness of the body and self by understanding, accepting and adjusting to bodily signals, by respecting and regulating the body, by confiding and esteeming oneself and by being autonomous. This definition and structure of body-relatedness may help professionals to improve interdisciplinary communication, assessment, and treatment, and it may help patients to better understand their symptoms and treatment. (German language abstract, Abstract S1; Spanish language abstract, Abstract S2).

  17. CCSDS - A forum to facilitate international cooperation among space agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Edward P.; Delmas, Georges

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) in its role as a promoter the development and utilization of compatible data-systems standards among the principal space agencies of the world. Attention is also given to the CCSDS affiliation categories comprising member agencies, observer agencies, and associates. Consideration is given to the CCSDS organization, the technical panels, and current CCSDS recommendations.

  18. Designing and Facilitating Learning in a Cooperative Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rustrup, Louise Lønborg; Mortensen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    the learning of students. Student involvement in research projects appears to be an increasing trend, which is affecting both the practice of research and education. The Danish research project ‘Innodoors’ investigates, through various initiatives, how User-driven innovation can contribute to innovation...... and affect the culture of innovation in the building sector. One of the research initiatives was originally probing hypothesizes through student projects, where the students not only play a practical and performing role, but also engage in a rather equal partnership with the academic. This was also the case...... for the involved industrial design students, but they found it necessary to redefine the initial, given hypothesis, which surprisingly uncovered knowledge deficiencies for both students and academic; yet, it contributed to a mutual learning situation. Educators are facing new challenges with the responsibility...

  19. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  20. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  1. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  2. The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2004-02-01

    How do human groups maintain a high level of cooperation despite a low level of genetic relatedness among group members? We suggest that many humans have a predisposition to punish those who violate group-beneficial norms, even when this imposes a fitness cost on the punisher. Such altruistic punishment is widely observed to sustain high levels of cooperation in behavioral experiments and in natural settings. We offer a model of cooperation and punishment that we call STRONG RECIPROCITY: where members of a group benefit from mutual adherence to a social norm, strong reciprocators obey the norm and punish its violators, even though as a result they receive lower payoffs than other group members, such as selfish agents who violate the norm and do not punish, and pure cooperators who adhere to the norm but free-ride by never punishing. Our agent-based simulations show that, under assumptions approximating likely human environments over the 100000 years prior to the domestication of animals and plants, the proliferation of strong reciprocators when initially rare is highly likely, and that substantial frequencies of all three behavioral types can be sustained in a population. As a result, high levels of cooperation are sustained. Our results do not require that group members be related or that group extinctions occur.

  3. Effects of semantic relatedness on age-related associative memory deficits: the role of theta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2012-07-16

    Growing evidence suggests that age-related deficits in associative memory are alleviated when the to-be-associated items are semantically related. Here we investigate whether this beneficial effect of semantic relatedness is paralleled by spatio-temporal changes in cortical EEG dynamics during incidental encoding. Young and older adults were presented with faces at a particular spatial location preceded by a biographical cue that was either semantically related or unrelated. As expected, automatic encoding of face-location associations benefited from semantic relatedness in the two groups of age. This effect correlated with increased power of theta oscillations over medial and anterior lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in both groups. But better-performing elders also showed increased brain-behavior correlation in the theta band over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as compared to young adults. Semantic relatedness was, however, insufficient to fully eliminate age-related differences in associative memory. In line with this finding, poorer-performing elders relative to young adults showed significant reductions of theta power in the left IFG that were further predictive of behavioral impairment in the recognition task. All together, these results suggest that older adults benefit less than young adults from executive processes during encoding mainly due to neural inefficiency over regions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). But this associative deficit may be partially compensated for by engaging preexistent semantic knowledge, which likely leads to an efficient recruitment of attentional and integration processes supported by the left PPC and left anterior PFC respectively, together with neural compensatory mechanisms governed by the right VLPFC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  5. Human Kin Investment as a Function of Genetic Relatedness and Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two independent samples of students were asked to allocate fictional lotteries of varying dollar amounts to their blood relatives. In both studies, a reliable genetic relatedness by lineage interaction emerged, such that the genetic effect was a more positive predictor of percent of money allocated for relatives of a direct lineage (e.g., parents, grandparents than it was for peripheral relatives (e.g., siblings, aunts and uncles. In a third study, this interaction was replicated in an archival analysis of wills. The implications of accounting for differences in relatives' lineages in studies of kin investment are discussed.

  6. Work-relatedness of lung cancer by smoking and histologic type in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Il; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of causative agents related to occupational lung cancer, their relationships with work, and associations between work-relatedness and the histologic type of lung cancer. We used data from the occupational surveillance system in Korea in 2013. In addition, data from 1,404 participants diagnosed with lung cancer were collected through interviews. We included the patients' longest-held job in the analysis. Work-relatedness was categorized as "definite," "probable," "possible," "suspicious," "none," or "undetermined." Among the subjects, 69.3% were men and 30.7% were women. Regarding smoking status, current smokers were the most prevalent (35.5%), followed by non-smokers (32.3%), ex-smokers (32.2%). Regarding the causative agents of lung cancer, asbestos (1.0%) and crystalline silica (0.9%) were the most common in definite work-related cases, while non-arsenical insecticide (2.8%) was the most common in probable cases followed by diesel engine exhaust (1.9%) and asbestos (1.0%). Regarding histologic type, adenocarcinoma was the most common (41.7%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (21.2%). Among current smokers, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common among definite and probable cases (13.4%), while non-small cell lung cancer was the least common (7.1%). Among non-smokers, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (21.4%), while the least common was adenocarcinoma (1.6%). Approximately, 9.5% of all lung cancer cases in Korea are occupational-related lung cancer. Well-known substances associated with lung cancer, such as crystalline silica, asbestos, and diesel engine exhaust, are of particular concern. However, the histologic types of lung cancer related to smoking were inconsistent with previous studies when work-relatedness was taken into account. Future studies are required to clarify the incidence of occupational lung cancer in agricultural workers exposed to non-arsenical insecticides and the associations between

  7. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  8. Eco-evolutionary feedback and the invasion of cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Unveiling the origin and forms of cooperation in nature poses profound challenges in evolutionary ecology. The prisoner's dilemma game is an important metaphor for studying the evolution of cooperation. We here classified potential mechanisms for cooperation evolution into schemes of frequency- and density-dependent selection, and focused on the density-dependent selection in the ecological prisoner's dilemma games. We found that, although assortative encounter is still the necessary condition in ecological games for cooperation evolution, a harsh environment, indicated by a high mortality, can foster the invasion of cooperation. The Hamilton rule provides a fundamental condition for the evolution of cooperation by ensuring an enhanced relatedness between players in low-density populations. Incorporating ecological dynamics into evolutionary games opens up a much wider window for the evolution of cooperation, and exhibits a variety of complex behaviors of dynamics, such as limit and heteroclinic cycles. An alternative evolutionary, or rather succession, sequence was proposed that cooperation first appears in harsh environments, followed by the invasion of defection, which leads to a common catastrophe. The rise of cooperation (and altruism, thus, could be much easier in the density-dependent ecological games than in the classic frequency-dependent evolutionary games.

  9. A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Krabina

    2010-01-01

    Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

  10. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  11. Assessing Transition Service for Handicapped Youth: A Cooperative Interagency Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Boone, Rosalie

    1987-01-01

    The article presents a cooperative interagency approach for assessing effectiveness of programs and services to facilitate the transition of handicapped students from school to adult community living. Features of the model include cooperative planning at the policy level, implementation level, and direct service level; and collaboration by state…

  12. Role of Cooperatives in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Enterprises (SMEs) Development in Nigeria: Challenges and the Way ... Nigerian governments have been spending an immense amount of money obtained from ... (SMEDAN) to facilitating access to credit, technology and market for the .... Information; Cooperation among Cooperatives and Concern for the.

  13. Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been repeatedly demonstrated to be better remembered than neutral ones. The aim of the present study was to test whether this advantage in memory is mainly produced by the affective content of the stimuli or it can be rather accounted for by factors such as semantic relatedness or type of encoding task. The valence of the stimuli (positive, negative and neutral words that could be either semantically related or unrelated) as well as the type of encoding task (focused on either familiarity or emotionality) was manipulated. The results revealed an advantage in memory for emotional words (either positive or negative) regardless of semantic relatedness. Importantly, this advantage was modulated by the encoding task, as it was reliable only in the task which focused on emotionality. These findings suggest that congruity with the dimension attended at encoding might contribute to the superiority in memory for emotional words, thus offering us a more complex picture of the underlying mechanisms behind the advantage for emotional information in memory.

  14. Predictors of Grandparental Investment Decisions in Contemporary Europe: Biological Relatedness and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coall, David A.; Hilbrand, Sonja; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Across human cultures, grandparents make a valued contribution to the health of their families and communities. Moreover, evidence is gathering that grandparents have a positive impact on the development of grandchildren in contemporary industrialized societies. A broad range of factors that influence the likelihood grandparents will invest in their grandchildren has been explored by disciplines as diverse as sociology, economics, psychology and evolutionary biology. To progress toward an encompassing framework, this study will include biological relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren, a factor central to some discipline's theoretical frameworks (e.g., evolutionary biology), next to a wide range of other factors in an analysis of grandparental investment in contemporary Europe. This study draws on data collected in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 11 European countries that included 22,967 grandparent–child dyads. Grandparents reported biological relatedness, and grandparental investment was measured as the frequency of informal childcare. Biological and non-biological grandparents differed significantly in a variety of individual, familial and area-level characteristics. Furthermore, many other economic, sociological, and psychological factors also influenced grandparental investment. When they were controlled, biological grandparents, relative to non-biological grandparents, were more likely to invest heavily, looking after their grandchildren almost daily or weekly. Paradoxically, however, they were also more likely to invest nothing at all. We discuss the methodological and theoretical implications of these findings across disciplines. PMID:24416193

  15. Sperm competitive ability and genetic relatedness in Drosophila melanogaster: similarity breeds contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Paul D; Hammock, Brian A; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2002-09-01

    Offspring of close relatives often suffer severe fitness consequences. Previous studies have demonstrated that females, when given a choice, will choose to avoid mating with closely related males. But where opportunities for mate choice are limited or kin recognition is absent, precopulatory mechanisms may not work. In this case, either sex could reduce the risks of inbreeding through mechanisms that occur during or after copulation. During mating, males or females could commit fewer gametes when mating with a close relative. After mating, females could offset the effects of mating with a closely related male through cryptic choice. Few prior studies of sperm competition have examined the effect of genetic similarity, however, and what studies do exist have yielded equivocal results. In an effort to resolve this issue, we measured the outcome of sperm competition when female Drosophila melanogaster were mated to males of four different degrees of genetic relatedness and then to a standardized competitor. We provide the strongest evidence to date that sperm competitive ability is negatively correlated with relatedness, even after controlling for inbreeding depression.

  16. Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in normal and disrupted personality development: retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2013-04-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span-the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of extant research concerning these models, discusses their implications for psychology and psychiatry, and addresses future research perspectives deriving from these models. We first consider the implications of findings in this area for clinical research and practice. This is followed by a discussion of emerging research findings concerning the role of developmental, cross-cultural, evolutionary, and neurobiological factors influencing the development of these two fundamental personality dimensions. Taken together, this body of research suggests that theoretical formulations that focus on interpersonal relatedness and self-definition as central coordinates in personality development and psychopathology provide a comprehensive conceptual paradigm for future research in psychology and psychiatry exploring the interactions among neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in adaptive and disrupted personality development across the life span.

  17. Lifetime experience with (classic) psychedelics predicts pro-environmental behavior through an increase in nature relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2017-08-01

    In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature. Our model controlled for experiences with other classes of psychoactive substances (cannabis, dissociatives, empathogens, popular legal drugs) as well as common personality traits that usually predict drug consumption and/or nature relatedness (openness to experience, conscientiousness, conservatism). Although correlational in nature, results suggest that lifetime experience with psychedelics in particular may indeed contribute to people's pro-environmental behavior by changing their self-construal in terms of an incorporation of the natural world, regardless of core personality traits or general propensity to consume mind-altering substances. Thereby, the present research adds to the contemporary literature on the beneficial effects of psychedelic substance use on mental wellbeing, hinting at a novel area for future research investigating their potentially positive effects on a societal level. Limitations of the present research and future directions are discussed.

  18. Predictors of grandparental investment decisions in contemporary Europe: biological relatedness and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coall, David A; Hilbrand, Sonja; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Across human cultures, grandparents make a valued contribution to the health of their families and communities. Moreover, evidence is gathering that grandparents have a positive impact on the development of grandchildren in contemporary industrialized societies. A broad range of factors that influence the likelihood grandparents will invest in their grandchildren has been explored by disciplines as diverse as sociology, economics, psychology and evolutionary biology. To progress toward an encompassing framework, this study will include biological relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren, a factor central to some discipline's theoretical frameworks (e.g., evolutionary biology), next to a wide range of other factors in an analysis of grandparental investment in contemporary Europe. This study draws on data collected in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 11 European countries that included 22,967 grandparent-child dyads. Grandparents reported biological relatedness, and grandparental investment was measured as the frequency of informal childcare. Biological and non-biological grandparents differed significantly in a variety of individual, familial and area-level characteristics. Furthermore, many other economic, sociological, and psychological factors also influenced grandparental investment. When they were controlled, biological grandparents, relative to non-biological grandparents, were more likely to invest heavily, looking after their grandchildren almost daily or weekly. Paradoxically, however, they were also more likely to invest nothing at all. We discuss the methodological and theoretical implications of these findings across disciplines.

