WorldWideScience

Sample records for related viruses spans

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Embu Virus Strain SPAn880.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M Sofi; Antwerpen, Markus; Georgi, Enrico; Vette, Philipp; Zoeller, Gudrun; Meyer, Hermann

    2014-12-04

    We report the complete genome sequence of the Embu virus. The genome consists of 185,139 bp and is nearly identical to that of the Cotia virus. This is the first report on the Embu virus genome sequence, which has been considered an unclassified poxvirus until now. Copyright © 2014 Ibrahim et al.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Embu Virus Strain SPAn880

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, M. Sofi; Antwerpen, Markus; Georgi, Enrico; Vette, Philipp; Zoeller, Gudrun; Meyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of the Embu virus. The genome consists of 185,139 bp and is nearly identical to that of the Cotia virus. This is the first report on the Embu virus genome sequence, which has been considered an unclassified poxvirus until now.

  3. Biological Characterization and Next-Generation Genome Sequencing of the Unclassified Cotia Virus SPAn232 (Poxviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Priscila P.; Silva, Patrícia M.; Schnellrath, Laila C.; Jesus, Desyreé M.; Hu, Jianhong; Yang, Yajie; Renne, Rolf; Attias, Marcia; Condit, Richard C.; Moussatché, Nissin

    2012-01-01

    Cotia virus (COTV) SPAn232 was isolated in 1961 from sentinel mice at Cotia field station, São Paulo, Brazil. Attempts to classify COTV within a recognized genus of the Poxviridae have generated contradictory findings. Studies by different researchers suggested some similarity to myxoma virus and swinepox virus, whereas another investigation characterized COTV SPAn232 as a vaccinia virus strain. Because of the lack of consensus, we have conducted an independent biological and molecular characterization of COTV. Virus growth curves reached maximum yields at approximately 24 to 48 h and were accompanied by virus DNA replication and a characteristic early/late pattern of viral protein synthesis. Interestingly, COTV did not induce detectable cytopathic effects in BSC-40 cells until 4 days postinfection and generated viral plaques only after 8 days. We determined the complete genomic sequence of COTV by using a combination of the next-generation DNA sequencing technologies 454 and Illumina. A unique contiguous sequence of 185,139 bp containing 185 genes, including the 90 genes conserved in all chordopoxviruses, was obtained. COTV has an interesting panel of open reading frames (ORFs) related to the evasion of host defense, including two novel genes encoding C-C chemokine-like proteins, each present in duplicate copies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the highest amino acid identity scores with Cervidpoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, and Yatapoxvirus. However, COTV grouped as an independent branch within this clade, which clearly excluded its classification as an Orthopoxvirus. Therefore, our data suggest that COTV could represent a new poxvirus genus. PMID:22345477

  4. A Reverse Genetics Platform That Spans the Zika Virus Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Douglas G; Young, Ellen; Yount, Boyd L; Plante, Kenneth S; Gallichotte, Emily N; Carbaugh, Derek L; Peck, Kayla M; Plante, Jessica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Heise, Mark T; Lazear, Helen M; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-03-07

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in 1947, has only recently caused large outbreaks and emerged as a significant human pathogen. In 2015, ZIKV was detected in Brazil, and the resulting epidemic has spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Severe complications from ZIKV infection include neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and a variety of fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, blindness, placental insufficiency, and fetal demise. There is an urgent need for tools and reagents to study the pathogenesis of epidemic ZIKV and for testing vaccines and antivirals. Using a reverse genetics platform, we generated six ZIKV infectious clones and derivative viruses representing diverse temporal and geographic origins. These include three versions of MR766, the prototype 1947 strain (with and without a glycosylation site in the envelope protein), and H/PF/2013, a 2013 human isolate from French Polynesia representative of the virus introduced to Brazil. In the course of synthesizing a clone of a circulating Brazilian strain, phylogenetic studies identified two distinct ZIKV clades in Brazil. We reconstructed viable clones of strains SPH2015 and BeH819015, representing ancestral members of each clade. We assessed recombinant virus replication, binding to monoclonal antibodies, and virulence in mice. This panel of molecular clones and recombinant virus isolates will enable targeted studies of viral determinants of pathogenesis, adaptation, and evolution, as well as the rational attenuation of contemporary outbreak strains to facilitate the design of vaccines and therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Viral emergence is a poorly understood process as evidenced by the sudden emergence of Zika virus in Latin America and the Caribbean. Malleable reagents that both predate and span an expanding epidemic are key to understanding the virologic determinants that regulate pathogenesis and transmission. We have generated representative c

  5. Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations between children's attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children's age 4 attention span-persistence…

  6. The specific relation of visual attention span with reading and spelling in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; Van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention span, the number of orthographic units that can be processed at a glance, has been shown to predict reading performance in orthographically opaque languages (i.e., French and English), independent from phonological awareness. Whether this relation is also found in Dutch, a more

  7. A Reverse Genetics Platform That Spans the Zika Virus Family Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Widman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in 1947, has only recently caused large outbreaks and emerged as a significant human pathogen. In 2015, ZIKV was detected in Brazil, and the resulting epidemic has spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Severe complications from ZIKV infection include neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and a variety of fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, blindness, placental insufficiency, and fetal demise. There is an urgent need for tools and reagents to study the pathogenesis of epidemic ZIKV and for testing vaccines and antivirals. Using a reverse genetics platform, we generated six ZIKV infectious clones and derivative viruses representing diverse temporal and geographic origins. These include three versions of MR766, the prototype 1947 strain (with and without a glycosylation site in the envelope protein, and H/PF/2013, a 2013 human isolate from French Polynesia representative of the virus introduced to Brazil. In the course of synthesizing a clone of a circulating Brazilian strain, phylogenetic studies identified two distinct ZIKV clades in Brazil. We reconstructed viable clones of strains SPH2015 and BeH819015, representing ancestral members of each clade. We assessed recombinant virus replication, binding to monoclonal antibodies, and virulence in mice. This panel of molecular clones and recombinant virus isolates will enable targeted studies of viral determinants of pathogenesis, adaptation, and evolution, as well as the rational attenuation of contemporary outbreak strains to facilitate the design of vaccines and therapeutics.

  8. Genetic relation of life span to metabolic rate for inbred mouse strains and their hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.; Duffy, P.H.

    1979-02-01

    Average life spans were estimated for the male progeny from 21 of the 25 possible matings of 5 inbred mouse strains. Oxygen consumption was measured in an open system over a 48-hour interval. Resting metabolism, M/sub re/, and average metabolism, M/sub av/, were determined at 6 to 8 months of age, and at 24 to 34 months. Body weight, W, was determined at the time metabolism was measured. Life span, L, is negatively correlated with M/sub re/, and M/sub av/, and positively correlated with W at both ages of measurement. This is in accord with the metabolic wear factor that had previously been established among 85 different species of mammals. A new metabolism variable, the energy partition coefficient, defined as the ratio of average to resting metabolic rate, M/sub av//M/sub re/, has a parabolic relation to body weight, i.e., is maximal at an intermediate body size. The squared body weight deviation in turn has a negative correlation with life span. The correlation of L with M/sub av//M/sub re/ is positive, as expected, but not significant. These data suggest the existence of a longevity factor dependent on the partition of energy between the phasic metabolism of activity and the continuous maintenance metabolism.

  9. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  10. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of relational coordination among colleagues and span of control on work engagement among home-visiting nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-04-01

    Home-visiting nursing agencies are required to foster staff nurse's work engagement; thus, the factors related to work engagement require identification. This study examined relational coordination among colleagues and agency span of control on the work engagement of home-visiting nurses. Cross-sectional data from 93 staff nurses in 31 home-visiting nursing agencies were collected via a survey and analyzed using mixed linear regression. There was no significant main effect of relational coordination among nurse colleagues on work engagement. In large agencies with a large span of control, relational coordination among nursing colleagues predicted work engagement. Nursing managers' relational coordination was found to be positively associated with staff nurse work engagement. Agency span of control is a moderating factor on the positive effect of relational coordination with nursing colleagues on staff nurse work engagement. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Centroid Localization of Uncooperative Nodes in Wireless Networks Using a Relative Span Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laurendeau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly ubiquitous wireless technologies require novel localization techniques to pinpoint the position of an uncooperative node, whether the target is a malicious device engaging in a security exploit or a low-battery handset in the middle of a critical emergency. Such scenarios necessitate that a radio signal source be localized by other network nodes efficiently, using minimal information. We propose two new algorithms for estimating the position of an uncooperative transmitter, based on the received signal strength (RSS of a single target message at a set of receivers whose coordinates are known. As an extension to the concept of centroid localization, our mechanisms weigh each receiver's coordinates based on the message's relative RSS at that receiver, with respect to the span of RSS values over all receivers. The weights may decrease from the highest RSS receiver either linearly or exponentially. Our simulation results demonstrate that for all but the most sparsely populated wireless networks, our exponentially weighted mechanism localizes a target node within the regulations stipulated for emergency services location accuracy.

  13. Structural and biochemical characterization of the inhibitor complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Matúz, Krisztina; Tözsér, Jozsef; Namwong, Sirilak; Goldfarb, Nathan E.; Dunn, Ben M.; Wlodawer, Alexander (Debrecen); (NCI); (Florida); (Suan Sunandha)

    2012-10-23

    Interactions between the protease (PR) encoded by the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and a number of potential inhibitors have been investigated by biochemical and structural techniques. It was observed that several inhibitors used clinically against HIV PR exhibit nanomolar or even subnanomolar values of K{sub i}, depending on the exact experimental conditions. Both TL-3, a universal inhibitor of retroviral PRs, and some inhibitors originally shown to inhibit plasmepsins were also quite potent, whereas inhibition by pepstatin A was considerably weaker. Crystal structures of the complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus PR with TL-3, amprenavir and pepstatin A were solved at high resolution and compared with the structures of complexes of these inhibitors with other retropepsins. Whereas TL-3 and amprenavir bound in a predictable manner, spanning the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, two molecules of pepstatin A bound simultaneously in an unprecedented manner, leaving the catalytic water molecule in place.

  14. A Life-Span, Relational, Public Health Model of Self-Regulation: Impact on Individual and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Swapnil; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors extend the ideas around the development of self-regulation and its impact on development by proposing a life-span, relational, public health model. They propose that the role of self-regulation should be understood across transitions from childhood to adulthood and through an individual and community perspective,…

  15. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  16. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  18. Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H

    2016-08-01

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

  19. Mechanisms of Age-Related Decline in Memory Search across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis).…

  20. Age-related changes in the efficiency of cognitive processing across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Mark M; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van der Molen, Maurits W

    2004-10-01

    The global-speed and the specific-gain/loss hypotheses have been dominant theoretical frameworks in the recent literature on cognitive development and aging. Few attempts have been made to explicitly assess the predictive power of the two frameworks against each other. We evaluated the extent to which age changes in performance in executive function tasks (involving response selection, response suppression, working memory, and adaptive control) depend on age-related changes in global information-processing speed. Our sample consisted of children, adolescents, adults and seniors. Analysis of covariance and structural equation modeling revealed a mixed pattern of results. Controlling for global speed removed the child vs. adult differences in the speed of responding on the executive function tasks but the senior vs. adult differences remained. This mixed pattern of findings was interpreted to suggest that the effects of advancing age on the speed of responding are mediated by a global mechanism during childhood but during senescence the efficiency of executive functioning seems particularly vulnerable to the effects of age. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Immunotherapy against cancer-related viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haruko Tashiro Malcolm K Brenner

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV...

  2. Drugs, nutrients, and phytoactive principles improving the health span of rodent models of human age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Michel; Picard, Frédéric; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2012-02-01

    Rodents are often the species of choice to examine the effect of drugs on survival and on the progression of specific diseased tissues. This statement is also true for research laboratories working in the field of nutrition and aging. In addition to diets that can reduce the life expectancy of rodents, such as diabetogenic or high-fat diets, genetically modified rodents exhibiting different accelerated age-associated diseases also provide important biologic tools to decipher the impact of drugs, nutrients, or phytoactive compounds on their health and life span. This review covers some of the chemicals believed to decelerate the appearance of age-related diseases in different rodent models. Such chemicals include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory molecules, modulators of metabolic sensors, calorie restriction mimetics, and vegetal polyphenolic compounds that affect mitochondrial functions, cellular proliferation or differentiation as well as cell functionality.

  3. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  4. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems.

  5. Immunotherapy against cancer-related viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Haruko; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Human papilloma virus, among others. These DNA and RNA viruses produce oncogenic effects through distinct mechanisms. First, viruses may induce sustained disorders of host cell growth and survival through the genes they express, or may induce DNA damage response in host cells, which in turn increases host genome instability. Second, they may induce chronic inflammation and secondary tissue damage favoring the development of oncogenic processes in host cells. Viruses like HIV can create a more permissive environment for cancer development through immune inhibition, but we will focus on the previous two mechanisms in this review. Unlike traditional cancer therapies that cannot distinguish infected cells from non-infected cells, immunotherapies are uniquely equipped to target virus-associated malignancies. The targeting and functioning mechanisms associated with the immune response can be exploited to prevent viral infections by vaccination, and can also be used to treat infection before cancer establishment. Successes in using the immune system to eradicate established malignancy by selective recognition of virus-associated tumor cells are currently being reported. For example, numerous clinical trials of adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated virus-specific T cells have shown benefit even for established tumors in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. Additional studies in other virus-associated tumors have also been initiated and in this review we describe the current status of immunotherapy for virus-associated malignancies and discuss future prospects.

  6. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    OpenAIRE

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general...

  7. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  8. Zika-Virus-Related Photo Sharing on Pinterest and Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Goff, M Elizabeth; Mullican, Lindsay A; Chan, Kwun Cheung; Saroha, Nitin; Duke, Carmen H; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-12-01

    Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram. We retrieved and manually coded 616 Pinterest (key words: "zika" AND "virus") and 616 Instagram (hashtag: #zikavirus) photos. Among the manually coded samples, 47% (290/616) of Pinterest photos and 23% (144/616) of Instagram photos were relevant to Zika virus. Words were embedded in 57% (164/290) of relevant Pinterest photos and all 144 relevant Instagram photos. Among the photos with embedded words, photos in Spanish or Portuguese were more prevalent on Instagram (77/144, 53%) than on Pinterest (14/164, 9%). There were more Zika-virus-related photos on Instagram than on Pinterest pertinent to Zika virus prevention (59/144, 41%, versus 41/290, 14%; PInstagram are similar platforms for Zika virus prevention communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:656-659).

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University, Kaski, Nepal,3Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India, 5Department of. Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Institute of Nursing science, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Abstract. Background: Despite the implementation of anti‑human immunodeficiency virus ...

  10. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  11. Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to Variola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infections caused by several orthopoxviruses (OPV like monkeypox virus or vaccinia virus have a significant impact on human health. In Europe, the number of diagnosed infections with cowpox viruses (CPXV is increasing in animals as well as in humans. CPXV used to be enzootic in cattle; however, such infections were not being diagnosed over the last decades. Instead, individual cases of cowpox are being found in cats or exotic zoo animals that transmit the infection to humans. Both animals and humans reveal local exanthema on arms and legs or on the face. Although cowpox is generally regarded as a self-limiting disease, immunosuppressed patients can develop a lethal systemic disease resembling smallpox. To date, only limited information on the complex and, compared to other OPV, sparsely conserved CPXV genomes is available. Since CPXV displays the widest host range of all OPV known, it seems important to comprehend the genetic repertoire of CPXV which in turn may help elucidate specific mechanisms of CPXV pathogenesis and origin. Therefore, 22 genomes of independent CPXV strains from clinical cases, involving ten humans, four rats, two cats, two jaguarundis, one beaver, one elephant, one marah and one mongoose, were sequenced by using massive parallel pyrosequencing. The extensive phylogenetic analysis showed that the CPXV strains sequenced clearly cluster into several distinct clades, some of which are closely related to Vaccinia viruses while others represent different clades in a CPXV cluster. Particularly one CPXV clade is more closely related to Camelpox virus, Taterapox virus and Variola virus than to any other known OPV. These results support and extend recent data from other groups who postulate that CPXV does not form a monophyletic clade and should be divided into multiple lineages.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV) interventions, it has continued to spread from high risk to the low risk population population with the devastating social, economic and health consequences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to identify HIV related knowledge, risk ...

  13. Computer Viruses and Related Threats: A Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, John P.; Carnahan, Lisa J.

    This document contains guidance for managing the threats of computer viruses, Trojan horses, network worms, etc. and related software along with unauthorized use. It is geared towards managers of end-user groups, managers dealing with multi-user systems, personal computers, and networks. The guidance is general and addresses the vulnerabilities…

  14. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beula M. Magimairaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general linear modeling revealed that, after controlling for age, only updating accuracy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal working memory span. Memory updating speed (that subsumed attention focus switching speed also contributed but was mediated by age. The results extend the developmental memory literature by implicating the mechanism of memory updating and developmental improvement in speed of attention focus switching and updating as critical contributors to children’s verbal working memory. Theoretically, the results provide substantively new information about the role of domain-general executive attention in children’s verbal working memory.

  15. Experimental and natural weed host-virus relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Horváth, J; Takács, A P; Gáborjányi, R; Béres, I

    2004-01-01

    Weeds, as alternative hosts of plant viruses and nutrient plants of virus vectors play important role in virus ecology and epidemiology. The aim of our study was to discover new weed-virus relations. Therefore some weed species were mechanically inoculated with 28 viruses (strains or isolates) maintained in our glasshouse. Different weed species with and without visible symptoms were collected from agro-, water ecosystems and wastelands of Hungary between 1997 and 2003. Virus infections were evaluated by biotests, DAS ELISA serological methods, electronmicroscopy and immunosorbent electronmicroscopy (ISEM). Under glasshouse conditions Ambrosia artemisifolia was considered as a virophob species, showing resistance to all viruses listed above. A series of new artificial (Chenopodium album--SoMV (LH+SH)*, AMV (LH+SH); C. berlandieri--PVY(NTN) (LH), AMV (LH+SH), CMV (LH), SoMV (LH+SH), ObPV (LH+SH), ZYMV-10 (LH): C. ugandae--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); C. glaucum--ObPV (LH), SoMV (L); Echinocystis lobata--PVX (L), ZYMV (LH+SH); Solanum nigrum--MYFV (LH+SH), PVY(N) (L), PVY(NTN) (LH+SH), SoMV (LH), TMV (SH), CMV (SH); S. dulcamara--CMV-U/246 (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH), SoMV-H (L), TMV-O (L); S. luteum--PVY(N) (SH), PVY(NTN) (LH+L), TMV(SH).) and natural (Asclepias syriaca--TMV, AMV, TSWV; Alisma plantago-aquatica--PVY, SoMV; Ambrosia artemisiifolia--CMV; Chenopodium album--CMV, PVS, PLRV; C. hybridum--CMV; Cirsium canum--CMV, PVM; Carex vulpina--CMV; Comium maculatum--PVY; Datura stramonium--PVA, PVX, PVS, PVM, CMV, TMV; Lysimachia vulgaris--ArMV, BNYVV, CMV, TMV; Lythrum salicaria--ArMV; Malva neglecta--CMV; Mercurialis annua--SoMV; Solanum nigrum--CMV, PVY, PVY(N); Solidago gigantea--CMV, RpRSV, BNYVV; Stenactis annua--PVM, PVA) weed--virus relations were detected. The epidemiological role of perennial hosts (A. syriaca, A. planlago aquatica, C. canurm, L. vulgaris, L. salicaria, S. gigantea) is especially high, because they can serve as infection sources as well as overwintering

  16. Spanning Tree Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Hung Chen

    2012-01-01

    minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.

  17. Divergent envelope E2 alphavirus sequences spanning amino acids 297 to 352 induce in mice virus-specific protective immunity and antibodies with complement-mediated cytolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, H; Lustig, S; Gozes, Y; Velan, B; Cohen, S; Leitner, M; Lachmi, B; Katz, D; Olshevski, U; Shafferman, A

    1992-02-01

    We have proposed a general algorithm for identification of potential immunoprotective domains (cassettes) on the envelope E2 polypeptide of alphaviruses (H. Grosfeld, B. Velan, M. Leitner, S. Cohen, S. Lustig, B.E. Lachmi, and A. Shafferman, J. Virol. 63:3416-3422, 1989). To assess the generality of our approach, we compared analogous E2 cassettes from Sindbis virus (SIN) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), two alphaviruses which are philogenetically very remote. The antigenically distinct SFV E2 and SIN E2 cassettes exhibit comparable immunological characteristics. Most significantly, the SIN E2 LMN cassette cluster (E2 amino acids 297 to 352 fused to beta-galactosidase), like the analogous SFV E2 LMN cassettes, elicited high titers of antivirus antibodies in mice and proved to be highly effective in protection against lethal challenge. Mice immunized with SIN E2 LMN were completely protected against intracerebral challenge of 10 to 100 50% lethal doses of different neurovirulent SIN strains. Anti-SIN LMN antibodies, like anti-SFV LMN antibodies, lacked in vitro neutralizing activity, yet both exerted protection against homologous challenge upon transfer to mice. The two antibody preparations exhibited virus-specific complement-mediated cytolysis of cells infected with the homologous but not heterologous virus. These results suggest a possible mechanism for virus-specific E2 LMN-induced protection and demonstrate the generality of our methodology for deciphering immunogenic and protective domains in alphavirus systems. Results suggest also that the E2 LMN sequence of any given alphavirus should be considered as a component of a synthetic vaccine against that specific virus.

  18. Preserving syntactic processing across the adult life span: the modulation of the frontotemporal language system in the context of age-related atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Shafto, Meredith A; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-02-01

    Although widespread neural atrophy is an inevitable consequence of normal aging, not all cognitive abilities decline as we age. For example, spoken language comprehension tends to be preserved, despite atrophy in neural regions involved in language function. Here, we combined measures of behavior, functional activation, and gray matter (GM) change in a younger (19-34 years) and older group (49-86 years) of participants to identify the mechanisms leading to preserved language comprehension across the adult life span. We focussed primarily on syntactic functions because these are strongly left lateralized, providing the potential for contralateral recruitment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we used a word-monitoring task to minimize working memory demands, manipulating the availability of semantics and syntax to ask whether syntax is preserved in aging because of the functional recruitment of other brain regions, which successfully compensate for neural atrophy. Performance in the older group was preserved despite GM loss. This preservation was related to increased activity in right hemisphere frontotemporal regions, which was associated with age-related atrophy in the left hemisphere frontotemporal network activated in the young. We argue that preserved syntactic processing across the life span is due to the shift from a primarily left hemisphere frontotemporal system to a bilateral functional language network.

  19. No evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Switzer

    Full Text Available The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents.All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV (SA-14-14-2, varicella (Varivax, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II, measles (Attenuvax, rubella (Meruvax-II, rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix, and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells.We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans.

  20. Metabonomic window into hepatitis B virus-related hepatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Qiang; Duan, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics has recently been widely used to discover the pathogenesis and find potential metabolic markers with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it develops new diagnosis and treatment methods, increases early phase diagnosis rates of certain diseases and provides a new basis for targeted therapy. This review mainly analyzes the research progress of the metabonomics of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatic diseases, hoping to discover some potential metabolic markers for ide...

  1. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had...

  2. Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuer Judith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV, has recently been reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. We have studied a total of 170 samples from chronic fatigue syndrome patients from two UK cohorts and 395 controls for evidence of XMRV infection by looking either for the presence of viral nucleic acids using quantitative PCR (limit of detection Results We have not identified XMRV DNA in any samples by PCR (0/299. Some serum samples showed XMRV neutralising activity (26/565 but only one of these positive sera came from a CFS patient. Most of the positive sera were also able to neutralise MLV particles pseudotyped with envelope proteins from other viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating significant cross-reactivity in serological responses. Four positive samples were specific for XMRV. Conclusions No association between XMRV infection and CFS was observed in the samples tested, either by PCR or serological methodologies. The non-specific neutralisation observed in multiple serum samples suggests that it is unlikely that these responses were elicited by XMRV and highlights the danger of over-estimating XMRV frequency based on serological assays. In spite of this, we believe that the detection of neutralising activity that did not inhibit VSV-G pseudotyped MLV in at least four human serum samples indicates that XMRV infection may occur in the general population, although with currently uncertain outcomes.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphomas, pathology view point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke-Serinsöz, Ebru; Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

    2017-07-01

    The contribution of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the HIV epidemic 35 years ago. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of HIV-related malignancies. Nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of malignances observed in HIV infected individuals, and the most common cause of cancer related-deaths. Common features of the predominant B-cell lymphomas in the HIV + setting are the frequent plasmacytoid morphology of the neoplastic cells, advanced stage, aggressive disease and frequent extranodal involvement. In this article, we review the evolving concepts and definitions of the various EBV-associated lymphomas in HIV + patients, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma and primary effusion lymphoma. The current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of these malignancies, the interplay between HIV and EBV co-infection in the development of certain HIV related lymphomas, and the emerging paradigm that suggests that HIV may play a direct role in lymphomagenesis are explored as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PATHOBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS VIRUS-RELATED THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Stasi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a well recognized complication of infections, including those from hepatotropic viruses. Thrombocytopenia may actually be the only manifestation of vital hepatitis, which should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. The mechanisms of thrombocytopenia associated with viral hepatitis vary widely depending on the specific infectious agent and the severity of liver disease. Most of the studies have described thrombocytopenia in association with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, the most common cause of chronic infection worldwide. Studies have shown that treatment of HCV infection often results in substantial improvement or complete recovery of the thrombocytopenia. In patients with thrombocytopenia associated with HCV-related chronic liver disease, the use of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, normalizes platelet levels thereby permitting the initiation of antiviral therapy.

  5. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  6. Sign Language as Virus: Stigma and Relationality in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedner, Michele

    2017-08-31

    Drawing upon ethnographic research conducted in urban locations in India, I consider the relationship between stigma and contagion in the context of deaf peoples' desires for and practices of communication in Indian Sign Language. If sign language can be considered or represented as a virus-and if it spreads between and among deaf people upon exposure-what might cure differentially look like, in a time when cochlear implantation and oral-based early intervention is increasingly becoming normalized? Considering the impact of stigma on multiple forms of relationality, I argue that sign language's viral potentiality lies in its ability to transform and create new relationships and worlds.

  7. No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, William M; Jia, Hongwei; Zheng, Haoqiang; Tang, Shaohua; Heneine, Walid

    2011-05-04

    The association of the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) with prostate cancer continues to receive heightened attention as studies report discrepant XMRV prevalences ranging from zero up to 23%. It is unclear if differences in the diagnostic testing, disease severity, geography, or other factors account for the discordant results. We report here the prevalence of XMRV in a population with well-defined prostate cancers and RNase L polymorphism. We used broadly reactive PCR and Western blot (WB) assays to detect infection with XMRV and related murine leukemia viruses (MLV). We studied specimens from 162 US patients diagnosed with prostate cancer with a intermediate to advanced stage (Gleason Scores of 5-10; moderate (46%) poorly differentiated tumors (54%)). Prostate tissue DNA was tested by PCR assays that detect XMRV and MLV variants. To exclude contamination with mouse DNA, we also designed and used a mouse-specific DNA PCR test. Detailed phylogenetic analysis was used to infer evolutionary relationships. RNase L typing showed that 9.3% were homozygous (QQ) for the R462Q RNase L mutation, while 45.6% and 45.1% were homozygous or heterozygous, respectively. Serologic testing was performed by a WB test. Three of 162 (1.9%) prostate tissue DNA were PCR-positive for XMRV and had undetectable mouse DNA. None was homozygous for the QQ mutation. Plasma from all three persons was negative for viral RNA by RT-PCR. All 162 patients were WB negative. Phylogenetic analysis inferred a distinct XMRV. We found a very low prevalence of XMRV in prostate cancer patients. Infection was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and absence of contaminating mouse DNA. The finding of undetectable antibodies and viremia in all three patients may reflect latent infection. Our results do not support an association of XMRV or MLV variants with prostate cancer.

  8. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Morishita, Ryo [CellFree Sciences Co. Ltd., Ehime University, Venture Business Laboratory, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Matsunaga, Satoko [Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodaki, Tsutomu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ryo, Akihide [Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Nagata, Takashi, E-mail: nagatat@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Katahira, Masato, E-mail: katahira@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, JST, 5-3 Yonban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8666 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protease (PR) of XMR virus (XMRV) was successfully synthesized with cell-free system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface of XMRV PR with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), was identified with NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is induced for two PR protomers in the APV:PR = 1:2 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is transmitted even to distant regions from the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-range transmission of structural change may be utilized for drug discovery. -- Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially {sup 15}N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [{sup 1}H, {sup 15}N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) . A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR = 1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR

  9. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  10. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  11. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning...

  12. P300 Latency and Memory Span Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lawrence; Polich, John

    1985-01-01

    Digit span and latency from P300 component of event-related brain potential--a measure of stimulus evaluation time--were obtained from children and adults. Increases in digit span were associated with decreases in peak latency for children but not adults, suggesting that immediate memory development is tightly coupled with decreases in speed of…

  13. Effects of Grape Skin Extract on Age-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Memory and Life Span in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseburg, Heike; Schäfer, Carmina; Müller, Madeleine; Hagl, Stephanie; Pohland, Maximilian; Berressem, Dirk; Borchiellini, Marta; Plank, Christina; Eckert, Gunter P

    2016-09-01

    Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice. PGE was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/d in a 3-week short-term, 6-month long-term and life-long study. MD in the brains of aged mice (19-22 months old) compared to young mice (3 months old) was demonstrated by lower ATP levels and by impaired mitochondrial respiratory complex activity (except for mice treated with antioxidant-depleted food pellets). Long-term PGE feeding partly enhanced brain mitochondrial respiration with only minor beneficial effect on brain ATP levels and memory of aged mice. Life-long PGE feeding led to a transient but significant shift of survival curve toward higher survival rates but without effect on the overall survival. The moderate effects of PGE were associated with elevated SIRT1 but not SIRT3 mRNA expressions in brain and liver tissue. The beneficial effects of the grape extract may have been influenced by the profile of bioavailable polyphenols and the starting point of interventions.

  14. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  15. Predictive value of serum gelsolin in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... proposed as a prognostic marker in acute liver injury, but its relationship with human hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-related hepatitis ... Key words: Gelsolin, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver disease, predictive value. INTRODUCTION ..... and immunity composition attack of bacteria (Bucki et al.,. 2008a).

  16. The Life Span Dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Hebensperger-Hüther

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings from a survey of 10 different experimental housing projects in Bavaria. In 2005 students of architecture and students of social work at the University of Applied Science in Coburg approached the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” using interdisciplinary research methods. The scope of the research ranges from urban planning concepts to common spaces in the different neighborhoods, documenting user satisfaction with the individual unit and feasibility of rooms offered. The findings entered into guidelines for to serve all parties involved with the development and construction of social housing as well as to keep the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” viable in design studio projects.

  17. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  18. Relating Life-Span Research to the Development of Gifted and Talented Children. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (3rd, Lawrence, Kansas, February 19-20, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 29 papers that relate life-span research to the development of gifted and talented children. Sample topics include: attitudes about rural schools and programs for the gifted; social competence, self-esteem, and parent-child time and interaction in an advantaged subculture; helping families of gifted children…

  19. Immunopathogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Related Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo M. Kgatle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a serious consequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, which infects and replicates in the liver. It is characterised by prolonged hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity; this can lead to both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The infection begins when HBV binds its only known functional receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP, which was identified recently. The discovery of NTCP was a significant breakthrough in the field of HBV research, and has facilitated the establishment of a susceptible hepatoma cell line model for studying the mechanisms underlying HBV pathogenesis. Following productive HBV infection, both cellular and humoral immune cells and molecules, such as T cells and chemokines, are activated to resolve infection by destroying HBV-infected hepatocytes. However, host immunity to HBV is not always protective, most likely due to immune evasion mechanisms employed by HBV. These mechanisms may result in viral persistence, accumulation of mutations, and aberrant epigenetic alterations that lead to HCC. Here we highlight our current understanding of the HBV replication cycle, immunopathogenesis, and related mechanisms underlying the progression of CHB to advanced liver disease, along with the attendant complications.

  20. Limited elimination of two viruses by cryotherapy of pelargonium apices related to virus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, A; Mallet, R; Chevalier, M; Grapin, A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of eradicating the pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) and pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) by cryotherapy of axillary shoot apices was investigated using five Pelargonium cultivars. Viruses were detected by DAS-ELISA and their location was determined by immunolocalization. Apex culture did not permit elimination of PFBV and only 15 percent regenerated plants of 'Stellar Artic' cultivar were ELISA PLPV-negative. Plants regenerated from cryotherapy-treated apices were tested by DAS-ELISA after a 3-month in vitro culture period. Viruses were not detected in 25 percent and 50 percent of the plants tested for PFBV and PLPV, respectively. However, immunolocalization carried out on apices originating from cryopreserved shoot tips sampled from DAS-ELISA negative plants showed that they were still virus-infected. Using immunolocalization, PFBV and PLPV could be detected in Pelargonium apices, even in the meristematic dome. However, viral particles were more numerous in basal zone cells than in meristematic cells. Our results demonstrate that PFBV and PLPV are present within meristematic cells and that cryopreservation can partly reduce the quantity of these viruses in Pelargonium plants but not eliminate them totally. Additional knowledge on localization and behaviour of viruses during cryopreservation is essential to optimize cryotherapy and plant genetic resource management.