  19. Elucidating the neural correlates of related false memories using a systematic measure of perceptual relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Previous memory research has exploited the perceptual similarities between lures and targets in order to evoke false memories. Nevertheless, while some studies have attempted to use lures that are objectively more similar than others, no study has systematically controlled for perceptual overlap between target and lure items and its role in accounting for false alarm rates or the neural processes underlying such perceptual false memories. The current study looked to fill this gap in the literature by using a face-morphing program to systematically control for the amount of perceptual overlap between lures and targets. Our results converge with previous studies in finding a pattern of differences between true and false memories. Most importantly, expanding upon this work, parametric analyses showed false memory activity increases with respect to the similarity between lures and targets within bilateral middle temporal gyri and right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, this pattern of activation was unique to false memories and could not be accounted for by relatedness alone. Connectivity analyses further find that activity in the mPFC and left middle temporal gyrus co-vary, suggestive of gist-based monitoring within the context of false memories. Interestingly, neither the MTL nor the fusiform face area exhibited modulation as a function of target-lure relatedness. Overall, these results provide insight into the processes underlying false memories and further enhance our understanding of the role perceptual similarity plays in supporting false memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Professional Well-Being of Practicing Physicians: The Roles of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana

    2018-02-02

    This study investigated the roles of basic psychological needs-autonomy, competence, and relatedness-in physicians' professional well-being, specifically satisfaction with professional life, work-related engagement, and exhaustion. Using an online survey, quantitative data were collected from 57 practicing physicians. Overall, 65% of the participants were female; 49% were family medicine (FM) physicians, with the rest of the participants practicing in various non-FM specialties (e.g., internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery); and 47% were in the early-career stage (≤10 years in practice). Multivariate regression analyses indicated that of the three psychological needs, the need for relatedness had the largest unique contributions to physicians' satisfaction with professional life, work-related engagement, and exhaustion, respectively. The unique contributions of the needs for autonomy and competence were relatively small. These findings extend basic psychological needs theory to the work domain of practicing physicians in an attempt to examine underpinnings of physicians' professional well-being, a critical component of quality patient care.

  1. Microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis of relatedness between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, D; Gyenai, K B; Geng, T; Hammade, H; Smith, E J

    2007-01-01

    The turkey is second only to the chicken in importance as an agriculturally important poultry species. Unlike the chicken, however, genetic studies of the turkey continue to be limited. For example, to date, many genomic investigations have been conducted to characterize genetic relationships between commercial (CO) and non-CO chicken breeds, whereas the nature of the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage turkeys remains unknown. The objective of the current research was to use microsatellites to analyze the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage domestic turkeys including Narragansett, Bourbon Red, Blue Slate, Spanish Black, and Royal Palm. Primer pairs specific for 10 previously described turkey microsatellite markers were used. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Blue Slate, Bourbon Red, and Narragansett were genetically closely related to the CO strain, with a Nei distance of 0.30, and the Royal Palm and Spanish Black were the least related to the CO strain, with Nei distances of 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The present work provides a foundation for the basis of using heritage turkeys to genetically improve CO populations by introgression.

  2. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  3. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  4. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  5. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  6. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  7. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably reflecting...

  8. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  9. Signaling emotion and reason in cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emma E; Barasch, Alixandra; Rand, David; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2018-05-01

    We explore the signal value of emotion and reason in human cooperation. Across four experiments utilizing dyadic prisoner dilemma games, we establish three central results. First, individuals infer prosocial feelings and motivations from signals of emotion. As a result, individuals believe that a reliance on emotion signals that one will cooperate more so than a reliance on reason. Second, these beliefs are generally accurate-those who act based on emotion are more likely to cooperate than those who act based on reason. Third, individuals' behavioral responses towards signals of emotion and reason depend on their own decision mode: those who rely on emotion tend to conditionally cooperate (that is, cooperate only when they believe that their partner has cooperated), whereas those who rely on reason tend to defect regardless of their partner's signal. These findings shed light on how different decision processes, and lay theories about decision processes, facilitate and impede cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  11. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  12. Evolution of cooperation: combining kin selection and reciprocal altruism into matrix games with social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som B Ale

    Full Text Available Darwinian selection should preclude cooperation from evolving; yet cooperation is widespread among organisms. We show how kin selection and reciprocal altruism can promote cooperation in diverse 2×2 matrix games (prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift, and hawk-dove. We visualize kin selection as non-random interactions with like-strategies interacting more than by chance. Reciprocal altruism emerges from iterated games where players have some likelihood of knowing the identity of other players. This perspective allows us to combine kin selection and reciprocal altruism into a general matrix game model. Both mechanisms operating together should influence the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of kin selection, reciprocal altruism may be an evolutionarily stable strategy but is unable to invade a population of non-co-operators. Similarly, it may take a high degree of relatedness to permit cooperation to supplant non-cooperation. Together, a little bit of reciprocal altruism can, however, greatly reduce the threshold at which kin selection promotes cooperation, and vice-versa. To properly frame applications and tests of cooperation, empiricists should consider kin selection and reciprocal altruism together rather than as alternatives, and they should be applied to a broader class of social dilemmas than just the prisoner's dilemma.

  13. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  14. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  15. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  16. Content relatedness in the social web based on social explicit semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalianis, Klimis; Otterbacher, Jahna; Mastorakis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a novel content relatedness algorithm for social media content is proposed, based on the Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) technique. The proposed scheme takes into consideration social interactions. In particular starting from the vector space representation model, similarity is expressed by a summation of term weight products. In this paper, term weights are estimated by a social computing method, where the strength of each term is calculated by the attention the terms receives. For this reason each post is split into two parts, title and comments area, while attention is defined by the number of social interactions such as likes and shares. The overall approach is named Social Explicit Semantic Analysis. Experimental results on real data show the advantages and limitations of the proposed approach, while an initial comparison between ESA and S-ESA is very promising.

  17. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  18. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Bein

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  19. Enhancing project-oriented learning by joining communities of practice and opening spaces for relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an extension to project-oriented learning to increase social construction of knowledge and learning. The focus is on: (a) maximising opportunities for students to share their knowledge with practitioners by joining communities of practice, and (b) increasing their intrinsic motivation by creating conditions for student's relatedness. The case study considers a last year capstone course in Mechanical Engineering. The work addresses innovative practices of active learning and beyond project-oriented learning through: (a) the development of a web-based decision support system, (b) meetings between the communities of students, maintenance engineers and academics, and (c) new off-campus group instances. The author hypothesises that this multi-modal approach increases deep learning and social impact of the educational process. Surveys to the actors support a successful achievement of the educational goals. The methodology can easily be extended to further improve the learning process.

  20. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  1. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos

    2018-07-01

    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Keil

    Full Text Available In the "digital native" generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them.

  3. A general approach for haplotype phasing across the full spectrum of relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally 'unrelated' individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics.

  4. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  5. DREAM3: network inference using dynamic context likelihood of relatedness and the inferelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Madar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current works aiming to learn regulatory networks from systems biology data must balance model complexity with respect to data availability and quality. Methods that learn regulatory associations based on unit-less metrics, such as Mutual Information, are attractive in that they scale well and reduce the number of free parameters (model complexity per interaction to a minimum. In contrast, methods for learning regulatory networks based on explicit dynamical models are more complex and scale less gracefully, but are attractive as they may allow direct prediction of transcriptional dynamics and resolve the directionality of many regulatory interactions.We aim to investigate whether scalable information based methods (like the Context Likelihood of Relatedness method and more explicit dynamical models (like Inferelator 1.0 prove synergistic when combined. We test a pipeline where a novel modification of the Context Likelihood of Relatedness (mixed-CLR, modified to use time series data is first used to define likely regulatory interactions and then Inferelator 1.0 is used for final model selection and to build an explicit dynamical model.Our method ranked 2nd out of 22 in the DREAM3 100-gene in silico networks challenge. Mixed-CLR and Inferelator 1.0 are complementary, demonstrating a large performance gain relative to any single tested method, with precision being especially high at low recall values. Partitioning the provided data set into four groups (knock-down, knock-out, time-series, and combined revealed that using comprehensive knock-out data alone provides optimal performance. Inferelator 1.0 proved particularly powerful at resolving the directionality of regulatory interactions, i.e. "who regulates who" (approximately of identified true positives were correctly resolved. Performance drops for high in-degree genes, i.e. as the number of regulators per target gene increases, but not with out-degree, i.e. performance is not affected by

  6. Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K P; Jorgensen, T H; Jolliffe, K G; Richardson, D S

    2017-11-01

    How individual genetic variability relates to fitness is important in understanding evolution and the processes affecting populations of conservation concern. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been widely used to study this link in wild populations, where key parameters that affect both variability and fitness, such as inbreeding, can be difficult to measure. We used estimates of parental heterozygosity and genetic similarity ('relatedness') derived from 32 microsatellite markers to explore the relationship between genetic variability and fitness in a population of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. We found no effect of maternal MLH (multilocus heterozygosity) on clutch size or egg success rate, and no single-locus effects. However, we found effects of paternal MLH and parental relatedness on egg success rate that interacted in a way that may result in both positive and negative effects of genetic variability. Multicollinearity in these tests was within safe limits, and null simulations suggested that the effect was not an artefact of using paternal genotypes reconstructed from large samples of offspring. Our results could imply a tension between inbreeding and outbreeding depression in this system, which is biologically feasible in turtles: female-biased natal philopatry may elevate inbreeding risk and local adaptation, and both processes may be disrupted by male-biased dispersal. Although this conclusion should be treated with caution due to a lack of significant identity disequilibrium, our study shows the importance of considering both positive and negative effects when assessing how variation in genetic variability affects fitness in wild systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  8. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  9. How Teacher Emotional Support Motivates Students: The Mediating Roles of Perceived Peer Relatedness, Autonomy Support, and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and…

  10. The Development of Self-Definition and Relatedness in Emerging Adulthood and Their Role in the Development of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Hermanto, Nicola; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven

    2016-01-01

    According to Blatt (2004; Blatt & Luyten, 2009) and others (e.g., Beck, Epstein, Harrison, & Emery, 1983), establishing positive self-definition and mature relatedness to others represent core lifespan developmental tasks. In a sample of emerging adults, this study examined the effects of the quality of one close friendship and changes in…

  11. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737 with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1 none, 2 random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3 random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.

  12. The Effects of Collaborative Care of Living Animals in Biology Lessons on Students' Relatedness Toward Their Teacher Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Alexander; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The transition from elementary school to the upper grades can lead to ambiguous feelings toward the new, male teachers. This study investigated whether collaborative animal care in biology lessons affects students' feelings of relatedness toward their biology teachers positively during the first year after the school transition. Four hundred twenty fifth graders (M age = 10.5 years, SD age = 0.6 years) of higher types of tracking participated. We designed one experimental group that involved caring for the living animals to be used in the upcoming lessons, and two control groups. The first control group included lessons with living animals, but did not include prior care of those animals, and the second incorporated neither living animals nor prior care. All groups received biology lessons with the same content. To examine the effects of caretaking, we used an adapted version of the scale "relatedness" (Ryan 1982). In both control groups, boys showed lower relatedness toward female teachers and girls toward male teachers, respectively. Collaborative mice care promoted equal relatedness across all gender combinations among teachers and students.

  13. Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R M

    1995-09-01

    The assumption that there are innate integrative or actualizing tendencies underlying personality and social development is reexamined. Rather than viewing such processes as either nonexistent or as automatic, I argue that they are dynamic and dependent upon social-contextual supports pertaining to basic human psychological needs. To develop this viewpoint, I conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration. These processes are then shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs. Interactions between psychological needs and contextual supports account, in part, for the domain and situational specificity of motivation, experience, and relative integration. The meaning of psychological needs (vs. wants) is directly considered, as are the relations between concepts of integration and autonomy and those of independence, individualism, efficacy, and cognitive models of "multiple selves."

  14. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...... and achieve outcomes. This illustration is based on a micro-level analysis of a transcript from a Viable System Model workshop held in a food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark. Through our findings we identify two distinct script-supported FM behaviours and related script-supported facilitation practices...... that enable novices to (a) acquire skills and competencies; and (b) switch between and combine skills and competencies to successfully manage workshops and achieve outcomes. Our study links micro-level considerations to a meta-level framework that relates the script-supported FM behaviours and practices...

  15. Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Markos A.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Hall, John D.; Delwiche, Charles F.; Fritschie, Keith; Narwani, Anita; Venail, Patrick A.; Bentlage, Bastian; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed to support the CRH, critics have pointed out at least three limitations: (i) the use of data poor phylogenies that provide inaccurate estimates of species relatedness, (ii) the use of inappropriate statistical models that fail to detect relationships between relatedness and species interactions amidst nonlinearities and heteroskedastic variances, and (iii) overly simplified laboratory conditions that fail to allow eco-evolutionary relationships to emerge. Here, we address these limitations and find they do not explain why evolutionary relatedness fails to predict the strength of species interactions or probabilities of coexistence among freshwater green algae. First, we construct a new data-rich, transcriptome-based phylogeny of common freshwater green algae that are commonly cultured and used for laboratory experiments. Using this new phylogeny, we re-analyse ecological data from three previously published laboratory experiments. After accounting for the possibility of nonlinearities and heterogeneity of variances across levels of relatedness, we find no relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological traits. In addition, we show that communities of North American green algae are randomly composed with respect to their evolutionary relationships in 99% of 1077 lakes spanning the continental United States. Together, these analyses result in one of the most comprehensive case studies of how evolutionary history influences

  16. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  17. The Emergence of Relationship-based Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation by coupling two simple mechanisms into the model: tie strength based investment preference and homophily assumption. We construct the model by categorizing game participants into four types: prosocialists (players who prefers to invest in their intimate friends), antisocialists (players who prefer to invest in strangers), egoists (players who never cooperate) and altruists (players who cooperate indifferently with anyone). We show that the relationship-based cooperation (prosocialists) is favored throughout the evolution if we assume players of the same type have stronger ties than different ones. Moreover, we discover that strengthening the internal bonds within the strategic clusters further promotes the competitiveness of prosocialists and therefore facilitates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation in our proposed scenarios. The robustness of the model is also tested under different strategy updating rules and network structures. The results show that this argument is robust against the variations of initial conditions and therefore can be considered as a fundamental theoretical framework to study relationship-based cooperation in reality.