  1. Sequence and Structure Analysis of Distantly-Related Viruses Reveals Extensive Gene Transfer between Viruses and Hosts and among Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprari, Silvia; Metzler, Saskia; Lengauer, Thomas; Kalinina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of viruses is a subject of ongoing debate. In this study, we provide a full account of the evolutionary relationships between proteins of significant sequence and structural similarity found in viruses that belong to different classes according to the Baltimore classification. We show that such proteins can be found in viruses from all Baltimore classes. For protein families that include these proteins, we observe two patterns of the taxonomic spread. In the first pattern, they can be found in a large number of viruses from all implicated Baltimore classes. In the other pattern, the instances of the corresponding protein in species from each Baltimore class are restricted to a few compact clades. Proteins with the first pattern of distribution are products of so-called viral hallmark genes reported previously. Additionally, this pattern is displayed by the envelope glycoproteins from Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae and helicases of superfamilies 1 and 2 that have homologs in cellular organisms. The second pattern can often be explained by horizontal gene transfer from the host or between viruses, an example being Orthomyxoviridae and Coronaviridae hemagglutinin esterases. Another facet of horizontal gene transfer comprises multiple independent introduction events of genes from cellular organisms into otherwise unrelated viruses. PMID:26492264

  2. Establishment of recombinase polymerase amplification assay for five hemorrhagic fever-related viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng CAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a one-step recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA method for pathogen screening and rapid detection in the field targeting for five hemorrhagic fever related viruses (Zaire ebola virus, Sudan ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa virus and Yellow fever virus. Methods The specific nucleic acid (NA fragments of each virus were selected as target genes by genome sequence analysis, and the primers and probes for RPA assays were designed according to the sequence. A series of diluted template genes were used for RPA detection to determine the sensitivity. The hemorrhagic fever-related viral nucleic acids were used for RPA detection to determine the specificity. The amplification experiments were carried out at different temperature ranging from 37℃ to 42℃ to validate the reaction temperature range. Results The RPA reaction systems of the five hemorrhagic fever viruses could effectively amplify the target genes, the sensitivities were between 1.5×102 and 1.5×103 copies. No cross reactions existed with the other hemorrhagic fever-related viral genes. Meanwhile, RPA assay could effectively amplify the target genes at 37-42℃. Conclusion The isothermal RPA assays of five hemorrhagic fever viruses are established, which may amply target genes fast and react at a wide temperature range, and be potentially useful for in field pathogens detection. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.09

  3. Influenza A virus transmission via respiratory aerosols or droplets as it relates to pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mathilde; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many respiratory viruses of humans originate from animals. For instance, there are now eight paramyxoviruses, four coronaviruses and four orthomxoviruses that cause recurrent epidemics in humans but were once confined to other hosts. In the last decade, several members of the same virus families have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans. Fortunately, these viruses have not become established in humans, because they lacked the ability of sustained transmission between humans. However, these outbreaks highlighted the lack of understanding of what makes a virus transmissible. In part triggered by the relatively high frequency of occurrence of influenza A virus zoonoses and pandemics, the influenza research community has started to investigate the viral genetic and biological traits that drive virus transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets between mammals. Here we summarize recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for airborne transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses of subtypes H5, H7 and H9 and pandemic viruses of subtypes H1, H2 and H3. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of respiratory virus transmission is not only key from a basic scientific perspective, but may also aid in assessing the risks posed by zoonotic viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26385895

  4. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  5. Prevalence of human xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) in Dutch prostate cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Jong, A.S. de; Smit, F.P.; Jannink, S.A.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Schalken, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The occurrence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in prostate tissue of patients with prostate cancer (PrCa). Considering the potential great medical and social relevance of this discovery, we investigated whether this finding

  6. Amalga-like virus infecting Antonospora locustae, a microsporidian pathogen of grasshoppers, plus related viruses associated with other arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Jesse D; Keeling, Patrick J; Nibert, Max L

    2017-04-02

    A previously reported Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library from spores of microsporidian Antonospora locustae includes a number of clones with sequence similarities to plant amalgaviruses. Reexamining the sequence accessions from that library, we found additional such clones, contributing to a 3247-nt contig that approximates the length of an amalga-like virus genome. Using A. locustae spores stored from that previous study, and new ones obtained from the same source, we newly visualized the putative dsRNA genome of this virus and obtained amplicons yielding a 3387-nt complete genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses suggested it as prototype strain of a new genus in family Amalgaviridae. The genome contains two partially overlapping long ORFs, with downstream ORF2 in the +1 frame relative to ORF1 and a proposed motif for +1 ribosomal frameshifting in the region of overlap. Subsequent database searches using the predicted fusion protein sequence of this new amalga-like virus identified related sequences in the transcriptome of a basal hexapod, the springtail species Tetrodontophora bielanensis. We speculate that this second new amalga-like virus (contig length, 3475 nt) likely also derived from a microsporidian, or related organism, which was associated with the springtail specimens at the time of sampling for transcriptome analysis. Other findings of interest include evidence that the ORF1 translation products of these two new amalga-like viruses contain a central region of predicted α-helical coiled coil, as recently reported for plant amalgaviruses, and transcriptome-based evidence for another new amalga-like virus in the transcriptome of another basal hexapod, the two-pronged bristletail species Campodea augens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phonological similarity effects in simple and complex span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Moore, Adam B; Conway, Andrew R A

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of phonological similarity in simple and complex memory span tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed either a simple or a complex span task, and the memoranda within lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Phonologically similar lists consisted of words that rhymed.The simple span task was word span. There were two complex span tasks; one was the original reading span task, and the other was a variant of reading span in which all the sentences within a list were contextually related. The classic phonological similarity decrement was observed in word span. In contrast, phonological similarity facilitation was observed in both versions of reading span. This facilitation effect was further investigated in Experiment 2 using two new versions of reading span. In Experiment 2, the sentences in reading span were either short or long, and the memoranda were presented separately from, and were unrelated to, the sentences. Again, words within phonologically similar lists rhymed, and again, facilitation was observed. In Experiment 3, phonological similarity was operationalized in terms of feature overlap, rather than rhyme. The classic phonological similarity decrement was still observed in word span, but facilitation was not observed in complex span. The results suggest that phonological similarity, when operationalized using words that rhyme, serves as a list retrieval cue and that complex span tasks are more dependent on cue-driven memory retrieval mechanisms than are simple span tasks.

  8. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  9. A bacteriophage-related chimeric marine virus infecting abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhuang

    Full Text Available Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin. The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.

  10. Health Disparity in Human Papilloma Virus Related Infections | Poku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the volume of information of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines, there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HPV infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines. The study was ...

  11. Genomic characterization of a Brazilian TT Virus isolate closely related to SEN virus-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Diniz-Mendes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available SEN virus (SENV is a circular, single stranded DNA virus that has been first characterized in the serum of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected patient. Eight genotypes of SENV (A-H have been identified and further recognized as variants of TT virus (TTV in the family Circoviridae. Here we describe the first genomic characterization of a SENV isolate (5-A from South America. Using 'universal' primers, able to amplify most, if not all, TTV/SENV genotypes, a segment of > 3 kb was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the serum of an HIV-1 infected patient. The amplicon was cloned and a 3087-nucleotide sequence was determined, that showed a high (85% homology with the sequence of the Italian isolate SENV-F. Proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4 consisted of 758, 129, 276, and 267 amino acids, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, isolate 5-A was classified into TTV genotype 19 (phylogenetic group 3, together with SENV-F and TTV isolate SAa-38.

  12. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Félix

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus, the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus. Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations, demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.

  13. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Marie-Anne; Ashe, Alyson; Piffaretti, Joséphine; Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Bélicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J; Goldstein, Leonard D; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A; Wang, David

    2011-01-25

    An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.

  14. Span of management: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of span of management. Span of management is an important structural variable in evaluating the contributions of nursing managers to healthcare systems. Span of management is typically measured as a ratio. A wide variety of operational definitions have been applied and these differences have not been reconciled. A search of CINAHL, PsychINFO and Business Source Premier was completed in 2007 using the terms span of management, span of control, organizational structure, hierarchy, supervisory ratio and work group size. Key publications (1975-2007) and seminal works were included. Review methods. Morse's concept analysis approach was used to determine the pragmatic utility of the concept. A critical appraisal of the literature assessed the use of the concept across disciplines, identified inconsistencies within the concept, and uncovered assumptions and conceptual gaps. At the organizational level, span represents supervisory capability. At the level of the manager, span may reflect reporting structure, closeness of contact, or scope of the role. At the work group level, span quantifies work group size. At the employee level, span represents employee support. These measures are influenced by units of measurement and by context. A systematic understanding of span of management concepts, measures and determinants will assist nurse executives in selecting parameters to quantify the allocation of managerial resources. Researchers can incorporate these parameters in comparisons across studies and in advancing the science of nursing management.

  15. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  16. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus-associated chronic fatigue syndrome reveals a distinct inflammatory signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Vincent C; Hagen, Kathryn S; Hunter, Kenneth W; Diamond, John W; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Yang, Wei; Mikovits, Judy A

    2011-01-01

    The recent identification of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) establishes that a retrovirus may play a role in the pathology in this disease. Knowledge of the immune response might lead to a better understanding of the role XMRV plays in this syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the cytokine and chemokine response in XMRV-associated CFS. Using Luminex multi-analyte profiling technology, we measured cytokine and chemokine values in the plasma of XMRV-infected CFS patients and compared these data to those of healthy controls. Analysis was performed using the Gene Expression Pattern Analysis Suite and the Random Forest tree classification algorithm. This study identifies a signature of 10 cytokines and chemokines which correctly identifies XMRV/CFS patients with 93% specificity and 96% sensitivity. These data show, for the first time, an immunological pattern associated with XMRV/CFS.

  17. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  18. The Role of the MHV Receptor and Related Glycoproteins in Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Murine Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-13

    colipids, as does that of bovine coronavirus (Vlasak, et al ., 1988) . The interaction of HE protein wi th its cellular l igand is not sufficient to...glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 is required for virus spread and virus -mediated membrane fusion (Moscona, et al., 1992). The relative...affinity for sialic acid of the hemagglutinin- neuraminidase glycoproteins of different parainfluenza virus type 3 variants correlates with their

  19. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  20. No detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses in prostate cancer in Sanandaj, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Hosseini, Weria; Rahmani, Mohammad-Reza; Rezaee, Mohammad-Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad-Saied; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Jalili, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Multiple etiologies have been hypothesized for prostate cancer, including genetic defects and infectious agents. A recently reported gamaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported to be detected in prostate cancer. However, this virus has not been detected in similar groups of patients in other studies. Herein, we sought to detect XMRV in prostate cancers and benign controls in Sanandaj, west of Iran. In a case-control study, genomic DNA was extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate tissues from a total of 163 Iranian patients. We developed a conventional and a nested PCR assay using primers targeting to an env specific sequence of XMRV. PCR assays were carried out on 63 prostate cancers and 100 benign prostate hyperplasias. Beta-actin sequences were successfully detected in the DNA extracts from all prostate tissues, confirming DNA extraction integrity. We did not detect XMRV in samples either from prostate cancers or benign prostate hyperplasias using XMRV specific primers. We conclude that in our population XMRV does not play a role in genesis of prostate cancer.

  1. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakoki, Katsura [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of AIDS Research, Institute of Tropical Medicine, G-COE, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Urology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kamiyama, Haruka [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of AIDS Research, Institute of Tropical Medicine, G-COE, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoki [Department of AIDS Research, Institute of Tropical Medicine, G-COE, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Matsuyama, Toshifumi [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kubo, Yoshinao, E-mail: yoshinao@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of AIDS Research, Institute of Tropical Medicine, G-COE, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV.

  2. Seroprevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Tang, Ning; Leckie, Gregor W; Devare, Sushil G; Schochetman, Gerald; Hackett, John

    2012-02-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although results have been conflicting, the potential of XMRV as an infectious human retrovirus has raised concerns about transfusion safety. To address this issue, normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors were screened for evidence of XMRV infection. Plasma from 1000 US, 100 human immunodeficiency virus Type 1-infected Cameroonian, and 642 human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I)-infected or uninfected Japanese blood donors as well as 311 sexually transmitted disease diagnostic specimens were screened for antibodies to XMRV gp70 and p15E using chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs). CMIA-reactive samples were evaluated by p30 CMIA, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. XMRV seroreactivity was low (0%-0.6%) with the exception of the HTLV-I-infected donors (4.9%). Antibody was detected against only a single XMRV protein (p15E or gp70); none of the seroreactive samples had detectable XMRV pol or env sequences. The elevated seroreactivity in HTLV-I-infected donors was due to an increased p15E seroreactive rate (4.1%). Inspection of XMRV and HTLV sequences revealed a high level of conservation within the immunodominant region (IDR) of the transmembrane protein. In some cases, HTLV IDR peptide competitively reduced the XMRV p15E signal. Based on the low prevalence of seroreactivity, detection of antibody to only a single XMRV protein and the absence of XMRV sequences, this study finds no compelling evidence of XMRV in normal or retrovirus-infected blood donors. The increased p15E seroreactivity observed in HTLV infection is likely due to cross-reactive antibodies. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Chain-Constrained Spanning Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Zenklusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a spanning tree satisfying a family of additional constraints. Several settings have been considered previously, the most famous being the problem of finding a spanning tree with degree constraints. Since the problem is hard, the goal is typically to find a

  4. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Jong, A.S. de; Lanke, K.H.W.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Swanink, C.M.A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Netea, M.G.; Galama, J.M.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated

  5. CRYOGLOBULIN TEST AND CRYOGLOBULINEMIA HEPATITIS C-VIRUS RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Basile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in serum at temperatures below 37°C and resolubilize upon warming. The clinical syndrome of cryoglobulinemia usually includes purpura, weakness, and arthralgia, but the underlying disease may also contribute other symptoms. Blood samples for cryoglobulin are collected, transported, clotted and spun at 37°C, before the precipitate is allowed to form when serum is stored at 4°C in a Wintrobe tube for at least seven days. The most critical and confounding factor affecting the cryoglobulin test is when the preanalytical phase is not fully completed at 37°C. The easiest way to quantify cryoglobulins is the cryocrit estimate. However, this approach has low accuracy and sensitivity. Furthermore, the precipitate should be resolubilized by warming to confirm that it is truly formed of cryoglobulins. The characterization of cryoglobulins requires the precipitate is several times washed, before performing immunofixation, a technique by which cryoglobulins can be classified depending on the characteristics of the detected immunoglobulins. These features imply a pathogenic role of these molecules which are consequently associated with a wide range of symptoms and manifestations. According to the Brouet classification, Cryoglobulins are grouped into three types by the immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins in the cryoprecipitate. The aim of this paper is to review the major aspects of cryoglobulinemia and the laboratory techniques used to detect and characterize cryoglobulins, taking into consideration the presence and consequences of cryoglobulinemia in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection.

  6. Isolation of a novel swine influenza virus from Oklahoma in 2011 which is distantly related to human influenza C viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D; Webby, Richard J; Simonson, Randy R; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution.

  7. Isolation of a Novel Swine Influenza Virus from Oklahoma in 2011 Which Is Distantly Related to Human Influenza C Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M.; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A.; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D.; Webby, Richard J.; Simonson, Randy R.; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution. PMID:23408893

  8. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  9. Relative contribution of free-virus and synaptic transmission to the spread of HIV-1 through target cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Anghelina, Daniela; Voznesensky, Igor; Trinité, Benjamin; Levy, David N; Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-02-23

    Human immunodeficiency virus can spread through target cells by transmission of cell-free virus or directly from cell-to-cell via formation of virological synapses. Although cell-to-cell transmission has been described as much more efficient than cell-free infection, the relative contribution of the two transmission pathways to virus growth during multiple rounds of replication remains poorly defined. Here, we fit a mathematical model to previously published and newly generated in vitro data, and determine that free-virus and synaptic transmission contribute approximately equally to the growth of the virus population.

  10. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  11. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  13. Coinfections of Sudanese dairy cattle with bovine herpes virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bluetongue virus and bovine herpes virus 4 and their relation to reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan

    2016-12-01

    Reults: The meta-analysis of the data indicated high seroprevalence of coinfections with various combinations of these agents; only few animals were singly infected. An infection with BHV-1 was observed to be higher than the prevalence of associations between BHV-1 and the other three viral agents. Prevalence of seropositivities to coinfection with BHV-1/BTV; BHV-1/BVD; BHV-1/BTV/BVD were the highest while seropositivities prevalences that involved BHV-4 were much lower. The highest abortion rates were encountered in coinfections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (31% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (30% while most infertility cases were noticed in coinfection with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (44% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (21%, and coinfections with the four viruses were encountered in most of the death after birth cases (25%. Overall mixed infections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (34% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (22.5% were involved in the majority of reproductive problems studied. Conclusion: Mixed infections constitutes the vast majority of cases and are involved in the majority of reproductive disorders investigated. The high prevalence of seropositivity to all of the four viruses should call for an intervention strategy to reduce the impact of these viruses. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 332-337

  14. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  15. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  16. Conelike soap films spanning tetrahedra

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we provide the first examples of non-flat soap films proven to span tetrahedra. These are members of a continuous two parameter family of soap films with tetrahedral boundaries. Of particular interest is a two parameter subfamily where each spanning soap film has the property that two minimal surfaces meet along an edge of the boundary at an angle greater than 120 degrees.

  17. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  18. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Stoye (Jonathan); R.H. Silverman (Robert); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); S.F.J. Le Grice

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe 1stInternational Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD.

  19. Predictive value of serum gelsolin in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gelsolin, an actin-binding protein, which serves as a substrate of caspase in tissue injury has been proposed as a prognostic marker in acute liver injury, but its relationship with human hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis at various stages is still unclear. This study was conducted in order to investigate the predictive ...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1, A3L (P4b and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1, A3L (P4b and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV, Ostrichpox virus (OSPVand Pigeonpox virus (PGPV.

  1. Got yoga?: A longitudinal analysis of thematic content and models' appearance-related attributes in advertisements spanning four decades of Yoga Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoski, Erin; Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Brewer, Kirstyn A; Kiffmeyer, Katheryn A

    2017-06-01

    Yoga has become an increasingly common health practice among U.S. adults over the past decade. With this growth in popularity, yoga-related print media have been criticized for shifting away from yoga's traditional philosophies and promoting a thin, lean ideal physique representing the "yoga body." The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze the presence and content of advertisements over the 40-year publication history of Yoga Journal magazine and (b) explore female advertisement models' socio-demographic and appearance-related attributes over time. Results suggested that Yoga Journal now contains significantly more advertisements for food, nutritional supplements, and apparel and fewer advertisements for meditation and nutritional practices than in its early years of publication. Models were more frequently rated as White and in their 20s and 30s in recent years of publication. Trends in model body size matched shifts in culturally dominant body ideals over time. Implications and future research directions are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oncogenic virus-mediated cell fusion: new insights into initiation and progression of oncogenic viruses--related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2011-04-01

    Cell fusion is fundamental to the development and physiology of multicellular organisms, such as fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone. Oncogenic virus-mediated cell fusion, however, may lead to chromosomal instability (CIN) by various mechanisms when tumor suppressor p53 is deregulated and produce oncogenic aneuploid cells. It is worth noting that all human oncogenic viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesviruses-8/Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), are capable of both inducing cell fusion and inhibiting the functions of p53 as well as pRb. Although it is now not clear whether a link between virus-mediated cell fusion and cancer established in experimental systems also exists in humans, the fact that the observation of tetraploid cells is more frequent in virus-positive than virus-negative premalignant lesions supports this link. Additionally, there are now no available vaccines against most oncogenic viruses except for HBV and HPV. Given these, developing fusion inhibitors is beneficial to cancer prevention and therapy of virus-associated cancers via inhibiting virus entry, spread and oncogenic role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Verruco-papillary lesions in relation to human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plethora of pathologic conditions may affect the normal morphologic characteristics and intactness of the oral mucosa, presenting as surface alterations.The prevalence of the different types of HPV worldwide has implications for the effectiveness of HPV vaccinations against HPV-induced carcinogenesis. This article discusses HPV related lesions with emphasis on verrucopapillary lesions.

  4. Verruco-papillary lesions in relation to human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Charu; Dhanpal, Raghu; Shetty, Charan; Vaidya, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    Plethora of pathologic conditions may affect the normal morphologic characteristics and intactness of the oral mucosa, presenting as surface alterations.The prevalence of the different types of HPV worldwide has implications for the effectiveness of HPV vaccinations against HPV-induced carcinogenesis. This article discusses HPV related lesions with emphasis on verrucopapillary lesions.

  5. Discovery of a Novel Hepatovirus (Phopivirus of Seals) Related to Human Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S J; St Leger, J A; Liang, E; Hicks, A L; Sanchez-Leon, M D; Jain, K; Lefkowitch, J H; Navarrete-Macias, I; Knowles, N; Goldstein, T; Pugliares, K; Ip, H S; Rowles, T; Lipkin, W I

    2015-08-25

    Describing the viral diversity of wildlife can provide interesting and useful insights into the natural history of established human pathogens. In this study, we describe a previously unknown picornavirus in harbor seals (tentatively named phopivirus) that is related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV). We show that phopivirus shares several genetic and phenotypic characteristics with HAV, including phylogenetic relatedness across the genome, a specific and seemingly quiescent tropism for hepatocytes, structural conservation in a key functional region of the type III internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and a codon usage bias consistent with that of HAV. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important viral hepatitis in humans because of the substantial number of cases each year in regions with low socioeconomic status. The origin of HAV is unknown, and no nonprimate HAV-like viruses have been described. Here, we describe the discovery of an HAV-like virus in seals. This finding suggests that the diversity and evolutionary history of these viruses might be far greater than previously thought and may provide insight into the origin and pathogenicity of HAV. Copyright © 2015 Anthony et al.

  6. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  7. Fidelity of target site duplication and sequence preference during integration of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggu Kim

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity.

  8. PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Brent C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a retrovirus implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Press releases have suggested that it could contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In this study we used two PCR assays and one antibody assay to screen 25 blood samples from autistic children born to mothers with CFS and from 20 mixed controls including family members of the children assayed, people with fibromyalgia and people with chronic Lyme disease. Using a real-time PCR assay, we screened an additional 48 South Carolina autism disorder samples, 96 Italian ASD samples, 61 South Carolina ASD samples and 184 healthy controls. Despite having the ability to detect low copy number XMRV DNA in a large background of cellular DNA, none of the PCR assays found any evidence of XMRV infection in blood cells from patients or controls. Further, no anti-XMRV antibodies were detected, ruling out possible low level or abortive infections in blood or in other reservoirs. These results imply that XMRV is not associated with autism.

  9. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander (NCI)

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  10. Variation of the virus-related elements within syntenic genomes of the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Takashi; Yoshida, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Inoue, Takahiro; Nomura, Keigo; Yoshida, Yui; Kuno, Sotaro; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The increasing number of genome sequences of archaea and bacteria show their adaptation to different environmental conditions at the genomic level. Aeropyrum spp. are aerobic and hyperthermophilic archaea. Aeropyrum camini was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, and Aeropyrum pernix was isolated from a coastal solfataric vent. To investigate the adaptation strategy in each habitat, we compared the genomes of the two species. Shared genome features were a small genome size, a high GC content, and a large portion of orthologous genes (86 to 88%). The genomes also showed high synteny. These shared features may have been derived from the small number of mobile genetic elements and the lack of a RecBCD system, a recombinational enzyme complex. In addition, the specialized physiology (aerobic and hyperthermophilic) of Aeropyrum spp. may also contribute to the entire-genome similarity. Despite having stable genomes, interference of synteny occurred with two proviruses, A. pernix spindle-shaped virus 1 (APSV1) and A. pernix ovoid virus 1 (APOV1), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements. Spacer sequences derived from the A. camini CRISPR showed significant matches with protospacers of the two proviruses infecting A. pernix, indicating that A. camini interacted with viruses closely related to APSV1 and APOV1. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the nonorthologous genes (41 to 45%) were proviral genes or ORFans probably originating from viruses. Although the genomes of A. camini and A. pernix were conserved, we observed nonsynteny that was attributed primarily to virus-related elements. Our findings indicated that the genomic diversification of Aeropyrum spp. is substantially caused by viruses.

  11. High energy X-ray scattering quantification of in situ-loading-related strain gradients spanning the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in bovine tooth specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, J D; Stock, S R

    2010-08-26

    High energy X-ray scattering (80.7keV photons) at station 1-ID of the Advanced Photon Source quantified internal strains as a function of applied stress in mature bovine tooth. These strains were mapped from dentin through the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) into enamel as a function of applied compressive stress in two small parallelepiped specimens. One specimen was loaded perpendicular to the DEJ and the second parallel to the DEJ. Internal strains in enamel and dentin increased and, as expected from the relative values of the Young's modulus, the observed strains were much higher in dentin than in enamel. Large strain gradients were observed across the DEJ, and the data suggest that the mantle dentin-DEJ-aprismatic enamel structure may shield the near-surface volume of the enamel from large strains. In the enamel, drops in internal strain for applied stresses above 40MPa also suggest that this structure had cracked. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The genome of an influenza virus from a pilot whale: relation to influenza viruses of gulls and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Marco; Lange, Jeannette; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Krumbholz, Andi; Platzer, Matthias; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Influenza virus A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 (H13N2) was isolated from a diseased pilot whale. Since only a partial sequence was available, its complete genome was sequenced and compared to the sequences of subtype H13 influenza viruses from shorebirds and various influenza viruses of marine mammals. The data reveal a rare genotype constellation with all gene segments derived of an influenza virus adapted to gulls, terns and waders. In contrast, the phylogenetic trees indicate that the majority of influenza viruses isolated from marine mammals derived from influenza viruses adapted to geese and ducks. We conclude that A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 is the first record of an infection of a marine mammal from a gull-origin influenza virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

    2003-09-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  14. Correlates of hepatitis b virus-related stigmatization experienced by Asians: A scoping review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Haeok Lee; Jacqueline Fawcett; Deogwoon Kim; Jin Hyang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although remarkable progress in the pharmacological components of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer has been achieved, HBV-related stigma is recognized as a major barrier to HBV management. The purpose of this Revised Social Network Model (rSNM)-guided review was to examine the existing research literature about HBV-related stigma among Asians and Asian immigrants residing in other countries. Methods: A scoping review of literature was conduct...

  15. Increasing Incidence of Severe Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Infectious Mononucleosis: Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Le Tulzo, Yves; Minjolle, Sophie; Person, Arnaud; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Arvieux, Cedric; Thomas, Remi; Michelet, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Older patients are more susceptible to severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). This condition may increase in industrialized countries where primary EBV infection occurs later in life. Between 1990 and 2004, 38 patients were admitted to our department with EBV-related IM. Two patients died. The annual incidence increased significantly (r = 0.623; P = 0.013). PMID:16672427

  16. IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Kennedy-Nasser

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Latent EBV infection is associated with several malignancies, including EBV post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma. The range of expression of latent EBV antigens varies in these tumors, which influences how susceptible the tumors are to immunotherapeutic approaches. Tumors expressing type III latency, such as in LPD, express the widest array of EBV antigens making them the most susceptible to immunotherapy. Treatment strategies for EBV-related tumors include restoring normal cellular immunity by adoptive immunotherapy with EBV-specific T cells and targeting the malignant B cells with monoclonal antibodies. We review the current immunotherapies and future studies aimed at targeting EBV antigen expression in these tumors.

  17. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the survival of foodborne viruses during food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Si, Jiyeon; Yun, Hyun Sun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people suffer from foodborne diseases throughout the world every year, and the importance of food safety has grown worldwide in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and viral surrogates of human norovirus (HuNoV) (bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus [MNV]) in food over time. HAV, MNV, and MS2 were inoculated onto either the digestive gland of oysters or the surface of fresh peppers, and their survival on these food matrices was measured under various temperature (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 40°C) and relative humidity (RH) (50% and 70%) conditions. Inoculated viruses were recovered from food samples and quantified by a plaque assay at predetermined time points over 2 weeks (0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days). Virus survival was influenced primarily by temperature. On peppers at 40°C and at 50% RH, >4- and 6-log reductions of MNV and HAV, respectively, occurred within 1 day. All three viruses survived better on oysters. In addition, HAV survived better at 70% RH than at 50% RH. The survival data for HAV, MS2, and MNV were fit to three different mathematical models (linear, Weibull, and biphasic models). Among them, the biphasic model was optimum in terms of goodness of fit. The results of this study suggest that major foodborne viruses such as HAV and HuNoV can survive over prolonged periods of time with a limited reduction in numbers. Because a persistence of foodborne virus on contaminated foods was observed, precautionary preventive measures should be performed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Spanning quadrangulations of triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kündgen, André; Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study alternating cycles in graphs embedded in a surface. We observe that 4-vertex-colorability of a triangulation on a surface can be expressed in terms of spanninq quadrangulations, and we establish connections between spanning quadrangulations and cycles in the dual graph which...... are noncontractible and alternating with respect to a perfect matching. We show that the dual graph of an Eulerian triangulation of an orientable surface other than the sphere has a perfect matching M and an M-alternating noncontractible cycle. As a consequence, every Eulerian triangulation of the torus has...... a nonbipartite spanning quadrangulation. For an Eulerian triangulation G of the projective plane the situation is different: If the dual graph G∗ is nonbipartite, then G∗ has no noncontractible alternating cycle, and all spanning quadrangulations of G are bipartite. If the dual graph G∗ is bipartite, then it has...

  19. Research advances in hepatitis C virus-related renal injury and its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Shuyuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a blood-borne virus transmitted through contact with blood and blood products, and it is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the association between HCV infection and renal disease. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia is the most common type of HCV-related renal disease manifesting as nephropathy or nephritic syndrome, proteinuria, hematuria, and reduced glomerular filtration rate. The treatment of HCV-related renal disease includes antiviral therapy, B cell clearance, and non-specific immunosuppressive therapy. At the same time, the launch of new antiviral drugs has brought hope to the patients who cannot tolerate conventional regimens. This article reviews the research advances in epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and treatment of HCV-related renal injury.

  20. Detection of a virus related to betacoronaviruses in Italian greater horseshoe bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, A; Palladini, A; Bogliani, G; Battilani, M

    2011-02-01

    The association between coronaviruses and bats is a worldwide phenomenon and bats belonging to genus Rhinolophus are the reservoir host for several coronaviruses, including a large number of viruses closely related genetically to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We carried out a survey in colonies of Italian bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) for the presence of coronaviruses. Two of 52 R. ferrumequinum captured from different Italian areas tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR for a fragment of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of viruses related to Coronavirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close correlations between one of the positive samples and SARS-related CoV belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus.

  1. The Antigenic Structure of Zika Virus and Its Relation to Other Flaviviruses: Implications for Infection and Immunoprophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Karin

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent data on the molecular antigenic structure of Zika virus in the context of antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, a phenomenon that has been implicated in the development of severe disease caused by the related dengue viruses. Emphasis is given to epitopes of antibodies that potently neutralize Zika virus and also to epitopes that provide antigenic links to other important human-pathogenic flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The antigenic cross talk between Zika and dengue viruses appears to be of special importance, since they cocirculate in many regions of endemicity and sequential infections are likely to occur frequently. New insights into the molecular antigenic structure of Zika virus and flaviviruses in general have provided the foundation for great progress made in developing Zika virus vaccines and antibodies for passive immunization. PMID:28179396

  2. The Antigenic Structure of Zika Virus and Its Relation to Other Flaviviruses: Implications for Infection and Immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Franz X; Stiasny, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent data on the molecular antigenic structure of Zika virus in the context of antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, a phenomenon that has been implicated in the development of severe disease caused by the related dengue viruses. Emphasis is given to epitopes of antibodies that potently neutralize Zika virus and also to epitopes that provide antigenic links to other important human-pathogenic flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The antigenic cross talk between Zika and dengue viruses appears to be of special importance, since they cocirculate in many regions of endemicity and sequential infections are likely to occur frequently. New insights into the molecular antigenic structure of Zika virus and flaviviruses in general have provided the foundation for great progress made in developing Zika virus vaccines and antibodies for passive immunization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses....... The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... proposed. Therefore, a more effective spreading of viral infections in damp indoor climates is likely to represent the main cause for the increased prevalence of asthma in these environments. Moreover, the incidence of viral infections is higher in patients with asthma compared with that in control...

  4. Epidemiology of viruses causing chronic hepatitis among populations from the Amazon Basin and related ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echevarría José M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the last twenty years, viral hepatitis has emerged as a serious problem in almost all the Amerindian communities studied in the Amazon Basin and in other Amazon-related ecological systems from the North and Center of South America. Studies performed on communities from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated to a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among the chronic HBV carriers. Circulation of both agents responds mainly to horizontal virus transmission during childhood through mechanisms that are not fully understood. By contrast, infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV, which is present in all the urban areas of South America, is still very uncommon among them. At the moment, there is not data enough to evaluate properly the true incidence that such endemicity may have on the health of the populations affected. Since viral transmission might be operated by mechanisms that could not be acting in other areas of the World, it seems essential to investigate such mechanisms and to prevent the introduction of HCV into these populations, which consequences for health could be very serious.

  5. Spanning quadrangulations of triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kündgen, André; Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study alternating cycles in graphs embedded in a surface. We observe that 4-vertex-colorability of a triangulation on a surface can be expressed in terms of spanninq quadrangulations, and we establish connections between spanning quadrangulations and cycles in the dual graph whic...

  6. Loneliness Across the Life Span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qualter, Pamela; Vanhalst, Janne; Harris, Rebecca; Van Roekel, Eeske; Lodder, Gerine; Bangee, Munirah; Maes, Marlies; Verhagen, Maaike

    Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of lonelinessa component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents

  7. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  8. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  9. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T......- and B- cell deficient mice with human chimeric livers. Although these mice cannot be used in studies of adaptive immunity, they have provided new insights into HCV neutralization, interactions between virus and receptors, innate host responses, and therapeutic approaches. Recent progress in developing...

  10. Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and DEN-2 Virus Transovarial Infection on Viability of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Baskoro T. Satoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes influenced survival life and virus transmission of dengue virus (DEN in a mosquito. The purpose of the present study was to define DEN-2 virus transmission dynamic and effect of temperature, relative humidity (RH, and DEN-2 virus infection on viability of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. This experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design was conducted at the Laboratory of Center for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University (UGM, Yogyakarta. Seventh daysold female Ae.aegypti (F0 were infected DEN-2 viaoral membrane and kept until F2 generation by transovarial transmission, number of eggs produced and hatched was recorded. After 14-day incubation was found that trans ovarial transmission rate of DEN-2 virus infection in F0 and F1 were 93.3% and 82.2%, respectivel y. Egg production, hatchingrates from infected and uninfected mosquitoes F0 were 68% and 85%; and F1 were 72.6% and 76%, respectivel y. At defined room condition tests, 7 day adult mosquitoes in dark and humid environment produced highest number of eggs, compared normal environment and in incubated without CO 2. In fourteenth day oldmosquitoesat dark and humid produced highest number of eggs, compare normal environment condition, and in incubated without CO2. DEN-2 virus was able to infect Ae.aegypti by transovarial transmission where the infection rate in F0 was higher than F1 generation. Temperature and humidity affected the abilityof Ae. aegypti eggs to live and grow to adulthood. Perubahan lingkungan memengaruhi hidup dan transmisi virus dengue dalam tubuh nyamuk. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh suhu, kelembaban udara(RH, terhadap transmisi virus DEN-2 pada nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Studi eksperimental dengan desain pre dan post tes control group dilakukan di laboratorium pusat kedokteran tropis, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada kelompok Ae. aegypti betina umur 7

  11. Identification of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus Infection-Related Human Genes Based on Shortest Paths in a Virus-Human Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerging Influenza A/H7N9 virus is reported to be able to infect humans and cause mortality. However, viral and host factors associated with the infection are poorly understood. It is suggested by the “guilt by association” rule that interacting proteins share the same or similar functions and hence may be involved in the same pathway. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify Influenza A/H7N9 virus infection-related human genes based on this rule from the shortest paths in a virus-human protein interaction network. Finally, we screened out the most significant 20 human genes, which could be the potential infection related genes, providing guidelines for further experimental validation. Analysis of the 20 genes showed that they were enriched in protein binding, saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. We also compared the results with those from human rhinovirus (HRV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV by the same method. It was indicated that saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways might be especially associated with the H7N9 infection. These results could shed some light on the understanding of the virus infection mechanism, providing basis for future experimental biology studies and for the development of effective strategies for H7N9 clinical therapies.

  12. Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    How does a global company deal with inter-organizational boundary spanning activities? If the company is an Indian vendor, and the client a Western multinational company in need of major transformations, the answer to this question challenges prior research. This paper builds on a field study...... of Indian IT vendor managers who are responsible for developing client relations and coordinating complex global development projects. The authors revise a framework of boundary spanning leadership practices to adapt it to an offshore outsourcing context. The empirical investigation highlights how...... imbalances of power, exacerbated in the case of an Indian vendor and a European client, need to be taken into account. The paper thus contributes with a more context sensitive understanding of inter-organizational boundary work. Taking the vendor perspective also leads to problematization of common...

  13. env Sequences of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses from Chimpanzees in Cameroon Are Strongly Related to Those of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Group N from the Same Geographic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Sylvie; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Versmisse, Pierre; Delarue, Severine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Lewis, John; Brunak, Soren; Martin, Paul; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Simon, François; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Mauclere, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group N from Cameroon is phylogenetically close, in env, to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) cpz-gab from Gabon and SIVcpz-US of unknown geographic origin. We screened 29 wild-born Cameroonian chimpanzees and found that three (Cam3, Cam4, and Cam5) were positive for HIV-1 by Western blotting. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that Cam3 and Cam5 belonged to Pan troglodytes troglodytes and that Cam4 belonged to P. t. vellerosus. Genetic analyses of the viruses together with serological data demonstrated that at least one of the two P. t. troglodytes chimpanzees (Cam5) was infected in the wild, and revealed a horizontal transmission between Cam3 and Cam4. These data confirm that P. t. troglodytes is a natural host for HIV-1-related viruses. Furthermore, they show that SIVcpz can be transmitted in captivity, from one chimpanzee subspecies to another. All three SIVcpz-cam viruses clustered with HIV-1 N in env. The full Cam3 SIVcpz genome sequence showed a very close phylogenetic relationship with SIVcpz-US, a virus identified in a P. t. troglodytes chimpanzee captured nearly 40 years earlier. Like SIVcpz-US, SIVcpz-cam3 was closely related to HIV-1 N in env, but not in pol, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 N results from a recombination event. SIVcpz from chimpanzees born in the wild in Cameroon are thus strongly related in env to HIV-1 N from Cameroon, demonstrating the geographic coincidence of these human and simian viruses and providing a further strong argument in favor of the origin of HIV-1 being in chimpanzees. PMID:10590144

  14. Primary meningeal Epstein-Barr virus-related leiomyosarcoma in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus: review of literature, emphasizing the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Giampietri, Eduardo-Alfredo; Yañes, Hugo Heinicke; Orrego Puelles, José; Barrionuevo, Carlos

    2004-12-01

    We describe the clinical, radiologic, surgical, and pathologic findings of a 29-year-old Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus-infected man with a primary parasellar meningeal leiomyosarcoma involving the left lesser esphenoidal wing and the cavernous sinus. Over a period of 13 months, he developed headache, vomiting, insomnia, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left parasellar extra-axial mass that was isointense in T1, hypointense in T2, and gadolinium-enhanced. The patient underwent subtotal resection of the tumor. The neoplasm was composed of spindle cells with smooth-muscle features. It showed moderate atypia, inconspicuous nucleoli, and scanty mitosis. No tumor necrosis was detected. The immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity for vimentin, desmin, and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. A low-grade leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. The in situ hybridization showed positive nuclear reactivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. The immunohistochemistry was negative for Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. The main differential diagnosis of primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors includes meningioma and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Epstein-Barr virus has been demonstrated in most smooth-muscle tumors associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors, exceedingly rare neoplasms, remarkably affect young adults with AIDS. Comparatively, most AIDS-related visceral (nonmeningeal) smooth-muscle tumors have been reported in children. The permissiveness and tumorigenesis associated with Epstein-Barr virus may depend on the age of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  15. Reverse Genetics of SARS-Related Coronavirus Using Vaccinia Virus-Based Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Weber, Friedemann; Züst, Roland; Kuri, Thomas; Dijkman, Ronald; Chang, Guohui; Siddell, Stuart G.; Snijder, Eric J.; Thiel, Volker; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime) as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV). Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs). In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs. PMID:22412934

  16. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  17. Power, Governance and Boundary Spanning Leadership in Public Sector Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units......The phenomenon of power and boundary spanning leadership in public sector organizations is the topic for the present workshop. In this workshop we present a practice perspective (Corradi, Gherardi and Verzelloni 2010) on the management of power and boundary spanning leadership. We will focus...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...

  18. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova Ono

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3:879-82. To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1 log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24 h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies.

  20. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  2. Absence of detectable XMRV and other MLV-related viruses in healthy blood donors in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixing Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients and XMRV infected animals demonstrated plasma viremia and infection of blood cells with XMRV, indicating the potential risk for transfusion transmission. XMRV and MLV-related virus gene sequences have also been detected in 4-6% of healthy individuals including blood donors in the U.S. These results imply that millions of persons in the U.S. may be carrying the nucleic acid sequences of XMRV and/or MLV-related viruses, which is a serious public health and blood safety concern. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain evidence of XMRV or MLV-related virus infection in the U.S. blood donors, 110 plasma samples and 71 PBMC samples from blood donors at the NIH blood bank were screened for XMRV and MLV-related virus infection. We employed highly sensitive assays, including nested PCR and real-time PCR, as well as co-culture of plasma with highly sensitive indicator DERSE cells. Using these assays, none of the samples were positive for XMRV or MLV-related virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with those from several other studies, and demonstrate the absence of XMRV or MLV-related viruses in the U.S. blood donors that we studied.

  3. Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinda, Nadège F; Ehlers, Bernhard; Wertheim, Joel O; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bergl, Richard A; Boesch, Christophe; Akonkwa, Dieudonné Boji Mungu; Eckardt, Winnie; Fruth, Barbara; Gillespie, Thomas R; Gray, Maryke; Hohmann, Gottfried; Karhemere, Stomy; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nishuli, Radar; Pauly, Maude; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Robbins, Martha M; Todd, Angelique; Schubert, Grit; Stoinski, Tara S; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Peeters, Martine; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    It has long been hypothesized that polyomaviruses (PyV; family Polyomaviridae) codiverged with their animal hosts. In contrast, recent analyses suggested that codivergence may only marginally influence the evolution of PyV. We reassess this question by focusing on a single lineage of PyV infecting hominine hosts, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) lineage. By characterizing the genetic diversity of these viruses in seven African great ape taxa, we show that they exhibit very strong host specificity. Reconciliation analyses identify more codivergence than noncodivergence events. In addition, we find that a number of host and PyV divergence events are synchronous. Collectively, our results support codivergence as the dominant process at play during the evolution of the MCPyV lineage. More generally, our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting an ancient and stable association of PyV and their animal hosts. The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was also hypothesized for polyomaviruses (family Polyomaviridae), a group comprising several human pathogens, but this remains a point of controversy. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on a single lineage of polyomaviruses that infect both humans and their closest relatives, the African great apes. We show that these viruses exhibit considerable host specificity and that their evolution largely mirrors that of their hosts, suggesting that codivergence with their hosts played a major role in their diversification. Our results provide statistical evidence in favor of an association of polyomaviruses and their hosts over millions of years. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shyh-Ching; Pripuzova, Natalia; Li, Bingjie; Komaroff, Anthony L; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Wang, Richard; Alter, Harvey J

    2010-09-07

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious systemic illness of unknown cause. A recent study identified DNA from a xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 68 of 101 patients (67%) by nested PCR, as compared with 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy controls. However, four subsequent reports failed to detect any murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus gene sequences in blood of CFS patients. We examined 41 PBMC-derived DNA samples from 37 patients meeting accepted diagnostic criteria for CFS and found MLV-like virus gag gene sequences in 32 of 37 (86.5%) compared with only 3 of 44 (6.8%) healthy volunteer blood donors. No evidence of mouse DNA contamination was detected in the PCR assay system or the clinical samples. Seven of 8 gag-positive patients tested again positive in a sample obtained nearly 15 y later. In contrast to the reported findings of near-genetic identity of all XMRVs, we identified a genetically diverse group of MLV-related viruses. The gag and env sequences from CFS patients were more closely related to those of polytropic mouse endogenous retroviruses than to those of XMRVs and were even less closely related to those of ecotropic MLVs. Further studies are needed to determine whether the same strong association with MLV-related viruses is found in other groups of patients with CFS, whether these viruses play a causative role in the development of CFS, and whether they represent a threat to the blood supply.

  5. Recent emergence and spread of an Arctic-related phylogenetic lineage of rabies virus in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Ganesh R; Lavenir, Rachel; Wong, Frank Y K; Certoma, Andrea; Larrous, Florence; Bhatta, Dwij R; Bourhy, Hervé; Stevens, Vittoria; Dacheux, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in many parts of the developing world, especially in Africa and Asia. However its epidemiology remains largely unappreciated in much of these regions, such as in Nepal, where limited information is available about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the main etiological agent, the rabies virus (RABV). In this study, we describe for the first time the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of RABV circulating in Nepal, as well as their geographical relationships within the broader region. A total of 24 new isolates obtained from Nepal and collected from 2003 to 2011 were full-length sequenced for both the nucleoprotein and the glycoprotein genes, and analysed using neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic methods with representative viruses from all over the world, including new related RABV strains from neighbouring or more distant countries (Afghanistan, Greenland, Iran, Russia and USA). Despite Nepal's limited land surface and its particular geographical position within the Indian subcontinent, our study revealed the presence of a surprising wide genetic diversity of RABV, with the co-existence of three different phylogenetic groups: an Indian subcontinent clade and two different Arctic-like sub-clades within the Arctic-related clade. This observation suggests at least two independent episodes of rabies introduction from neighbouring countries. In addition, specific phylogenetic and temporal evolution analysis of viruses within the Arctic-related clade has identified a new recently emerged RABV lineage we named as the Arctic-like 3 (AL-3) sub-clade that is already widely spread in Nepal.

  6. Recent Emergence and Spread of an Arctic-Related Phylogenetic Lineage of Rabies Virus in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Ganesh R.; Lavenir, Rachel; Wong, Frank Y. K.; Certoma, Andrea; Larrous, Florence; Bhatta, Dwij R.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in many parts of the developing world, especially in Africa and Asia. However its epidemiology remains largely unappreciated in much of these regions, such as in Nepal, where limited information is available about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the main etiological agent, the rabies virus (RABV). In this study, we describe for the first time the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of RABV circulating in Nepal, as well as their geographical relationships within the broader region. A total of 24 new isolates obtained from Nepal and collected from 2003 to 2011 were full-length sequenced for both the nucleoprotein and the glycoprotein genes, and analysed using neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic methods with representative viruses from all over the world, including new related RABV strains from neighbouring or more distant countries (Afghanistan, Greenland, Iran, Russia and USA). Despite Nepal's limited land surface and its particular geographical position within the Indian subcontinent, our study revealed the presence of a surprising wide genetic diversity of RABV, with the co-existence of three different phylogenetic groups: an Indian subcontinent clade and two different Arctic-like sub-clades within the Arctic-related clade. This observation suggests at least two independent episodes of rabies introduction from neighbouring countries. In addition, specific phylogenetic and temporal evolution analysis of viruses within the Arctic-related clade has identified a new recently emerged RABV lineage we named as the Arctic-like 3 (AL-3) sub-clade that is already widely spread in Nepal. PMID:24278494

  7. Detection and cloning of murine leukemia virus-related sequences from African green monkey liver DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, M. A.; Bryan, T; McCutchan, T F; Chan, H W

    1981-01-01

    By using low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization conditions and specific subgenomic segments of the AKR ecotropic provirus as probes, murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related sequences were detected in African green monkey (AGM) liver DNA. The MuLV-reactive segments present in restricted AGM DNA ranged from 1.9 kilobases (kb) to greater than 10 kb in size. On the basis of this finding, a 17-kb segment was cloned from a partial EcoRI AGM library in lambda Charon 4A which shared nearly 5 kb of ho...

  8. Discovery of a novel hepatovirus (Phopivirus of seals) related to human Hepatitis A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. S.J.,; St. Leger, J.A; Liang, E.; Hicks, A.L.; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Ip, Hon S.; Jain, K.; Lefkowitch, J. H.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Knowles, N.; Goldstein, T.; Pugliares, K.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    Describing the viral diversity of wildlife can provide interesting and useful insights into the natural history of established human pathogens. In this study, we describe a previously unknown picornavirus in harbor seals (tentatively named phopivirus) that is related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV). We show that phopivirus shares several genetic and phenotypic characteristics with HAV, including phylogenetic relatedness across the genome, a specific and seemingly quiescent tropism for hepatocytes, structural conservation in a key functional region of the type III internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and a codon usage bias consistent with that of HAV.

  9. Treatments of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Treat HBV-related HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charing Ching-Ning Chong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been major advances recently on the therapeutic approaches of hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Surgical treatments are the key curative treatments of HCC, whereas local ablative treatments may also achieve clinical remission in selected cases. Trans-arterial locoregional therapies are regarded as palliative but still lead to improved survival. There have been major breakthroughs in the systemic therapies for HCC. The first marketed targeted therapy, sorafenib, was shown to improve survival in patients with advanced HCC. Studies on other targeted therapies also showed promising results. Suppressing HBV with effective antiviral treatment would also benefit HCC patients by reducing recurrence and improving liver function.

  10. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  11. Epstein-Barr virus: general factors, virus-related diseases and measurement of viral load after transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Fagundes Gequelin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for infectious mononucleosis syndrome and is also closely associated to several types of cancer. The main complication involving Epstein-Barr virus infection, both in recipients of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs, is post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The importance of this disease has increased interest in the development of laboratory tools to improve post-transplant monitoring and to detect the disease before clinical evolution. Viral load analysis for Epstein-Barr virus through real-time polymerase chain reaction is, at present, the best tool to measure viral load. However, there is not a consensus on which sample type is the best for the test and what is its predictive value for therapeutic interventions.

  12. MG-Digger: an automated pipeline to search for giant virus-related sequences in metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eVerneau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of metagenomic studies conducted each year is growing dramatically. Storage and analysis of such big data is difficult and time-consuming. Interestingly, analysis shows that environmental and human metagenomes include a significant amount of non-annotated sequences, representing a ‘dark matter’. We established a bioinformatics pipeline that automatically detects metagenome reads matching query sequences from a given set and applied this tool to the detection of sequences matching large and giant DNA viral members of the proposed order Megavirales or virophages. A total of 1,045 environmental and human metagenomes (≈ 1 Terabase pairs were collected, processed and stored on our bioinformatics server. In addition, nucleotide and protein sequences from 93 Megavirales representatives, including 19 giant viruses of amoeba, and five virophages, were collected. The pipeline was generated by scripts written in Python language and entitled MG-Digger. Metagenomes previously found to contain megavirus-like sequences were tested as controls. MG-Digger was able to annotate hundreds of metagenome sequences as best matching those of giant viruses. These sequences were most often found to be similar to phycodnavirus or mimivirus sequences, but included reads related to recently available pandoraviruses, Pithovirus sibericum, and faustoviruses. Compared to other tools, MG-Digger combined stand-alone use on Linux or Windows operating systems through a user-friendly interface, implementation of ready-to-use customized metagenome databases and query sequence databases, adjustable parameters for BLAST searches, and creation of output files containing selected reads with best match identification. Compared to Metavir 2, a reference tool in viral metagenome analysis, MG-Digger detected 8% more true positive Megavirales-related reads in a control metagenome. The present work shows that massive, automated and recurrent analyses of metagenomes are

  13. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver......-related deaths in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study, which prospectively evaluated 76 893 person-years of follow-up in 23 441 HIV-infected persons. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses identified factors associated with liver-related, AIDS-related, and other causes of death....... RESULTS: There were 1246 deaths (5.3%; 1.6 per 100 person-years); 14.5% were from liver-related causes. Of these, 16.9% had active hepatitis B virus (HBV), 66.1% had hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 7.1% had dual viral hepatitis co-infections. Predictors of liver-related deaths were latest CD4 cell count...

  14. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2006-01-01

    -related deaths in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study, which prospectively evaluated 76 893 person-years of follow-up in 23 441 HIV-infected persons. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses identified factors associated with liver-related, AIDS-related, and other causes of death......BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver....... RESULTS: There were 1246 deaths (5.3%; 1.6 per 100 person-years); 14.5% were from liver-related causes. Of these, 16.9% had active hepatitis B virus (HBV), 66.1% had hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 7.1% had dual viral hepatitis co-infections. Predictors of liver-related deaths were latest CD4 cell count...

  15. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  16. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Caroline; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2002-04-01

    Camelpox virus (CMPV) and variola virus (VAR) are orthopoxviruses (OPVs) that share several biological features and cause high mortality and morbidity in their single host species. The sequence of a virulent CMPV strain was determined; it is 202182 bp long, with inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 6045 bp and has 206 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). As for other poxviruses, the genes are tightly packed with little non-coding sequence. Most genes within 25 kb of each terminus are transcribed outwards towards the terminus, whereas genes within the centre of the genome are transcribed from either DNA strand. The central region of the genome contains genes that are highly conserved in other OPVs and 87 of these are conserved in all sequenced chordopoxviruses. In contrast, genes towards either terminus are more variable and encode proteins involved in host range, virulence or immunomodulation. In some cases, these are broken versions of genes found in other OPVs. The relationship of CMPV to other OPVs was analysed by comparisons of DNA and predicted protein sequences, repeats within the ITRs and arrangement of ORFs within the terminal regions. Each comparison gave the same conclusion: CMPV is the closest known virus to variola virus, the cause of smallpox.

  17. Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 5 Contributes to H3N2 Influenza Virus Infection in Human Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnen, Mélia; Gueugnon, Fabien; Guillon, Antoine; Baranek, Thomas; Thibault, Virginie C; Petit-Courty, Agnès; de Veer, Simon J; Harris, Jonathan; Humbles, Alison A; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Courty, Yves

    2017-08-15

    Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus must be activated by proteolysis before the virus can become infectious. Previous studies indicated that HA cleavage is driven by membrane-bound or extracellular serine proteases in the respiratory tract. However, there is still uncertainty as to which proteases are critical for activating HAs of seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) in humans. This study focuses on human KLK1 and KLK5, 2 of the 15 serine proteases known as the kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs). We find that their mRNA expression in primary human bronchial cells is stimulated by IAV infection. Both enzymes cleaved recombinant HA from several strains of the H1 and/or H3 virus subtype in vitro, but only KLK5 promoted the infectivity of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Scotland/20/74 (H3N2) virions in MDCK cells. We assessed the ability of treated viruses to initiate influenza in mice. The nasal instillation of only the KLK5-treated virus resulted in weight loss and lethal outcomes. The secretion of this protease in the human lower respiratory tract is enhanced during influenza. Moreover, we show that pretreatment of airway secretions with a KLK5-selective inhibitor significantly reduced the activation of influenza A/Scotland/20/74 virions, providing further evidence of its importance. Differently, increased KLK1 secretion appeared to be associated with the recruitment of inflammatory cells in human airways regardless of the origin of inflammation. Thus, our findings point to the involvement of KLK5 in the proteolytic activation and spread of seasonal influenza viruses in humans.IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause acute infection of the respiratory tract that affects millions of people during seasonal outbreaks every year. Cleavage of the hemagglutinin precursor by host proteases is a critical step in the life cycle of these viruses. Consequently, host proteases that activate HA can be considered promising targets for the development of new antivirals

  18. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  19. Pre-Ebola virus disease laboratory system and related challenges in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Kennedy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia, the laboratory system was duplicativefragmented and minimally coordinated. The National Reference Laboratory was conceptualisedto address the existing challenges by promoting the implementation of effective and sustainablelaboratory services in Liberia. However, in a resource-limited environment such as Liberiaprogress regarding the rebuilding of the health system can be relatively slow, while efforts tosustain the transient gains remain a key challenge for the Ministry of Health. In this paper, wedescribe the pre-Ebola virus disease laboratory system in Liberia and its prevailing efforts toaddress future emerging infectious diseases, as well as current Infectious diseases, all of whichare exacerbated by poverty. We conclude that laboratory and diagnostic services in Liberiahave encountered numerous challenges regarding its efforts to strengthen the healthcaredelivery system. These challenges include limited trained human resource capacity, inadequateinfrastructure, and a lack of coordination. As with most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, whencomparing urban and rural settings, diagnostic and clinical services are generally skewedtoward urban health facilities and private, faith-based health facilities. We recommend thatstructured policy be directed at these challenges for national institutions to develop guidelinesto improve, strengthen and sustain diagnostic and curative laboratory services to effectivelyaddress current infectious diseases and prepare for future emerging and re-emerging infectiousdiseases.

  20. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFilée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales. Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for 5 groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements, whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  1. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  2. The latex condom, an efficient barrier against sexual transmission of AIDS-related viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Perre, P; Jacobs, D; Sprecher-Goldberger, S

    1987-05-01

    Using a mechanical model, we studied human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leakage through six different trademark condoms. The presence of the recovered virus was determined after passage to MT-2 cells and to cultured mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMC). Only the natural membrane condom showed virus leakage after inside pressure. In addition, the kinetics of virus inactivation at 37 degrees C were followed inside and outside the condom. The virus was partially inactivated after 10 min at 37 degrees C inside the condom, but the degree of inactivation seemed higher in some of the trademark condoms.

  3. Exploring boundary-spanning practices among creativity managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    /implications – The analysis focuses on boundary spanning as a management process rather than a capability for organisations to self-organise. It extends the “boundary spanning as practice” literature by focusing on boundary spanning as a managerial practice and brings the problems related to resource mobilisation across both......Purpose – External inputs are critical for organisational creativity. In order to bridge different thought worlds and cross-organisational barriers, managers must initiate and motivate boundary spanning processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how boundary spanners manage creativity...... projects across organisational boundaries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors link to previous literature and present findings from a comparative case study of managerial practices for managing creativity projects. Data were collected through interviews, secondary materials, site visits...

  4. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  5. RNA from Borna disease virus in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients, and in their biological relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra Odebrechet Vargas; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Amarante, Marla Karine; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Miranda, Helen Cristina; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Matsuo, Tiemi; Vargas, Heber Odebrechet; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2008-01-01

    Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described recently. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course, the treatment response, and probably also the etiology. Detection of p24 RNA from Borna disease virus (BDV) by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and in their biological relatives was evaluated. The subjects were 27 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, 27 healthy controls, 20 relatives without psychiatric disease, and 24 relatives with mood disorder, who attended the Psychiatric Ambulatory of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The subjects were interviewed by structured diagnostic criteria categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, axis I, (SCID-IV). The mean duration of illness in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients was 15.341+/-1.494 years and the median age at onset was 22.4+/-7.371 years. There were no significant differences in gender (P=0.297), age (P=0.99), albumin (P=0.26), and body mass index (kg/m(2)) (p=0.28), among patients, controls, and relatives. Patients and biological relatives had significantly higher positive p24 RNA BDV detection than controls (P=0.04); however, the clinical significance of BDV remains to be clarified.

  6. Relative abundance of deformed wing virus, Varroa destructor virus 1, and their recombinants in honey bees (Apis mellifera) assessed by kmer analysis of public RNA-Seq data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a major pathogen of concern to apiculture, and recent reports have indicated the local predominance and potential virulence of recombinants between DWV and a related virus, Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV). However, little is known about the frequency and titer of VDV and recombinants relative to DWV generally. In this study, I assessed the relative occurrence and titer of DWV and VDV in public RNA-seq accessions of honey bee using a rapid, kmer-based approach. Three recombinant types were detectable graphically and corroborated by de novo assembly. Recombination breakpoints did not disrupt the capsid-encoding region, consistent with previous reports, and both VDV- and DWV-derived capsids were observed in recombinant backgrounds. High abundance of VDV kmers was largely restricted to recombinant forms. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified genotypic clusters among DWV isolates, which was corroborated by read mapping and consensus generation. The recently described DWV-C lineage was not detected in the searched accessions. The data further highlight the utility of high-throughput sequencing to monitor viral polymorphisms and statistically test biological predictors of titer, and point to the need for consistent methodologies and sampling schemes.

  7. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus, closely related to fusariviruses, infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Shang, Hong Hong; Zhu, Chuan Xia; Zhu, Jun Zi; Zhu, Hong Jian; Hu, Yan; Gao, Bi Da

    2016-06-02

    The alternaria blackspot of rapeseed is one of the most prominent diseases of rapeseed. It is caused by three species of the genus Alternaria: Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria raphanin. Here we report a novel positive-sense RNA virus from an A. brassicicola strain 817-14. The virus has a 6639 nucleotide (nt) long genome, excluding a poly (A)-tail, and was predicted to contain three putative open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3). The large ORF1 encoded a 174-kDa polyprotein (composed of 1522 amino acid residues) containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and a helicase domain. The other two smaller ORFs encoded polypeptides with unknown function. Homology search and phylogenetic analysis, based on the RdRp and helicase domains, suggest that this virus is related to and grouped with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum fusarivirus 1 (SsFV1), Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1), Fusarium graminearum virus-DK21 (FgV1), and Penicillium roqueforti RNA mycovirus 1 (PrRV1), all of which belong to a newly proposed family Fusariviridae. For this study, we designed the virus as "Alternaria brassicicola fusarivirus 1" (AbFV1). Virus elimination revealed that AbFV1 has no conspicuous impact on the biological properties of its host. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sero-epidemiological analysis of vertical transmission relative risk of Borna disease virus infection in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tatsuya; Takino, Tadashi; Makita, Kohei; Tajima, Motoshi; Koiwa, Masateru; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2016-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach. The relative risk (RR) was calculated for cattle born to BDV sero-positive cows from farms with a higher within-herd prevalence of BDV (56.8%). We tested the sera of 1,122 dairy cattle from 24 dairy herds in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, for BDV infection using the ELISA and western blotting method. The overall level of BDV sero-prevalence was 22.1%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in closed-breeding herds that do not have buying in cows (39.7%) than in farms that restock cattle by buying in cows (4.4%, P<0.01). The overall RR of BDV vertical transmission from infected mothers to their daughters was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-2.56). Our results show that vertical transmission contributes significantly to BDV transmission in the farms tested in this study.

  9. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  10. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Charles A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 1st International Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV, co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD. Attracting an international audience of over 200 participants, the 2-day event combined a series of plenary talks with updates on different aspects of XMRV research, addressing basic gammaretrovirus biology, host response, association of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, assay development and epidemiology. The current status of XMRV research, concerns among the scientific community and suggestions for future actions are summarized in this meeting report.

  11. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoye, Jonathan P; Silverman, Robert H; Boucher, Charles A; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2010-12-22

    The 1st International Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD. Attracting an international audience of over 200 participants, the 2-day event combined a series of plenary talks with updates on different aspects of XMRV research, addressing basic gammaretrovirus biology, host response, association of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, assay development and epidemiology. The current status of XMRV research, concerns among the scientific community and suggestions for future actions are summarized in this meeting report.

  12. Spontaneous Regression of Pulmonary Nodules Presenting as Epstein-Barr Virus-related Atypical Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Jun; Awaguni, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Makino, Shigeru; Maruyama, Rikken; Inaba, Tohru; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary nodules associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related atypical infectious mononucleosis have rarely been described. A 12-year-old Japanese boy, upon admission, revealed multiple small round nodules (a total of 7 nodules in 4 to 8 mm size) in the lungs on computed tomography. The hemorrhagic pharyngeal tonsils with hot signals on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography were biopsied revealing the presence of EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER)-positive cells; however, no lymphoma was noted. The patient was diagnosed as having atypical EBV-infectious mononucleosis associated with primary EBV infection. Pulmonary nodules markedly reduced in numbers and sizes spontaneously over a 2-year period. Differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in childhood should include atypical EBV infection.

  13. Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonder, Gerard J.B.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; van Gool, Tom; Kint, Joan A.P.C.M.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2011-01-01

    To assess the incidence of and risk factors for clinical and subclinical dengue virus (DENV) infection, we prospectively studied 1,207 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to dengue-endemic areas. Participants donated blood samples for serologic testing before and after travel. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against DENV. Seroconversion occurred in 14 (1.2%) travelers at risk. The incidence rate was 14.6 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate was significantly higher for travel during the rainy months. Dengue-like illness occurred in 5 of the 14 travelers who seroconverted. Seroconversion was significantly related to fever, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and skin rash. The risk for DENV infection for short-term travelers to dengue-endemic areas is substantial. The incidence rate for this study is comparable with that in 2 other serology-based prospective studies conducted in the 1990s. PMID:21529390

  14. Putative archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean R. Vik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce “MArVD”, for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new putative archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these putative archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these putative archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments.