  18. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  19. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer.

  20. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Family Nurture Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit improves social-relatedness, attention, and neurodevelopment of preterm infants at 18 months in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Firestein, Morgan R; Austin, Judy; Hane, Amie A; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Garland, Marianne; Glickstein, Sara B; Brunelli, Susan A; Ludwig, Robert J; Myers, Michael M

    2015-11-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is designed to counteract adverse effects of separation of mothers and their preterm infants. Here, we evaluate effects of FNI on neurobehavioral outcomes. Data were collected at 18 months corrected age from preterm infants. Infants were assigned at birth to FNI or standard care (SC). Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) were assessed for 76 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 45); the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 57 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 26); and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was obtained for 59 infants (SC, n = 33; FNI, n = 26). Family Nurture Intervention significantly improved Bayley-III cognitive (p = .039) and language (p = .008) scores for infants whose scores were greater than 85. FNI infants had fewer attention problems on the CBCL (p Nurture Intervention is the first NICU intervention to show significant improvements in preterm infants across multiple domains of neurodevelopment, social-relatedness, and attention problems. These gains suggest that an intervention that facilitates emotional interactions between mothers and infants in the NICU may be key to altering developmental trajectories of preterm infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Discrepancies in Autonomy and Relatedness Promoting Behaviors of Substance Using Mothers and Their Children: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.

  4. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers

  5. Link prediction based on nonequilibrium cooperation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanxi; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Link prediction in complex networks has become a common focus of many researchers. But most existing methods concentrate on neighbors, and rarely consider degree heterogeneity of two endpoints. Node degree represents the importance or status of endpoints. We describe the large-degree heterogeneity as the nonequilibrium between nodes. This nonequilibrium facilitates a stable cooperation between endpoints, so that two endpoints with large-degree heterogeneity tend to connect stably. We name such a phenomenon as the nonequilibrium cooperation effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a link prediction method based on the nonequilibrium cooperation effect to improve accuracy. Theoretical analysis will be processed in advance, and at the end, experiments will be performed in 12 real-world networks to compare the mainstream methods with our indices in the network through numerical analysis.

  6. Cooperative endeavors: A case study of success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Partnerships and cooperative agreements abound in the environmental arena today. This paper briefly highlights the collaborative approach used by the International Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP). ICOLP has helped international members and non-members to eliminate most of the ozone-depleting solvents from manufacturing processes through the exchange of technical information in a non-proprietary manner. By using alternatives, companies and governments have realized savings in the multiple millions of dollars. Advantages of participating in cooperative environmental partnerships may include: (1) improved access and exchange of information, (2) cost minimization, (3) promotion and facilitation of business opportunities, (4) improved dialogue between groups, (5) coordinated approach to complex issues, and (6) technology development and transfer opportunities.

  7. Social identity and cooperation in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2017-12-06

    I discuss the function of social identity signaling in facilitating cooperative group formation, and how the nature of that function changes with the structure of social organization. I propose that signals of social identity facilitate assortment for successful coordination in large-scale societies, and that the multidimensional, context-dependent nature of social identity is crucial for successful coordination when individuals have to cooperate in different contexts. Furthermore, the structure of social identity is tied to the structure of society, so that as societies grow larger and more interconnected, the landscape of social identities grows more heterogeneous. This discussion bears directly on the need to articulate the dynamics of emergent, ephemeral groups as a major factor in human cultural evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development of a Social Networking-Based Relatedness Intervention Among Young, First-Time Blood Donors: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; France, Janis L; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Carlson, Bruce W; France, Christopher R

    2018-04-26

    Increasing repeat blood donation behavior is a critical public health goal. According to self-determination theory, the process of developing internal motivation to give blood and an associated self-identity as a blood donor may be promoted by feelings of “relatedness” or a connection to other donors, which may be enhanced through social relations and interactions. The purpose of this report it to describe the development and pilot testing of a social networking-based (Facebook) intervention condition designed to increase feelings of relatedness via virtual social interaction and support. To develop the intervention condition content, images, text, polls, and video content were assembled. Ohio University college students (N=127) rated the content (82 images/text) presented by computer in random order using a scale of one to five on various dimensions of relatedness. Mean ratings were calculated and analyses of variance were conducted to assess associations among the dimensions. Based on these results, the relatedness intervention was adapted and evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy among 24 first-time donors, aged 18 to 24 years, in a 30-day pilot trial. Paired t-tests were conducted to examine change over time in relatedness and connectedness. The intervention condition that was developed was acceptable and feasible. Results of the uncontrolled, preintervention, and postintervention evaluation revealed that feelings of individual-level relatedness increased significantly after the intervention. By promoting first-time blood donor relatedness, our goal is to enhance internal motivation for donating and the integration of the blood donor identity, thus increasing the likelihood of future repeat donation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02717338; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02717338 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ymHRBCwu) ©Victoria Frye, Louisa Duffy, Janis L France, Debra A Kessler, Mark Rebosa, Beth H Shaz

  9. Pedigrees or markers: Which are better in estimating relatedness and inbreeding coefficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) and pairwise relatedness (r) are fundamental parameters in population genetics and have important applications in diverse fields such as human medicine, forensics, plant and animal breeding, conservation and evolutionary biology. Traditionally, both parameters are calculated from pedigrees, but are now increasingly estimated from genetic marker data. Conceptually, a pedigree gives the expected F and r values, FP and rP, with the expectations being taken (hypothetically) over an infinite number of individuals with the same pedigree. In contrast, markers give the realised (actual) F and r values at the particular marker loci of the particular individuals, FM and rM. Both pedigree (FP, rP) and marker (FM, rM) estimates can be used as inferences of genomic inbreeding coefficients FG and genomic relatedness rG, which are the underlying quantities relevant to most applications (such as estimating inbreeding depression and heritability) of F and r. In the pre-genomic era, it was widely accepted that pedigrees are much better than markers in delineating FG and rG, and markers should better be used to validate, amend and construct pedigrees rather than to replace them. Is this still true in the genomic era when genome-wide dense SNPs are available? In this simulation study, I showed that genomic markers can yield much better estimates of FG and rG than pedigrees when they are numerous (say, 10(4) SNPs) under realistic situations (e.g. genome and population sizes). Pedigree estimates are especially poor for species with a small genome, where FG and rG are determined to a large extent by Mendelian segregations and may thus deviate substantially from their expectations (FP and rP). Simulations also confirmed that FM, when estimated from many SNPs, can be much more powerful than FP for detecting inbreeding depression in viability. However, I argue that pedigrees cannot be replaced completely by genomic SNPs, because the former allows for

  10. Relatedness, national boarders, perceptions of firms and the value of their innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Adam R.

    The main goal of this dissertation is to better understand how external corporate stakeholder perceptions of relatedness affect important outcomes for companies. In pursuit of this goal, I apply the lens of category studies. Categories not only help audiences to distinguish between members of different categories, they also convey patterns of relatedness. In turn, this may have implications for understanding how audiences search, what they attend to, and how the members are ultimately valued. In the first chapter, I apply incites from social psychology to show how the nationality of audience members affects the way that they cognitively group objects into similar categories. I find that the geographic location of stock market analysts affect the degree to which they will revise their earnings estimates for a given company in the wake of an earnings miss by another firm in the same industry. Foreign analysts revise their earnings estimates downward more so than do local analysts, suggesting that foreign analysts ascribe the earnings miss more broadly and tend to lump companies located in the same country into larger groups than do local analysts. In the second chapter, I demonstrate that the structure of inter-category relationships can have consequential effects for the members of a focal category. Leveraging an experimental-like design, I study the outcomes of nanotechnology patents and the pattern of forward citations across multiple patent jurisdictions. I find that members of technology categories with many close category 'neighbors' are more broadly cited than members of categories with few category 'neighbors.' My findings highlight how category embeddedness and category system structure affect the outcomes of category members as well as the role that classification plays in the valuation of innovation. In the third chapter, I propose a novel and dynamic measure of corporate similarity that is constructed from the two-mode analyst and company coverage network

  11. Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralyn E Stephens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional activities and assignments that provide students with a variety of ways to engage each other have a direct and immediate effect on their academic performance. This paper shares the Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups (FCOG instructional planning strategy. The strategy is designed for faculty use and familiarizes students with the process and technology necessary to collaborate effectively in online classroom groups. The strategy utilizes proven teaching techniques to maximize student-student and student-content relationships. Each of the four (4 sequential phases in the FCOG instructional planning strategy are discussed: 1 Creating Groups, 2 Establishing Expectations, 3 Communication Tools, and 4 Assignments and Activities. The discussion also contains implementation suggestions as well as examples of instructional assignments and activities that provide students with a variety of ways to collaborate to reach the learning outcomes.

  12. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  13. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  14. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  15. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  16. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  17. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  18. Virulence, resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from mule foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Respiratory diseases are common in young horses but little is known about such infections in mule foals. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from tracheal wash (TW and fecal samples (FS of mule foals, with or without cytological evidence of respiratory disease. Strains were analyzed against 13 antimicrobials, for presence of Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL, and virulence genes. Phylogrouping and Randomic (RAPD-PCR profiles were used to evaluate their genetic relatedness. E. coli strains from TW and FS showed greatest resistance to tetracycline, while Klebsiella strains were mainly resistant to ampicillin; multidrug resistance and ESBL production were also detected. The blaCTX gene prevailed among the E. coli isolates, while the blaSHV gene was more frequently found in K. pneumoniae. The fimH gene was detected in most of the isolates and multiple virulence factors were identified in three E. coli isolates. Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to the B1 phylogroup, but B2 strains displayed more virulence genes. The RAPD assay revealed genetic diversity among strains and was able to distinguish FS isolates from TW isolates. Knowledge of the bacteria associated with the respiratory tract of mule foals is important in the treatment of sick animals.

  19. Intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids show different patterns of heterosis despite the close relatedness of the parental genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Greaves, Ian K; Wang, Li; Huen, Amanda K; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis is important for agriculture; however, little is known about the mechanisms driving hybrid vigor. Ultimately, heterosis depends on the interactions of specific alleles and epialleles provided by the parents, which is why hybrids can exhibit different levels of heterosis, even within the same species. We characterize the development of several intraspecific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) F1 hybrids that show different levels of heterosis at maturity. We identify several phases of heterosis beginning during embryogenesis and culminating in a final phase of vegetative maturity and seed production. During each phase, the hybrids show different levels and patterns of growth, despite the close relatedness of the parents. For instance, during the vegetative phases, the hybrids develop larger leaves than the parents to varied extents, and they do so by exploiting increases in cell size and cell numbers in different ratios. Consistent with this finding, we observed changes in the expression of genes known to regulate leaf size in developing rosettes of the hybrids, with the patterns of altered expression differing between combinations. The data show that heterosis is dependent on changes in development throughout the growth cycle of the hybrid, with the traits of mature vegetative biomass and reproductive yield as cumulative outcomes of heterosis at different levels, tissues, and times of development. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Correcting for cryptic relatedness by a regression-based genomic control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic control (GC method is a useful tool to correct for the cryptic relatedness in population-based association studies. It was originally proposed for correcting for the variance inflation of Cochran-Armitage's additive trend test by using information from unlinked null markers, and was later generalized to be applicable to other tests with the additional requirement that the null markers are matched with the candidate marker in allele frequencies. However, matching allele frequencies limits the number of available null markers and thus limits the applicability of the GC method. On the other hand, errors in genotype/allele frequencies may cause further bias and variance inflation and thereby aggravate the effect of GC correction. Results In this paper, we propose a regression-based GC method using null markers that are not necessarily matched in allele frequencies with the candidate marker. Variation of allele frequencies of the null markers is adjusted by a regression method. Conclusion The proposed method can be readily applied to the Cochran-Armitage's trend tests other than the additive trend test, the Pearson's chi-square test and other robust efficiency tests. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in controlling type I error in the presence of population substructure.