  15. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Joseph S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  16. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Hepatitis C virus-related B cell subtypes in non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicelli, Adriano M; Marignani, Massimo; Zoli, Valerio; Romano, Mario; Morrone, Aldo; Nosotti, Lorenzo; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Picardi, Antonio; Gentilucci, Umberto Vespasiani; Remotti, Daniele; D'Ambrosio, Cecilia; Furlan, Caterina; Mecenate, Fabrizio; Mazzoni, Ettore; Majolino, Ignazio; Villani, Roberto; Andreoli, Arnaldo; Barbarini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if indolent B cell-non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients could have different biological and clinical characteristics requiring different management strategies. METHODS: A group of 24 HCV related B-NHL patients (11 indolent, 13 DLBCL) in whom the biological and clinical characteristics were described and confronted. Patients with DLBCL were managed with the standard of care of treatment. Patients with indolent HCV-related B-NHL were managed with antiviral treatment pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and their course observed. The outcomes of the different approaches were compared. RESULTS: Patients with DLBCL had a shorter duration of HCV infection and a higher prevalence of HCV genotype 1 compared to patients with indolent B-NHL in which HCV genotype 2 was the more frequent genotype. Five of the 9 patients with indolent HCV-related B-NHL treated with only antiviral therapy, achieved a complete response of their onco-haematological disease (55%). Seven of the 13 DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotheraphy obtained a complete response (54%). CONCLUSION: HCV genotypes and duration of HCV infection differed between B-NHL subtypes. Indolent lymphomas can be managed with antiviral treatment, while DLBCL is not affected by the HCV infection. PMID:22125661

  18. Correlates of hepatitis b virus-related stigmatization experienced by Asians: A scoping review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although remarkable progress in the pharmacological components of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV and liver cancer has been achieved, HBV-related stigma is recognized as a major barrier to HBV management. The purpose of this Revised Social Network Model (rSNM-guided review was to examine the existing research literature about HBV-related stigma among Asians and Asian immigrants residing in other countries. Methods: A scoping review of literature was conducted to determine the depth and breadth of literature. Totally, 21 publications were identified. The review findings were linked with the concepts of rSNM to demonstrate how individual factors and sociocultural contexts shape and affect the experience of HBV-related stigma. Results: Most studies were quantitative cross-sectional surveys or qualitative methods research that had been conducted among Chinese in China and in the USA. The three concepts in rSNM that have been identified as important to stigma experience are individual factors, sociocultural factors, and health behaviors. The major factors of most studies were on knowledge and attitudes toward HBV; only three studies focused on stigma as the primary purpose of the research. Few studies focused on the measurement of stigma, conceptual aspects of stigma, or interventions to alleviate the experience of being stigmatized. Conclusions: The scoping review revealed the existing depth and breadth of literature about HBV-related stigma. Gaps in the literature include lack of research address group-specific HBV-related stigma instruments and linkages between stigma and stigma-related factors.

  19. Correlates of Hepatitis B Virus-related Stigmatization Experienced by Asians: A Scoping Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Kim, Deogwoon; Yang, Jin Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although remarkable progress in the pharmacological components of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer has been achieved, HBV-related stigma is recognized as a major barrier to HBV management. The purpose of this Revised Social Network Model (rSNM)-guided review was to examine the existing research literature about HBV-related stigma among Asians and Asian immigrants residing in other countries. Methods: A scoping review of literature was conducted to determine the depth and breadth of literature. Totally, 21 publications were identified. The review findings were linked with the concepts of rSNM to demonstrate how individual factors and sociocultural contexts shape and affect the experience of HBV-related stigma. Results: Most studies were quantitative cross-sectional surveys or qualitative methods research that had been conducted among Chinese in China and in the USA. The three concepts in rSNM that have been identified as important to stigma experience are individual factors, sociocultural factors, and health behaviors. The major factors of most studies were on knowledge and attitudes toward HBV; only three studies focused on stigma as the primary purpose of the research. Few studies focused on the measurement of stigma, conceptual aspects of stigma, or interventions to alleviate the experience of being stigmatized. Conclusions: The scoping review revealed the existing depth and breadth of literature about HBV-related stigma. Gaps in the literature include lack of research address group-specific HBV-related stigma instruments and linkages between stigma and stigma-related factors. PMID:28083549

  20. Relative Prevalence of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus Species in Wine Grape-Growing Regions of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.

  1. Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Poulson, Rebecca L; González-Reiche, Ana S; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Carter, Deborah L; Newsome, George M; Müller, Maria L; Berghaus, Roy D; Perez, Daniel R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Stallknecht, David E

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.

  2. Conjunctival tumor caused by Epstein-Barr virus-related infectious mononucleosis: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivanijkul, Juntarut; Boonsiri, Kreopun

    2017-04-01

    The conjunctival tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus related infectious mononucleosis is a rare ocular manifestation. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We reported this rare condition that presented in a 5-year-old boy.

  3. The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzman, A.; Gera, A.; Raccah, B.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura

  4. Factors related to the incidence of clinical encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection on Belgian pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice, H.; Nielen, M.; Vyt, Ph.; Frankena, K.; Koenen, F.

    2007-01-01

    We set up a matched case-control study of potential risk factors for clinical encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in 58 pig farms in West Flanders (Belgium). In total, 29 farms experienced a clinical outbreak of EMCV confirmed by EMC virus isolation. Mortality was seen only among suckling piglets (18

  5. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  6. On the Relative Role of Different Age Groups During Epidemics Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Edward; Nguyen, Hieu H; Liu, Patrick; Viboud, Cecile; Steiner, Claudia A; Worby, Colin J; Lipsitch, Marc

    2018-01-04

    While circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) results in high rates of hospitalization, particularly among young children and elderly individuals, little is known about the role of different age groups in propagating annual RSV epidemics. We evaluate the roles played by individuals in different age groups during RSV epidemics in the United States between 2001 and 2012, using the previously defined relative risk (RR) statistic estimated from the hospitalization data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Transmission modeling was used to examine the robustness of our inference method. Children aged 3-4 years and 5-6 years each had the highest RR estimate for 5 of 11 seasons included in this study, with RSV hospitalization rates in infants being generally higher during seasons when children aged 5-6 years had the highest RR estimate. Children aged 2 years had the highest RR estimate during one season. RR estimates in infants and individuals aged ≥11 years were mostly lower than in children aged 1-10 years. Highest RR values aligned with groups for which vaccination had the largest impact on epidemic dynamics in most model simulations. Our estimates suggest the prominent relative roles of children aged ≤10 years (particularly among those aged 3-6 years) in propagating RSV epidemics. These results, combined with further modeling work, should help inform RSV vaccination policies.

  7. Case report: human papilloma virus type 120-related papillomatosis mimicking laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvisi, Valeria; Martellucci, Salvatore; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Martellucci, Stanislao; Baiocchini, Andrea; Manicone, Anna Maria; Bagni, Oreste; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Gallo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation raised the suspicion of tumor relapse showing the presence of a large glottic-supraglottic ulcerated mass. Several laryngeal biopsies demonstrated koilocytosis and p16 expression, according to a possible HPV infection, and focal figures of mild dysplasia of epithelium. 18 F-FDG PET/CT did not show high glycolytic activity at laryngeal level. An invasive upper respiratory tract papillomatosis in an immunocompromised host was suspected because of the patient's clinical improvement after antiretroviral therapy. Pharyngeal swab and oral rinse harboured the same HPV120 genotype sequence, a betapapillomavirus of recent description and not yet related to any similar clinical presentations.

  8. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA mycovirus related to invertebrate viruses from the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares, M Carmen; López-Escudero, Francisco J; Pérez-Artés, Encarnación; García-Pedrajas, María D

    2017-11-16

    Fungal viruses, also known as mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi. Mycoviruses from plant pathogens can reduce the virulence of their host fungus and have therefore potential as biological control agents. This has spurred the identification of novel mycoviruses in plant pathogens, research which is greatly contributing to our understanding of these organisms. In this work, we report the characterization of a novel monopartite mycovirus from Verticillium dahliae, the main causal agent of Verticillium wilt. This novel mycovirus, which we termed Verticillium dahliae RNA virus 1 (VdRV1), was identified in three different isolates of V. dahliae collected in olive growing areas of the Guadalquivir valley, southern Spain. We determined that the VdRV1 genome is a positive (+) single-stranded (ss) RNA, 2631 nucleotides in length, containing two open reading frames. VdRV1 showed few similarities with known mycoviruses, only with a group of unassigned (+) ssRNA mycoviruses which are related to plant viruses classified within the family Tombusviridae. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that VdRV1 and the unassigned (+) ssRNA mycoviruses have a closer relationship with recently reported invertebrate viruses. This result indicates that as more viral sequences become available, the relationships of mycoviruses with viruses from other hosts should be reexamined. Additionally, the work supports the hypothesis of a heterogeneous origin for mycoviruses.

  9. Increased hot flash severity and related interference in perimenopausal human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Sara E; Shifren, Jan; Corless, Inge; Rope, Alison; Pedersen, Maria C; Joffe, Hadine; Grinspoon, Steven

    2014-04-01

    As women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, more are entering perimenopause. Prior studies suggest that HIV-infected women are more likely to have hot flashes than non-HIV-infected women. However, little is known regarding hot flash severity and hot flash-related interference with daily function, mood, and quality of life in this population. Perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women matched by age, race, and menstrual patterns completed the Menopause Rating Scale (to assess hot flash severity) and the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Menopause Rating Scale and HFRDIS scores and subscores were compared between the groups. Thirty-three HIV-infected women and 33 non-HIV-infected women who were similar in age (median [interquartile range], 47 [45-48] vs 47 [46-49] y), race (64% vs 52% nonwhite, P = 0.32), and menstrual patterns (number of periods in the past year; 5 [4-9] vs 6 [4-10], P = 0.53) were studied. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women reported greater hot flash severity (HIV vs non-HIV: 2 [1-3] vs 1 [0-3], P = 0.03) and hot flash-related interference (HFRDIS total score, 37 [10-60] vs 6 [0-20], P = 0.001). Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experience greater hot flash severity and related interference compared with non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women. Increased distress secondary to hot flashes may reduce quality of life and negatively impact important health-promoting behaviors, including adherence to antiretroviral therapy, in HIV-infected women.

  10. Monkeypox virus in relation to the ecological features surrounding human settlements in Bumba zone, Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakevich, L; Szczeniowski, M; Nambu-ma-Disu; Jezek, Z; Marennikova, S; Nakano, J; Meier, F

    1987-01-01

    Since monkeypox virus was discovered in animals in 1958 and in man in 1971, several efforts have been made to identify the reservoir of the virus in nature. In July 1985 a study on human environments and animals suspected to maintain virus transmission was carried out in northern Zaire. The study revealed three well demarcated areas: the human settlement area, the agricultural area and the primary tropical rain forest. The first two were found inhabited by terrestrial and arboreal rodents and bats, while the larger animals have abandoned them. Data on human morbidity collected in the preceding years suggested that most of the patients were infected either in the settlement or in the agricultural area. Isolation of the virus from a squirrel confirmed this suggestion and proved, on the other hand, that the virus could circulate in an area deprived of the larger wild animals, including primates. The virus isolation and results of serologic testing suggest that out of three groups of animals inhabiting the agricultural area, the squirrels Funisciurus anerythrus should be considered a priority candidate to sustain virus transmission.

  11. Developmental Origins of Health Span and Life Span: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Joshua D; Reynolds, Leryn J; Pearson, Kevin J

    2018-01-12

    A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring. Paternal factors such as diet, age at conception, and longevity can potentially impact offspring health span and life span-reducing traits as well. Continued research could go a long way toward defining mechanisms of the developmental origins of life span and health span, and eventually establishing regimens to avoid negative developmental influences and to encourage positive interventions to potentially increase life span and improve health span in offspring. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Metabolic profiling of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma with diverse differentiation grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ya; Lian, Mingjian; Fan, Zhijuan; Tian, Yaqiong; Wang, Yufan; Kang, Hua; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shuye; Li, Tong; Shan, Zhongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The most effective diagnostic tool for the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is determining the differentiation grade of their tumors. However liver biopsies, which are currently the most effective way of determining tumor differentiation grade, have several limitations. The present study was designed to select serum characteristic metabolites that correlate with the differentiation grades of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC, and so could be used in the clinic as a non-invasive method of differentiating patients with different grades of HCC. A total of 58 patients with HBV-related HCC were included in the present study, and divided into three groups according to their tumor differentiation grade. A further 20 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze endogenous metabolites. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to examine the data using MZmine 2.0 software. The 14 metabolites that were highly correlated with specific differentiation grades of HCC were then selected for additional study. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate their clinical value. In total, 5 metabolites were finally identified, including lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0), oleamide, monoglyceride (0:0/15:0/0:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0) and lysophosphatidylcholine [22:5(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)]. All these metabolites exhibited an excellent ability to distinguish different types of HCC with various differentiation grades and the area under the curve of these metabolites was up to 0.942, showing promising clinical value.

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  14. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, a major cause of cancer death in China, is preceded by chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (LC. Although hepatitis B virus (HBV has been regarded as a clear etiology of human hepatocarcinogenesis, the mechanism is still needs to be further clarified. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to identify the differential expression protein profiles between HCC and the adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Methods Eighteen cases of HBV-related HCC including 12 cases of LC-developed HCC and 6 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB-developed HCC were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and the results were compared to those of paired adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Results A total of 17 differentially expressed proteins with diverse biological functions were identified. Among these, 10 proteins were up-regulated, whereas the other 7 proteins were down-regulated in cancerous tissues. Two proteins, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 and ADP/ATP carrier protein were found to be up-regulated only in CHB-developed HCC tissues. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and Rho-GTPase-activating protein 4 were down-regulated in LC-developed and CHB-developed HCC tissues, respectively. Although 11 out of these 17 proteins have been already described by previous studies, or are already known to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, this study revealed 6 new proteins differentially expressed in HBV-related HCC. Conclusion These findings elucidate that there are common features between CHB-developed HCC and LC-developed HCC. The identified proteins are valuable for studying the hepatocarcinogenesis, and may be potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for HBV-related HCC.

  15. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Long, Yunzhu; Fan, Xuegong; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Cui; Chen, Lizhang; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-08-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a major cause of cancer death in China, is preceded by chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (LC). Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been regarded as a clear etiology of human hepatocarcinogenesis, the mechanism is still needs to be further clarified. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to identify the differential expression protein profiles between HCC and the adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Eighteen cases of HBV-related HCC including 12 cases of LC-developed HCC and 6 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-developed HCC were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and the results were compared to those of paired adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. A total of 17 differentially expressed proteins with diverse biological functions were identified. Among these, 10 proteins were up-regulated, whereas the other 7 proteins were down-regulated in cancerous tissues. Two proteins, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 and ADP/ATP carrier protein were found to be up-regulated only in CHB-developed HCC tissues. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and Rho-GTPase-activating protein 4 were down-regulated in LC-developed and CHB-developed HCC tissues, respectively. Although 11 out of these 17 proteins have been already described by previous studies, or are already known to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, this study revealed 6 new proteins differentially expressed in HBV-related HCC. These findings elucidate that there are common features between CHB-developed HCC and LC-developed HCC. The identified proteins are valuable for studying the hepatocarcinogenesis, and may be potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for HBV-related HCC.

  16. Genetic divergence of hepatitis C virus: the role of HIV-related immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netski, Dale M; Mao, Qing; Ray, Stuart C; Klein, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that HIV-related immunosuppression alters the host-hepatitis C virus (HCV) interaction, resulting in fewer amino acid-changing substitutions in HCV viral variants. Higher HCV RNA levels in persons coinfected with HIV compared with HCV infection alone suggest increased viral replication. If this increase is dependent on decreased immune selective pressure, then a reduced rate of nucleotide changes resulting in amino acid replacements (nonsynonymous changes, dN) would be expected. We investigated HCV envelope sequences over time in 79 persons with chronic HCV infection who were HIV negative (group 1) or HIV positive with (group 3) or without (group 2) severe immunodeficiency. We amplified a 1026-nt region of the HCV genome, which encodes a portion of the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, including hypervariable region-1 for direct sequence analysis. The overall divergence between paired sequences, dS, dN, and dN/dS, all showed no significant differences among the 3 groups. By measuring nucleotide substitutions in HCV sequences over time, we found no significant differences in the genetic divergence between HCV-monoinfected control subjects and HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects with various levels of immunodeficiency as measured by CD4+ T-cell counts.

  17. The role of eltrombopag in the management of hepatitis C virus-related thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish FA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fazal-i-Akbar Danish,1 Saeeda Yasmin21James Paget University Hospital, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, United Kingdom; 2Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, PakistanAbstract: Eltrombopag is a 2nd generation thrombopoietin-receptor agonist. It binds with the thrombopoietin-receptors found on the surfaces of the megakaryocytes & increases platelet production. Many recent studies have suggested a potential role for this novel agent in the treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with hepatitis-C infection. Studies have shown that adjunct treatment with Eltrombopag can help avoid dose reductions/withdrawals of pegylated interferon secondary to thrombocytopenia. It may also have a role in priming up platelet levels to help initiate antiviral therapy. Similarly, chronic liver disease patients with thrombocytopenia who need to undergo an invasive procedure may be potential candidates for short two-week courses of eltrombopag in the periprocedural period to help reduce the risk of bleeding. Besides the price (deemed very expensive and probably not cost-effective, there are some legitimate concerns about the safety profile of this novel agent (most importantly, portal vein thrombosis, bone marrow fibrosis and hepatotoxicity. In this article, the potential role of eltrombopag in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV-related thrombocytopenia is reviewed. To write this article, a MEDLINE search was conducted (1990 to November 2012 using the search terms “eltrombopag,” “HCV,” and “thrombocytopenia.”Keywords: liver disease, chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, romiplostim

  18. Targeted Therapy of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarene Koh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy using a patient’s own T cells redirected to recognize and kill tumor cells has achieved promising results in metastatic melanoma and leukemia. This technique involves harnessing a patient’s T cells and then delivering a gene that encodes a new T cell receptor (TCR or a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR that allow the cells to recognize specific cancer antigens. The prospect of using engineered T cell therapy for persistent viral infections like hepatitis B virus (HBV and their associated malignancies is promising. We recently tested in a first-in-man clinical trial, the ability of HBV-specific TCR-redirected T cells to target HBsAg-productive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and demonstrated that these redirected T cells recognized HCC cells with HBV–DNA integration [1] We discuss here the possibility to use HBV-specific TCR-redirected T cells targeting hepatitis B viral antigens as a tumor specific antigen in patients with HBV-related HCC, and the potential challenges facing the development of this new immunotherapeutic strategy.

  19. Role of superoxide dismutase in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is involved in the repair of ROS. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is the “golden marker” for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and one major shortcoming of its use is that it is insensitive for the early detection of HCC. Therefore, we evaluated serum SOD levels and their association with AFP in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related HCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 279 subjects were divided into three groups: 99 HBV patients with HCC, 73 HBV patients without HCC, and 107 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of SOD were assayed using colorimetry, while AFP levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: A highly significant elevation was found in AFP in HBV-with HCC patients compared to HBV-without HCC patients and control subjects (P < 0.001. Alternatively, serum SOD levels were significantly decreased in patients with HCC compared to HBV patients without HCC and healthy controls (P < 0.001. Furthermore, serum SOD was negatively correlated with AFP (r = −0.505, P < 0.001 in HBV-with HCC patients. Conclusion: SOD and AFP might be simultaneously evaluated to improve the HCC detection rate.

  20. Hepatitis E virus in the Western world—a pork‐related zoonosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christou, L; Kosmidou, M

    2013-01-01

    H epatitis  E virus ( HEV ) is a common cause of waterborne epidemics of acute hepatitis worldwide, but its natural history, ecology, clinical significance and presentation are entirely different in the developed world...

  1. Variation of respiratory syncytial virus and the relation with meteorological factors in different winter seasons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Kimpen, J.L.; Schellevis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which

  2. Bioinformatic and immunological analysis reveals lack of support for measles virus related mimicry in Crohn's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polymeros, Dimitrios; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Smyk, Daniel S; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Ladas, Spiros D

    2014-01-01

    A link between measles virus and Crohn's disease (CD) has been postulated. We assessed through bioinformatic and immunological approaches whether measles is implicated in CD induction, through molecular mimicry...

  3. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2006-01-01

    . RESULTS: There were 1246 deaths (5.3%; 1.6 per 100 person-years); 14.5% were from liver-related causes. Of these, 16.9% had active hepatitis B virus (HBV), 66.1% had hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 7.1% had dual viral hepatitis co-infections. Predictors of liver-related deaths were latest CD4 cell count...... (adjusted relative rate [RR], 16.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-31.7 for or =500/microL), age (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4 per 5 years older), intravenous drug use (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), HCV infection (RR, 6.7; 95% CI, 4.0-11.2), and active HBV infection (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2...

  4. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-05-16

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del'Haye, P; Herr, T; Gavartin, E; Gorodetsky, M L; Holzwarth, R; Kippenberg, T J

    2011-08-05

    We report the generation of an octave-spanning optical frequency comb in a continuous wave laser pumped microresonator. The generated comb spectrum covers the wavelength range from 990 to 2170 nm without relying on additional external broadening. Continuous tunability of the generated frequency comb over more than an entire free spectral range is demonstrated. Moreover, the linewidth of individual optical comb components and its relation to the pump laser phase noise is studied. The ability to derive octave-spanning spectra from microresonator comb generators represents a key step towards f-2f self-referencing of microresonator-based optical frequency combs.

  6. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.

  7. P300 Latency and the Development of Memory Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lawrence

    The way cognitive, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can aid in further understanding of memory span change in children is discussed. ERPs are time-dependent changes in electrical activity of the brain (as recorded by scalp electrodes) following the presentation of a physical stimulus through auditory, visual, or somatosensory modalities. The…

  8. Enhancing Remotely Sensed TIR Data for Public Health Applications: Is West Nile Virus Heat-Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Q.; Liu, H.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Public health studies often require thermal infrared (TIR) images at both high temporal and spatial resolution to retrieve LST. However, currently, no single satellite sensors can deliver TIR data at both high temporal and spatial resolution. This technological limitation prevents the wide usage of remote sensing data in epidemiological studies. To solve this issue, we have developed a few image fusion techniques to generate high temporally-resolved image data. We downscaled GOES LST data to 15-minute 1-km resolution to assess community-based heat-related risk in Los Angeles County, California and simulated ASTER datasets by fusing ASTER and MODIS data to derive biophysical variables, including LST, NDVI, and normalized difference water index, to examine the effects of those environmental characteristics on WNV outbreak and dissemination. A spatio-temporal analysis of WNV outbreak and dissemination was conducted by synthesizing the remote sensing variables and mosquito surveillance data, and by focusing on WNV risk areas in July through September due to data sufficiency of mosquito pools. Moderate- and high-risk areas of WNV infections in mosquitoes were identified for five epidemiological weeks. These identified WNV-risk areas were then collocated in GIS with heat hazard, exposure, and vulnerability maps to answer the question of whether WNV is a heat related virus. The results show that elevation and built-up conditions were negatively associated with the WNV propagation, while LST positively correlated with the viral transmission. NDVI was not significantly associated with WNV transmission. San Fernando Valley was found to be the most vulnerable to mosquito infections of WNV. This research provides important insights into how high temporal resolution remote sensing imagery may be used to study time-dependant events in public health, especially in the operational surveillance and control of vector-borne, water-borne, or other epidemic diseases.

  9. Sofosbuvir induced steven Johnson Syndrome in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Singh, Shreya; Sawatkar, Gitesh; Singh, Virendra

    2018-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is an imperative drug used in treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is considered relatively safe with fewer adverse effects than other treatments. Here, we report a rare and potentially serious, dermatologic, adverse effect following the use of sofosbuvir. A 35-year-old man with genotype 3-related HCV cirrhosis presented with decompensated ascites and jaundice following 7 weeks of therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a and oral ribavirin. After peginterferon withdrawal and stabilization, oral sofosbuvir and ribavirin were started; 10 days later, he developed itching over the trunk and legs, followed by multiple papules and vesicles over an erythematous base. Over the next 15 days, the rash progressed with the formation of blisters and peeling skin. Simultaneously, the oral mucosa and lips developed crusting and painful erosions. Considering drug-induced Steven John Syndrome (SJS), sofosbuvir and ribavirin were withdrawn and the patient was treated with topical emollients, steroids, and supportive care. The lesions improved over the next 4 weeks, with some residual hyperpigmentation. Rechallenge with sofosbuvir alone at one eighth the dose resulted in similar skin and mucosal lesions after 2 months; these lesions also improved after sofosbuvir withdrawal. The Algorithm of Drug Causality for Epidermal Necrolysis score was 7, which suggested sofosbuvir as the very probable drug resulting in SJS in our patient. Conclusion: The appearance of SJS following sofosbuvir use is an important and potentially fatal complication from a drug that serves as the backbone of several HCV treatment regimens. Treating physicians must use sofosbuvir with caution and consider withholding or discontinuing this drug in patients with such severe dermatologic manifestations. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:16-20).

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  11. Genetics, life span, health span, and the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissenbaum, Heidi A

    2012-05-01

    As a tool for measuring the aging process, life span has been invaluable in dissecting the genes that modulate longevity. Studies over the past few decades have identified several hundred genes that can modify life span in model organisms such as yeast, worms, and flies. Yet, despite this vast amount of research, we still do not fully understand how the genes that affect life span influence how an organism ages. How does modulation of the genes that affect life span contribute to the aging process? Does life-span extension result in extension of healthy aging? Here, we will focus primarily on the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans because members of this pathway have been shown to be associated with extended life span across phylogeny, from worms to humans. I discuss how this connects to the aging process, age-associated disease, and the potential to increase healthy aging in addition to lengthening life span.

  12. Distinct pattern of TP53 mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber-Netto, Frederico O; Zhao, Mei; Trivedi, Sanchit; Wang, Jiping; Jasser, Samar; McDowell, Christina; Kadara, Humam; Zhang, Jiexin; Wang, Jing; William, William N; Lee, J Jack; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Pai, Sara I; Walline, Heather M; Shin, Dong M; Ferris, Robert L; Carey, Thomas E; Myers, Jeffrey N; Pickering, Curtis R

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC. The DNA of 20 samples of HIV-related HNSCCs and 32 samples of non-HIV-related HNSCCs was sequenced. DNA libraries covering exons of 18 genes frequently mutated in HNSCC (AJUBA, CASP8, CCND1, CDKN2A, EGFR, FAT1, FBXW7, HLA-A, HRAS, KEAP1, NFE2L2, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NSD1, PIK3CA, TGFBR2, TP53, and TP63) were prepared and sequenced on an Ion Personal Genome Machine sequencer. DNA sequencing data were analyzed with Ion Reporter software. The human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor samples was assessed with in situ hybridization, the MassARRAY HPV multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay, and p16 immunostaining. Mutation calls were compared among the studied groups. HIV-related HNSCC revealed a distinct pattern of mutations in comparison with non-HIV-related HNSCC. TP53 mutation frequencies were significantly lower in HIV-related HNSCC. Mutations in HIV+ patients tended to be TpC>T nucleotide changes for all mutated genes but especially for TP53. HNSCC in HIVIIs presents a distinct pattern of genetic mutations, particularly in the TP53 gene. HIV-related HNSCC may have a distinct biology, and an effect of the HIV virus on the pathogenesis of these tumors should not be ruled out. Cancer 2018;124:84-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  14. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  15. The use of passwords to introduce theconcepts of spanning set and span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cárcamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for teaching linear algebra based on heuristic of emergent models and mathematical modelling. This proposal begins with a problematic situation  related  to  the  creation  and  use  of  secure  passwords,  which  leads  first-year  students  of  engineering  toward  the  construction  of  the  concepts  of  spanning  set  and  span. The  proposal  is  designed  from  the  results  of  the  two  cycles  of  experimentation  teaching, design-based  research,  which  give  evidence  that  allows  students  to  progress  from  a  situation in a real context to the concepts of linear algebra. This proposal, previously adapted, could have similar results when applied to another group of students.

  16. In vitro replication kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in relation to virus load in long-term survivors of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, H.; Brouwer, M.; Ran, L. J.; de Wolf, F.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1998-01-01

    In 7 long-term survivors (LTS) and 8 progressors, all carrying solely non-syncytium-inducing variants, a possible correlation between in vitro virus replicative capacity, virus load, and clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was analyzed. Late in infection, 3 LTS

  17. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  18. Social network sampling using spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zeinab S.; Rezvanian, Alireza; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Due to the large scales and limitations in accessing most online social networks, it is hard or infeasible to directly access them in a reasonable amount of time for studying and analysis. Hence, network sampling has emerged as a suitable technique to study and analyze real networks. The main goal of sampling online social networks is constructing a small scale sampled network which preserves the most important properties of the original network. In this paper, we propose two sampling algorithms for sampling online social networks using spanning trees. The first proposed sampling algorithm finds several spanning trees from randomly chosen starting nodes; then the edges in these spanning trees are ranked according to the number of times that each edge has appeared in the set of found spanning trees in the given network. The sampled network is then constructed as a sub-graph of the original network which contains a fraction of nodes that are incident on highly ranked edges. In order to avoid traversing the entire network, the second sampling algorithm is proposed using partial spanning trees. The second sampling algorithm is similar to the first algorithm except that it uses partial spanning trees. Several experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed sampling algorithms on well-known real networks. The obtained results in comparison with other popular sampling methods demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed sampling algorithms in terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (KSD), skew divergence distance (SDD) and normalized distance (ND).

  19. [WISP-1: a novel mediator of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Qiong-Hui; Liu, Qing; Lin, Jiu-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    To explore the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX) on expression of the host gene Wnt induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) that is related to the pathogenic process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumor and paratumor tissues were collected from HCC patients, and normal liver tissues were collected from healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the in vivo presence and expression levels of HBX and WISP-1 in the three tissue types. HepG2 cells stably transfected with pc-DNA3.1(+)-HBX or with pc-DNA3.1(+) only (G0, control) were generated and used to examine in vitro the HBX-induced changes in WISP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The HCC tissues showed significantly higher rates of positivity for WISP-1 expression than the non-tumor controls (76.6% vs. paratumor: 23.4% or normal tissues: 0%, x2= 35.967, P less than 0.01). HBX increased WISP-1 expression in HepG2 cells at both the mRNA (1170.33 +/- 41.26 vs. G0: 265.34 +/- 27.47, t = 31.63, P less than 0.01) and protein (240.33 +/- 11.37 vs. G0: 40.33 +/- 7.09, F = 600.57, P less than 0.01) levels. HBV may up-regulate expression of the host gene WISP-1 through its X protein and thus promote the development of HCC.

  20. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Saadat; Zahra M Behboodi; Ebrahim Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Settings And Design: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. Materials And Methods: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS 21 ). Results: There were...

  1. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms.

  2. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  3. Genome sequence of erythromelalgia-related poxvirus identifies it as an ectromelia virus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D Mendez-Rios

    Full Text Available Erythromelagia is a condition characterized by attacks of burning pain and inflammation in the extremeties. An epidemic form of this syndrome occurs in secondary students in rural China and a virus referred to as erythromelalgia-associated poxvirus (ERPV was reported to have been recovered from throat swabs in 1987. Studies performed at the time suggested that ERPV belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus and has similarities with ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. We have determined the complete genome sequence of ERPV and demonstrated that it has 99.8% identity to the Naval strain of ectromelia virus and a slighly lower identity to the Moscow strain. Small DNA deletions in the Naval genome that are absent from ERPV may suggest that the sequenced strain of Naval was not the immediate progenitor of ERPV.

  4. The effects of age on processing and storage in working memory span tasks and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Declines in verbal working memory span task performance have been associated with deficits in the language processing abilities of healthy older adults, but it is unclear how storage and processing contribute to this relationship. Moreover, recent studies of the psychometric properties of span measures in the general cognitive literature highlight the need for a critical reassessment of age-related differences in working memory task performance. Forty-two young (Mage = 19.45 years) and 42 older participants (Mage = 73.00 years) completed a series of neuropsychological screening measures, four memory span tasks (one-syllable word span, three-syllable word span, reading span, and sentence span), and a measure of reading comprehension. Each span measure was completed under self-paced and timed encoding conditions. A 2 (age) × 2 (task type) × 2 (encoding conditions) mixed-model design was used. (1) Age effects were reliable for both simple and complex span task performance; (2) limiting the available encoding time yielded lower recall scores across tasks and exacerbated age differences in simple span performance; and (3) both encoding condition and age affected the relationship between each of the span measures and the relationship between span and reading comprehension. Declines in both storage and processing abilities contributed to age differences in span task performance and the relationship between span and reading comprehension. Although older people appear to benefit from task administration protocols that promote successful memory encoding, researchers should be aware of the potential risks to validity posed by such accommodations.

  5. Relative insignificance of virus inactivation during aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneru, Charan Tej; Jothikumar, N; Hill, Vincent R; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2014-12-16

    Combined removal and inactivation of the MS2 bacteriophage from model saline (0-100 mM NaCl) waters by electrochemical treatment using a sacrificial aluminum anode was evaluated. Both chemical and electrodissolution contributed to coagulant dosing since measured aluminum concentrations were statistically higher than purely electrochemical predictions using Faraday's law. Electrocoagulation generated only small amounts of free chlorine in situ but effectively destabilized viruses and incorporated them into Al(OH)3(s) flocs during electrolysis. Low chlorine concentrations combined with virus shielding and aggregation within flocs resulted in very slow disinfection rates necessitating extended flocculation/contact times to achieve significant log-inactivation. Therefore, the dominant virus control mechanism during aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters is "physical" removal by uptake onto flocs rather than "chemical" inactivation by chlorine. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence for oxidative transformations of capsid proteins including formation of oxyacids, aldehydes, and ketones. Electrocoagulation significantly altered protein secondary structures decreasing peak areas associated with turns, bends, α-helices, β-structures, and random coils for inactivated viruses compared with the MS2 stock. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements showed rapid initial RNA damage following a similar trend as plaque assay measurements of infectious viruses. However, ssRNA cleavage measured by qRT-PCR underestimated inactivation over longer durations. Although aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters disorders virus capsids and damages RNA, inactivation occurs at a sufficiently low rate so as to only play a secondary role to floc-encapsulation during residence times typical of electrochemical treatment.

  6. The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, M D; Paton, D J; Alenius, S

    2000-07-02

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a major reproductive pathogen in cattle. Infection of the bull can lead to a fall in semen quality and the isolation of infectious virus in the ejaculate, while infection in the cow leads to poor conception rates, abortions and congenital defects. BVDV also reduces the animal's resistance to other respiratory and enteric pathogens. The prevalence of BVDV is primarily due to the efficiency with which the virus crosses the placenta of susceptible females. Calves that survive infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are born with a persistent and lifelong infection. These persistently infected (PI) animals represent between 1.0% and 2.0% of the cattle population and continuously shed infectious virus. The availability of reliable diagnostic ELISA and PCR techniques, which can test milk or serum samples for virus or antibodies, has simplified BVDV surveillance and improved the prospects for control. Although PI animals are the principal vectors within and between herds, they can be readily identified and removed. By contrast, cows carrying a PI foetus are particularly problematic. These animals have been compared to 'Trojan Horses' because they are virus-negative and antibody-positive but they deliver PI calves. In general, acutely infected cattle are much less efficient vectors but infections at the onset of puberty have resulted in a localised and persistent infection within the testes. Under these circumstances, virus shedding into the semen may remain undetected. Transmission of BVDV can be controlled through vaccination or eradication. BVDV vaccine technology has been developing over the past 30 years, but currently available vaccines are still of the conventional inactivated or attenuated sort. In general, vaccination has not been applied with sufficient rigor to make a significant impact on the level of circulating virus, unlike the national and regional eradication programmes established in areas such as

  7. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  8. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  9. Microcephaly epidemic related to the Zika virus and living conditions in Recife, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Vazquez, Enrique; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araujo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Oliveira, André Luiz Sá de; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Cabral Silva, Amanda Priscila de Santana; Rodrigues, Laura; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2018-01-12

    Starting in August 2015, there was an increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly in Northeast Brazil. These findings were identified as being an epidemic of microcephaly related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The present study aims to analyse the spatial distribution of microcephaly cases in Recife (2015-2016), which is in Northeast Brazil, and its association with the living conditions in this city. This was an ecological study that used data from reported cases of microcephaly from the State Health Department of Pernambuco (August 2015 to July 2016). The basic spatial unit of analysis was the 94 districts of Recife. The case definition of microcephaly was: neonates with a head circumference of less than the cut-off point of -2 standard deviations below the mean value from the established Fenton growth curve. As an indicator of the living conditions of the 94 districts, the percentage of heads of households with an income of less than twice the minimum wage was calculated. The districts were classified into four homogeneous strata using the K-means clustering algorithm. We plotted the locations of each microcephaly case over a layer of living conditions. During the study period, 347 microcephaly cases were reported, of which 142 (40.9%) fulfilled the definition of a microcephaly case. Stratification of the 94 districts resulted in the identification of four strata. The highest stratum in relation to the living conditions presented the lowest prevalence rate of microcephaly, and the overall difference between this rate and the rates of the other strata was statistically significant. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that there was a strong association between a higher prevalence of microcephaly and poor living conditions. After the first 6 months of the study period, there were no microcephaly cases recorded within the population living in the richest socio-economic strata. This study showed that those residing in areas with

  10. Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Tejada, R; Keydar, I; Ramanarayanan, M; Ohno, T; Fenoglio, C; Spiegelman, S

    1978-03-01

    An antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen (gp52, a 52,000-dalton glycoprotein) of the mouse mammary tumor virus has been identified in paraffin sections of human breast cancers by means of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The specificity of the reaction with antibody against mouse mammary tumor virus was examined by absorption of the IgG with the following: (a) purified gp52; (b) a number of virus preparations (mouse mammary tumor virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus); (c) normal plasma, leukocytes, breast tissue, milk, actin, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, all of human origin; (d) sheep erythrocytes and mucin. Only mouse mammary tumor virus (from C(3)H or Paris RIII strains and grown in either murine or feline cells) and purified gp52 eliminated the immunohistochemical reaction in the human breast tumors. Positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas of various histologic types, a minimal estimate in view of the limited number of sections from each tumor that could be examined. Negative reactions were obtained in all 119 benign breast lesions (cystic disease, fibroadenoma, papilloma, gynecomastia) and in all 18 normal breast tissues. With one exception, 99 carcinomas from 13 organs other than breast and 8 cystosarcomas were all negative.

  11. Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection - 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Augustina; Mai, Cara; Smoots, Ashley; Cragan, Janet; Ellington, Sascha; Langlois, Peter; Breidenbach, Rebecca; Fornoff, Jane; Dunn, Julie; Yazdy, Mahsa; Scotto-Rosato, Nancy; Sweatlock, Joseph; Fox, Deborah; Palacios, Jessica; Forestieri, Nina; Leedom, Vinita; Smiley, Mary; Nance, Amy; Lake-Burger, Heather; Romitti, Paul; Fall, Carrie; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Barton, Jerusha; Bryan, J Michael; Arias, William; Brown, Samara Viner; Kimura, Jonathan; Mann, Sylvia; Martin, Brennan; Orantes, Lucia; Taylor, Amber; Nahabedian, John; Akosa, Amanda; Song, Ziwei; Martin, Stacey; Ramlal, Roshan; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Isenburg, Jennifer; Moore, Cynthia A; Gilboa, Suzanne; Honein, Margaret A

    2018-01-26

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. † In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs) § were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

  12. Hepatitis C virus-related B cell subtypes in non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicelli, Adriano M; Marignani, Massimo; Zoli, Valerio; Romano, Mario; Morrone, Aldo; Nosotti, Lorenzo; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Picardi, Antonio; Gentilucci, Umberto Vespasiani; Remotti, Daniele; D'Ambrosio, Cecilia; Furlan, Caterina; Mecenate, Fabrizio; Mazzoni, Ettore; Majolino, Ignazio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if indolent B cell-non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients could have different biological and clinical characteristics requiring different management strategies.

  13. Relation of genetic phylogeny and geographical distance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidmann, M.; Ruzek, D.; Krivanec, K.; Zoeller, G.; Essbauer, S.; Pfeffer, M.; Zanotto, P. M. de A.; Hufert, F. T.; Dobler, G.

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing disease of the central nervous system in central Europe. In this study, 61 TBEV E gene sequences derived from 48 isolates from the Czech Republic, and four isolates and nine TBEV strains detected in ticks from

  14. Positive evolution of the glycoprotein (GP) gene is related to transmission of the Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y X; Wang, L N; Wu, X M; Song, C X

    2016-03-28

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a fatal disease caused by the negative-strand RNA of the Ebola virus. A high-intensity outbreak of this fever was reported in West Africa last year; however, there is currently no definitive treatment strategy available for this disease. In this study, we analyzed the molecular evolutionary history and attempted to determine the positive selection sites in the Ebola genes using multiple-genomic sequences of the various Ebola virus subtypes, in order to gain greater clarity into the evolution of the virus and its various subtypes. Only the glycoprotein (GP) gene was positively selected among the 8 Ebola genes, with the other genes remaining in the purification stage. The positive selection sites in the GP gene were identified by a random-site model; these sites were found to be located in the mucin-like region, which is associated with transmembrane protein binding. Additionally, different branches of the phylogenetic tree displayed different positive sites, which in turn was responsible for differences in the cell adhesion ability of the virus. In conclusion, the pattern of positive sites in the GP gene is associated with the epidemiology and prevalence of Ebola in different areas.

  15. Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madinda, N. F.; Ehlers, B.; Wertheim, J. O.; Akoua-Koffi, C.; Bergl, R. A.; Boesch, C.; Akonkwa, D. B. M.; Eckardt, W.; Fruth, B.; Gillespie, T. R.; Gray, M.; Hohmann, G.; Karhemere, S.; Kujirakwinja, D.; Langergraber, K.; Muyembe, J.-J.; Nishuli, R.; Pauly, M.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Robbins, M. M.; Todd, A.; Schubert, G.; Stoinski, T. S.; Wittig, R. M.; Zuberbühler, K.; Peeters, M.; Leendertz, F. H.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 19 (2016), s. 8531-8541 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : JC virus * divergence times * evolution * phylogenies * selection * bats * coevolution * population * chimpanzee * diversity Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  16. Studies on poplar mosaic virus and its relation to the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.M.

    1964-01-01

    An extended survey of poplar species and cultivars yielded data on susceptibility to poplar mosaic virus (PMV). Three symptom types were distinguished: two different leaf variegations and a necrosis on veins and leaf-stalks. This venal and petiolar necrosis and a diffuse leaf spotting caused

  17. Achieving sustained virological response: What's the impact on further hepatitis C virus-related disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractContinuous hepatic inflammation as a result of chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus may lead to the development of fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. At the stage of cirrhosis, patients are at elevated risk of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, two complications that

  18. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  19. Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

    2012-06-20

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among dsRNA viruses. In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses.

  20. Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huiquan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded (ds RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT among dsRNA viruses. Results In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Conclusions Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses.

  1. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBC. MethodsA total of 235 patients with HBC who were admitted to our hospitals from October 2008 to October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The infection rate of H. pylori in those patients was calculated. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices and 97 patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG, the infection rate of H. pylori was compared between those with different degrees of esophagogastric varices or PHG. In the 32 patients whose blood ammonia was determined, the level of blood ammonia was compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Between-group comparison of continuous data was performed by t test and analysis of variance, and between-group comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2 test. ResultsThe infection rate of H. pylori in the 235 patients with HBC was 80.85% (190/235. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices, who had tortuous serpentine uplift or bead-like changes of esophageal varices and tumor-like changes (with or without gastric erosion of gastric varices visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild, moderate, and severe varices (50.55% (46/91 vs 43.59% (17/39 vs 76% (19/25, χ2=6.913, P<0.05. In the 97 patients with PHG, who had snake skin-like changes, cherry red spots, scarlet rash, and erosion bleeding of gastric mucosa visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild and severe PHG (43.33% (26/60 vs 67.57% (25/37, χ2=5.391, P<005.In patients whose blood ammonia was determined, patients in H. pylori-positive group had a significantly higher average concentration of blood ammonia than those in H. pylori-negative group (62.76±13.43 vs 47.20±12.51 μmol/L, t= 3.39, P<0

  3. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  4. Robust relationship between reading span and speech recognition in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela; Arehart, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Working memory refers to a cognitive system that manages information processing and temporary storage. Recent work has demonstrated that individual differences in working memory capacity measured using a reading span task are related to ability to recognize speech in noise. In this project, we investigated whether the specific implementation of the reading span task influenced the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition. Design The relationship between speech recognition and working memory capacity was examined for two different working memory tests that varied in approach, using a within-subject design. Data consisted of audiometric results along with the two different working memory tests; one speech-in-noise test; and a reading comprehension test. Study sample The test group included 94 older adults with varying hearing loss and 30 younger adults with normal hearing. Results Listeners with poorer working memory capacity had more difficulty understanding speech in noise after accounting for age and degree of hearing loss. That relationship did not differ significantly between the two different implementations of reading span. Conclusions Our findings suggest that different implementations of a verbal reading span task do not affect the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition. PMID:25975360

  5. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  6. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, Jonell; Karns, Tara E; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases-the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people's everyday lives. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Robust relationship between reading span and speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela; Arehart, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Working memory refers to a cognitive system that manages information processing and temporary storage. Recent work has demonstrated that individual differences in working memory capacity measured using a reading span task are related to ability to recognize speech in noise. In this project, we investigated whether the specific implementation of the reading span task influenced the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition. The relationship between speech recognition and working memory capacity was examined for two different working memory tests that varied in approach, using a within-subject design. Data consisted of audiometric results along with the two different working memory tests; one speech-in-noise test; and a reading comprehension test. The test group included 94 older adults with varying hearing loss and 30 younger adults with normal hearing. Listeners with poorer working memory capacity had more difficulty understanding speech in noise after accounting for age and degree of hearing loss. That relationship did not differ significantly between the two different implementations of reading span. Our findings suggest that different implementations of a verbal reading span task do not affect the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition.

  8. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne; Lettl, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In order to continue to be innovative in the current fast-paced and competitive environment, organizations are increasingly dependent on creative inputs developed outside their boundaries. The paper addresses the boundary spanning activities that managers undertake to a) select and mobilize...... creative talent, b) create shared identity, and c) combine and integrate knowledge in innovation projects involving external actors. We study boundary spanning activities in two creative projects in the LEGO group. One involves identifying and integrating deep, specialized knowledge, the other focuses...... on the use of external actors as a source of broad, not necessarily fully developed ideas. We find that the boundary spanning activities in these two projects differ in respect, among other things, of how the firm selects participants, formulates problems, and aligns the expectations of internal and external...

  9. Barriers and Health Beliefs Related to Weight Management Among Veterans With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Shannon; Dinatale, Emily; Hartley, Sarah; St Jacques, Monica; Oursler, Kris Ann

    2017-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program. Institutional review board approval was granted before the start of the study. All participants were recruited from the Infectious Disease clinic if they met national inclusion criteria for the MOVE weight management program and had not previously participated in the program. Transcribed audio recordings were independently analyzed and coded by four of the researchers using an exploratory process to obtain consensus regarding themes. An interrater reliability analysis for the Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency among raters. The relationship between physical activity self-efficacy scores and nutrition self-efficacy scores was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The median age of the sample was 56 with high rates of diabetes (36%), hypertension (73%), hyperlipidemia (36%), and tobacco use history (82%). External barriers to participation were discussed in addition to 8 other themes, which influence treatment engagement for Veterans with obesity and HIV including adaptation, stigma, self-management, and support. Veterans held strong beliefs about responsibility and commitment to their health and wanted to assume an active and informed role in their health care. Veterans with high levels of perceived

  10. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  11. Boundary Spanning Leadership Practices for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R; White-Williams, Connie

    2015-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices for achieving the Triple Aim of simultaneously improving the health of populations, improving the patient experience, and reducing per-capita cost of health care. Drawing on experience with an existing population-focused heart failure clinic borne of an academic-practice partnership, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices aimed at achieving the Triple Aim concept and its intended design.

  12. Presumed Zika virus-related congenital brain malformations: the spectrum of CT and MRI findings in fetuses and newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Vieira de Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection. Methods: Eight women underwent fetal MRI. Four infants also underwent postnatal CT. Five of the women underwent amniocentesis. Results: All neonates were born with microcephaly. On fetal MRI, ventriculomegaly, marked reduction of white matter thickness, severe sylvian fissure simplification, abnormal sulcation, and diffuse volumetric loss of cerebellar hemispheres were consistently seen. On postnatal CT, diffuse subcortical and basal ganglia calcifications were observed. The Zika virus was detected in two amniocenteses by polymerase chain reaction assays. Conclusion: We hope to assist the medical community in recognizing the spectrum of encephalic changes related to congenital Zika virus infection.

  13. Travel-related acquisition of diarrhoeagenic bacteria, enteral viruses and parasites in a prospective cohort of 98 Dutch travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hattem, Jarne M; Arcilla, Maris S; Grobusch, Martin P; Bart, Aldert; Bootsma, Martin C; van Genderen, Perry J; van Gool, Tom; Goorhuis, Abraham; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Molenkamp, Richard; Molhoek, Nicky; Oude Lashof, Astrid M; Stobberingh, Ellen E; de Wever, Bob; Verbrugh, Henri A; Melles, Damian C; Penders, John; Schultsz, Constance; de Jong, Menno D

    2017-09-01

    Limited prospective data are available on the acquisition of viral, bacterial and parasitic diarrhoeagenic agents by healthy individuals during travel. To determine the frequency of travel associated acquisition of 19 pathogens in 98 intercontinental travellers, qPCR was used to detect 8 viral pathogens, 6 bacterial enteric pathogens and 5 parasite species in faecal samples collected immediately before and after travel. We found high pre-travel carriage rates of Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis of 32% and 19% respectively. Pre-travel prevalences of all other tested pathogens were below 3%. Blastocystis spp. (10%), Plesiomonas shigelloides (7%), D. fragilis (6%) and Shigella spp. (5%) were the most frequently acquired pathogens and acquisition of enteral viruses and hepatitis E virus in this relatively small group of travellers was rare or non-existent. Our findings suggest that the role of viruses as the cause of persisting traveller's diarrhoea is limited and bacterial pathogens are more likely as a cause of traveller's diarrhoea. The substantial proportion of travellers carrying Blastocystis spp. and D. fragilis before travel warrants cautious interpretation of positive samples in returning travellers with gastrointestinal complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission is not related to mother-child class-1 HLA concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, C; Indolfi, G; Betti, L; Moriondo, M; Massai, C; Becciolini, L; Bertelli, L; Poggi, G M; De Martino, M; Resti, M

    2007-01-01

    Mother-child human leukocyte antigen (HLA)diversity is protective for vertical transmission of some viruses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of mother-child HLA diversity on hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission. Forty consecutive HCV infected and 46 consecutive control uninfected children born to HCV-RNA positive mothers were evaluated for HLA class-1 type concordance with their mothers. No significant difference in the degree of HLA concordance was found between HCV infected and uninfected children both when A, B, C (p=0.30) and when only A and B alleles were evaluated (p=0.59). Mother-infant HLA concordance does not affect HCV vertical transmission.

  15. Identification of a Chicken Anemia Virus Variant-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Cats in China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chicken anemia virus (CAV, is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat.

  16. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; de Jong, Arjan S; Lanke, Kjerstin H; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Melchers, Willem J G; Swanink, Caroline M A; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Netea, Mihai G; Galama, Jochem M D; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-02-25

    The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated whether this finding could be confirmed in an independent European cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analysis of a well defined cohort of patients and matched neighbourhood controls by polymerase chain reaction. Certified (ISO 15189) laboratory of clinical virology in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Population Between December 1991 and April 1992, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 76 patients and 69 matched neighbourhood controls. In this study we tested cells from 32 patients and 43 controls from whom original cryopreserved phials were still available. Detection of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV integrase gene and/or a nested polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV gag gene. We detected no XMRV sequences in any of the patients or controls in either of the assays, in which relevant positive and negative isolation controls and polymerase chain reaction controls were included. Spiking experiments showed that we were able to detect at least 10 copies of XMRV sequences per 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time as well as by nested polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating high sensitivity of both assays. This study failed to show the presence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome from a Dutch cohort. These data cast doubt on the claim that XMRV is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in the majority of patients.

  17. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Long, Yunzhu; Fan, Xuegong; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Cui; Chen, Lizhang; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a major cause of cancer death in China, is preceded by chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (LC). Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been regarded as a clear etiology of human hepatocarcinogenesis, the mechanism is still needs to be further clarified. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to identify the differential expression protein profiles between HCC and the adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Methods Eighteen cases of HBV-re...

  18. Varicella zoster virus related deaths and hospitalizations before the introduction of universal vaccination with the tetraviral vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Martino Mota

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To characterize varicella zoster virus-related deaths and hospitalizations in Brazil before universal vaccination with the tetravalent (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine, attempting to collect baseline data on varicella morbidity and mortality in order to evaluate the impact of the varicella vaccination program. Methods: Varicella-associated mortality data were evaluated between 1996 and 2011 and varicella zoster virus-associated hospitalizations between 1998 and 2013. Data were gathered from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, considering the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code B01. All age groups were assessed. Varicella-specific mortality rates were calculated and seasonality of varicella-zoster virus-associated hospitalizations was described. Results: There were 2334 varicella deaths between 1996 and 2011, 19.3% in infants aged less than 1 year and 36% in children from 1 to 4 years. In infants under 1 year, varicella mortality rates reached 3.2/100,000/year. In children aged 1–4 years, varicella mortality rates reach 1.64/100,000/year. Average annual mortality rates for varicella in Brazil are 0.88/100,000 in infants under 1 year and 0.40/100,000 in children aged 1–4 years. The total number of hospitalizations associated with varicella zoster virus was 62,246 from 2008 to 2013. Varicella-associated hospitalizations have a seasonal distribution in children, peaking in November. In the elderly, monthly averages of herpes zoster-associated hospitalizations present no significant seasonal variation. Conclusions: Varicella is associated, in the pre-vaccine period, to significant morbidity and mortality in Brazil. The universal vaccination program is expected to decrease the disease burden from varicella.

  19. Functional discrepancies in HIV-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte populations are related to plasma virus load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenius, Annetie; Sewell, Andrew K; Dawson, Sara J; Günthard, Huldrych F; Fischer, Marek; Gillespie, Geraldine M; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Fagard, Catherine; Hirschel, Bernard; Phillips, Rodney E; Price, David A

    2002-11-01

    The potent ability of current antiretroviral drug regimens to control human immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) replication, in conjunction with the clinical practice of structured therapeutic interruptions, provides a system in which virus levels are manipulated during a persistent infection in humans. Here, we exploit this system to examine the impact of variable plasma virus load (pVL) on the functionality of HIV-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte populations. Using both ELISpot methodology and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon (IFN)-gamma to assess functional status, together with fluorochrome-labeled peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class I tetramer analysis to detect the physical presence of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressing cognate T-cell receptors (TCRs), we observed that the proportion of HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes capable of mounting an effector response to antigen challenge directly ex vivo is related to the kinetics of virus exposure. Specifically, (a) after prolonged suppression of pVL with antiretroviral therapy (ART), physical and functional measures of HIV-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte frequencies approximated; and (b) the percentage of functionally responsive cells in the HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte populations declined substantially when therapy was discontinued and pVL recrudesced in the same patients. These results corroborate and extend observations in animal models that describe nonresponsive CD8+ T lymphocytes in the presence of high levels of antigen load and have implications for the interpretation of quantitative data generated by methods that rely on functional readouts.

  20. Varicella zoster virus related deaths and hospitalizations before the introduction of universal vaccination with the tetraviral vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino Mota, Alessandra; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    To characterize varicella zoster virus-related deaths and hospitalizations in Brazil before universal vaccination with the tetravalent (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine, attempting to collect baseline data on varicella morbidity and mortality in order to evaluate the impact of the varicella vaccination program. Varicella-associated mortality data were evaluated between 1996 and 2011 and varicella zoster virus-associated hospitalizations between 1998 and 2013. Data were gathered from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, considering the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code B01. All age groups were assessed. Varicella-specific mortality rates were calculated and seasonality of varicella-zoster virus-associated hospitalizations was described. There were 2334 varicella deaths between 1996 and 2011, 19.3% in infants aged less than 1 year and 36% in children from 1 to 4 years. In infants under 1 year, varicella mortality rates reached 3.2/100,000/year. In children aged 1-4 years, varicella mortality rates reach 1.64/100,000/year. Average annual mortality rates for varicella in Brazil are 0.88/100,000 in infants under 1 year and 0.40/100,000 in children aged 1-4 years. The total number of hospitalizations associated with varicella zoster virus was 62,246 from 2008 to 2013. Varicella-associated hospitalizations have a seasonal distribution in children, peaking in November. In the elderly, monthly averages of herpes zoster-associated hospitalizations present no significant seasonal variation. Varicella is associated, in the pre-vaccine period, to significant morbidity and mortality in Brazil. The universal vaccination program is expected to decrease the disease burden from varicella. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined thermotherapy and cryotherapy for efficient virus eradication: relation of virus distribution, subcellular changes, cell survival and viral RNA degradation in shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Cuellar, Wilmer J; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Hirata, Yukimasa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-03-01

    Accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. Therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. In previous studies, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. As shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues except the least differentiated cells of the apical dome. Subjecting plants to thermotherapy prior to meristem tip culture heavily reduced viral RNA2, RNA3 and the coat protein in the shoot tips, but no virus-free plants were obtained. Therefore, a novel method including thermotherapy followed by cryotherapy was developed for efficient virus eradication. Heat treatment caused subcellular alterations such as enlargement of vacuoles in the more developed, virus-infected cells, which were largely eliminated following subsequent cryotherapy. Using this protocol, 20-36% of the treated shoot tips survived, 30-40% regenerated and up to 35% of the regenerated plants were virus-free, as tested by ELISA and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Novel cellular and molecular insights into RBDV-host interactions and the factors influencing virus eradication were obtained, including invasion of shoot tips and meristematic tissues by RBDV, enhanced viral RNA degradation and increased sensitivity to freezing caused by thermotherapy, and subcellular changes and subsequent death of cells caused by cryotherapy. This novel procedure should be helpful with many virus-host combinations in which virus eradication by conventional means has proven difficult.

  2. Interorganizational Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    , and which skills and competencies they draw on in their efforts to deal with emerging cross-cultural issues in a way that paves ground for developing a shared understanding and common platform for the client and vendor representatives. A framework of boundary spanning leadership practices is adapted...

  3. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  4. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  5. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First...

  6. Performance, Career Dynamics, and Span of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Waldman, Michael; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    . In this paper we first extend the theoretical literature on the scale-of-operations effect to allow firms’ beliefs concerning a manager’s ability to evolve over the manager’s career, where much of our focus is the determinants of span of control. We then empirically investigate testable predictions from...

  7. Friendship and adaption across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartup, W.W.; Stevens, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    Friends foster self-esteem and a sense of well-being, socialize one another, and support one another in coping with developmental transitions and life stress. Friends engage in different activities with one another across the life span, but friendship is conceived similarly by children and adults.

  8. Evaluating the efficiency of shortcut span protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of various recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency with the underlying aim of reducing control plane load. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated can compared against...

  9. Eye Movements, Perceptual Span, and Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on eye movements during reading, on the perceptual span and control of eye movements during normal reading, and on the nature of eye movements in dyslexia. Rather than the cause of dyslexia, eye movements are said to reflect underlying cognitive or neurological problems. (CL)

  10. Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    optimal filters using a joint diagonalization as a basis. This gives excellent control over the performance, as we can optimize for noise reduction or signal distortion performance. Results from real data experiments show that the proposed variable span filters can achieve better performance than existing...

  11. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  12. Auditory and Visual Memory Span: Cognitive Processing by TMR Individuals with Down Syndrome or Other Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Auditory and visual memory span were examined with 13 Down Syndrome and 15 other trainable mentally retarded young adults. Although all subjects demonstrated relatively poor auditory memory span, Down Syndrome subjects were especially poor at long-term memory access for visual stimulus identification and short-term storage and processing of…

  13. Non-travel related Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 infections in the Netherlands; A case series 2004 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosman Arnold

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are considered an emerging disease in industrialized countries. In the Netherlands, Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections have been associated with travel to high-endemic countries. Non-travel related HEV of genotype 3 has been diagnosed occasionally since 2000. A high homology of HEV from humans and pigs suggests zoonotic transmission but direct molecular and epidemiological links have yet to be established. We conducted a descriptive case series to generate hypotheses about possible risk factors for non-travel related HEV infections and to map the genetic diversity of HEV. Methods A case was defined as a person with HEV infection laboratory confirmed (positive HEV RT-PCR and/or HEV IgM after 1 January 2004, without travel to a high-endemic country three months prior to onset of illness. For virus identification 148 bp of ORF2 was sequenced and compared with HEV from humans and pigs. We interviewed cases face to face using a structured questionnaire and collected information on clinical and medical history, food preferences, animal and water contact. Results We interviewed 19 cases; 17 were male, median age 50 years (25–84 y, 12 lived in the North-East of the Netherlands and 11 had preexisting disease. Most common symptoms were dark urine (n = 16 and icterus (n = 15. Sixteen ate pork ≥ once/week and six owned dogs. Two cases had received blood transfusions in the incubation period. Seventeen cases were viremic (genotype 3 HEV, two had identical HEV sequences but no identified relation. For one case, HEV with identical sequence was identified from serum and surface water nearby his home. Conclusion The results show that the modes of transmission of genotype-3 HEV infections in the Netherlands remains to be resolved and that host susceptibility may play an important role in development of disease.

  14. Non-travel related Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 infections in the Netherlands; a case series 2004 - 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Katrine; Herremans, Tineke; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; Rutjes, Saskia; Bosman, Arnold; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Koopmans, Marion

    2008-05-08

    Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are considered an emerging disease in industrialized countries. In the Netherlands, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been associated with travel to high-endemic countries. Non-travel related HEV of genotype 3 has been diagnosed occasionally since 2000. A high homology of HEV from humans and pigs suggests zoonotic transmission but direct molecular and epidemiological links have yet to be established. We conducted a descriptive case series to generate hypotheses about possible risk factors for non-travel related HEV infections and to map the genetic diversity of HEV. A case was defined as a person with HEV infection laboratory confirmed (positive HEV RT-PCR and/or HEV IgM) after 1 January 2004, without travel to a high-endemic country three months prior to onset of illness. For virus identification 148 bp of ORF2 was sequenced and compared with HEV from humans and pigs. We interviewed cases face to face using a structured questionnaire and collected information on clinical and medical history, food preferences, animal and water contact. We interviewed 19 cases; 17 were male, median age 50 years (25-84 y), 12 lived in the North-East of the Netherlands and 11 had preexisting disease. Most common symptoms were dark urine (n = 16) and icterus (n = 15). Sixteen ate pork >/= once/week and six owned dogs. Two cases had received blood transfusions in the incubation period. Seventeen cases were viremic (genotype 3 HEV), two had identical HEV sequences but no identified relation. For one case, HEV with identical sequence was identified from serum and surface water nearby his home. The results show that the modes of transmission of genotype-3 HEV infections in the Netherlands remains to be resolved and that host susceptibility may play an important role in development of disease.

  15. Risk of hepatitis-related mortality increased among hepatitis C virus/HIV-coinfected drug users compared with drug users infected only with hepatitis C virus : a 20-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; van den Berg, Charlotte; Geskus, Ronald; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Prins, Maria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progression of liver-related disease is accelerated in individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Because the life expectancy of HIV-infected drug users (DUs) improved after the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HCV-related death is likely

  16. Risk of hepatitis-related mortality increased among hepatitis C virus/HIV-coinfected drug users compared with drug users infected only with hepatitis C virus: a 20-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; van den Berg, Charlotte; Geskus, Ronald; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Prins, Maria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progression of liver-related disease is accelerated in individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Because the life expectancy of HIV-infected drug users (DUs) improved after the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HCV-related death is likely

  17. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Zoubrinetzky

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

  18. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

  19. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants’ VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  20. Respiratory-syncytial-virus- and rhinovirus-related bronchiolitis in children aged hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S P; Mukherjee, A; McAllister, T; Harvey, M J; Clayton, B A; Turner, P C

    2017-08-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization in young children. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), other viruses have been increasingly implicated. Guidance on testing has also changed. To compare clinicopathological outcomes in young children admitted with bronchiolitis due to RSV in comparison with rhinovirus (RV), and identify associated risk/epidemiological factors. Children aged less than two years admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis with positive results for either RSV or RV were included in this study. Polymerase-chain-reaction-negative cases using an extended respiratory virus panel served as a control group. Retrospective data were collected on sex, risk factors, respiratory support, intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Outcomes such as length of stay (LOS) and need for transfer to the high-dependency unit/paediatric intensive care unit were included. Two hundred and twenty-seven out of 437 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were positive for either RSV (N = 162) or RV (N = 65). The median age of cases was three months and 75% had at least one risk factor. Risk factors were higher in the RV group (P = 0.004). RV accounted for the majority of cases outside the RSV season (P < 0.01). RV-associated bronchiolitis had a longer LOS (more than seven days) (P < 0.05) and increased need for chest X-rays and/or antibiotics (P < 0.05). Use of intravenous fluids and respiratory support were higher in the RV group, but the difference was not significant. RV is the second most common pathogen associated with bronchiolitis and is isolated all year round. This may be important in those with risk factors resulting in prolonged LOS. Further research is necessary to establish the exact role of RV in this common condition, particularly outside the traditional RSV season. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses in blood, post-mortem brains and paternal gametes of autistic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impaired language, communication and social skills, as well as by repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behavior. Many autistic subjects display a dysregulation of the immune system which is compatible with an unresolved viral infection with prenatal onset, potentially due to vertical viral transmission. Recently, the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV has been implicated in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in prostate cancer by several, though not all studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed whether XMRV or other murine leukemia virus (MLV-related viruses are involved in autistic disorder. Using nested PCR targeted to gag genomic sequences, we screened DNA samples from: (i peripheral blood of 102 ASD patients and 97 controls, (ii post-mortem brain samples of 20 ASD patients and 17 sex- and age-matched controls, (iii semen samples of 11 fathers of ASD children, 25 infertile individuals and 7 fertile controls. No XMRV gag DNA sequences were detected, whereas peripheral blood samples of 3/97 (3.1% controls were positive for MLV. CONCLUSIONS| SIGNIFICANCE: No MLV-related virus was detected in blood, brain, and semen samples of ASD patients or fathers. Hence infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses is unlikely to contribute to autism pathogenesis.