  1. Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Maršálková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  3. Genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolates from human and environmental sources in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanser, J.A.; Doyle, R.; Sangster, N.; Steele, T.W.; Adams, M.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolated in Australia since 1987 was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and allozyme electrophoresis. Three radiolabeled probes were used in Southern hybridizations for the RFLP studies. They were Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA and cloned fragments of L. longbeachae selected empirically from genomal banks in lambda and a cosmid. The legionellae included in the study comprised 11 Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 organisms isolated form humans, 28 L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates from environmental sources, 3 L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. These were compared with the American Type Culture Collection reference strains of both serogroups and some other related Legionella species. Results of allozyme and RFLP analysis showed that all the isolates from humans and all but three of the environmental L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates were closely related. They were also closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 1 ATCC 33462. There was wider variation among the three L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. One of these was closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 2 ATCC 33484. RFLP studies with the rRNA probe provided the most discrimination among isolates but did not distinguish between the two serogroups

  4. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C 16 acid and trihydroxy-C 18 acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a [ 32 P]-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested

  5. Genetic and antigenic relatedness of bovine herpesvirus-1 and pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The DNA sequence homology between the genomes of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) was examined. Reciprocal cross hybridization of viral DNA labeled by nick translation to Southern blots of Kpnl, BamH1, EcoR1, and HindIII restriction endonuclease digested DNA, detected homologous sequences dispersed throughout the genomes of the two viruses. The DNA-DNA hybrids were found to be stable under high stringency wash conditions. Sequences of a 32 P-labeled PRV DNA A fragment probe were found to hybridize only to the BHV-1 HindIII G fragment. This indicated that the sequence homology detected between these two viruses was not simply due to fortuitous hybridization of guanine plus cytosine rich sequences. The homology between BHV-1 and PRV was determined by liquid reassociation. It was found that the hybridization rates between 32 P-labeled PRV DNA and unlabeled BHV-1 DNA and 32 P-labeled BHV-1 DNA and unlabeled PRV DNA corresponded to approximately 8% reassociation. The antigenic relatedness between BHV-1 and PRV was also examined. Eighty percent plaque reduction serum neutralization tests showed that BHV-1 rabbit hyperimmune antiserum neutralized BHV-1 virus at a serum neutralization titer (SNT) of 1:256 and PRV virus at an (SNT) of 1:8. PRV rabbit hyperimmune antiserum neutralized PRV virus at an SNT of 1:4 and BHV-1 virus at an SNT of 1:2

  6. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jeffrey M; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-13

    Recent advances in research concerning the public health value of natural environments have been remarkable. The growing interest in this topic (often housed under terms such as green and/or blue space) has been occurring in parallel with the microbiome revolution and an increased use of remote sensing technology in public health. In the context of biodiversity loss, rapid urbanization, and alarming rates of global non-communicable diseases (many associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation), discussions of natural vis-a-vis built environments are not merely fodder for intellectual curiosity. Here, we argue for increased interdisciplinary collaboration with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms-including aerobiological and epigenetic-that might help explain some of the noted positive health outcomes. It is our contention that some of these mechanisms are related to ecodiversity (i.e., the sum of biodiversity and geodiversity, including biotic and abiotic constituents). We also encourage researchers to more closely examine individual nature relatedness and how it might influence many outcomes that are at the interface of lifestyle habits and contact with ecodiversity.

  7. Genome Analysis and Phylogenetic Relatedness of Gallibacterium anatis Strains from Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Trampel, Darrell; Nolan, Lisa K.; Seemann, Torsten; Bager, Ragnhild J.; Bojesen, Anders M.

    2013-01-01

    Peritonitis is the major disease problem of laying hens in commercial table egg and parent stock operations. Despite its importance, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been completely clarified. Although avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates have been incriminated as the causative agent of laying hen peritonitis, Gallibacterium anatis are frequently isolated from peritonitis lesions. Despite recent studies suggesting a role for G. anatis in the pathogenesis of peritonitis, little is known about the organism’s virulence mechanisms, genomic composition and population dynamics. Here, we compared the genome sequences of three G. anatis isolates in an effort to understand its virulence mechanisms and identify novel antigenic traits. A multilocus sequence typing method was also established for G. anatis and used to characterize the genotypic relatedness of 71 isolates from commercial laying hens in Iowa and 18 international reference isolates. Genomic comparisons suggest that G. anatis is a highly diverse bacterial species, with some strains possessing previously described and potential virulence factors, but with a core genome containing several antigenic candidates. Multilocus sequence typing effectively distinguished 82 sequence types and several clonal complexes of G. anatis, and some clones seemed to predominate among G. anatis populations from commercial layers in Iowa. Biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial agents was also observed in several clades. Overall, the genomic diversity of G. anatis suggests that multiple lineages exist with differing pathogenic potential towards birds. PMID:23359626

  8. Genome analysis and phylogenetic relatedness of Gallibacterium anatis strains from poultry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Peritonitis is the major disease problem of laying hens in commercial table egg and parent stock operations. Despite its importance, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been completely clarified. Although avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolates have been incriminated as the causative agent of laying hen peritonitis, Gallibacterium anatis are frequently isolated from peritonitis lesions. Despite recent studies suggesting a role for G. anatis in the pathogenesis of peritonitis, little is known about the organism's virulence mechanisms, genomic composition and population dynamics. Here, we compared the genome sequences of three G. anatis isolates in an effort to understand its virulence mechanisms and identify novel antigenic traits. A multilocus sequence typing method was also established for G. anatis and used to characterize the genotypic relatedness of 71 isolates from commercial laying hens in Iowa and 18 international reference isolates. Genomic comparisons suggest that G. anatis is a highly diverse bacterial species, with some strains possessing previously described and potential virulence factors, but with a core genome containing several antigenic candidates. Multilocus sequence typing effectively distinguished 82 sequence types and several clonal complexes of G. anatis, and some clones seemed to predominate among G. anatis populations from commercial layers in Iowa. Biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial agents was also observed in several clades. Overall, the genomic diversity of G. anatis suggests that multiple lineages exist with differing pathogenic potential towards birds.

  9. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin genes reveals frequent clonal relatedness in double monoclonal gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschumper, R C; Dispenzieri, A; Abraham, R S; Henderson, K J; Jelinek, D F

    2013-04-19

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) are hematological diseases characterized by high levels of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) or M-protein. Within this group are patients with more than one M-protein, referred to as double MGs (DMGs). The M-proteins in DMG patients may have different heavy chain (HC) isotypes that are associated with different light chains (LCs), or different HCs that are LC matched. In this study, we examined the clonal relatedness of the M-proteins in the latter type in a cohort of 14 DMG patients. By using PCR, we identified 7/14 DMG patients that expressed two Ig HC isotypes with identical Ig HC variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and complementarity determining region (HCDR3) sequences. Two additional DMG patients had two Ig transcripts using the same IGHV, IGHD and IGHJ genes but with slight differences in variable region or HCDR3 mutations. LC analysis confirmed that a single LC was expressed in 3/7 DMG patients with identical HC transcripts and in the two DMGs with highly similar transcripts. The PCR findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence for HC and LC expression. Clonally related HC-dissimilar/LC-matched DMGs may occur often and defines a new subtype of MG that may serve as a tool for studies of disease pathogenesis.

  10. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin genes reveals frequent clonal relatedness in double monoclonal gammopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumper, R C; Dispenzieri, A; Abraham, R S; Henderson, K J; Jelinek, D F

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) are hematological diseases characterized by high levels of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) or M-protein. Within this group are patients with more than one M-protein, referred to as double MGs (DMGs). The M-proteins in DMG patients may have different heavy chain (HC) isotypes that are associated with different light chains (LCs), or different HCs that are LC matched. In this study, we examined the clonal relatedness of the M-proteins in the latter type in a cohort of 14 DMG patients. By using PCR, we identified 7/14 DMG patients that expressed two Ig HC isotypes with identical Ig HC variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and complementarity determining region (HCDR3) sequences. Two additional DMG patients had two Ig transcripts using the same IGHV, IGHD and IGHJ genes but with slight differences in variable region or HCDR3 mutations. LC analysis confirmed that a single LC was expressed in 3/7 DMG patients with identical HC transcripts and in the two DMGs with highly similar transcripts. The PCR findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence for HC and LC expression. Clonally related HC-dissimilar/LC-matched DMGs may occur often and defines a new subtype of MG that may serve as a tool for studies of disease pathogenesis

  11. Asexual sporulation facilitates adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, A.J.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating

  12. Facilitators in Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…

  13. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  14. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  15. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  16. Satisfaction in terms of autonomy, competence and relatedness, and its importance in promoting job motivation in the Portuguese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Diogo Patricio Varandas da

    2010-01-01

    Degree of Master in Social and Organizational Psychology / PsycINFO Content Classification Code System: 3000 Social Psychology; 3660 Organizational Behavior Self-Determination Theory (SDT) argues that autonomy, competence and relatedness are three universally critical needs that, once satisfied, will promote self-determined types of motivation and more intrinscally motivated behaviours that yield positive effects on well-being. In contrast, researchers on cross-cultural differences argu...

  17. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  18. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2006-03-07

    Many social animals live in stable groups. In contrast, African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) live in unusually fluid, fission-fusion societies. That is, 'core' social groups are composed of predictable sets of individuals; however, over the course of hours or days, these groups may temporarily divide and reunite, or they may fuse with other social groups to form much larger social units. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic relatedness predicts patterns of group fission and fusion among wild, female African elephants. Our study of a single Kenyan population spans 236 individuals in 45 core social groups, genotyped at 11 microsatellite and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus. We found that genetic relatedness predicted group fission; adult females remained with their first order maternal relatives when core groups fissioned temporarily. Relatedness also predicted temporary fusion between social groups; core groups were more likely to fuse with each other when the oldest females in each group were genetic relatives. Groups that shared mtDNA haplotypes were also significantly more likely to fuse than groups that did not share mtDNA. Our results suggest that associations between core social groups persist for decades after the original maternal kin have died. We discuss these results in the context of kin selection and its possible role in the evolution of elephant sociality.

  19. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  20. Neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness interact to determine fruit set and abortion rates in a continuous tropical tree population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F A; Comita, L S

    2008-12-07

    Tropical trees may show positive density dependence in fruit set and maturation due to pollen limitation in low-density populations. However, pollen from closely related individuals in the local neighbourhood might reduce fruit set or increase fruit abortion in self-incompatible tree species. We investigated the role of neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness on individual fruit set and abortion in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia in a large forest plot in central Panama. Using nested neighbourhood models, we found a strong positive effect of increased conspecific density on fruit set and maturation. However, high neighbourhood genetic relatedness interacted with density to reduce total fruit set and increase the proportion of aborted fruit. Our results imply a fitness advantage for individuals growing in high densities as measured by fruit set, but realized fruit set is lowered by increased neighbourhood relatedness. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is increased visitation by density-dependent invertebrate pollinators in high-density populations, which increases pollen quantity and carry-over and increases fruit set and maturation, coupled with self-incompatibility at early and late stages due to biparental inbreeding that lowers fruit set and increases fruit abortion. Implications for the reproductive ecology and conservation of tropical tree communities in continuous and fragmented habitats are discussed.

  1. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship. PMID:28694788

  2. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  3. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  4. Can Relatedness be a Key to Employee Motivation? : A quantitative study of the linkage between the three basic needs and internalization in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Halvarsson, Jon; Engman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Workplace motivation is important for organizations in all contexts. Motivation can be both extrinsic and intrinsic, simplified meaning it derives from expectations of external rewards or comes from enjoyment of the task itself. Whether the motivation becomes extrinsic or intrinsic depends primarily on satisfaction of the basic needs, namely autonomy, competence and relatedness. With stance in the self-determination theory this thesis explored the concept of relatedness, alongside the two oth...

  5. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain thes...

  6. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  7. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  8. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  9. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  10. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  11. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  12. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  13. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  14. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  15. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  16. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  17. Laser facilitates vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  18. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...

  19. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  20. Representations of relatedness with parents and friends and autonomous academic motivation during the late adolescence-early adulthood period: reciprocal or unidirectional effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Marsh, Herbert W; Senécal, Caroline; Dowson, Martin

    2008-12-01

    The literature on the determinants of academic motivation indicates that social and affective processes connected to students' interpersonal relationships are central elements in understanding students' academic motivation and other school-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Does autonomous motivation drive representations of relatedness, do representations of relatedness drive autonomous motivation, or are these constructs reciprocally related over time? The sample consists of 834 adolescents aged 18 years (SD=1.88) who participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Results from the structural equation models provided good support for the effect of representations of relatedness with parents on autonomous academic motivation but no convincing support for the effect of motivation on representations of relatedness with parents. In addition, no significant effect in either direction was found between representations of relatedness with friends and autonomous academic motivation. It might be important to inform parents that they may still have an influence on their adolescent's representations of relatedness and subsequently on his/her autonomous academic motivation even during the late adolescence-early adulthood period, a period when some parents may be tempted to believe that they can do little to motivate their offspring.

  1. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  2. Repeated thinking promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Cai Kaiquan; Du Wenbo; Cao Xianbin

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level f C is remarkably promoted and f C has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models. (paper)

  3. Semantic text relatedness on Al-Qur’an translation using modified path based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto, Yudi; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    Abdul Baquee Muhammad [1] have built Corpus that contained AlQur’an domain, WordNet and dictionary. He has did initialisation in the development of knowledges about AlQur’an and the knowledges about relatedness between texts in AlQur’an. The Path based measurement method that proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] has never been used in the AlQur’an domain. By using AlQur’an translation dataset in this research, the path based measurement method proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] will be used to test this method in AlQur’an domain to obtain similarity values and to measure its correlation value. In this study the degree value is proposed to be used in modifying the path based method that proposed in previous research. Degree Value is the number of links that owned by a lcs (lowest common subsumer) node on a taxonomy. The links owned by a node on the taxonomy represent the semantic relationship that a node has in the taxonomy. By using degree value to modify the path-based method that proposed in previous research is expected that the correlation value obtained will increase. After running some experiment by using proposed method, the correlation measurement value can obtain fairly good correlation ties with 200 Word Pairs derive from Noun POS SimLex-999. The correlation value that be obtained is 93.3% which means their bonds are strong and they have very strong correlation. Whereas for the POS other than Noun POS vocabulary that owned by WordNet is incomplete therefore many pairs of words that the value of its similarity is zero so the correlation value is low.

  4. Genetic relatedness and virulence factors of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teat skin and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Hoet, A; Seo, K S; Fogt, K; Moon, B S

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of teat skin colonization in Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) by evaluating genetic relatedness of Staph. aureus isolates from milk and teat skin of dairy cows using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and characterizing the isolates based on the carriage of virulence genes. Cows in 4 known Staph. aureus-positive herds were sampled and Staph. aureus was detected in 43 quarters of 20 cows, with 10 quarters positive in both milk and skin (20 isolates), 18 positive only in milk, and 15 only on teat skin. Quarters with teat skin colonized with Staph. aureus were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Staph. aureus IMI than quarters not colonized on teat skin. Three main clusters were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using a cutoff of 80% similarity. All 3 clusters included both milk and skin isolates. The majority of isolates (72%) belonged to one predominant cluster (B), with 60% of isolates in the cluster originating from milk and 40% from teat skin. Genotypic variability was observed within 10 pairs (formed by isolates originating from milk and teat skin of the same quarter), where isolates in 5 out of the 10 pairs belonged to the same cluster. Forty-two virulence factors were screened using PCR. Some virulence factors were carried more frequently by teat skin isolates than by milk isolates or isolates from quarters with high somatic cell counts. Isolates in the predominant cluster B carried virulence factors clfA and clfB significantly more often than isolates in the minor clusters, which may have assisted them in becoming predominant in the herds. The present findings suggest that teat skin colonization with Staph. aureus can be an important factor involved in Staph. aureus IMI. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sperm quality but not relatedness predicts sperm competition success in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlis, Marion; Rahn, Anna K; Bakker, Theo C M

    2015-04-26

    Mating between close relatives often leads to a reduction of an individual's fitness, due to an increased expression of deleterious alleles. Thus, in many animal taxa pre- as well as postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms have evolved. An increased risk of inbreeding and hence a loss of genetic variation may occur during founder events as in most cases only few individuals establish a new population. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a small externally fertilizing fish species subject to strong sperm competition. Sticklebacks inhabit both marine and freshwater environments and anadromous populations have repeatedly established new genetically less diverse freshwater populations. Previous studies showed that anadromous sticklebacks strongly suffer from inbreeding depression and when given the choice females prefer to mate with unrelated males. The present study aimed to address whether there exists a postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanism solely based on sperm-egg interactions in sperm competition experiments. We used F1 individuals that originated either from a large, genetically heterogeneous anadromous population or from a small, genetically less diverse freshwater population. For each population, eggs of two different females were in vitro fertilized by the same two males' sperm in a paired study design. In the main experiment one male was the female's full-sib brother and in the control experiment all individuals were unrelated. The results revealed that fertilization success was independent of relatedness in both populations suggesting a general lack of a postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanism. Instead, male quality (i.e. sperm morphology) predicted paternity success during competitive fertilization trials. In sticklebacks, there is no evidence for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Sperm morphology predicted paternity instead, thus sperm quality traits are under strong sexual selection, presumably driven by the

  6. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  7. Clonal relatedness between lobular carcinoma in situ and synchronous malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been accepted as a marker of risk for the development of invasive breast cancer, yet modern models of breast carcinogenesis include LCIS as a precursor of low-grade carcinomas. We provide evidence favoring a clonal origin for LCIS and synchronous estrogen receptor-positive malignant lesions of the ductal and lobular phenotype. Methods Patients with prior LCIS undergoing mastectomy were identified preoperatively from 2003 to 2008. Specimens were widely sampled, and frozen blocks were screened for LCIS and co-existing malignant lesions, and were subject to microdissection. Samples from 65 patients were hybridized to the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array platform. Cases with both an LCIS sample and an associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive tumor sample were evaluated for patterns of somatic copy number changes to assess evidence of clonal relatedness. Results LCIS was identified in 44 of the cases, and among these a DCIS and/or invasive lesion was also identified in 21 cases. A total of 17 tumor pairs had adequate DNA/array data for analysis, including nine pairs of LCIS/invasive lobular cancer, four pairs of LCIS/DCIS, and four pairs of LCIS/invasive ductal cancer. Overall, seven pairs (41%) were judged to be clonally related; in five (29%) evidence suggested clonality but was equivocal, and five (29%) were considered independent. Clonal pairs were observed with all matched lesion types and low and high histological grades. We also show anecdotal evidence of clonality between a patient-matched triplet of LCIS, DCIS, and invasive ductal cancer. Conclusion Our results support the role of LCIS as a precursor in the development of both high-grade and low-grade ductal and lobular cancers. PMID:22776144

  8. Genetic relatedness and molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in central Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have been described with an increasing trend towards multidrug resistance, mostly in intensive care units. The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relatedness of clinical isolates and to elucidate the genetic basis of imipenem resistance. Methods A. baumannii isolates (n = 83 originated from two hospital settings in central Ohio were used in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clinically relevant antimicrobials were performed. Resistance determinants were characterized by using different phenotypic (accumulation assay for efflux and genotypic (PCR, DNA sequencing, plasmid analysis and electroporation approaches. Results The isolates were predominantly multidrug resistant (>79.5% and comprised of thirteen unique pulsotypes, with genotype VII circulating in both hospitals. The presence of blaOXA-23 in 13% (11/83 and ISAba1 linked blaOXA-66 in 79.5% (66/83 of clinical isolates was associated with high level imipenem resistance. In this set of OXA producing isolates, multidrug resistance was bestowed by blaADC-25, class 1 integron-borne aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, presence of sense mutations in gyrA/parC and involvement of active efflux (with evidence for the presence of adeB efflux gene. Conclusion This study underscores the major role of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases, and in particular the acquired OXA-23, in the dissemination of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. The co-occurrence of additional resistance determinant could also be a significant threat.

  9. Towards unified characterization of cooperation mechanisms. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, The Anh

    2015-09-01

    "I will jump into the river to save two brothers or eight cousins": This famous quote by J.B.S. Haldane accurately anticipates the conditions under which cooperation is the favorable choice in an interaction between genetic relatives. The general condition can later be formulated as a surprisingly simple mathematical expression, known as the Hamilton's rule, stating that natural selection favors cooperation if the genetic relatedness (r) between the donor and the recipient of a cooperative act is greater than its cost (c) to benefit (b) ratio [1]: r > c / b. Motivated by Hamilton's elegant early studies, researchers have attempted to find simple and concise rules that characterize the conditions for cooperation to be selected under various social viscosity [2,3]. For example, the seminal work by M. Nowak [3] in 2006 shows that similarly simple rules can be derived that govern each of the other four popular mechanisms of cooperation-direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, group selection and network reciprocity-, which can be expressed via the cost-to-benefit ratio being smaller than some critical value associated with the mechanism at work (as seen, for kin interactions, the critical value is relatedness). However, these rules are restricted to the donor and recipient (D&R) paradigm. The question is thus whether it is possible to obtain simple rules even for the general case? The answer is not trivial as a general two-player game is described by four independent parameters, not just two as in the D&R game.

  10. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  11. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  12. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  13. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  14. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  15. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  16. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  17. Barriers and Facilitators of Collaborative Management in Technological Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about innovation tend to a more systemic and cooperative approach in which those networks focused on scientific and technological development are considered. This article aims to identify the barriers and facilitators in the collaborative management process of technological innovation projects and a study has been carried out by the cooperation action for innovation with 17 industries in Brazil. The primary evidence refers to the crucial role of project managers when leading the structural demands, and clarity on the relevance of the communication of strategic guidelines among the organizations involved for the achievement of the results in the industries.

  18. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  19. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  20. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  1. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  2. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    were often more effective alone rather than in combination with rbcL + matK. We surmise that the efficacy of barcoding in plants has often been overestimated because of the lack of comparisons among closely related species. Phylogenetic information must be incorporated to properly evaluate relatedness in assessing the utility of barcoding loci.

  3. Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, whereas high sensitivity was seen to vancomycin followed by gentamicin. CDD and MIC for cefoxitin showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV as compared to PCR for mecA gene. In maximum number of isolates PFGE type A pattern was seen suggesting clonal relatedness.

  4. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  5. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  6. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  7. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  8. Robust Inference of Population Structure for Ancestry Prediction and Correction of Stratification in the Presence of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conomos, Matthew P.; Miller, Mike; Thornton, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure inference with genetic data has been motivated by a variety of applications in population genetics and genetic association studies. Several approaches have been proposed for the identification of genetic ancestry differences in samples where study participants are assumed to be unrelated, including principal components analysis (PCA), multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), and model-based methods for proportional ancestry estimation. Many genetic studies, however, include individuals with some degree of relatedness, and existing methods for inferring genetic ancestry fail in related samples. We present a method, PC-AiR, for robust population structure inference in the presence of known or cryptic relatedness. PC-AiR utilizes genome-screen data and an efficient algorithm to identify a diverse subset of unrelated individuals that is representative of all ancestries in the sample. The PC-AiR method directly performs PCA on the identified ancestry representative subset and then predicts components of variation for all remaining individuals based on genetic similarities. In simulation studies and in applications to real data from Phase III of the HapMap Project, we demonstrate that PC-AiR provides a substantial improvement over existing approaches for population structure inference in related samples. We also demonstrate significant efficiency gains, where a single axis of variation from PC-AiR provides better prediction of ancestry in a variety of structure settings than using ten (or more) components of variation from widely used PCA and MDS approaches. Finally, we illustrate that PC-AiR can provide improved population stratification correction over existing methods in genetic association studies with population structure and relatedness. PMID:25810074

  9. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Amstrup, Kristin S.

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are unique among bears in that they are adapted to the Arctic sea ice environment. Genetic data are useful for understanding their evolution and can contribute to management. We assessed parentage and relatedness of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska, with genetic data and field observations of age, sex, and mother–offspring and sibling relationships. Genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci for 226 bears indicate that genetic variation is comparable to other populations of polar bears with mean number of alleles per locus of 7.9 and observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.71. The genetic data verified 60 field-identified mother–offspring pairs and identified 10 additional mother–cub pairs and 48 father–offspring pairs. The entire sample of related and unrelated bears had a mean pairwise relatedness index (rxy) of approximately zero, parent–offspring and siblings had rxy of approximately 0.5, and 5.2% of the samples had rxy values within the range expected for parent-offspring. Effective population size (Ne= 277) and the ratio of Ne to total population size (Ne/N = 0.182) were estimated from the numbers of reproducing males and females. Ne estimates with genetic methods gave variable results. Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and Ne in a polar bear population.

  10. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  11. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  12. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Amstrup, Steven C; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Amstrup, Kristin S

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are unique among bears in that they are adapted to the Arctic sea ice environment. Genetic data are useful for understanding their evolution and can contribute to management. We assessed parentage and relatedness of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska, with genetic data and field observations of age, sex, and mother-offspring and sibling relationships. Genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci for 226 bears indicate that genetic variation is comparable to other populations of polar bears with mean number of alleles per locus of 7.9 and observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.71. The genetic data verified 60 field-identified mother-offspring pairs and identified 10 additional mother-cub pairs and 48 father-offspring pairs. The entire sample of related and unrelated bears had a mean pairwise relatedness index (r(xy)) of approximately zero, parent-offspring and siblings had r(xy) of approximately 0.5, and 5.2% of the samples had r(xy) values within the range expected for parent-offspring. Effective population size (N(e) = 277) and the ratio of N(e) to total population size (N(e)/N = 0.182) were estimated from the numbers of reproducing males and females. N(e) estimates with genetic methods gave variable results. Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and N(e) in a polar bear population.

  13. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  14. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  15. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  16. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  17. The audit of social administration (AGSC. Methodological proposal for its application in cooperative companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ojeda Mesa

    2014-06-01

    This article explains the bases for a methodology proposal that facilitates the execution of Social Administration Audits (AGS in cooperative companies, with the objective of evaluating the administration that they develop  the same social order.

  18. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  19. Aggression, cooperation, and relatedness among colonies of the invasive ant, .i.Monomorium pharaonis./i., originating from different areas of the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; John, R.; Rupeš, V.; Cech, G.; Marialigeti, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2009), s. 139-142 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Monomorium pharaonis * kin selection * supercolony Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  20. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  1. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  2. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  3. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  4. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  5. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  6. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  7. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  8. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  9. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  10. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  11. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  12. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  14. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  15. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  16. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  17. A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Krabina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

  18. Cooperation, networks and emotions: Three essays in behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays that study how people behave in a social context. The first two essays are on cooperation and networks. Chapter 2 investigates a mechanism to facilitate public good provision in networks. It relies on the idea that people compete for attractive network positions (or

  19. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  20. Elements of success in cooperatives conformed by Maya women in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazqez, Maria Cristina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Franco Garcia, Maria Laura; Boer, C.L.; Reyes Maya, Oscar Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes different elements leading to the success of cooperatives formed by indigenous Maya women of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. These elements have shown to facilitate the sustainability (permanence over time) of the cooperatives and their presence in the market, while improving

  1. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  2. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  3. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    , and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  4. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  5. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  6. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11–17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools. PMID:28190936

  7. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  8. Honey bees consider larval nutritional status rather than genetic relatedness when selecting larvae for emergency queen rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N; Lucas, Hannah M; Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Breece, Carolyn R

    2018-05-16

    In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments manipulating the nutritional status of one day old larvae by depriving them of brood food for a four-hour period, and then allowing workers to choose larvae for rearing queens from nutritionally deprived and non-deprived larvae. We simultaneously investigated the role of genetic relatedness in selection of larvae for queen rearing. In all the experiments, significantly greater numbers of non-deprived larvae than deprived larvae were selected for queen rearing irrespective of genetic relatedness. Our results demonstrate that honey bees perceive the nutritional state of larvae and use that information when selecting larvae for rearing queens in the natural emergency queen replacement process.

  9. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11-17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools.

  10. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  11. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  12. The role of emotions in the maintenance of cooperative behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Weissing, Franz J.

    2014-04-01

    Our attention is focused on how individual emotions influence collective behaviors, which captures an aspect of reality missing from past studies: free riders may suffer some stress, which could adapt jointly with the individual stress intensity and size of the gaming group. With an evolutionary game theoretical approach, we gain the fixation probability for one mutant cooperator to invade and dominate the whole defecting population. When the stress intensity exceeds a threshold, natural selection favors cooperators replacing defectors in a finite population. We further infer that lower stress intensity is sufficient for one mutant cooperator to become fixed with an advantageous probability in a larger population. Moreover, when the gaming group is smaller than the population size, the more the return from the public goods, the lower the threshold of stress intensity required to facilitate the full dominance of cooperators. We hope our studies may show that individual sentiments or psychological activities will open up novel explanations for the puzzle of collective actions.