  2. A New Face of Cardiac Emergencies: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabedze, Nqoba; Vachiat, Ahmed; Zachariah, Don; Manga, Pravin

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic is a major health challenge of the twenty-first century as the transition from infectious complications to noncommunicable disease becomes more evident. These patients may present to the emergency department with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, venothromboembolism, and other conditions. Increased awareness is needed among health care professionals to enhance adequate identification and promote prompt management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis C Virus-related Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: Pathogenesis, Clinica Manifestations, and New Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamberg, Neal J; Lake-Bakaar, Gerond V

    2007-09-01

    Within the past decade, it has been recognized that a majority of patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, cryoglobulin formation is clearly linked to the attempt of the host to clear the significant quantities of virions generated daily by the chronic infection. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between chronic HCV infection and the development of MC, and discusses the interaction between the immune system and HCV and how this interaction can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.

  4. Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related Castleman's disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberopoulos, Evagelos; Tolis, Christos; Bai, Mary; Efremidis, Stavros; Pavlidis, Nikolaos; Elisaf, Moses

    2003-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease is increasingly recognized as an aggressive illness with a rapidly fatal outcome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In the absence of optimal therapy, various therapeutic interventions have been tested with disappointing results; only five reports with a successful outcome have been described. Presented herein is a 66-year-old HIV-infected man with multicentric Castleman's disease. Early administration of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone resulted in prolonged clinical recovery. The relevant literature is also reviewed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Seasonal variation and age-related correlates of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae) infection in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Valerie A; Brown, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Wild birds are rarely found with active arbovirus infections, and relatively little is known about the patterns of viremia they exhibit under field conditions or how infection varies with date, bird age, or other factors that potentially affect transmission dynamics. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an arbovirus associated with colonially nesting Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and transmitted by its vector, the hematophagous swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), an ectoparasite of the Cliff Swallow. Introduced House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) that have occupied swallow nests at colony sites in peridomestic settings are also exposed to BCRV when fed upon by swallow bugs. We used data from 882 nestling House Sparrows in western Nebraska from 2006 to 2008 to examine seasonal variation and age-related correlates of virus infection in the field. Over 17% of nestling House Sparrows had active infections. Prevalence was higher in 2007 than in 2008 when birds from all colony sites were analyzed, but there was no significant difference between years for sites sampled in both seasons. Buggy Creek virus prevalence was similar in early and late summer, with a peak in midsummer, coinciding with the greatest swallow bug abundance. Nestlings 10 days of age and younger were most commonly infected, and the likelihood of BCRV infection declined for older nestlings. Average viremia titers also declined with age (but did not vary with date) and were high enough at all nestling ages to likely infect blood-feeding arthropods (swallow bugs). Length of viremia for nestlings in the field was ≥4 days, in agreement with an earlier study of BCRV. Nestling birds offer many advantages for field studies of arbovirus amplification and transmission.

  6. Association between hepatitis B virus pre-S/S gene variants and HBV-related liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Mingqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pre-S/S gene variants of hepatitis B virus (HBV cause various pathological and clinical outcomes. Occult hepatitis B, fulminant hepatitis or liver failure, HBsAg- and HBsAb-positive HBV infection, and primary liver cancer are all associated with HBV pre-S/S gene variants, which are involved in the development and progression of these HBV-related diseases. This article introduces the association between HBV pre-S/S gene variants and the development and progression of HBV-related liver diseases, reviews the results of related clinical and basic research, and emphasizes the controversial issues in current research, in order to provide clues for further studies.

  7. Fourth class of convex equilateral polyhedron with polyhedral symmetry related to fullerenes and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stan; Gayed, James Maurice

    2014-02-25

    The three known classes of convex polyhedron with equal edge lengths and polyhedral symmetry--tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral--are the 5 Platonic polyhedra, the 13 Archimedean polyhedra--including the truncated icosahedron or soccer ball--and the 2 rhombic polyhedra reported by Johannes Kepler in 1611. (Some carbon fullerenes, inorganic cages, icosahedral viruses, geodesic structures, and protein complexes resemble these fundamental shapes.) Here we add a fourth class, "Goldberg polyhedra," which are also convex and equilateral. We begin by decorating each of the triangular facets of a tetrahedron, an octahedron, or an icosahedron with the T vertices and connecting edges of a "Goldberg triangle." We obtain the unique set of internal angles in each planar face of each polyhedron by solving a system of n equations and n variables, where the equations set the dihedral angle discrepancy about different types of edge to zero, and the variables are a subset of the internal angles in 6gons. Like the faces in Kepler's rhombic polyhedra, the 6gon faces in Goldberg polyhedra are equilateral and planar but not equiangular. We show that there is just a single tetrahedral Goldberg polyhedron, a single octahedral one, and a systematic, countable infinity of icosahedral ones, one for each Goldberg triangle. Unlike carbon fullerenes and faceted viruses, the icosahedral Goldberg polyhedra are nearly spherical. The reasoning and techniques presented here will enable discovery of still more classes of convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry.

  8. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M; Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brozik, James A.; Rudolph, Angela R.; Wong, Lillian P.

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  9. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations.......This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed...

  10. Career development: a life span issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, H L; Dorsett, J G

    1994-01-01

    One of the challenges for individuals pursuing a career throughout their life span is how to maintain a high level of professional competence. As the composition of the workforce changes, and new technologies are developed, workers are faced with changing job demands and pressures. A major issue for the 1990s is how long a worker's skills will remain current. With rapid technological changes, workers may find it necessary to update continually their knowledge, skills, and abilities or risk becoming obsolete. Factors such as individuals' motivation and attitudes and organizational climate can contribute to choices regarding career development. Current research on the factors that contribute to career development activities is reviewed, along with the impact of multiple career transitions throughout the life span. Interventions such as retraining and outplacement, which allow individuals in later life to continue work, change jobs, and further develop their careers, are also discussed.

  11. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarbicki, Gniewomir [Insitute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudzicdzka 5, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  12. Primary Effusion Lymphoma Involving both Pleural and Abdominal Cavities in a Patient with Hepatitis B Virus-related Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Hsieh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, but no associated mass lesions. It is usually associated with an immunodeficient state most often with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We describe a 54-year-old man with HIV-negative PEL, with a history of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis. Both abdominal and pleural cavities were involved; no solid tumor masses were found and bone marrow investigations were normal. The ascites and pleural effusion contained numerous pleomorphic lymphoid cells. Immunophenotyping was positive for CD138. Chromosome study showed complex cytogenetics. The genomic human herpesvirus-8 was detected in the lymphoma cells. It is postulated that the immuno-suppressed state in this patient may have been caused by cirrhosis. The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy of CHOP and Picibanil (OK-432 intraperitoneal administration. However, no durable remission was achieved. Adefovir failed to halt the progressive liver failure after the development of YMDD mutant related to lamivudine. He died of sepsis and hepatic failure.

  13. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Attention Span, Anxiety and Benzodiazepine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-26

    represent a new class of nootropic druos witn a s9intricant clinical potential. 2 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT ON GRANT AFOSR-87-0364 ENTITLED "ATTENTION SPAN...acquisition and retention of novel aversively motivated goal-directed behavior. This nootropic action may be linked to the flumazenil enhanced brain...metabolism, as revealed by oxygen utilization in the rat forebrain [32]. The nootropic effect may also be linked to increased protein synthesis in the CNS, an

  15. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  16. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  17. Reading span task performance, linguistic experience, and the processing of unexpected syntactic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas A; Fine, Alex B; Misyak, Jennifer B; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-03-01

    Accounts of individual differences in online language processing ability often focus on the explanatory utility of verbal working memory, as measured by reading span tasks. Although variability in reading span task performance likely reflects individual differences in multiple underlying traits, skills, and processes, accumulating evidence suggests that reading span scores also reflect variability in the linguistic experiences of an individual. Here, through an individual differences approach, we first demonstrate that reading span scores correlate significantly with measures of the amount of experience an individual has had with written language (gauged by measures that provide "proxy estimates" of print exposure). We then explore the relationship between reading span scores and online language processing ability. Individuals with higher reading spans demonstrated greater sensitivity to violations of statistical regularities found in natural language-as evinced by higher reading times (RTs) on the disambiguating region of garden-path sentences-relative to their lower span counterparts. This result held after statistically controlling for individual differences in a non-linguistic operation span task. Taken together, these results suggest that accounts of individual differences in sentence processing can benefit from a stronger focus on experiential factors, especially when considered in relation to variability in perceptual and learning abilities that influence the amount of benefit gleaned from such experience.

  18. Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzer William M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an

  19. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  20. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hyman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world’s most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages, the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses, the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses, and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses. In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

  1. Growth differentiation factor 15 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes.

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    Youhui Si

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are commonly induced by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We aimed to identify and characterize the involvement of previously screened cytokine GDF15 in HCV pathogenesis. We examined the GDF15 expression after HCV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured JFH-1 HCV was used to determine the GDF15 function on virus propagation. GDF15 overexpression and RNA interference were employed to profile the GDF15-regulated genes, signaling pathways and cell biology phenotypes. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of GDF15 was dramatically increased in HCV-infected hepatoma cells, which maybe a host response to viral proteins or infection-induced cell stress. Patients infected with HCV had an average 15-fold higher blood GDF15 level than that of healthy volunteers. Three HCC individuals in the HCV cohort showed extremely high GDF15 concentrations. Transfection or exogenously supplied GDF15 enhanced HCV propagation, whereas knockdown of endogenous GDF15 resulted in inhibition of virus replication. Overexpressed GDF15 led to Akt activation and the phosphorylation of Akt downstream targeted GSK-3β and Raf. Several HCC-related molecules, such as E-cadherin, β-catenin, Cyclin A2/B1/D1, were up-regulated by GDF15 stimulation in vitro. Overexpression of GDF15 in hepatoma cells resulted in increased DNA synthesis, promoted cell proliferation, and importantly enhanced invasiveness of the cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that an elevated serum GDF15 level is a potential diagnostic marker for viral hepatitis, and GDF15 may contribute to HCV pathogenesis by altering the signaling and growth of host cells.

  2. Landscape elements and Hantaan virus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Fang, Li-Qun; Huang, Hua-Guo; Zhang, Long-Qi; Feng, Dan; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiao-Wen; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2007-09-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People's Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Hematologic Emergency in the Critical Care Setting

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    Neda Hashemi-Sadraei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a rare and potential life-threatening clinical syndrome that results from uncontrolled activation of the immune system. Secondary HLH, more commonly observed in adult patients, is seen in the context of underlying triggering conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been recognized as the leading infectious cause and is associated with a poor outcome. As clinical and laboratory features of HLH could overlap with septic shock syndrome in most patients, the diagnosis of HLH, especially in adults, is the most challenging aspect of the disease that results in delayed recognition and treatment of rapidly progressive multiorgan system failure. We report a case of Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient who presented with signs of septic shock syndrome and we review the literature on the topic.

  4. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodefi ciency virus infection

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    Mina Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Settings And Design: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS attending Consultation Centers. Materials And Methods: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS 21 . Results: There were significant associations between marital status of women and the level of depression (P < 0.05. However, the mean depression and anxiety in women are greater than men (P < 0.05, and the mean stress in men is greater than women (P < 0.05. Conclusions: HIV infection is related with psychiatric disorders. According to the results, women are more vulnerable to depression and anxiety and they need more care. Management of these psychiatric disorders is very important and requires innovative comprehensive approaches.

  5. T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children

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    Jorge L Trujillo-Ochoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV infection and might play a role on the modulation achieved by HAV during allergies.

  6. Investigation of span-chordwise bending anisotropy of honeybee forewings

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    JianGuo Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spanwise and chordwise bending stiffness EI of honeybee forewings were measured by a cantilevered bending test. The test results indicate that the spanwise EI of the forewing is two orders of magnitude larger than the chordwise EI. Three structural aspects result in this span-chordwise bending anisotropy: the distribution of resilin patches, the corrugation along the span and the leading edge vein of the venation. It was found that flexion lines formed by resilin patches revealed through fluorescence microscopy promoted the chordwise bending of the forewing during flapping flight. Furthermore, the corrugation of the wing and leading edge veins of the venation, revealed by micro-computed tomography, determines the relatively greater spanwise EI of the forewing. The span-chordwise anisotropy exerts positive structural and aerodynamic influences on the wing. In summary, this study potentially assists researchers in understanding the bending characteristics of insect wings and might be an important reference for the design and manufacture of bio-inspired wings for flapping micro aerial vehicles.

  7. Serum oxidative-anti-oxidative stress balance is dysregulated in patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mamoru; Takaki, Akinobu; Tamaki, Naofumi; Maruyama, Takayuki; Onishi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sayo; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Kazuko; Hagihara, Hiroaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Fusao; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with progression of chronic liver disease (CLD). This association is best established in chronic hepatitis C. However, the anti-oxidative state is not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the balance of oxidative and anti-oxidative stress in CLD patients. We recruited a study population of 208 patients, including healthy volunteers (HV; n = 15), patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related CLD without or with hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-non-HCC, n = 25, and HBV-HCC, n = 50, respectively), and patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related CLD without or with HCC (HCV-non-HCC, n = 49, and HCV-HCC, n = 69, respectively). Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and anti-oxidative markers (OXY-adsorbent test; OXY) were determined, and the balance of these values was used as the oxidative index. Correlations among ROM, OXY, oxidative index and clinical characteristics were investigated. Patients with CLD exhibited elevated ROM and oxidative index compared to HV. Among patients with CLD, HCV positive status correlated with increased ROM. In CLD, HCV-HCC patients exhibited the highest ROM levels. Among HCV-related CLD patients, lower OXY correlated with HCC positive status, but was recovered by eradication of HCC. In HCV-HCC, lower OXY correlated with high PT-INR. HCV positive CLD patients displayed higher oxidative stress and HCV-HCC patients displayed lower anti-oxidative state. Anti-oxidative state depression was associated with liver reservoir-related data in HCV-HCC and could be reversed with HCC eradication. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  8. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-03-25

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses.

  9. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S R; Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K; Hughes, P E; Baldwin, A K

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56-2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n=63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  10. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  11. Oral ulcers in children under chemotherapy: clinical characteristics and their relation with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ester; Brethauer, Ursula; Rojas, Jaime; Fernández, Eduardo; Le Fort, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of oral ulcers in pediatric oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and their relation with the presence of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 and Candida albicans. The sample consisted of 20 ulcerative lesions from 15 children treated with chemotherapy in the Pediatric Service of the Regional Hospital of Concepción, Chile. Two calibrated clinicians performed clinical diagnosis of the ulcers and registered general data from the patients (age, general diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, and number of days after chemotherapy) and clinical characteristic of the ulcers: number, size, location, presence or absence of pain and inflammatory halo, edge characteristics, and exudate type. Additional to clinical diagnosis, culture for Candida albicans (C) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 was performed. Ten ulcers occurred in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, five in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia and five in patients with other neoplastic diseases. Eight ulcers were HSV (+) / C (-), 6 HSV (-) / C (-), 4 HSV (+) / C (+) and 2 HSV (-) / C (+). Preferential location was the hard palate. Most lesions were multiple, painful, with inflammatory halo, irregular edges and fibrinous exudate. The average size was 6,5 millimeters, and the mean number of days after chemotherapy was 7.5 days. Oral ulcers in children with oncological diseases did not present a specific clinical pattern. They were strongly associated with HSV.

  12. Differential Expression of Apoptosis Related Genes in Selected Strains of Aedes aegypti with Different Susceptibilities to Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Clara B.; Caicedo, Paola A.; Jaramillo, Gloria; Ursic Bedoya, Raul; Baron, Olga; Serrato, Idalba M.; Cooper, Dawn M.; Lowenberger, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of Dengue viruses worldwide. We identified field collected insects with differential susceptibility to Dengue-2 virus (DENv-2) and used isofemale selection to establish susceptible and refractory strains based on midgut infection barriers. Previous experiments had identified higher expression of apoptosis-related genes in the refractory strain. To identify potential molecular mechanisms associated with DENv susceptibility, we evaluated the differential expression of Caspase-16, Aedronc, Aedredd, Inhibitor of apoptosis (AeIAP1) and one member of the RNAi pathway, Argonaute-2 in the midguts and fat body tissues of the selected strains at specific times post blood feeding or infection with DENv-2. In the refractory strain there was significantly increased expression of caspases in midgut and fatbody tissues in the presence of DENv-2, compared to exposure to blood alone, and significantly higher caspase expression in the refractory strain compared with the susceptible strain at timepoints when DENv was establishing in these tissues. We used RNAi to knockdown gene expression; knockdown of AeIAP1 was lethal to the insects. In the refractory strain, knockdown of the pro-apoptotic gene Aedronc increased the susceptibility of refractory insects to DENv-2 from 53% to 78% suggesting a contributing role of this gene in the innate immune response of the refractory strain. PMID:23593426

  13. Mechanisms underlying Cowpea mosaic virus systemic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Silva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic virus infection of plants involves; intracellular<span lang=EN-GB>replication, cell-to-cell movement within the inoculated leaf, and subsequently, long-distance spread to other plant parts via the vasculature (vascular movement).<span style='color:maroon'>Cell-to-cell movement

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

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    Maria Takacs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma. The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B. In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2. The 5’ and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There are EBNA1 binding sites in the human genome. Because high affinity binding of EBNA1 to its recognition sites is known to specify sites of DNA

  15. Spanning the Home/Work Creative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome; Hoisl, Karin

    the employee brings to work. Based on Woodman et al.’s (1993) “interactionist perspective” on organizational creativity, supplemented by literature on search and knowledge re/combination, we explore whether and how leisure time activities can span the creative space between the employee’s home and workplace...... – given the range of multi-level inputs that may also contribute to workplace creativity. We use original survey data comprising 4,138 inventions from 21 European countries, the United States and Japan, in all major industries. Organizational creativity is measured by the asset value of the patent...

  16. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol

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    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

  17. Emotional Egocentricity Bias across the life-span

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    Federica eRiva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB, has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of EEB. Results highlighted a U-shaped relation between age and EEB, revealing higher emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG. This is an area that reaches full maturation only by the end of adolescence, and displays an early decay in older age. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  18. Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Ståhl, Karl; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2012-02-01

    Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were seropositive to JEV and the Odds Ratio for a sow being infected was highest (6.4) in sows above 3.5 years (95% confidence interval 2.2-18.3). There was an association between increasing Optical Density (OD) values from the ELISA and the number of stillborn piglets in sows less than 1.5 years, but no effect of seropositivity could be shown when all sows were studied. OD values had an effect (p = 0.04) on the number of piglets born alive in the statistical analysis only when interacting with the effect of the breeds. An increase in mean OD value of the herd was correlated (p immunity in many gilts before their first pregnancy. This, in turn, may imply that JEV infection in pigs is of minor importance for the reproductive performance in endemic areas.

  19. Interleukin-10 and Interferon Gamma Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatitis C Virus-Related Liver Cirrhosis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneef, Abeer; Esmat, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Asmaa N; Mahmoud, Aida A; Moghazy, Hoda M; Noureldin, Amal K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the gene polymorphisms in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) genes with susceptibility and severity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian patients. Interleukin-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A and IFN-γ +874 T/A genotypes were determined in 100 chronic HCV patients and 50 healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) respectively. IL-10 -592 A/C polymorphism genotyping revealed that the frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than in controls (58% versus 30%, P IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism genotyping, a higher frequency of GG genotype was found in chronic HCV patients compared to controls (31% versus 10%, P IL-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A, and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms had a strong association with susceptibility to HCV infection. However, no significant association was observed between the cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) genotypes profile and HCV-liver cirrhosis risk in the studied population, except for the high frequency of IFN-γ +874 T allele in cirrhotic patients.

  20. The Role of Fear-Related Behaviors in the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Cooper, Janice L.; Baingana, Florence; Oquendo, Maria A.; Espinel, Zelde; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Towers, Sherry; Espinola, Maria; McCoy, Clyde B.; Mazurik, Laurie; Wainberg, Milton L.; Neria, Yuval; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease pandemic was the largest, longest, deadliest, and most geographically expansive outbreak in the 40-year interval since Ebola was first identified. Fear-related behaviors played an important role in shaping the outbreak. Fear-related behaviors are defined as “individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. FRBs modify the future risk of harm.” This review examines how fear-related behaviors were implicated in (1) accelerating the spread of Ebola, (2) impeding the utilization of life-saving Ebola treatment, (3) curtailing the availability of medical services for treatable conditions, (4) increasing the risks for new-onset psychological distress and psychiatric disorders, and (5) amplifying the downstream cascades of social problems. Fear-related behaviors are identified for each of these outcomes. Particularly notable are behaviors such as treating Ebola patients in home or private clinic settings, the “laying of hands” on Ebola-infected individuals to perform faith-based healing, observing hands-on funeral and burial customs, foregoing available life-saving treatment, and stigmatizing Ebola survivors and health professionals. Future directions include modeling the onset, operation, and perpetuation of fear-related behaviors and devising strategies to redirect behavioral responses to mass threats in a manner that reduces risks and promotes resilience. PMID:27739026

  1. Absence of XMRV and closely related viruses in primary prostate cancer tissues used to derive the XMRV-infected cell line 22Rv1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Das Gupta

    Full Text Available The 22Rv1 cell line is widely used for prostate cancer research and other studies throughout the world. These cells were established from a human prostate tumor, CWR22, that was serially passaged in nude mice and selected for androgen independence. The 22Rv1 cells are known to produce high titers of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV. Recent studies suggested that XMRV was inadvertently created in the 1990's when two murine leukemia virus (MLV genomes (pre-XMRV1 and pre-XMRV-2 recombined during passaging of the CWR22 tumor in mice. The conclusion that XMRV originated from mice and not the patient was based partly on the failure to detect XMRV in early CWR22 xenografts. While that deduction is certainly justified, we examined the possibility that a closely related virus could have been present in primary tumor tissue. Here we report that we have located the original prostate tumor tissue excised from patient CWR22 and have assayed the corresponding DNA by PCR and the tissue sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the presence of XMRV or a similar virus. The primary tumor tissues lacked mouse DNA as determined by PCR for intracisternal A type particle DNA, thus avoiding one of the limitations of studying xenografts. We show that neither XMRV nor a closely related virus was present in primary prostate tissue of patient CWR22. Our findings confirm and reinforce the conclusion that XMRV is a recombinant laboratory-generated mouse virus that is highly adapted for human prostate cancer cells.

  2. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mina; Behboodi, Zahra M; Saadat, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS21 ). There were significant associations between marital status of women and the level of depression (P women are greater than men (P stress in men is greater than women (P women are more vulnerable to depression and anxiety and they need more care. Management of these psychiatric disorders is very important and requires innovative comprehensive approaches.

  3. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Regulation, Functions, and Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Qiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. Hepatitis B virus (HBV and its X gene-encoded protein (HBx play important roles in the progression of HCC. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs cannot encode proteins, growing evidence indicates that they play essential roles in HCC progression, and contribute to cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, autophagy, and apoptosis by targeting a large number of pivotal protein-coding genes, miRNAs, and signaling pathways. In this review, we briefly outline recent findings of differentially expressed lncRNAs in HBV-related HCC, with particular focus on several key lncRNAs, and discuss their regulation by HBV/HBx, their functions, and their underlying molecular mechanisms in the progression of HCC.

  4. Serological evaluation of possible exposure to Ljungan virus and related parechovirus in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A-L; Vaziri-Sani, F; Broberg, P; Elfaitouri, A; Pipkorn, R; Blomberg, J; Ivarsson, S-A; Elding Larsson, H; Lernmark, Å

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) is implicated in the risk of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes but possible contribution by other parechoviruses is not ruled out. The aim was to compare children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2005-2011 (n = 69) with healthy controls (n = 294), all from the Jämtland County in Sweden, using an exploratory suspension multiplex immunoassay for IgM and IgG against 26 peptides of LV, human parechoviruses (HPeV), Aichi virus and poliovirus in relation to a radiobinding assay (RBA) for antibodies against LV and InfluenzaA/H1N1pdm09. Islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ genotypes were also determined. 1) All five LV-peptide antibodies correlated to each other (P RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with young age at diagnosis (P RBA LV antibodies (P = 0.009); 5) HPeV3-peptide-IgM and -IgG showed inter-peptide correlations (P RBA LV antibodies without relation to insulin autoantibody positivity (P = 0.072 and P = 0.486, respectively). Both exploratory suspension multiplex IgG to LV-peptide VP1_31-60 and RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with insulin autoantibodies and HLA-DQ8 suggesting possible role in type 1 diabetes. It remains to be determined if cross-reactivity or concomitant exposure to LV and HPeV3 contributes to the seroprevalence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Primary liver cancer deaths and related years of life lost attributable to hepatitis B and C viruses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Dikshit, Rajesh; Mallath, Mohandas K; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-02-01

    More than 25,000 people die of liver cancer annually in India. There is little information about the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to these deaths. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on HBV or HCV infection and liver cancer in India and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of liver cancer deaths caused by these infections and the corresponding annual number of deaths and years of life lost (YLL) in the country. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, as well as the reference list of relevant articles in the systematic review. For calculation of the number of liver cancer deaths attributable to HBV and HCV, we used two sources of outcome data and two relative risks for the association between HCV and liver cancer. The PAF was 67% for HBV, 17-19% for HCV, and 71-72% for HBV and/or HCV. The annual attributable number of liver cancer deaths was approximately 17,000 for HBV; 4500 for HCV; and 18,500 for HBV and/or HCV, corresponding to approximately 297,000, 75,000, and 315,000 YLL, respectively. There was little difference in these numbers using the two sources of outcome data or the two risk estimates for HCV. Our findings underscore the importance of primary prevention of HBV and HCV by appropriate measures, including vaccination (HBV only), prevention of transfusion-related infections, and increased awareness of the routes of transmission and long-term health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fu-Liang; Yu, Yin-Hang; Tian, Hui; Ren, Gui-Ping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Bing; Han, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Qing-Zhong; Li, De-Shan

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals' survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system.

  7. Comovements in government bond markets: A minimum spanning tree analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Claire G.; Lucey, Brian M.; Boscia, Marian W.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of a minimum spanning tree (MST) is used to study patterns of comovements for a set of twenty government bond market indices for developed North American, European, and Asian countries. We show how the MST and its related hierarchical tree evolve over time and describe the dynamic development of market linkages. Over the sample period, 1993-2008, linkages between markets have decreased somewhat. However, a subset of European Union (EU) bond markets does show increasing levels of comovements. The evolution of distinct groups within the Eurozone is also examined. The implications of our findings for portfolio diversification benefits are outlined.

  8. Progressive collapse susceptibility of a long span suspension bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmati, Pierluigi; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    should be maintained in case of an accidental hanger detachment. Local damages in bridges, which are characterized by an horizontal load transfer system, may progress along the deck or along the suspension system, as the dynamic overloading of the structural elements immediately adjacent to the failed...... ones may lead to subsequent failures. In suspension bridges, which are characterized by a relatively low continuity of the system, the damage of the deck may favor a collapse standstill, in case of an early detachment of the deck collapsing section. In the paper, a long span suspension bridge is taken...

  9. Association of vitamin D deficiency with hepatitis B virus - related liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Nghiem Xuan; Khuyen, Nguyen; Binh, Mai Thanh; Giang, Dao Phuong; Van Tong, Hoang; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Trung, Ngo Tat; Anh, Do Tuan; Toan, Nguyen Linh; Meyer, Christian G; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Song, Le Huu

    2016-09-23

    As an immune modulator, vitamin D is involved in various pathophysiological mechanisms in a plethora of diseases. This study aims to correlate the vitamin D deficiency status and clinical progression of liver diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients in Vietnam and to compare it to healthy controls. We quantified the levels of total vitamin D [25-(OH) D2 and D3] in serum samples from 400 HBV patients (chronic hepatitis B infection [CHB], n = 165; HBV-associated liver cirrhosis [LC], n = 127; HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], n = 108) and 122 unrelated healthy controls (HC). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine the association between vitamin D levels and distinct clinical parameters. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (Vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D levels and HBV-DNA load were strongly and inversely correlated (rho = -0.57, P vitamin D levels (P = 0.0004). In addition, reduced vitamin D levels were associated with significant clinical progression of LC (Child-Pugh C versus Child-Pugh A, P = 0.0018; Child-Pugh C versus Child-Pugh B, P = 0.016). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of HBV-infected patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that substitution of vitamin D may be a supportive option in the treatment of chronic liver diseases, in particular of HBV-associated disorders.

  10. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  11. Expression pattern of NLRP3 and its related cytokines in the lung and brain of avian influenza virus H9N2 infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meng; Zhang, Kaizhao; Qi, Wenbao; Huang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Jinhui; Ma, Yongjiang; Liao, Ming; Ning, Zhangyong

    2014-12-30

    H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) becomes the focus for its ability of transmission to mammals and as a donor to provide internal genes to form the new epidemic lethal influenza viruses. Residue 627 in PB2 has been proven the virulence factor of H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice, but the detailed data for inflammation difference between H9N2 virus strains with site 627 mutation is still unclear. The inflammasome NLRP3 is recently reported as the cellular machinery responsible for activation of inflammatory processes and plays an important role during the development of inflammation caused by influenza virus infection. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of NLRP3 and its related cytokines of IL-1β and TNF-α in BALB/c mice infected by H9N2 AIV strains with only a site 627 difference at both mRNA and protein levels at different time points. The results showed that the expression level of NLRP3, IL-1β and TNF-α changed in the lung and brain of BALB/c mice after infection by VK627 and rVK627E. The immunohistological results showed that the positive cells of NLRP3, IL-1β and TNF-α altered the positive levels of original cells in tissues and infiltrated inflammatory cells which caused by H9N2 infection. Our results provided the basic data at differences in expression pattern of NLRP3 and its related cytokines in BALB/c mice infected by H9N2 influenza viruses with only a site 627 difference. This implied that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in host response to influenza virus infection and determines the outcome of clinical manifestation and pathological injury. This will explain the variable of pathological presentation in tissues and enhance research on inflammation process of the AIV H9N2 infection.

  12. Genomics of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent noncancerous tissues with cDNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-kun; Fan, Xue-gong; Qiu, Fu; Wang, Zhi-ming

    2011-07-05

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common primary cancer frequently associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, whether these identified genes are particularly associated with HBV-related HCC remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential gene expression between HBV-related HCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. cDNA microarray was used to detect the differential gene expression profile in the HBV-related HCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to verify the differential expression of candidate genes obtained from cDNA microarray experiment. In this study, 1369 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) including 121 genes or ESTs with at least two-fold expression alterations between cancerous and noncancerous tissues were identified. Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB-1) expression was positive in 73% (16/22) of cancerous tissues and negative (0/22) in all noncancerous tissues of HBV-related HCC patients. Transmembrane 4 superfamily member 1 (TM4SF-1) expression was positive in 86% (19/22) of cancerous tissues and negative (0/22) in all noncancerous tissues. Suppression of tumorigenicity 14 (ST-14) expression was positive in 73% (16/22) of noncancerous tissues in patients with HBV-related HCC and negative in all HCC tissues (0/22). This study provided the gene expression profile of HBV-related HCC and presented differential expression patterns of SATB-1, TM4SF-1 and ST-14 between cancerous and noncancerous tissues in patients with HBV-related HCC.