  13. Does the threshold for reporting musculoskeletal pain or the probability of attributing work-relatedness vary by socioeconomic position or sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Kristensen, Petter; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Wærsted, Morten; Punnett, Laura

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of sex and socioeconomic position (SEP) on individuals' perceptions of pain and its work-relatedness. We compared self-reported pain in neck-shoulder or arm with clinical diagnoses and workers' judgments of work-relatedness with physicians' assessments based on specific criteria, between sexes and high- and low-SEP participants in the Oslo Health Study (n = 217). Clinical diagnoses were more frequent in low-SEP subjects than high-SEP subjects with pain and generally higher in women than in men. Pain attributed to work was more frequently assessed as work-related by the physicians in low-SEP subjects than high-SEP subjects and in men than in women of low SEP. The threshold for reporting pain seemed higher in low-SEP subjects and among women. Physicians were more likely to agree with low-SEP workers about work-relatedness.

  14. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  15. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  16. Evolution of group-wise cooperation: Is direct reciprocity insufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2017-02-21

    Group-wise cooperation, or cooperation among three or more individuals, is an integral part of human societies. It is likely that group-wise cooperation also played a crucial role in the survival of early hominins, who were confronted with novel environmental challenges, long before the emergence of Homo sapiens. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies, focusing mainly on modern humans, have tended to suggest that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups cannot be explained by simple direct reciprocity and requires some additional mechanisms (reputation, punishment, etc.), which are cognitively too demanding for early hominins. As a partial resolution of the paradox, our recent analysis of a stochastic evolutionary model, which considers the effect of random drift, has revealed that evolution of group-wise cooperation is more likely to occur in larger groups when an individual's share of the benefit produced by one cooperator does not decrease with increasing group size (i.e., goods are non-rivalrous). In this paper, we further extend our previous analysis to explore possible consequences of introducing rare mistakes in behavior or imperfect information about behavior of others on the model outcome. Analyses of the extended models show that evolution of group-wise cooperation can be facilitated by large group size even when individuals intending to cooperate sometimes fail to do so or when all the information about the past behavior of group members is not available. We argue, therefore, that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups does not necessarily require other mechanisms than direct reciprocity if the goods to be produced via group-wise cooperation are non-rivalrous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  19. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  20. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  1. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  2. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  3. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  4. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  5. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  6. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  7. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  8. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  9. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  10. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  11. Capturing cooperative interactions with the PSI-MI format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Kim; Orchard, Sandra; Kerrien, Samuel; Dumousseau, Marine; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Hermjakob, Henning; Gibson, Toby J

    2013-01-01

    The complex biological processes that control cellular function are mediated by intricate networks of molecular interactions. Accumulating evidence indicates that these interactions are often interdependent, thus acting cooperatively. Cooperative interactions are prevalent in and indispensible for reliable and robust control of cell regulation, as they underlie the conditional decision-making capability of large regulatory complexes. Despite an increased focus on experimental elucidation of the molecular details of cooperative binding events, as evidenced by their growing occurrence in literature, they are currently lacking from the main bioinformatics resources. One of the contributing factors to this deficiency is the lack of a computer-readable standard representation and exchange format for cooperative interaction data. To tackle this shortcoming, we added functionality to the widely used PSI-MI interchange format for molecular interaction data by defining new controlled vocabulary terms that allow annotation of different aspects of cooperativity without making structural changes to the underlying XML schema. As a result, we are able to capture cooperative interaction data in a structured format that is backward compatible with PSI-MI-based data and applications. This will facilitate the storage, exchange and analysis of cooperative interaction data, which in turn will advance experimental research on this fundamental principle in biology.

  12. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Roberts

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  13. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  14. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  15. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  16. Reliability-Aware Cooperative Node Sleeping and Clustering in Duty-Cycled Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeungeun Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Duty-cycled sensor networks provide a new perspective for improvement of energy efficiency and reliability assurance of multi-hop cooperative sensor networks. In this paper, we consider the energy-efficient cooperative node sleeping and clustering problems in cooperative sensor networks where clusters of relay nodes jointly transmit sensory data to the next hop. Our key idea for guaranteeing reliability is to exploit the on-demand number of cooperative nodes, facilitating the prediction of personalized end-to-end (ETE reliability. Namely, a novel reliability-aware cooperative routing (RCR scheme is proposed to select k-cooperative nodes at every hop (RCR-selection. After selecting k cooperative nodes at every hop, all of the non-cooperative nodes will go into sleep status. In order to solve the cooperative node clustering problem, we propose the RCR-based optimal relay assignment and cooperative data delivery (RCR-delivery scheme to provide a low-communication-overhead data transmission and an optimal duty cycle for a given number of cooperative nodes when the network is dynamic, which enables part of cooperative nodes to switch into idle status for further energy saving. Through the extensive OPNET-based simulations, we show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the existing geographic routing schemes and beaconless geographic routings in wireless sensor networks with a highly dynamic wireless channel and controls energy consumption, while ETE reliability is effectively guaranteed.

  17. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  18. A Running Start or a Clean Slate? How a History of Cooperation Affects the Ability of Cities to Cooperate on Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the Chinese central government has pushed cooperation on environmental governance in Urban Agglomerations (UAs. In some of these UAs, cities have previously been developing environmental governance activities autonomously, in the absence of inter-city cooperation, while on others, spontaneous cooperation has previously taken place. These differences in historical context provide us with an opportunity to study, in a comparative way, how a history of cooperation influences the effectiveness of inter-city cooperation on environmental governance. Our approach to carrying out this comparison is to reconstruct the trajectories of events that describe the evolution of environmental governance in two UAs (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta, covering the period from the early 90s to 2016. The main findings of this study are that the trajectory of environmental governance in a historical context of prior spontaneous cooperation is more effective in achieving goal intertwinement than that in a historical context of no prior cooperation; and that informal forms of cooperation, along with decentralized coordination by local actors, are critical and more influential in bringing about more effective cooperation. On the other hand, in a historical context of no prior cooperation there is an opportunity to design a cooperative structure from scratch; in this process attention should be paid to the creation of an equal playing ground, with balanced costs and benefits for all partners. By contrast, cooperation on environmental governance in a context where there is a history of spontaneous cooperation the central government can still play a role in the further facilitation of cooperation.

  19. The anti-torture norm and cooperation in the CIA black site programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    2016-01-01

    Does the interstate cooperation in the CIA rendition programme imply the anti-torture norm was severely degraded in the war on terror? Most scholarship currently suggests yes, pointing to the widespread cooperation of dozens of states, including many liberal democracies, in a programme designed...... to facilitate torture. This article argues that this conclusion is driven primarily by a focus on outcome, that states cooperated, and ignores the process through which cooperation happened. Using the data provided in the Senate report on the CIA’s detention and interrogation programme, this article...

  20. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to

  1. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to efficiently

  2. An RT distribution analysis of relatedness proportion effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization reveals different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the semantic priming effect is known to increase as the proportion of related prime-target pairs in an experiment increases. This relatedness proportion (RP) effect was studied in a lexical decision task at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (240 ms), which is widely assumed to preclude strategic prospective usage of the prime. The analysis of the reaction time (RT) distribution suggested that the observed RP effect reflected a modulation of a retrospective semantic matching process. The pattern of the RP effect on the RT distribution found here is contrasted to that reported in De Wit and Kinoshita's (2014) semantic categorization study, and it is concluded that the RP effect is driven by different underlying mechanisms in lexical decision and semantic categorization.

  3. Paranormal belief and errors of probabilistic reasoning: The role of constituent conditional relatedness in believers' susceptibility to the conjunction fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Fisk, John E; Lowrie, Emma

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents' conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models. General qualification levels were controlled for. As expected, stronger PK beliefs and depiction of a positively conditionally related (verses conditionally unrelated) constituent pairs predicted higher CE generation. ESP and LAD beliefs had no impact with, surprisingly, higher estimates of the less likely constituent predicting fewer - not more - CEs. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa L Parrott

    Full Text Available Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.

  5. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  6. Psycholinguistic measures for German verb pairs: Semantic transparency, semantic relatedness, verb family size, and age of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Eulitz, Carsten

    2018-06-18

    A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs. Additionally, we include the verb regularity of all verbs and two counts of verb family size for 184 base verbs, as well as estimates of age of acquisition and age of reading for 200 verbs. Together with lemma and type frequencies from public lexical databases, all measures can be downloaded along with this article. Statistical analyses indicate that verb family size, morphological complexity, frequency, and verb regularity affect the semantic transparency and relatedness ratings as well as the age of acquisition estimates, indicating that these are relevant variables in psycholinguistic experiments. Although lexical paraphrases, vector-based similarity measures, and semantic association ratings may deliver complementary information, the interrater reliability of the semantic association ratings for each verb pair provides valuable information when selecting stimuli for psycholinguistic experiments.

  7. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN DISTANCE LEARNING: A MIXED METHODS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Kupczynski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning has facilitated innovative means to include Cooperative Learning (CL in virtual settings. This study, conducted at a Hispanic-Serving Institution, compared the effectiveness of online CL strategies in discussion forums with traditional online forums. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 56 graduate student participants. Quantitative results revealed no significant difference on student success between CL and Traditional formats. The qualitative data revealed that students in the cooperative learning groups found more learning benefits than the Traditional group. The study will benefit instructors and students in distance learning to improve teaching and learning practices in a virtual classroom.

  8. How Well Do Molecular and Pedigree Relatedness Correspond, in Populations with Diverse Mating Systems, and Various Types and Quantities of Molecular and Demographic Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopps, Anna M; Kang, Jungkoo; Sherwin, William B; Palsbøll, Per J

    2015-06-30

    Kinship analyses are important pillars of ecological and conservation genetic studies with potentially far-reaching implications. There is a need for power analyses that address a range of possible relationships. Nevertheless, such analyses are rarely applied, and studies that use genetic-data-based-kinship inference often ignore the influence of intrinsic population characteristics. We investigated 11 questions regarding the correct classification rate of dyads to relatedness categories (relatedness category assignments; RCA) using an individual-based model with realistic life history parameters. We investigated the effects of the number of genetic markers; marker type (microsatellite, single nucleotide polymorphism SNP, or both); minor allele frequency; typing error; mating system; and the number of overlapping generations under different demographic conditions. We found that (i) an increasing number of genetic markers increased the correct classification rate of the RCA so that up to >80% first cousins can be correctly assigned; (ii) the minimum number of genetic markers required for assignments with 80 and 95% correct classifications differed between relatedness categories, mating systems, and the number of overlapping generations; (iii) the correct classification rate was improved by adding additional relatedness categories and age and mitochondrial DNA data; and (iv) a combination of microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism data increased the correct classification rate if power analyses are essential for empirical studies. Copyright © 2015 Kopps et al.

  9. Students' Perceptions of Social Relatedness in the Classroom: The Roles of Student-Teacher Interaction Quality, Children's Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature clarifying teaching practices in elementary classrooms that promote students' social relatedness. The focus on teaching practices reflects the need to understand malleable elements of the classroom, which can then be targeted for professional development. Specifically, this study examines whether children…

  10. The mediating role of relatedness need satisfaction in the relationship between charitable behavior and well-being: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Zeng, Taoran; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Rong

    2016-08-03

    Based on self-determination theory, the current research aimed to explore the potential mediating effect of relatedness need satisfaction on the relationship between charitable behavior and well-being in the Chinese context. Employing a cross-sectional design, participants reported data on the aforementioned variables in Study 1. The results indicated that relatedness need satisfaction mediated the positive relationship between charitable behavior and hedonic well-being and that between charitable behavior and eudaimonic well-being. Subsequently, a field experiment was conducted in Study 2. Participants rated their levels of relatedness need satisfaction and well-being after charitable donation behaviors were primed. We again observed consistent results. Specifically, charitable behavior was positively associated with both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and these relationships were mediated by relatedness need satisfaction. The above findings help to clarify the association between charitable behavior and people's subjective feelings (i.e., well-being), and they deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanism from the perspective of psychological needs satisfaction. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Evidence for competition and cooperation among climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaskie, Jay M

    2011-07-07

    A plant's best strategy for acquiring resources may often depend on the identity of neighbours. Here, I ask whether plants adjust their strategy to local relatedness: individuals may cooperate (reduce competitiveness) with kin but compete relatively intensely with non-kin. In a greenhouse experiment with Ipomoea hederacea, neighbouring siblings from the same inbred line were relatively uniform in height; groups of mixed lines, however, were increasingly variable as their mean height increased. The reproductive yield of mixed and sibling groups was similar overall, but when adjusted to a common mean height and height inequality, the yield of mixed groups was significantly less. Where this difference in yield was most pronounced (among groups that varied most in height), mixed groups tended to allocate more mass to roots than comparable sibling groups, and overall, mixed groups produced significantly fewer seeds per unit mass of roots. These results suggest that, from the group perspective, non-kin may have wasted resources in below-ground competition at the expense of reproduction; kin groups, on the other hand, displayed the relative efficiency that is expected of reduced competitiveness.

  12. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  13. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  14. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  15. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  16. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  17. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparisons with Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T.Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site (Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains), Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparison with Other Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T. Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site [Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains], Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  20. Relational Diversity Promotes Cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  1. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R M; Deci, E L

    2000-01-01

    Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.