  13. A method for simultaneous detection and identification of Brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hirano, Shinji; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-09-01

    At present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in Brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. Vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the RT-LAMP reaction using the restriction enzyme AlwI. Amplification and digestion could both be completed within 120 min after RNA extraction. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay also detected rabies virus in isolates from Brazilian frugivorous bats and Ugandan dog, bovine and goat samples. In contrast, there were false negative results from several Brazilian insectivorous bats and all of Chinese dog, pig, and bovine samples using the RT-LAMP assay. This study showed that the RT-LAMP assay is effective for the rapid detection of rabies virus isolates from the primary reservoir in Brazil. Further improvements are necessary so that the RT-LAMP assay can be employed for the universal detection of genetic variants of rabies virus in the field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deterioration of eggshell quality is related to calbindin in laying hens infected with velogenic genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqiao; Qi, Xuefeng; Han, Xueying; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ruichun; Wang, Jingyu; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens were inoculated with the velogenic genotype VIId NDV strain (infected group) or with inoculating media without virus (control group) by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The levels of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression in the uterus, a gene related to eggshell quality, were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The quality of eggshells was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The infected group showed a marked decline in egg production when compared to the control group. The NDV antigen was found more abundantly in the glandular epithelium of the infected hens' uteri from 1 to 15 d post-inoculation (dpi). The levels of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression in the uteri of infected hens were significantly lower than in the control hens from 3 to 15 dpi (P < 0.05). The changes in the Ca concentrations in the eggshells were consistent with the expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the infected hens. Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly reduced shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 15 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens compared with the control hens. In conclusion, the current study confirmed that velogenic genotype VIId NDV infection is associated with the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Increased expression of Interleukin-6 related to nephritis in chickens challenged with an Avian infectious bronchitis virus variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe S. Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian field isolate (IBV/Brazil/PR05 of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, associated with development of nephritis in chickens, was previously genotyped as IBV variant after S1 gene sequencing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of IL-6 in kidneys and trachea of birds vaccinated and challenged with IBV/Brazil/PR05 strain, correlating these results with scores of microscopic lesions, specific IBV antigen detection and viral load. The up-regulation of IL-6 and the increased levels of viral load on renal and tracheal samples were significantly correlated with scores of microscopic lesions. Reduced levels of viral load were detected in kidneys of birds previously vaccinated and challenged, compared to non-vaccinated challenged group, although markedly microscopic lesions were observed for both groups. The expression of IL-6, present both in the kidney and in the tracheas, was dependent on the load of the virus present in the tissue, and the development of lesions was related with IL-6 present in the tissues. These data suggest that variant IBV/Brazil/PR05 can induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a manner correlated with viral load and increased IL-6 is involved in the tissue with the influx of inflammatory cells and subsequent nephritis. This may contribute with a model to the development of immunosuppressive agents of IL-6 to prevent acute inflammatory processes against infection with IBV and perhaps other coronaviruses, as well as contribute to the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of IBV nephropatogenic strains.

  16. Hepatitis B virus related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: A multicentre open label study from the Gruppo Italiano di Studio delle Crioglobulinemie - GISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Cesare; Dal Maso, Luigino; Urraro, Teresa; Mauro, Endri; Castelnovo, Laura; Casarin, Pietro; Monti, Giuseppe; Gattei, Valter; Zignego, Anna Linda; Pozzato, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) related to Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) is rare and its treatment is ill-defined. To describe clinical and treatment characteristics of HBV-related CV patients. In addition, the efficacy of treatment with antiviral agent nucleotide (NUC), including Entecavir, Adefovir, and Lamivudine, was explored. In four Italian centres, 17 HBV-positive CV patients (median age 56 years, range 45-70) were enrolled. The extrahepatic manifestations were: purpura (100%), arthralgias (71%), peripheral neuropathy (29%), chronic hepatitis (47%), liver cirrhosis (29%), and glomerulonephritis (18%). Mixed cryoglobulinemias were type II (88%) and type III (12%). The median cryocrit was 3% (range 1-14), rheumatoid factor was 200U/L (range 20-5850), C4 was 12mg/dl (range 2-31), ALT 71U/L (range 36-114). All patients were HBsAg-positive and 80% anti-HbeAg-positive. At enrollment, they were treated with steroids (eight), Entecavir (five), Alpha-IFN (two), Adefovir and Lamivudine (one each). After NUC treatment, no disease progression was observed and, in all patients, HBV-DNA became undetectable. Moreover, a regression of purpura and a reduction of cryocrit were observed. Four patients died during therapy, two of kidney failure and two of liver cirrhosis. NUC therapy appeared to be safe and effective in CV-related HBV. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus related acute lower respiratory tract infection among hospitalized newborns: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Akduman, Hasan; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Tunc, Turan; Gokmen, Zeynel; Ates, Can; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) including morbidity, nosocomial infection and mortality among newborn infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in newborns who were hospitalized with community acquired or nosocomial RSV infection in 44 NICUs throughout Turkey. Newborns with ALRI were screened for RSV infection by Respi-Strip®-test. Main outcome measures were the incidence of RSV-associated admissions in the NICUs and morbidity, mortality and epidemics results related to these admissions. The incidence of RSV infection was 1.24% (n: 250) and RSV infection constituted 19.6% of all ALRI hospitalizations, 226 newborns (90.4%) had community-acquired whereas 24 (9.6%) patients had nosocomial RSV infection in the NICUs. Of the 250 newborns, 171 (68.4%) were full-term infants, 183 (73.2%) had a BW >2500 g. RSV-related mortality rate was 1.2%. Four NICUs reported seven outbreaks on different months, which could be eliminated by palivizumab prophylaxis in one NICU. RSV-associated ALRI both in preterm and term infants accounts an important percent of hospitalizations in the season, and may threat other high-risk patients in the NICU.

  18. [Knowledge and preventive behaviors related to cervical cancer and human papiloma virus in a group of Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, M Teresa; Concha, Ximena; Riquelme, Giselle; Padilla, Oslando

    2012-12-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection in young people and recognized as the most important risk factor for cervical cancer (CC). To describe the degree of knowledge that a group of Chilean teenagers have of HPV infection, CC, and its relationship with preventive behavior. This is an analytical study, with a random sample of 226 adolescents from three public schools of the Metropolitan Region in Santiago. A fifth of the interviewed students did not know there was a HPV vaccine. Multiple sexual partners was indicated as a risk factor of CC by 70.8% and of HPV infection by 78.3% of them; while 60.3% identified inheritance as a risk factor. HPV transmission through unprotected sexual relations was identified by 68.2% of the sample. Of sexually active adolescents, condom use during sexual relations was reported by 31.1%. The adolescents who use condoms significantly have more knowledge regarding the number of sexual partners and age of first sexual intercourse as a risk factor for CC. adolescents know about HPV transmission, however, the preventing conducts are not related to this information.

  19. Diferença entre span verbal e visual nos gêneros: estudo piloto Difference between verbal and visual span in genders: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Pedrassa Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a memória de trabalho analisando a capacidade de retenção de estímulos auditivos (span verbal e visuais (span visual e estabelecer a relação com o gênero (masculino e feminino. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 20 crianças entre seis anos e cinco meses e sete anos, sendo 10 sujeitos do sexo masculino e 10 sujeitos do sexo feminino. Todos os sujeitos foram submetidos às provas de avaliação do span verbal e visual em ordem direta e inversa. RESULTADOS: apenas na prova de palavras dissílabas com fonologia semelhante e semântica diferente do span verbal, houve variância significante entre os gêneros. As crianças do sexo feminino apresentaram melhor desempenho em relação ao outro gênero, bem como maior capacidade de retenção de palavras dissílabas com fonologia e semântica diferentes. No span visual (ordem direta e inversa as crianças do sexo masculino obtiveram melhor desempenho, apesar de não ter diferenças significantes. Em relação à idade não houve diferença de retenção de estímulos. CONCLUSÃO: as crianças do sexo feminino, neste estudo, apresentaram tendência à melhor desempenho do span verbal e as crianças do sexo masculino tendência a melhor desempenho no span visual. No entanto, o estudo é limitado devido ao reduzido número de participantes na amostra.PURPOSE: to evaluate the working memory analyzing the retention ability of auditory stimuli (verbal span and visual stimuli (visual span, and to establish its relation to gender (male and female. METHOD: 20 subjects - 10 female children and 10 male children - from six and five months to seven years old took part in this study. All subjects were submitted to evaluation tests for both verbal and visual spans in direct and inverse orders. RESULTS: there was a significant variance between genders only in the test involving disyllabic words with phonology similar to and semantics different from verbal span. Female children showed a better

  20. Validation of the human odor span task: effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, David A; Drobes, David J

    2017-10-01

    Amongst non-smokers, nicotine generally enhances performance on tasks of attention, with limited effect on working memory. In contrast, nicotine has been shown to produce robust enhancements of working memory in non-humans. To address this gap, the present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the performance of non-smokers on a cognitive battery which included a working memory task reverse-translated from use with rodents (the odor span task, OST). Nicotine has been reported to enhance OST performance in rats and the present study assessed whether this effect generalizes to human performance. Thirty non-smokers were tested on three occasions after consuming either placebo, 2 mg, or 4 mg nicotine gum. On each occasion, participants completed a battery of clinical and experimental tasks of working memory and attention. Nicotine was associated with dose-dependent enhancements in sustained attention, as evidenced by increased hit accuracy on the rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task. However, nicotine failed to produce main effects on OST performance or on alternative measures of working memory (digit span, spatial span, letter-number sequencing, 2-back) or attention (digits forward, 0-back). Interestingly, enhancement of RVIP performance occurred concomitant to significant reductions in self-reported attention/concentration. Human OST performance was significantly related to N-back performance, and as in rodents, OST accuracy declined with increasing memory load. Given the similarity of human and rodent OST performance under baseline conditions and the strong association between OST and visual 0-back accuracy, the OST may be particular useful in the study of conditions characterized by inattention.

  1. The eye-voice span during reading aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eLaubrock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

  2. A serological survey of antibodies to H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses amongst the duck-related workers in Beijing, China.

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    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available The continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in birds and the subsequent infections in humans pose an ongoing pandemic threat. It has been proposed that poultry workers are at higher risk of exposure to HPAI or LPAI viruses and subsequently infection due to their repeated exposure to chickens or domestic waterfowl. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 viruses amongst duck-related workers in Beijing, China and the risk factors associated with seropositivity. In March, 2011, 1741 participants were recruited from (1 commercial duck-breeding farms; (2 private duck-breeding farms; and (3 duck-slaughtering farms. Local villagers who bred ducks in their backyards were also recruited. A survey was administered by face-to-face interview, and blood samples were collected from subjects for antibody testing against H5, H7 and H9 viruses. We found that none of the subjects were seropositive for either H5 or H7 viruses, and only 0.7% (12/1741 had antibody against H9. A statistically significant difference in H9 antibody seroprevalence existed between the various categories of workers (P = 0.005, with the highest figures recorded amongst the villagers (1.7%. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity toinfection with H9 virus included less frequent disinfection of worksite (OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.07-24.58]; P = 0.041; ≤ twice monthly versus>twice monthly and handling ducks with wounds on hands (OR, 4.13 [95% CI, 1.26-13.57]; P = 0.019. Whilst the risk of infection with H5, H7 and H9 viruses appears to be low among duck-related workers in Beijing, China, ongoing monitoring of infection with the H9 virus is still warranted, especially amongst villagers who breed backyard ducks to monitor for any changes.

  3. Identification of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and a closely-related potyvirus isolate in plants of Allium carinatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of varieties and species of ornamental Allium revealed the presence of multiple viruses, including potyviruses, carlaviruses, and allexiviruses. Most of these viruses have been previously identified in A. sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), A. porrum (synonym A. ampeloprasum var. porrum; lee...

  4. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumors in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Šterbenc, Anja; Lunar, Maja M

    2017-10-20

    In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men. Expert commentary: HPV-related cancer incidence has not declined (e.g. cervical cancer) and has even increased (e.g. anal cancer) in the ART era, demanding an effective HPV prevention strategy. HPV vaccination should be introduced into national prevention programs worldwide immediately because current prophylactic vaccines are safe, tolerable, and immunogenic in PLWH. HPV vaccine efficacy trials in PLWH are essential to determine the most appropriate immunization schedule. The population most at risk of anal cancer is HIV-positive men who have sex with men, who are not protected by herd immunity if only the female population is vaccinated. Unvaccinated PLWH need enhanced surveillance for early detection of HPV-related cancers and their precursors.

  6. Cytokine Profiles of Severe Influenza Virus-Related Complications in Children

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    Andrew Fiore-Gartland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RationaleEffective immunomodulatory therapies for children with life-threatening “cytokine storm” triggered by acute influenza infection are lacking. Understanding the immune profiles of children progressing to severe lung injury and/or septic shock could provide insight into pathogenesis.ObjectivesTo compare the endotracheal and serum cytokine profiles of children with influenza-related critical illness and to identify their associations with severe influenza-associated complications.MethodsChildren with influenza-related critical illness were enrolled across 32 hospitals in development (N = 171 and validation (N = 73 cohorts (December 2008 through May 2016. Concentrations of 42 cytokines were measured in serum and endotracheal samples and clustered into modules of covarying cytokines. Relative concentrations of cytokines and cytokine modules were tested for associations with acute lung injury (ALI, shock requiring vasopressors, and death/ECMO.Measurements and main resultsModules of covarying cytokines were more significantly associated with disease severity than individual cytokines. In the development cohort, increased levels of a serum module containing IL6, IL8, IL10, IP10, GCSF, MCP1, and MIP1α [shock odds ratio (OR = 3.37, family-wise error rate (FWER p < 10−4], and decreased levels of a module containing EGF, FGF2, SCD40L, and PAI-1 (shock OR = 0.43, FWER p = 0.002, were both associated with ALI, shock, and death-ECMO independent of age and bacterial coinfection. Both of these associations were confirmed in the validation cohort. Endotracheal and serum cytokine associations differed markedly and were differentially associated with clinical outcomes.ConclusionWe identified strong positive and negative associations of cytokine modules with the most severe influenza-related complications in children, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of influenza-related critical illness in children. Effective

  7. Diagnostic Value of the Methylation of Multiple Gene Promoters in Serum in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Xueyan Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of the methylation of multiple gene promoters in serum in hepatitis B virus- (HBV- related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. A total of 343 participants were enrolled, including 98 patients with HCC, 75 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC, 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and 80 healthy individuals. RASSF1A, APC, BVES, TIMP3, GSTP1, and HOXA9 were selected as the candidate genes. The MethyLight method was used to assay promoter methylation statuses. The diagnostic performances of markers were assessed by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. The prevalences of methylation for RASSF1A, APC, BVES, HOXA9, GSTP1, and TIMP3 were 52.04%, 36.73%, 29.59%, 20.41%, 17.35%, and 11.22%, respectively. APC methylation completely overlapped with RASSF1A methylation. The area under the curve (AUC for RASSF1A methylation (0.718 was better than the corresponding AUC for AFP (0.609 in distinguishing HCC from CHB. When RASSF1A, BVES, HOXA9, and AFP were combined, the AUC was 0.852 (95% CI = 0.796–0.908, P=0.028, and the sensitivity and specificity were 83.7% and 78.9%, respectively. In conclusion, an assay that combines methylation of the RASSF1A, BVES, and HOXA9 gene promoters in serum and AFP could significantly improve HBV-related HCC diagnoses.

  8. Newcastle disease virus NP and P proteins induce autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Hua; Sun, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Fan-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Qiu, Xv-Sheng; Yu, Li-Ping; Wu, Yan-Tao; Ding, Chan

    2016-04-21

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can replicate and trigger autophagy in human tumor cells. Our previous study confirmed the critical role of autophagy in NDV infection. Here we studied the role of NDV structural proteins in the induction of autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Ectopic expression of the NDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) or phosphoprotein (P) was sufficient to induce autophagy. NP or P expression also altered ER homeostasis. The PERK and ATF6 pathways, but not the XBP1 pathway, all of which are components of the UPR, were activated in both NDV-infected and NP or P-transfected cells. Knockdown of PERK or ATF6 inhibited NDV-induced autophagy and reduced the extent of NDV replication. Collectively, these data suggest not only roles for the NDV NP and P proteins in autophagy, but also offer new insights into the mechanisms of NDV-induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.

  9. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-related thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tarkan; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Degertekin, Bulent; Dogan, Ibrahim; Sancak, Alper; Dumlu, Sukru; Gorgul, Ahmet; Unal, Selahattin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Isolated thrombocytopenia is a common manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There is no established treatment modality for this condition. The efficacy of standard interferon (IFN) monotherapy has been reported in some studies. The major disadvantage of this treatment is the high rate of recurrence due to viral breakthrough during the first 12 weeks of treatment. Pegylated IFNs are now the standard regimen for chronic hepatic disease due to HCV infection. However, due to a lack of evidence, pegylated IFNs are not widely used for HCV-related isolated thrombocytopenia. Objective: The aim of this report was to present the case of a male patientwith severe symptomatic thrombocytopenia due to HCV infection. Methods: Thrombocytopenia was treated with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin. Results: Although standard IFN monotherapy failed to achieve virologic and hematologic improvement, therapy with pegylated IFN alfa-2a plus ribavirin was associated with both virologic and hematologic improvement without any significant adverse effects. Conclusions: Pegylated IFN plus ribavirin was effective in this patient for thetreatment of HCV-related thrombocytopenia. However, further research is needed to define the response rate in different patient populations. PMID:24764593

  10. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiku, Shemsedin; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Brovina, Ahmet; Kryeziu, Emrush; Rrudhani, Ibrahim; Meqa, Kastriot; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije; Merz, Hartmut

    2012-09-11

    Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4), and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients.

  11. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiku Shemsedin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4, and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients.

  12. When the eyes no longer lead: Familiarity and length effects on Eye-Voice Span

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    Susana Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During oral reading, the eyes tend to be ahead of the voice (eye-voice span. It has been hypothesized that the extent to which this happens depends on the automaticity of reading processes, namely on the speed of print-to-sound conversion. We tested whether EVS is affected by another automaticity component - immunity from interference. To that end, we manipulated word familiarity (high-frequency, low-frequency and pseudowords and word length as proxies of immunity from interference, and we used linear mixed effects models to measure the effects of both variables on the time interval at which readers do parallel processing by gazing at word N+1 while not having articulated word N yet (offset eye-voice span. Parallel processing was enhanced by automaticity, as shown by familiarity x length interactions on offset eye-voice span, and it was impeded by lack of automaticity, as shown by the transformation of offset eye-voice span into voice-eye span (voice ahead of the offset of the eyes in pseudowords. The relation between parallel processing and automaticity was strengthened by the fact that offset eye-voice span predicted reading velocity. Our findings contribute to understand how the offset eye-voice span, an index that is obtained in oral reading, may tap into different components of automaticity that underlie reading ability, oral or silent. In addition, we compared the duration of the offset eye-voice span with the average reference duration of stages in word production, and we saw that the offset eye-voice span may accommodate for more than the articulatory programming stage of word N.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Jacquemontia yellow mosaic virus, a novel begomovirus from Venezuela related to other New World bipartite begomoviruses infecting Convolvulaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The complete genome of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting Jacquemontia sp. (Convolvulaceae) in Venezuela has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis have shown that it represents an isolate of a novel species with closest relatives being two New World bipartite begomoviruses that infect Convolvulaceae, Jacquemontia mosaic Yucatan virus and Merremia mosaic virus. The DNA-As of these begomoviruses, however, share only 77.0-78.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with the DNA-A of the isolate described here, for which a recombinant origin is suggested. Based on the symptoms observed in the field, the name Jacquemontia yellow mosaic virus (JacYMV) is proposed for this novel bipartite begomovirus.

  14. Novel host-related virulence factors are encoded by squirrelpox virus, the main causative agent of epidemic disease in red squirrels in the UK.

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    Alistair C Darby

    Full Text Available Squirrelpox virus (SQPV shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in North American grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, in which the virus is endemic. However, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in Eurasian red squirrels (S. vulgaris in Great Britain, which are now threatened. Here we report the genome sequence of SQPV. Comparison with other Poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed SQPV to be in a new Chordopoxvirus subfamily between the Molluscipoxviruses and Parapoxviruses. A number of SQPV genes were related to virulence, including three major histocomaptibility class I homologs, and one CD47 homolog. In addition, a novel potential virulence factor showing homology to mammalian oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS was identified. This family of proteins normally causes activation of an endoribonuclease (RNaseL within infected cells. The putative function of this novel SQPV protein was predicted in silico.

  15. Emotional Egocentricity Bias Across the Life-Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Federica; Triscoli, Chantal; Lamm, Claus; Carnaghi, Andrea; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB), has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how the EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults) to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a recently developed paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of the EEB. Results highlighted a U-shape relation between age and EEB, revealing enhanced emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming the EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG). This is an area that reaches full maturation by the end of adolescence and goes through an early decay. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  16. Critical Behaviour of Spanning Forests on Random Planar Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bondesan, Roberto; Sportiello, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    As a follow-up of previous work of the authors, we analyse the statistical mechanics model of random spanning forests on random planar graphs. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the critical behaviour. Exploiting an exact relation with a model of O(-2)-loops and dimers, previously solved by Kostov and Staudacher, we identify critical and multicritical loci, and find them consistent with recent results of Bousquet-M\\'elou and Courtiel. This is also consistent with the KPZ relation, and the Berker-Kadanoff phase in the anti-ferromagnetic regime of the Potts Model on periodic lattices, predicted by Saleur. To our knowledge, this is the first known example of KPZ appearing explicitly to work within a Berker-Kadanoff phase. We set up equations for the generating function, at the value t=-1 of the fugacity, which is of combinatorial interest, and we investigate the resulting numerical series, a Tony Guttmann's favourite problem.

  17. Exact finite-size corrections for the spanning-tree model under different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailian, N. Sh.; Kenna, R.

    2015-02-01

    We express the partition functions of the spanning tree on finite square lattices under five different sets of boundary conditions in terms of a principal partition function with twisted-boundary conditions. Based on these expressions, we derive the exact asymptotic expansions of the logarithm of the partition function for each case. We have also established several groups of identities relating spanning-tree partition functions for the different boundary conditions. We also explain an apparent discrepancy between logarithmic correction terms in the free energy for a two-dimensional spanning-tree model with periodic and free-boundary conditions and conformal field theory predictions. We have obtained corner free energy for the spanning tree under free-boundary conditions in full agreement with conformal field theory predictions.

  18. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

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    Carla J. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.

  19. A self-consistent global emissions inventory spanning 1850 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While emissions inventory development has advanced significantly in recent years, the scientific community still lacks a global inventory utilizing consistent estimation approaches spanning multiple centuries. In this analysis, we investigate the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to effectively address inventory development over not just a global spatial scale but also a timescale spanning two centuries – from early industrialization into the near future. We discuss the need within the scientific community for a dataset such as this and the landscape of questions it would allow the scientific community to address. In particular, we focus on questions that the scientific community cannot adequately address using the currently available techniques and information.We primarily focus on the difficulties and potential obstacles associated with developing an inventory of this scope and magnitude. We discuss many of the hurdles that the field has already overcome and also highlight the challenges that researchers in the field still face. We detail the complexities related to the extent of spatial and temporal scales required for an undertaking of this magnitude. In addition, we point to areas where the community currently lacks the necessary data to move forward. Our analysis focuses on one direction in which the development of global emissions inventories is heading rather than an in-depth analysis of the path of emissions inventory development

  20. Quantifying yeast chronological life span by outgrowth of aged cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-05-06

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an important model organism in the field of aging research. The replicative and chronological life spans are two established paradigms used to study aging in yeast. Replicative aging is defined as the number of daughter cells a single yeast mother cell produces before senescence; chronological aging is defined by the length of time cells can survive in a non-dividing, quiescence-like state. We have developed a high-throughput method for quantitative measurement of chronological life span. This method involves aging the cells in a defined medium under agitation and at constant temperature. At each age-point, a sub-population of cells is removed from the aging culture and inoculated into rich growth medium. A high-resolution growth curve is then obtained for this sub-population of aged cells using a Bioscreen C MBR machine. An algorithm is then applied to determine the relative proportion of viable cells in each sub-population based on the growth kinetics at each age-point. This method requires substantially less time and resources compared to other chronological lifespan assays while maintaining reproducibility and precision. The high-throughput nature of this assay should allow for large-scale genetic and chemical screens to identify novel longevity modifiers for further testing in more complex organisms.

  1. The timing of the immune response in relation to virus growth determines the outcome of the LCM infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Marker, O

    1979-01-01

    In the present study earlier observations of a dual role of the immune response against lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus were confirmed and extended. At different times after intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of the virus, groups of immunosuppressed recipients were transplanted with primary....... The results showed a definite correlation between the brain virus titre at the time of the immune attack and the clinical outcome of the LCM infection. Furthermore, the results indicated that the extent of the extraneural infection is not unimportant but may affect the outcome of the infection through...

  2. The timing of the immune response in relation to virus growth determines the outcome of the LCM infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Marker, O

    1979-01-01

    . The results showed a definite correlation between the brain virus titre at the time of the immune attack and the clinical outcome of the LCM infection. Furthermore, the results indicated that the extent of the extraneural infection is not unimportant but may affect the outcome of the infection through......In the present study earlier observations of a dual role of the immune response against lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus were confirmed and extended. At different times after intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of the virus, groups of immunosuppressed recipients were transplanted with primary...

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection in children, adolescents, and their relatives: genotype distribution and precore and core gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parise Compri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:The objectives of this study were evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers in children and adolescents followed up at the Child Institute of the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo; identify chronic HBV carriers and susceptible individuals in the intrafamilial environment; characterize HBV genotypes; and identify mutations in the patients and household contacts. METHODS: Ninety-five hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children aged <19 years and 118 household contacts were enrolled in this study. Commercial kits were used for the detection of serological markers, and PCR was used for genotyping. RESULTS: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg was detected in 66.3% (63/95 of cases. Three of the 30 HBeAg-negative and anti-HBeAg-positive patients presented with precore mutations and 11 presented with mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP. Genotype A was identified in 39 (43.8% patients, genotype D in 45 (50.6%, and genotype C in 5 (5.6%. Of the 118 relatives, 40 were chronic HBV carriers, 52 presented with the anti-HBc marker, 19 were vaccinated, and 7 were susceptible. Among the relatives, genotypes A, D, and C were the most frequent. One parent presented with a precore mutation and 4 presented with BCP mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Genotypes A and D were the most frequent among children, adolescents, and their relatives. The high prevalence of HBV in the families showed the possibility of its intrafamilial transmission.

  4. HLA and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genes as outcome predictors of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, Elisabetta; Pilli, Massimo; Zerbini, Alessandro; Rota, Cristina; Olivani, Andrea; Zanelli, Paola; Zanetti, Adele; Trenti, Tommaso; Ferrari, Carlo; Missale, Gabriele

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the impact of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells and of their HLA ligands over the clinical outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment by either surgical resection or radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA). Sixty-one consecutive patients with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma underwent KIR genotyping and HLA typing. A phenotypic/functional characterization of NK cells was carried out in patients with different KIR/KIR-ligand genotype. Activating KIR2DS5 was associated with significantly longer time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.03 each). Homozygous HLA-C1 (P < 0.02) and HLA-Bw4I80 (P < 0.05) were expressed by patients with significantly better OS, whereas HLA-C2 (P < 0.02) and HLA-Bw4T80 (P < 0.01) were associated with a worse OS. Multivariate analysis identified as parameters independently related to TTR the type of treatment (surgical resection vs. RTA; P < 0.03) and HLA-C1 (P < 0.03), whereas only KIR2DS5 was an independent predictor of longer OS (P < 0.05). Compound KIR2DL2-C1 and KIR3DS1-Bw4T80 genotypes were associated with better TTR (P < 0.03) and worse OS (P = 0.02), respectively. A prevalent cytotoxic (CD56(dim)) NK phenotype was detected in patients with both longer TTR and OS. Cytotoxic capacity measured by upregulation of CD107a was significantly higher in subjects with HLA-C1 alone or combined with KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3. These results support a central role of NK cells in the immune response against hepatocellular carcinoma, providing a strong rationale for therapeutic strategies enhancing NK response and for individualized posttreatment monitoring schemes. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Antiviral efficacy of lamivudine versus entecavir in patients with hepatitis B virus-related advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Sun; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Little information is available about the antiviral efficacy of lamivudine (LAM) and entecavir (ETV) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, we compared the antiviral efficacy of LAM and ETV in these patients. The medical records of 134 antiviral therapy-naïve patients with HBV-related advanced HCC (modified Union for International Cancer Control [UICC] Tumor, Nodes, and Metastases [TNM] stages III-IV) treated between January 2005 and September 2009 were reviewed. After HCC diagnosis, 87 (64.9%) and 47 (35.1%) patients received LAM and ETV, respectively. The mean age of patients (115 men, 19 women) was 53 years. Sixty-five (48.5%) and 69 (51.5%) patients had TNM stages III and IV HCC, respectively. Treatment outcomes during follow-up, including virologic, biochemical, and serologic responses and appearance of antiviral resistance, were similar in the LAM and ETV groups (all P>0.05). Multivariate analysis identified Child-Pugh class, α-fetoprotein, and TNM stage as independent predictors of overall survival (all Ptype (LAM vs ETV) did not influence overall survival (median 9.6 months in LAM vs 13.6 months in ETV group; P=0.493). HCC treatment was not interrupted due to HBV flare up in any patient. The antiviral efficacy of LAM and ETV was similar and the type of antiviral agent did not influence overall survival in patients with HBV-related advanced HCC. Thus, LAM, which is less expensive than ETV in Korea, might be sufficient to control HBV in these patients. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Treatment of hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis: a randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b versus no treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, D C; Chevallier, M; Marcellin, P; Payen, J L; Trepo, C; Fonck, M; Bourliere, M; Boucher, E; Miguet, J P; Parlier, D; Lemonnier, C; Opolon, P

    1999-06-01

    To examine the effects of interferon (IFN) therapy on clinical, biochemical, and histological features in patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis, we have conducted a randomized, controlled trial of IFN therapy versus observation. Eight centers included a total of 99 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis. IFN-alpha2b, 3 million units three times per week, or no antiviral therapy was given for 48 weeks. Twenty-three patients dropped out. End-of-treatment biochemical response was not observed in any of the 39 controls but was observed in 6 of the 47 treated patients (P <.02); sustained biochemical response was obtained in only 2 treated patients. Controls and treated patients did not significantly differ with regard to the changes in serum level of albumin, bilirubin, alpha-fetoprotein, in plasma prothrombin, in histological activity, or liver collagen content. During trial or follow-up (160 +/- 57 weeks), hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 9 controls and 5 treated patients (NS); decompensation of cirrhosis occurred in 5 controls and 7 treated patients. Seven controls and 10 treated patients died. In conclusion, in patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis, a 48-week course of IFN therapy is safe and is able to induce end-of-treatment biochemical response in a significant proportion of patients. However, a 48-week course of IFN therapy usually fails to achieve sustained response and, within the limit of this study, did not significantly improve the 3-year outcome. Therefore, a longer course of IFN therapy or combination therapy with ribavirin should be evaluated in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.

  7. Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Carrie E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Duris, Joseph W.; Moorman, Thomas B.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Manure application is a source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, zoonotic pathogens can contaminate surface water and streambed sediment and could affect both wildlife and human health. This study examined the environmental occurrence of gene markers for livestock-related bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens and antibiotic resistance in surface waters within the South Fork Iowa River basin before and after periods of swine manure application on agricultural land. Increased concentrations of indicator bacteria after manure application exceeding Iowa's state bacteria water quality standards suggest that swine manure contributes to diminished water quality and may pose a risk to human health. Additionally, the occurrence of HEV and numerous bacterial pathogen genes for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus in both manure samples and in corresponding surface water following periods of manure application suggests a potential role for swine in the spreading of zoonotic pathogens to the surrounding environment. During this study, several zoonotic pathogens were detected including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic enterococci, and S. aureus; all of which can pose mild to serious health risks to swine, humans, and other wildlife. This research provides the foundational understanding required for future assessment of the risk to environmental health from livestock-related zoonotic pathogen exposures in this region. This information could also be important for maintaining swine herd biosecurity and protecting the health of wildlife near swine facilities.

  8. The Impact of Disclosure on Health and Related Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiachi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the association between pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure and health and related outcomes among children living with HIV. A multi-stage process was used to search for relevant articles on the ISI Web of Knowledge database. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Five major outcomes emerged from children's knowledge of their HIV-seropositive status: physical/physiological outcomes; adherence to antiretroviral therapy; psychosocial outcomes; sexual and reproductive health, including HIV prevention outcomes; and disclosure of status by the children. Disclosure of a child's HIV status to the child has value in terms of positive health outcomes for the child, such as better adherence and slower disease progression-albeit the different studies did not always reach the same conclusions, and some suggest negative health outcomes, such as increased psychiatric hospitalization. Yet, there does not seem to be a systematic or coherent system for child disclosure. One recommendation from this review, therefore, is for government and program policies and guidelines that will promote child HIV disclosure in order to address the current low rates of disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More rigorous and longitudinal studies on the outcomes of disclosure, with larger sample sizes, and in SSA, are also needed.

  9. A novel dynamic model for predicting outcome in patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ran; Duan, Zhonghui; Liu, Haixia; Chen, Li; Yu, Hongwei; Ren, Meixin; Zhu, Yueke; Jin, Chenggang; Han, Tao; Gao, Zhiliang; Meng, Qinghua

    2017-12-12

    It is challenging to predict the outcome of patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) through existing prognostic models. Our aim was to establish a novel dynamic model to improve the predictive efficiency of 30-day mortality in HBV-ACLF patients. 305 patients who were diagnosed as HBV-ACLF (derivation cohort, n=211; validation cohort, n=94) were included in this study. The HBV-ACLF dynamic (HBV-ACLFD) model was constructed based on the daily levels of predictive variables in 7 days after diagnosis combined with baseline risk factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The HBV-ACLFD model was compared with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and MELD within corporation of serum sodium (MELD-Na) score by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC). The HBV-ACLFD model demonstrated excellent discrimination with AUROC of 0.848 in the derivation cohort and of 0.813 in the validation cohort (p=0.620). The performance of the HBV-ACLFD model appeared to be superior to MELD score, MELD-Na score and CTP score (P<0.0001). The HBV-ACLFD model can accurately predict 30-day mortality in patients with HBV-ACLF, which is helpful to select appropriate clinical procedures, so as to relieve the social and economic burden.