  2. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  3. Facilitators on networks reveal optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Mobilia, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors-they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors-but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an optimal interplay between reciprocity and information exchange, which sets in only when a small number of facilitators occupy the main hubs of the scale-free network. The drawbacks of missing cooperative hubs are more than compensated for by reciprocity and, at the same time, the compromised information exchange is routed via the auxiliary hubs with only marginal losses in effectivity. These results indicate that it is not always optimal for the main hubs to become leaders of the masses, but rather to exploit their highly connected state to promote tit-for-tat-like behavior.

  4. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  5. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  6. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.

  7. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  8. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  9. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  10. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...... nitrogen transfer between legumes and non-leguminous plants, exploitation of the soil via mycorrhizal fungi and soil-plant processes which alter the mobilisation of plant growth resources such as through exudation of amino acids, extra-cellular enzymes, acidification, competition-induced modification......Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...

  11. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...

  12. Facilitation Skills for Library Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...

  13. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  14. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...

  15. Monitoring emotions and cooperative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among people in teams that are bound to perform a common goal is one of the main factors determining success of these teams. Cooperation becomes even more important for small teams performing long-term missions in isolation. Examples of such missions include missions performed on the

  16. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  17. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  19. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  20. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  1. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  2. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  3. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  4. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  5. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  6. Cooperation and Consensus Seeking for Teams of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-30

    border, a spreading forest fire, a growing toxic plume, or a group of fleeing enemy combatants. Our recent work on the development of consensus seeking...shows the airframes used for the flight tests reported in this section. The airframe is a 1.1 m wingspan Unicorn EPP foam flying wing, which was...fail-safe mechanism to facilitate safe operations. Figure 34: (a) Kestrel autopilot, (b) Unicorn airframes, (c) ground station components. Cooperative

  7. Using Cooperative Learning In Teaching Critical Thinking In Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit Pranita Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.

  8. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  9. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  10. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  11. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  12. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  13. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  14. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic relatedness between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and M. flabellifolia and M. Peruviana based on both RAPD and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Manihot is still uncertain and the genetic origin of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz continues to be controversial. We studied the degree of genetic relatedness between cassava and two naturally occurring species (M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana which are probably involved in the evolution of cassava, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Thirty-three clonal accessions of cassava of known genetic diversity and 15 accessions of the wild species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana were analyzed using 92 polymorphic RAPD bands and 73 polymorphic AFLP bands. The genetic markers were unable to differentiate the two wild species, which confirms their botanical similarity. Half of the total number of amplified bands were monomorphic in all of the genotypes evaluated. The mean genetic similarity (Jaccard between cassava and the species M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana was 0.59. A grouping analysis (neighbor-joining method with RAPD markers of cultivated cassava, M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana and the other wild species located the genotypes of cassava and M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana at one extremity and the three Mexican species (M. aesculifolia, M. michaelis and M. chlorostica at the other. An intermediate position between these groups was occupied by two wild species (M. glaziovii and M. reptans native to central and northeastern Brazil. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana gave rise to the cultivated species.

  16. Characterization of resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Roberta; Espinal, Paula; Principe, Luigi; Drago, Monica; Fugazza, Giulia; Roca, Ignasi; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Bracco, Silvia; Vila, Jordi; Pagani, Laura; Luzzaro, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness of 21 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii blood isolates collected in Italy during a 1-year multicenter prospective surveillance study. Genes coding for carbapenemase production were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiplex PCRs for group identification, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine genetic relationships. Carbapenem resistance was consistently related to the production of oxacillinases, mostly the plasmid-mediated OXA-58 enzyme. Strains producing the OXA-23 enzyme (chromosomally mediated) were also detected. Seven PFGE clones were identified, some of which being related to international (ICL- I and ICL-II) or national clonal lineages. Multiplex PCRs identified 4 different groups (group 2 being dominant), further distinguishable in 6 sequence types by MLST. The heterogeneity of profiles highlights the diffusion of international and national clonal lineages in Italy. Continuous surveillance is needed for monitoring the spread of these worrisome strains equipped with multiple drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Relatedness of Staphylococcus haemolyticus in Gut and Skin of Preterm Neonates and Breast Milk of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Keränen, Evamaria Elisabet; Eelmäe, Imbi; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Lutsar, Irja

    2018-04-02

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a common colonizer and cause of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates. By describing genetic relatedness, we aimed to determine whether mother's breast milk (BM) is a source of S. haemolyticus colonizing neonatal gut and skin and/or causing LOS. S. haemolyticus was isolated from stool and skin swabs of 49 BM-fed preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, 20 healthy BM-fed term neonates and BM of mothers once a week and typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Virulence-related genes were determined by PCR. Compared with term neonates S. haemolyticus colonized more commonly gut (35% vs 89.9%; pskin (50% vs 91.8%; pskin with MLVA-types indistinguishable from those in BM. Most frequent MLVA-types belonged to sequence type 3 or 42, comprised 71.1-78.4% of isolates from preterm neonates/mothers and caused all seven LOS episodes. LOS-causing strain colonized the gut of 4/7 and the skin of 5/7 neonates, but not BM, prior to onset of LOS. S. haemolyticus colonizing gut and skin or causing LOS in preterm neonates rarely originate from BM, but are mecA-positive strains adapted to hospital environment.

  18. Different Shades of Green: Comparative Study on Nature Relatedness and Ecologic Consciousness among South Korean, Swiss, and Czech Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Y. Barthelmess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How concerned are today’s students about environmental issues? Do they sense urgency for change towards a more environmentally compatible life? Who should act and what impact does one’s individual action have? And last but not least, does ecological consciousness and action go together with a sense of nature relatedness?More than 1600 South Korean, Swiss, and Czech students have participated in this comparative survey. Nearly all of them affirm that ecological considerations influence their daily behavior. Whereas most of them see the main agent of change in themselves, the impact of one’s individual action, however, is seen differently along the East and West cultural divide. Also when it comes to one’s personal sense of closeness to nature, we can observe an East West cultural variation. On average the South Koreans reveal a greater closeness towards nature than Swiss and Czech students, this despite the fact that they have the largest percentage in urban background, and consequently reveal the least physical familiarity with the natural world.In our effort to interpret these results, we have included a discussion about the diverging cultural background of the three sample groups. While they all agree on the urgency of the issue and the necessity of a more pro-environmental change, depending on their culture their ideas about the right means to introduce a change in behavior differ.

  19. Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eUsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet faecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5% samples, and 61 isolates (61% were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates, which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs.

  20. Prevalence and Work-Relatedness of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in the Working Population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Sweeney, Marie H.; Sestito, John P.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns of prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention. Methods Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS overall and by demographic characteristics. The proportion of these cases self-reported to have been attributed to work by clinicians was also examined overall and by demographic characteristics. In addition, the distribution of industry and occupation (I&O) categories to which work-related cases of CTS were attributed was compared to the distribution of I&O categories of employment among current/recent workers. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, including 17,524 current/recent workers. The overall lifetime prevalence of clinician-diagnosed CTS among current/recent workers was 6.7%. The 12-month prevalence was 3.1%, representing approximately 4.8 million workers with current CTS; 67.1% of these cases were attributed to work by clinicians, with overrepresentation of certain I&O categories. Conclusions CTS affected almost 5 million U.S. workers in 2010, with prevalence varying by demographic characteristics and I&O. PMID:22495886

  1. Genetic relatedness among vaginal and anal isolates of Candida albicans from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis in north-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Paulo de Medeiros, Mariana; Vieira de Melo, Ana Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2014-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common causes of vaginitis and affects about 75% of women of reproductive age. In order to better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease, we evaluated genetic relatedness among 62 clinical isolates of Candida albicans sequentially obtained from the anus and vagina of patients with sporadic and recurrent VVC. Evaluation of patients' demographic and clinical data, direct examination, and colony forming units (c.f.u.) counts of vaginal and anal samples were also performed. The genotypes of strains were determined with ABC genotyping and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Genotype A was the most prevalent (93.6%), followed by genotype C (6.4%), whereas genotype B was not found. We found the maintenance of the same ABC genotype, regardless of the body site of each patient. Most of the vaginal strains suffered microevolution, whereas most of the anal strains were replaced during the period of study. Vaginal and anal isolates of C. albicans obtained simultaneously from the same patient showed the same ABC genotype and high genetic similarity as determined by RAPD. Genotype A seemed to be dominant in both vaginal and anal isolates of patients with VVC. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that there are 'substrains' of the C. albicans vaginal clone successfully established, which dominate in an apparently random manner over the course of time. It is suggested that the anal reservoir constitutes a possible source for vaginal infection in most of the cases. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Future versus present: time perspective and pupillary response in a relatedness judgment task investigating temporal event knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Kati; Milfont, Taciano L; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-02-01

    Mental representations of events contain many components such as typical agents, instruments, objects as well as a temporal dimension that is directed towards the future. While the role of temporal orientation (chronological, reverse) in event knowledge has been demonstrated by numerous studies, little is known about the influence of time perspective (present or future) as source of individual differences affecting event knowledge. The present study combined behavioral data with task-evoked pupil dilation to examine the impact of time perspective on cognitive resource allocation. In a relatedness judgment task, everyday events like raining were paired with an object feature like wet. Chronological items were processed more easily than reverse items regardless of time perspective. When more automatic processes were applied, greater scores on future time perspective were associated with lower error rates for chronological items. This suggests that a match between a strong focus on future consequences and items with a temporal orientation directed toward the future serves to enhance responding accuracy. Indexed by pupillary data, future-oriented participants invested more cognitive resources while outperforming present-oriented participants in reaction times across all conditions. This result was supported by a principal component analysis on the pupil data, which demonstrated the same impact of time perspective on the factor associated with more general aspects of cognitive effort. These findings suggest that future time perspective may be linked to a more general cognitive performance characteristic that improves overall task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. When ancestral heritage is a source of discomfort: culture, pre-object relatedness, and self-alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kradin, Richard L

    2012-04-01

    The ancestral claims on an individual can evoke mental conflict when they involve separating from an ethnic group whose beliefs and customs are devalued by the dominant culture. However, these claims are engraved on the psyche early in development by caretakers to the level of pre-object relatedness, where contents and affect tones are implicit and may be unavailable for later psychoanalytical interventions. In addition, as the anthropologist Clifford Geertz notes, one's culture of origin precedes the development of psyche and creates its own set of claims that must be renegotiated when one encounters a different domain of cultural symbols, a confrontation that can produce psychological dissonance and self-alienation. In this paper, three cases are examined in which mental conflicts were evoked by attempts at divesting ancestral claims in response to conscious efforts to assimilate into the dominant culture. These patients suffered from separation guilt and unstable self-esteem and reported dream imagery suggesting psychological imbalance. The requirement to carefully delineate the ancestral claims on psyche as well as those contents and affects that may not be accessible to therapeutic intervention is emphasized, and the importance of compromise and acceptance with respect to the psychological demands of the unconscious are considered. 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. States, social capital and cooperation: looking back on 'Governing the Commons'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods – the Internet.

  5. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  6. Coevolution of Cooperation and Layer Selection Strategy in Multiplex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emergent dynamics in multiplex networks, composed of layers of multiple networks, has been discussed extensively in network sciences. However, little is still known about whether and how the evolution of strategy for selecting a layer to participate in can contribute to the emergence of cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks of social interactions. To investigate these issues, we constructed a coevolutionary model of cooperation and layer selection strategies in which each an individual selects one layer from multiple layers of social networks and plays the Prisoner’s Dilemma with neighbors in the selected layer. We found that the proportion of cooperative strategies increased with increasing the number of layers regardless of the degree of dilemma, and this increase occurred due to a cyclic coevolution process of game strategies and layer selection strategies. We also showed that the heterogeneity of links among layers is a key factor for multiplex networks to facilitate the evolution of cooperation, and such positive effects on cooperation were observed regardless of the difference in the stochastic properties of network topologies.

  7. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  8. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  9. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  10. Is Speed of Integration really a Success Factor of Mergers and Acquisitions? : An Analysis of the Role of Internal and External Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Bucerius, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on mergers and acquisitions (M&A) has neglected the issue of speed of post merger integration (PMI) by and large. This paper argues that there are benefits and detriments associated with speed of integration. Thus, in some situations speed may be highly beneficial whereas in others it may be harmful to the success of a merger or acquisition. It is argued that the benefits and detriments of speed of integration depend on the magnitude of internal and external relatedness ...

  11. The Role of New Information Technologies in Facilitating Professional Reflective Practice across the Supervisory Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Jacqueline; Carter, David

    This study investigated the role of new information management technologies in facilitating student teacher supervision across the supervisory triad of student teacher, cooperating teacher, and university supervisor. The study investigated how data routinely generated by teachers and stored within an Instructional Information Management System…

  12. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  13. An Intervention to Improve Teachers' Interpersonally Involving Instructional Practices in High School Physical Education: Implications for Student Relatedness Support and In-Class Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Cassandra; Lonsdale, Chris; Dimmock, James; Jackson, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Research grounded in self-determination theory has demonstrated the important role of teachers in shaping students' physical education experiences. Utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled design, this study aimed to examine whether an interpersonally involving training program based on self-determination theory principles could enhance students' in-class experiences. With 18 teachers (males = 8, females = 10, M age  = 32.75, SD = 8.14) and a final sample of 382 students (males = 155, females = 227, M age  = 13.20, SD = 1.66), we implemented linear mixed modeling to investigate the effects on students' (a) perceived relatedness support and (b) enjoyment of physical education, tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, other-efficacy, relation-inferred self-efficacy), self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Relative to those in the control condition, students in the treatment condition reported positive changes in teacher-provided relatedness support, enjoyment, other-efficacy, and peer-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate support for strategies designed to aid physical education teachers' relatedness-supportive instructional behaviors.

  14. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-07-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy.

  15. Inclusive Fitness Affects Both Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Target Gender and Insult Domain Moderate the Link between Genetic Relatedness and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Gesselman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994, less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011. Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964 and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012, we designed a 2 (participant gender × 2 (target gender × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α= .91 in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  16. Ecological generalism facilitates the evolution of sociality in snapping shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. A xylanase-aided enzymatic pretreatment facilitates cellulose nanofibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  19. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  20. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  1. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  2. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  3. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  4. Cooperative and supportive neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Hari Rao, V.; Raja Sekhara Rao, P.

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the concepts of co-operation and support among neurons existing in a network which contribute to their collective capabilities and distributed operations. Activational dynamical properties of these networks are discussed

  5. Nuclear cooperation within the CAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr

  6. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  7. Managing the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Dormann, Julian; Ehrmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Management scholars have long stressed the importance of evolutionary processses for inter-firm cooperation but have mostly missed the promising opportunity to incorporate ideas from evolutionary theories into the analysis of collaborative arrangements. In this paper, we first present three rules for the evolution of cooperation - kinship selection, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Second, we apply our theoretical considerations, enriched with ideas from cultural anthropology, to...

  8. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  9. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  10. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  11. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...

  12. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  13. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  14. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  15. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  16. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of vertex weight on cooperative behavior in a spatial snowdrift game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, C Y; Zhao, J; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Wang, Y L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the vertex weight is introduced into a snowdrift game to study the evolution of cooperative behavior. Compared with the snowdrift game in a traditional square lattice without any weight, cooperation can be promoted under three types of weight distribution: uniform, exponential and power-law distribution. For an intermediate cost-to-benefit ratio (r), in particular, the facilitation effect of cooperation is obvious. Moreover, the influence of undulation amplitude of weight distribution and the noise strength of strategy selection on cooperative behavior are also investigated. They exhibit a nontrivial phenomenon as a function of r. The results are helpful in analyzing and understanding the emergence of collective cooperation that is found widely in many natural and social systems.

  18. Strategy changing penalty promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qing; Wang Zhen; Wang Zhen; Wang Yiling

    2012-01-01

    Many classical studies suggest that punishment is a useful way to promote cooperation in the well-mixed public goods game, whereas relative evidence in the research of spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is absent. To address this issue, we introduce a mechanism of strategy changing penalty, combining memory and penalty during the update process, into spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that increasing penalty rate or memory length is able to promote the evolution of cooperation monotonously. Compared with traditional version, recorded penalty could facilitate cooperation better. Moreover, through examining the process of evolution, we provide an interpretation for this promotion phenomenon, namely, the effect of promotion can be warranted by an evolution resonance of standard deviation of fitness coefficient. Finally, we validate our results by studying the impact of uncertainty within strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  19. Influence of vertex weight on cooperative behavior in a spatial snowdrift game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, C Y; Zhao, J; Zhang, H [Laboratory of Computer Vision and Systems, Tianjin University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wang, J [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Control Theory and Applications in Complicated Industry Systems, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wang, Y L, E-mail: xialooking@163.com, E-mail: juanwang75@163.com, E-mail: hzhang@tjut.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi 041000 (China)

    2011-08-01

    In this paper the vertex weight is introduced into a snowdrift game to study the evolution of cooperative behavior. Compared with the snowdrift game in a traditional square lattice without any weight, cooperation can be promoted under three types of weight distribution: uniform, exponential and power-law distribution. For an intermediate cost-to-benefit ratio (r), in particular, the facilitation effect of cooperation is obvious. Moreover, the influence of undulation amplitude of weight distribution and the noise strength of strategy selection on cooperative behavior are also investigated. They exhibit a nontrivial phenomenon as a function of r. The results are helpful in analyzing and understanding the emergence of collective cooperation that is found widely in many natural and social systems.

  20. Semantic relatedness and similarity of biomedical terms: examining the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publications on the performance of word2vec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Yan, Erjia; Wang, Fei

    2017-07-03

    Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec. We download abstracts of 18,777,129 articles from PubMed and 766,326 full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC). The datasets are preprocessed and grouped into subsets by recency, size, and section. Word2vec models are trained on these subtests. Cosine similarities between biomedical terms obtained from the word2vec models are compared against reference standards. Performance of models trained on different subsets are compared to examine recency, size, and section effects. Models trained on recent datasets did not boost the performance. Models trained on larger datasets identified more pairs of biomedical terms than models trained on smaller datasets in relatedness task (from 368 at the 10% level to 494 at the 100% level) and similarity task (from 374 at the 10% level to 491 at the 100% level). The model trained on abstracts produced results that have higher correlations with the reference standards than the one trained on article bodies (i.e., 0.65 vs. 0.62 in the similarity task and 0.66 vs. 0.59 in the relatedness task). However, the latter identified more pairs of biomedical terms than the former (i.e., 344 vs. 498 in the similarity task and 339 vs. 503 in the relatedness task). Increasing the size of dataset does not always enhance the performance. Increasing the size of datasets can result in the identification of more relations of biomedical terms even though it does not guarantee better precision. As summaries of research articles, compared with article

  1. Students as facilitators in a teacher training program: motivation for leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Although students often partake in peer-teaching activities during medical school, they are rarely provided with formal training in teaching. We have previously described our teacher training (TT) program for medical students. The TT program is delivered face-to-face across two sessions. In order to alleviate academic teaching load required to run the course, and at the same time provide our final-year students with practical opportunities to develop their leadership skills, we engaged five senior students as co-facilitators alongside academic staff. By developing an understanding of our students' motivation to participate as facilitators, we may be able to promote an interest within leadership in teaching among other students. Our study sought to examine students' motivation to take part as facilitators in the TT program. Data were collected through a focus group session with the five student facilitators. Self-determination theory, which poses that there are three elements key to intrinsic motivation, including autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was used as a conceptual lens to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. Elements that motivated students to assist in facilitation included an opportunity to review and build on their knowledge and skills in teaching practices; the recognition and acknowledgement received from school staff and fellow students; the opportunity to develop these relationships; and a desire to increase their peer-teaching responsibilities. By actively involving our students in leadership practices, we were able to not only engage the students, but also develop our student community and contribute to the promotion of a culture of excellence in teaching within the hospital.

  2. Clonal relatedness and biofilm formation of OXA-23-producing carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliramezani, Amir; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Hajihasani, Azade; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a serious threat for hospitalized patients and it can survive for long periods in hospital settings, particularly on inanimate surfaces. The environment occupied by these resistant and resilient isolates may act as a reservoir for cross-colonization and outbreaks. Here, we aimed to determine the distribution of CRAB in the hospital environment and to characterize their clonal relatedness, susceptibility profile, carriage of bla OXA genes, and biofilm formation. A total of 1080 samples were collected from various environmental surfaces and equipment of two referral hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The A. baumannii isolates were subjected to gyrB multiplex PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, biofilm formation assay, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR for bla OXA-58 , bla OXA-24 , and bla OXA-23 genes. Eighteen Acinetobacter spp. were isolated; 8 were identified as A. baumannii and 10 as A. lwoffii. Five of A. baumannii isolates were CRAB and exhibited the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype as well. All CRAB isolates produced biofilm, albeit with different levels. Four of CRAB isolates harbored the bla OXA-23 . The CRAB isolates were clustered into 3 distinct pulsotypes (PTs). The CRAB isolates belonging to PT1 were detected in two geographically distinct hospitals whereas those belonging to PT3 were found in two different units of same hospital. This study revealed the presence of clonally related OXA-23-producing CRAB in high risk units of referral hospitals as inter- or intra-hospital dissemination. The distribution of multiresistant A. baumannii on several surfaces and areas may increase the risk of transmission of resistant isolates to vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Accurate Method for Inferring Relatedness in Large Datasets of Unphased Genotypes via an Embedded Likelihood-Ratio Test

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that map disease genes rely on accurate annotations that indicate whether individuals in the studied cohorts are related to each other or not. For example, in genome-wide association studies, the cohort members are assumed to be unrelated to one another. Investigators can correct for individuals in a cohort with previously-unknown shared familial descent by detecting genomic segments that are shared between them, which are considered to be identical by descent (IBD). Alternatively, elevated frequencies of IBD segments near a particular locus among affected individuals can be indicative of a disease-associated gene. As genotyping studies grow to use increasingly large sample sizes and meta-analyses begin to include many data sets, accurate and efficient detection of hidden relatedness becomes a challenge. To enable disease-mapping studies of increasingly large cohorts, a fast and accurate method to detect IBD segments is required. We present PARENTE, a novel method for detecting related pairs of individuals and shared haplotypic segments within these pairs. PARENTE is a computationally-efficient method based on an embedded likelihood ratio test. As demonstrated by the results of our simulations, our method exhibits better accuracy than the current state of the art, and can be used for the analysis of large genotyped cohorts. PARENTE\\'s higher accuracy becomes even more significant in more challenging scenarios, such as detecting shorter IBD segments or when an extremely low false-positive rate is required. PARENTE is publicly and freely available at http://parente.stanford.edu/. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  5. Semantic Coherence Facilitates Distributional Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  7. IAEA Technical Cooperation and the NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, Paulo M.C.; Cetto, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The NPT rests on three interlinked pillars: cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy, verified nuclear non-proliferation, and nuclear disarmament. This article looks specifically at the first pillar and its linkage with the second one. Non-nuclear weapon States are the vast majority of NPT Parties. The right of NPT Parties to have access to information, exchange of equipment and materials is explicitly recognized in Article IV of the Treaty. This Article stipulates that all Parties of the Treaty undertake to facilitate and have the right to participate in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. A successful campaign after the 1995 NPT Review Conference increased the NPT membership from 178 to near universality, and today 189 States are Parties to the Treaty. In the same period the IAEA's membership increased from 127 to 138. Today all IAEA Member States are participating in the Agency's Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) in varying mixed capacities of donors or recipients. The IAEA, although not referred to in Article IV of the NPT, plays a major role in planning and implementing multilateral cooperation stipulated in the Treaty. It encourages and assists research, development and application of atomic energy; it provides technical advice, training, materials, services and equipment; fosters exchange of scientific and technical information; develops standards and guidelines for the appropriate utilization of nuclear technology and materials, and builds strategic partnerships to increase the leverage of the limited resources available. At all times, the Agency seeks to support the use of nuclear technology in a way that is safe for humans and the environment. All these activities are related to key statutory functions of the IAEA. Efforts to assist Member States are impressive. Since its inception in 1957, the Agency has provided direct assistance valued at

  8. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  9. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  10. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  12. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  13. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  14. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  15. Living with strangers: direct benefits favour non-kin cooperation in a communally nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2011-06-07

    The greater ani (Crotophaga major), a Neotropical cuckoo, exhibits an unusual breeding system in which several socially monogamous pairs lay eggs in a single nest and contribute care to the communal clutch. Cooperative nesting is costly-females compete for reproduction by ejecting each other's eggs-but the potential direct or indirect fitness benefits that might accrue to group members have not been identified. In this study, I used molecular genotyping to quantify patterns of genetic relatedness and individual reproductive success within social groups in a single colour-banded population. Microsatellite analysis of 122 individuals in 49 groups revealed that group members are not genetic relatives. Group size was strongly correlated with individual reproductive success: solitary pairs were extremely rare and never successful, and nests attended by two pairs were significantly more likely to be depredated than were nests attended by three pairs. Egg loss, a consequence of reproductive competition, was greater in large groups and disproportionately affected females that initiated laying. However, early-laying females compensated for egg losses by laying larger clutches, and female group members switched positions in the laying order across nesting attempts. The greater ani, therefore, appears to be one of the few species in which cooperative breeding among unrelated individuals is favoured by direct, shared benefits that outweigh the substantial costs of reproductive competition.

  16. Helper contributions in the cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburra: feeding young is no laughing matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge

    2000-05-01

    I studied the contributions of individuals to incubation and nestling feeding in a population of cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburras, Dacelo novaeguineae. In most cooperatively breeding birds where nest success is limited by nestling starvation, related helpers increase the overall level of provisioning to the nest, thus boosting the production of nondescendent kin. However, although partial brood loss is the largest cause of lost productivity in kookaburra nests, additional helpers failed to increase overall provisioning. Instead, all group members, but especially helpers, reduced their feeding contributions as group size increased. Breeders and helpers reduced the size of prey delivered, and helpers also reduced the number of feeding visits. An important benefit of helping in kookaburras may be to allow all group members to reduce their effort. Within groups, contributions to care depended on status, sex, group size and the brood size. Breeding males delivered the most food. Breeding females provisioned less than their partner, but their effort was comparable to that of male helpers. Female helpers contributed the least food. Incubation effort followed similar patterns. The relatedness of helpers to the brood had no impact on their provisioning. Across all group sizes, helpers generally brought larger items to the nest than breeders. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Facilitating computer supported cooperative work with socio-technical self-descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kunau, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    How can the concept of self-description from newer systems theory be used for improving the co-evolvement of software engineering and organizational change in CSCW-projects? This thesis suggests transferring the concept of self-description into a concept of socio-technical self-description allowing an organization to describe its own computer supported work processes. The presentation of results is organized in four steps: First, a theoretical foundation is elaborated; second, an initial meth...

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Using Digital Technologies in the Cooperative Learning Model in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodsworth, Hannah; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The influence of technology on children's everyday lives is significant in today's society, with children described as digital natives and/or the iGeneration. There are also a range of digital technologies available for use in education and a number of pedagogical approaches reported to support technology integration and pupil learning…

  19. Theoretical and methodological bases of the cooperation and the cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose to approach the theoretical and methodological foundations of the rise of the cooperatives. In this article are studied the logical antecedents of the cooperativism, the premises  establish by  the Industrial Revolution for the emergence of the first modern cooperative “The Pioneers of Rochdale”  that  is  the inflection point of  cooperativism, until analyzing the contributions of the whole thinking  of the time that maintain this process.

  20. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...