  10. Molecular detection and nucleotide sequence analysis of a new Aichi virus closely related to canine kobuvirus in sewage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Adachi, Hirokazu; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Ito, Miyabi; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, 207 raw sewage samples were collected at the inflow of a sewage treatment plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 207 sewage samples, 137 (66.2 %) were found to be positive for amplification of Aichi virus (AiV) nucleotide using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with 10 forward and 10 reverse primers in the 3D region corresponding to the nucleotide sequence of all kobuviruses. AiV genotype A sequences were detected in all 137 samples. New sequences of AiV were detected in nine samples, exhibiting 83 % similarity with AiV A846/88, but 95 % similarity with canine kobuvirus (CKV) US-PC0082 in this region. The nucleotide sequences from the VP3 region to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of sewage sample Y12/2004 were determined. The number of nucleotides in each region was the same as that of CKV. The similarity of the nucleotide (amino acid) identity of a complete VP1 region was 90.5 % (94.8 %) between Y12/2004 and CKV US-PC0082. The phylogenic analyses based on the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of VP1 and 3D showed that Y12/2004 was independent from AiV, but closely related to CKV. These results suggested that CKV is present in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

  11. HIV-associated lymphoma: histopathology and association with Epstein-Barr virus genome related to clinical, immunological and prognostic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1991-01-01

    (6)/l, P less than 0.05), and more often a history of previous AIDS-defining illnesses (50% vs. 0%, P less than 0.005), compared with patients with Burkitt-type lymphomas. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was demonstrated in 14 of 19 immunoblast-rich tumours, and in 2 of 7 Burkitt-type lymphomas (P = 0.......10). Compared with EBV DNA-negative tumours EBV DNA-positive tumours were associated with lower CD4 cell counts (median 39 vs. 188 x 10(6)/l, P = 0.01). It is concluded that two main types of HIV-related malignant lymphoma exist. One is associated with severe immunosuppression, is often of immunoblast......-rich morphology, and may be linked to EBV, whereas the other may occur in the absence of immunosuppression, is often of Burkitt-type morphology, and is probably not linked to EBV. In addition to these two main types, other non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease do occur....

  12. Hepatitis B Virus-Related Glomerulonephritis: Not a Predominant Cause of Proteinuria in Korean Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ju Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Hepatitis B virus (HBV can form immune complexes which may result in various types of glomerulonephritis (GN. However, proteinuria can occur because of other kidney diseases besides HBV-related GN (HBV-GN. The aim of this study is to elucidate the causes of proteinuria and report on the clinical outcomes of HBV-GN. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of patients positive for serum hepatitis B surface antigen who underwent renal biopsies due to proteinuria at a tertiary medical center in Korea. Results. A total of 55 patients were included. HBV-GN was diagnosed in 20 (36.4% of the patients by confirming the presence of immune complexes (12 of 13 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 7 of 8 membranous glomerulonephritis, and 1 of 13 immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Twenty-one patients had other types of GN. A total of 13 (65% HBV-GN patients were treated with antiviral agents for a median of 11 months. However, the degrees of proteinuria were not significantly reduced in the antiviral intervention group when compared to the control group. Conclusions. Proteinuria can be caused by various glomerular diseases and HBV-GN accounts for one-third of total GN cases. Well-designed prospective study is needed to assess whether antiviral therapy against HBV infection may improve the prognosis of HBV-GN.

  13. RETINAL MANIFESTATIONS IN ADULT T-CELL LEUKEMIA/LYMPHOMA RELATED TO INFECTION BY THE HUMAN T-CELL LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Harold; Hage, Rabih; Meniane, Jean-Côme; Deligny, Christophe; Plumelle, Yves; Donnio, Angélique; Jean-Charles, Albert

    2016-07-01

    To describe the retinal manifestations in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) related to an infection by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). Retrospective case series of patients with ATL with retinal findings. A total of 175 patients were diagnosed with ATL in Martinique between 1983 and 2013. Three of them showed intraocular findings related to ATL. They were bilateral deep retinal infiltrates associated with intermediate uveitis. In two cases, the ATL diagnosis was known. In the third, fluorescein angiography was remarkable for deep retinal infiltrates although fundus examination was unremarkable. The ATL cells were found in the blood of this patient. Despite chemotherapy, infiltrates progressed from the retinal periphery to the posterior pole in two patients, thus reducing visual acuity to light perception. They were associated with vasculitis. Retinal involvement in ATL is very rare. It can occur at any point during the natural course of the disease. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 carriers should benefit from a regular ophthalmic examination, and a fluorescein angiography must be performed in all patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 with vitreous cells. The presence of deep retinal infiltrates must raise suspicion for ATL in a patient with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1.

  14. Severe virus influenza A H1N1 related pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia: differences in the evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Paula; Gullo, Caio Eduardo; Lobo, Suzana Margareth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical, laboratory and evolution data of patients with severe influenza A H1N1 pneumonia and compare the data with that of patients with severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Methods Cohort and retrospective study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit between May 2009 and December 2010 with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia caused by the influenza A H1N1 virus were included in the study. Thirty patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia admitted within the same period were used as a control group. Severe community-acquired pneumonia was defined as the presence of at least one major severity criteria (ventilator or vasopressor use) or two minor criteria. Results The data of 45 patients were evaluated. Of these patients, 15 were infected with H1N1. When compared to the group with community-acquired pneumonia, patients from the H1N1 group had significantly lower leukocyte counts on admission (6,728±4,070 versus 16,038±7,863; p<0.05) and lower C-reactive protein levels (Day 2: 15.1±8.1 versus 22.1±10.9 mg/dL; p<0.05). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio values were lower in the first week in patients with H1N1. Patients who did not survive the H1N1 severe pneumonia had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein and higher serum creatinine levels compared with patients who survived. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the H1N1 group than in the control group (53% versus 20%; p=0.056, respectivelly). Conclusion Differences in the leukocyte count, C-reactive protein concentrations and oxygenation profiles may contribute to the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with severe influenza A H1N1 virus-related pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:23917977

  15. [Cognitive complaints in people with human immunodeficiency virus in Spain: prevalence and related variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Moreno, José A; Fuster-Ruiz de Apodaca, Maria J; Fumaz, Carmina R; Ferrer, Maria J; Molero, Fernando; Jaen, Àngels; Clotet, Bonaventura; Dalmau, David

    2014-05-20

    Cognitive complaints have been scarcely studied in people with HIV in Spain. The aim of this research was to know the prevalence of cognitive complaints in HIV-infected people, as well as its potential relationships with demographic, clinical and psychological variables, in the era of combination antiretroviral therapies. Observational multicenter study developed in 4 hospitals and 10 NGOs, in which 791 people with HIV in Spain participated. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate demographic and clinical variables, and an assessment of cognitive complaints, emotional status and quality of life variables was also included. Descriptive and inferential tests were used for statistical analyses. Almost half of the sample (49.8%) referred cognitive complaints, in 72.1% of them an association with interference on daily living activities was found. Memory and attention were the areas most prevalently perceived as affected. The existence of cognitive complaints correlated with a longer HIV infection, lower CD4+ cell count, undetectable viral load and worse quality of life. A discriminant analysis determined that depression, anxiety, older age, living with no partner and low education level allowed to classify optimally HIV-infected people with cognitive complaints. Self-reported cognitive complaints are frequent in people infected with HIV in the current era of combination antiretroviral therapies. This fact is related to emotional disturbances and poor quality of life, but also to impaired immunological and virological status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioinformatic and immunological analysis reveals lack of support for measles virus related mimicry in Crohn’s disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polymeros, Dimitrios; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Smyk, Daniel S; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Ladas, Spiros D

    2014-01-01

    A link between measles virus and Crohn?s disease (CD) has been postulated. We assessed through bioinformatic and immunological approaches whether measles is implicated in CD induction, through molecular mimicry...

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I.; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting production and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiological survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers' fields for two consecutive seasons covering 72 s...

  18. Pilot study of antibodies against varicella zoster virus and human immunodeficiency virus in relation to the risk of developing stroke, nested within a rural cohort in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiki, Gershim; Stockdale, Lisa; Kasamba, Ivan; Vudriko, Tobias; Tumwekwase, Grace; Johnston, Tom; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Newton, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The risk of stroke rises after episodes of herpes zoster and chickenpox, which are caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). We conducted a pilot case-control study of stroke, nested within a long-standing cohort in Uganda (the General Population Cohort), to examine antibodies against VZV prior to diagnosis. We used stored sera to examine the evolution of IgG and IgM antibodies against VZV among 31 clinically confirmed cases of stroke and 132 matched controls. For each participant, three samples of sera were identified: one each, taken at or near the time of (pseudo)diagnosis, between 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis and at 15 years prior to diagnosis. All participants had detectable antibodies against VZV, but there were no significant differences between cases and controls in the 15 years prior to diagnosis. As a secondary finding, 16% (5/31) of cases and 6% (8/132) of controls had HIV (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.8-10.1; P = 0.06). This is the first prospective study to examine a biological measure of exposure to VZV prior to diagnosis of stroke and although we identified no significant association, in this small pilot, with limited characterisation of cases, we cannot exclude the possibility that the virus is causal for a subset. The impact of HIV on risk of stroke has not been well characterised and warrants further study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9 and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Al-Dabhawe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Avian influenza virus (AIV and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trachea, lung and kidney were taken from 38 different cases from commercial broiler chicken flocks in (Najaf, Hilla, Muthana and Theqaar governorates in the period from November 2010 to June 2011, all these flocks were showed respiratory symptoms and mortality about 20-90%. The results showed that 92.1% of samples collected from these flocks were infected with IBV, 20% of samples were infected with IB alone and 45.71% of samples with IB combined with both GM and AIV subtype H9 and 25.71% of samples were positive to both IBV and AIV(H9. No samples were positive to AIV (H9 or MG alone. Because of importance of respiratory diseases as a most common conditions noted in commercial flocks in Iraq and no previous study detecting this pathogens by molecular techniques, this study come to detect and confirm the diagnosis of this pathogens by qPCR as new technique used in this field in Iraq.

  20. Functional analysis of miR-181a and Fas involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua, E-mail: tanghua86162003@aliyun.com

    2015-02-15

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis.

  1. Total serum DNA and DNA integrity: diagnostic value in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Sun, Ling-Yu; Zheng, Hong-Qun; Zhang, Qi-Fan; Jin, Xiao-Ming

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to test the diagnostic utility of the total serum cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and DNA integrity index for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We initially evaluated the sodium iodide (NaI) method, Triton/Heat/Phenol (THP) protocol and QIAamp Kit for cfDNA extraction. Then cfDNA was isolated from the sera of 80 patients with HBV-related HCC, 80 patients with chronic HBV infection and 50 healthy subjects, and quantified by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of beta-actin genomic DNA fragments using two sets of primers of 100 and 400 bp. DNA integrity was calculated as the ratio of 400 bp to 100 bp β-actin fragments. The THP approach was not only superior to the other two methods in terms of DNA quantity, but also was simpler, more rapid, and less costly. Serum DNA integrity in HCC patients was significantly higher than that in HBV patients or healthy controls. As for total cfDNA levels, although a significant difference was found between HCC patients and healthy individuals, no significant difference was found between HBV patients with and without HCC. DNA integrity was associated with tumour size, TNM stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. DNA integrity had a higher sensitivity and specificity in discriminating HCC from HBV patients than total DNA. The THP method is preferred for extraction of cfDNA. DNA integrity is a promising molecular biomarker for detecting HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection; it reflects the progression and metastatic potential of the tumour. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Naturally occurring mutations in large surface genes related to occult infection of hepatitis B virus genotype C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms related to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, particularly those based on genotype C infection, have rarely been determined thus far in the ongoing efforts to determine infection mechanisms. Therefore, we aim to elucidate the mutation patterns in the surface open reading frame (S ORF underlying occult infections of HBV genotype C in the present study. Nested PCRs were applied to 624 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg negative Korean subjects. Cloning and sequencing of the S ORF gene was applied to 41 occult cases and 40 control chronic carriers. Forty-one (6.6% of the 624 Korean adults with HBsAg-negative serostatus were found to be positive for DNA according to nested PCR tests. Mutation frequencies in the three regions labeled here as preS1, preS2, and S were significantly higher in the occult subjects compared to the carriers in all cases. A total of two types of deletions, preS1 deletions in the start codon and preS2 deletions as well as nine types of point mutations were significantly implicated in the occult infection cases. Mutations within the "a" determinant region in HBsAg were found more frequently in the occult subjects than in the carriers. Mutations leading to premature termination of S ORF were found in 16 occult subjects (39.0% but only in one subject from among the carriers (2.5%. In conclusion, our data suggest that preS deletions, the premature termination of S ORF, and "a" determinant mutations are associated with occult infections of HBV genotype C among a HBsAg-negative population. The novel mutation patterns related to occult infection introduced in the present study can help to broaden our understanding of HBV occult infections.

  3. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Oka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV, many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims’ daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Methods The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan’s District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013 using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants’ current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems. In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%. Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question “What do you think about your everyday life situation?” We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Results Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds

  4. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Taeko; Enoki, Hiroaki; Tokimoto, Yukari; Kawanishi, Teruaki; Minami, Meguru; Okuizumi, Takahiro; Katahira, Kiyohiko

    2017-06-12

    In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV), many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims' daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan's District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013) using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants' current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems). In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%). Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question "What do you think about your everyday life situation?" We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.17, p

  5. Updated free span design procedure DNV RP-F105 Ormen Lange experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyrileiv, Olav; Moerk, Kim; Chezhian, Muthu [Det Norsk Veritas (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    The Ormen Lange gas field is located within a prehistoric slide area with varying water depths from 250 to 1100 m. Due to the slide area, the seabed is very uneven including steep slopes and seabed obstacles up to 50 meters tall. The major technical challenges with respect to pipeline design in this area are: extreme seabed topography combined with inhomogeneous soil conditions; uncertainties related to current velocities and distribution; high number of spans including some very long spans; deep waters and therefore difficult and costly seabed preparation/span intervention; flowlines with large potential to buckle laterally in combination with free spans. In order to minimise span intervention costs, a major testing campaign and research programme has been conducted in the Ormen Lange project to come up with a design procedure in compliance with the DNV-RP-F105 (DNV, 2002) design philosophy. The improvements in terms of reduced seabed intervention and rock dumping costs are in the order of several 100 MNOKs. The lessons learned and the improved knowledge will also be a great value for other project dealing with similar free span problems. (author)

  6. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunquan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading and the relatively small structural stiffness of long-span high-speed railway bridges, many new technologies in bridge construction, design, materials, and so forth have been developed. This paper carefully reviews progress in the construction technologies of multi-function combined bridges in China, including combined highway and railway bridges and multi-track railway bridges. Innovations and practices regarding new types of bridge and composite bridge structures, such as bridges with three cable planes and three main trusses, inclined main trusses, slab-truss composite sections, and steel-concrete composite sections, are introduced. In addition, investigations into high-performance materials and integral fabrication and erection techniques for long-span railway bridges are summarized. At the end of the paper, prospects for the future development of long-span high-speed railway bridges are provided.

  7. Short-term memory predictions across the lifespan: monitoring span before and after conducting a task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julie Marilyne; Moulin, Chris John Anthony; Souchay, Céline

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to explore metamemory in short-term memory across the lifespan. Five age groups participated in this study: 3 groups of children (4-13 years old), and younger and older adults. We used a three-phase task: prediction-span-postdiction. For prediction and postdiction phases, participants reported with a Yes/No response if they could recall in order a series of images. For the span task, they had to actually recall such series. From 4 years old, children have some ability to monitor their short-term memory and are able to adjust their prediction after experiencing the task. However, accuracy still improves significantly until adolescence. Although the older adults had a lower span, they were as accurate as young adults in their evaluation, suggesting that metamemory is unimpaired for short-term memory tasks in older adults. •We investigate metamemory for short-term memory tasks across the lifespan. •We find younger children cannot accurately predict their span length. •Older adults are accurate in predicting their span length. •People's metamemory accuracy was related to their short-term memory span.

  8. Wave-induced fatigue of multi-span pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Xu [Marine Engineers and Consultants, Freemont, CA (United States); Lauridsen, B. [Danish Maritime Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yong Bai [J P Kenny A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1999-02-01

    Free spanning of the multi-span pipeline is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The seabed intervention costs are largely influenced by pipeline spanning design, which includes assessment of trawl pullover response, vortex-induced vibrations and wave-induced fatigue. The objective of this paper is to develop a rational design methodology for the determination of the free span lengths based on the multi-span pipeline in-line fatigue assessment. Following the summary of the procedure, a detailed mathematical model for the free span movement and its analytical closed form solution are developed. The fatigue damage models are detailed both in time domain and frequency domain approaches. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the technical models. (author)

  9. Asymmetry in auditory and spatial attention span in normal elderly genetically at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark W; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Salmon, David P

    2005-02-01

    Some studies of elderly individuals with the ApoE-e4 genotype noted subtle deficits on tests of attention such as the WAIS-R Digit Span subtest, but these findings have not been consistently reported. One possible explanation for the inconsistent results could be the presence of subgroups of e4+ individuals with asymmetric cognitive profiles (i.e., significant discrepancies between verbal and visuospatial skills). Comparing genotype groups with individual, modality-specific tests might obscure subtle differences between verbal and visuospatial attention in these asymmetric subgroups. In this study, we administered the WAIS-R Digit Span and WMS-R Visual Memory Span subtests to 21 nondemented elderly e4+ individuals and 21 elderly e4- individuals matched on age, education, and overall cognitive ability. We hypothesized that a) the e4+ group would show a higher incidence of asymmetric cognitive profiles when comparing Digit Span/Visual Memory Span performance relative to the e4- group; and (b) an analysis of individual test performance would fail to reveal differences between the two subject groups. Although the groups' performances were comparable on the individual attention span tests, the e4+ group showed a significantly larger discrepancy between digit span and spatial span scores compared to the e4- group. These findings suggest that contrast measures of modality-specific attentional skills may be more sensitive to subtle group differences in at-risk groups, even when the groups do not differ on individual comparisons of standardized test means. The increased discrepancy between verbal and visuospatial attention may reflect the presence of "subgroups" within the ApoE-e4 group that are qualitatively similar to asymmetric subgroups commonly associated with the earliest stages of AD.

  10. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Andrew V; Carr, Christopher E; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-11-15

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified approximately 200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging.

  11. Alpha rhythm parameters and short-term memory span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, I V; Masloboev, Y P

    1997-06-01

    The study examined a statement from the neurophysiological model of A.N. Lebedev as to whether short-term memory span is related to a ratio of the alpha-rhythm frequency and parameters of step-type behaviour of wave processes in the EEG alpha range. Forty young healthy subjects performed a digit memory test. EEG signals were recorded from the occipital area during a resting period with eyes closed. As one of the parameters of step-type behaviour of alpha oscillations a mean value of the difference between periods of neighbouring peaks in the alpha spectra was calculated. A second parameter--the duration of alpha spindles, considered to be a superposition of alpha oscillations--was also measured. It was shown that the ratio of the alpha-rhythm frequency to parameters of the step-type behaviour of alpha oscillations positively correlated with memory performance.

  12. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  13. Characterization of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1, a new mycovirus related to plant viruses, and a reconstruction of host pattern evolution in negative-sense ssRNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Livia; Pagán, Israel; Ayllón, María A

    2016-12-01

    The molecular characterization of a novel negative single-stranded RNA virus infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is reported here. Comparison of the sequence of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (BcNSRV-1) showed a strong identity with RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of plant pathogenic emaraviruses and tospoviruses. We have also found all the molecular signatures present in the RdRp of the genus Emaravirus and in other genera of family Bunyaviridae: the conserved TPD triplet and RY dinucleotide, the three basic residues in premotif A and the conserved motifs A, B, C, D, and E. Our results showed that BcNSRV-1 is phylogenetically close to members of the genus Emaravirus and of the family Bunyaviridae, and an ancestral state reconstruction using the conserved RdRp motifs of type members of each family of (-)ssRNA viruses indicated that BcNSRV-1 could possibly derive from an invertebrate and vertebrate-infecting virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality and obesity across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Personality traits contribute to health outcomes, in part through their association with major controllable risk factors, such as obesity. Body weight, in turn, reflects our behaviors and lifestyle and contributes to the way we perceive ourselves and others. In this study, the authors use data from a large (N = 1,988) longitudinal study that spanned more than 50 years to examine how personality traits are associated with multiple measures of adiposity and with fluctuations in body mass index (BMI). Using 14,531 anthropometric assessments, the authors modeled the trajectory of BMI across adulthood and tested whether personality predicted its rate of change. Measured concurrently, participants higher on Neuroticism or Extraversion or lower on Conscientiousness had higher BMI; these associations replicated across body fat, waist, and hip circumference. The strongest association was found for the impulsivity facet: Participants who scored in the top 10% of impulsivity weighed, on average, 11Kg more than those in the bottom 10%. Longitudinally, high Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness, and the facets of these traits related to difficulty with impulse control, were associated with weight fluctuations, measured as the variability in weight over time. Finally, low Agreeableness and impulsivity-related traits predicted a greater increase in BMI across the adult life span. BMI was mostly unrelated to change in personality traits. Personality traits are defined by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns that likely contribute to unhealthy weight and difficulties with weight management. Such associations may elucidate the role of personality traits in disease progression and may help to design more effective interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Differences in short-term memory span of social sciences, science and engineering, and business majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem Ullah

    . Students' academic performances are dependent on their academic environment and on their inherited construct of short-term and long-term memory span. The use of the memory in certain majors, such as Science and Engineering and Business, are more demanding as compared to Social Science majors. For example, for Science and Engineering majors, students need to memorize complex structures and also need to keep larger information at a stretch in their short-term memory to incorporate it into incoming and outgoing information. Of the other memory related constructs, the present study examined only the short-term memory of the students of different majors, and it was found that the students of the Social Sciences had a shorter digit span as compared to the Science and Engineering and Business majors. Business major students had the largest digit span as compared to the Social Sciences and Science and Engineering majors. This supports the idea that memory construct plays a role in the selection of student majors.

  16. Exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses in relation to atopy and allergic asthma: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Paolo M; Rosmini, Francesco; Riondino, Silvia; Fortini, Michele; Ferrigno, Luigina; Rapicetta, Maria; Bonini, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate if markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses are associated with atopy and respiratory allergies. Design Retrospective case-control study. Participants 240 atopic cases and 240 non-atopic controls from a population sample of 1659 participants, all Italian male cadets aged 17-24. Setting Air force school in Caserta, Italy. Main outcome measures Serology for Toxoplasma gondii, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis A virus, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1; skin sensitisation and IgE antibodies to relevant airborne allergens; total IgE concentration; and diagnosis of allergic asthma or rhinitis. Results Compared with controls there was a lower prevalence of T gondii (26% v 18%, P=0.027), hepatitis A virus (30% v 16%, P=0.004), and H pylori (18% v 15%, P=0.325) in atopic participants. Adjusted odds ratios of atopy decreased with a gradient of exposure to H pylori, T gondii, and hepatitis A virus (none, odds ratio 1; one, 0.70; two or three, 0.37; P for trend=0.000045) but not with cumulative exposure to the other viruses. Conversely, total IgE concentration was not independently associated with any infection. Allergic asthma was rare (1/245, 0.4%) and allergic rhinitis infrequent (16/245, 7%) among the participants (245/1659) exposed to at least two orofecal and foodborne infections (H pylori, T gondii, hepatitis A virus). Conclusion Respiratory allergy is less frequent in people heavily exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes. Hygiene and a westernised, semisterile diet may facilitate atopy by influencing the overall pattern of commensals and pathogens that stimulate the gut associated lymphoid tissue thus contributing to the epidemic of allergic asthma and rhinitis in developed countries. PMID:10669445

  17. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  18. Modulation of the innate immune-related genes expression in H9N2 avian influenza virus-infected chicken macrophage-like cells (HD11) in response to Escherichia coli LPS stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuefeng; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Huizhu; Xu, Xingang; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-04-01

    Macrophages play important roles in mediating virus-induced innate immune responses and are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial superinfections. The innate immune response initiated by both low pathogenicity AIV and bacterial superinfection in their avian host is not fully understood. We therefore determine the transcripts of innate immune-related genes following avian H9N2 AIV virus infection and E. coli LPS co-stimulation of avian macrophage-like cell line HD11 cells. More pronounced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) as well as the inflammatory chemokines (CXCLi1 and CXCLi2) was observed in virus infected plus LPS treated HD11 cells compared to H9N2 virus solely infected control. For two superinfection groups, the levels of genes examined in a prior H9N2 virus infection before secondary LPS treatment group were significantly higher as compared with simultaneous virus infection plus LPS stimulation group. Interestingly, similar high levels of IL-6 gene were observed between LPS sole stimulation group and two superinfection groups. Moreover, IL-10 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in both superinfection groups were moderately upregulated compared to sole LPS stimulation group or virus alone infection group. Although TLR4 and MDA5 levels in virus alone infection group were significantly lower compared to that in both superinfection groups, TLR4 upregulation respond more rapid to virus sole infection compared to LPS plus virus superinfection. Collectively, innate immune-related genes respond more pronounced in LPS stimulation plus H9N2 virus infection HD11 cells compared to sole virus infection or LPS alone stimulation control cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth W; Renshaw, Benjamin; Clement, Christopher J; Himschoot, Elizabeth A; Hundertmark, Kris J; Hueffer, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    For pathogens that infect multiple species, the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We tested the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to possibly distinguish reservoir and spillover hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and nine microsatellites to assess population structure in those two species. mtDNA structure did not correspond to rabies virus variant structure in either species. Microsatellite analyses gave varying results. Bayesian clustering found two groups of arctic foxes in the coastal tundra region, but for red foxes it identified tundra and boreal types. Spatial Bayesian clustering and spatial principal components analysis identified 3 and 4 groups of arctic foxes, respectively, closely matching the distribution of rabies virus variants in the state. Red foxes, conversely, showed eight clusters comprising two regions (boreal and tundra) with much admixture. These results run contrary to previous beliefs that arctic fox show no fine-scale spatial population structure. While we cannot rule out that the red fox is part of the maintenance host community for rabies in Alaska, the distribution of virus variants appears to be driven primarily by the arctic fox. Therefore, we show that host population genetics can be utilized to distinguish between maintenance and spillover hosts when used in conjunction with other approaches. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transmission of Zika virus through breast milk and other breastfeeding-related bodily-fluids: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Colt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, which is associated with an increase in central nervous system malformations and newborn microcephaly cases. This review investigated evidence of breastfeeding transmission from ZIKV-infected mothers to their children and the presence of ZIKV infection in breastfeeding-related fluids.We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, case studies, and surveillance reports involving breastfeeding women with ZIKV infection in several international databases. Data extraction and analysis were conducted following a PROSPERO-registered protocol. From 472 non-duplicate records, two case reports met criteria for inclusion. We reviewed three cases of ZIKV infection among lactating mothers near the time of delivery. Two of the three (2/3 associated newborns had evidence of ZIKV infection. ZIKV was detected in breast milk of all three mothers. Breast milk detection results were positive in all mothers (3/3 by RT-PCR, one was positive by culture (1/3, and none was tested for ZIKV-specific antibodies. Serum samples were ZIKV positive in all mothers (3/3, and sweat was not tested for ZIKV.We describe three cases of ZIKV-infected breastfeeding mothers who were symptomatic within three days of delivery, and two cases with ZIKV-infected newborns. While ZIKV was detected in the breast milk of all three mothers, the data are not sufficient to conclude ZIKV transmission via breastfeeding. More evidence is needed to distinguish breastfeeding transmission from other perinatal transmission routes.

  1. A serum microRNA panel as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma related with hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwen Tan

    Full Text Available The identification of new high-sensitivity and high-specificity markers for HCC are essential. We aimed to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs as biomarkers to be used in diagnosing hepatitis B virus (HBV -related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.We investigated serum miRNA expression in (261 HCC patients, 233 cirrhosis patients, and 173 healthy controls, recruited between August 2010 and June 2013. An initial screening of miRNA expression by Illumina sequencing was performed using serum samples pooled from HCC patients and controls. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of selected miRNAs. A logistic regression model was constructed using a training cohort (n = 357 and then validated using an independent cohort (n = 241. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to evaluate the accuracy of the use of the biomarkers for disease diagnosis.We identified 8 miRNAs (hsa-miR-206, hsa-miR-141-3p, hsa-miR-433-3p, hsa-miR-1228-5p, hsa-miR-199a-5p, hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-192-5p, and hsa-miR-26a-5p and constructed an miRNA set that provided high diagnostic accuracy for HCC (AUC = 0.887 and 0.879 for training and validation sets, respectively. The miRNAs could also be used to differentiate HCC patients from healthy (AUC = 0.893 and cirrhosis (AUC = 0.892 patients.We identified a serum of miRNA panel that has considerable clinical value in HCC diagnosis.

  2. Pre-S deletion and complex mutations of hepatitis B virus related to young age hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishuai Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the roles of biomedical factors, hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA levels, genotypes, and specific viral mutation patterns on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients below 40 years of age in Qidong, China. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study within a cohort of 2387 male HBV carriers who were recruited from August, 1996. The HBV DNA sequence was determined in 49 HCC and 90 chronic hepatitis (CH patients below 40 years of age. Mutation exchanges during follow-up in 32 cases were compared with 65 controls with paired serum samples. In addition, a consecutive series of samples from 14 HCC cases were employed to compare the sequences before and after the occurrence of HCC. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, HBeAg positive, HBV DNA levels ≥4.00 log(10 copies/mL, pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations were associated with risk of young age HCC. Moreover, the presence of an increasing number of HCC-related mutations (pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations was associated with an increased risk of young age HCC. Paired samples analysis indicated that the increased HCC risk for at-risk sequence mutations were attributable to the persistence of these mutations, but not a single time point mutation. The longitudinal observation demonstrated a gradual combination of pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations during the development of HCC. CONCLUSION: High HBV DNA levels and pre-S deletion were independent risk factors of young age HCC. Combination of pre-S deletion and core promoter mutations increased the risk and persistence of at-risk sequence mutations is critical for HCC development.

  3. Efficacy of interferon for chronic hepatitis C virus-related hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates on hemodialysis: results after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Taltavull, T; Baliellas, C; Benasco, C; Serrano, T T; Casanova, A; Pérez, J L; Guerrero, L; González, M T; Andres, E; Gil-Vernet, S; Casais, L A

    2001-04-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN) may have undesirable effects on a functioning graft. The aim of this study was to evaluate IFN treatment in kidney transplant candidates during the hemodialysis period as well as the results after transplantation. A total of 29 noncirrhotic hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (based on long-term rise in ALT, HCV serology, HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction methods, and histological evidence) were included. Tolerability to IFN treatment, pre- and posttransplantation therapeutic results, and long-term outcome were recorded. IFN regimen consisted of 3 million units (MU) times per week after hemodialysis sessions for 6 months, followed by 1.5 MU after each hemodialysis session for an additional 6 months. All patients gave informed consent for participation. IFN therapy was fairly well tolerated. Adverse effects due to IFN toxicity, renal disease, or causes related to the immunological properties of IFN were observed in 24% of patients. At the end of treatment, ALT had normalized in 23/28 patients (82.1%), and HCV RNA had cleared in 23/28 patients (82.1%). During follow-up, HCV RNA was persistently negative in 18 patients (64%, including transplant recipients). A total of 14 patients (nine HCV RNA-negative) received a kidney transplant. Mean follow-up after the procedure was 41 +/- 28 months. In all, 12 patients had a functioning graft, one had acute vascular rejection, and one died of carcinoma. All transplanted patients maintained normal ALT levels, and eight remained HCV RNA-negative. Treatment results in our study population were better than those observed in the general population. The long-term response achieved, which was maintained after transplantation, supports the use of IFN for HCV hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates under hemodialysis.

  4. The International development of PROQOL-HCV: An instrument to assess the health-related quality of life of patients treated for Hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Andrew Richard; Herrmann, Susan Elizabeth; Chassany, Olivier; Lalanne, Christophe; Da Silva, Mariliza Henrique; Galano,Eliana; Carrieri, Patrizia M.; Estellon, Vincent; Sogni, Philippe; Duracinsky, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) compromises Health-related Quality of Life (HRQL) with detriments to Physical, Mental and Social health domains. Treatment with interferon and ribavirin is associated with side effects which further impair HRQL. New treatments appear potent, effective and tolerable. However, Patient Reported Outcomes instruments that capture the impact on HRQL for people with hepatitis C are largely non-specific and will be needed in the new treatment era. Therefore, we deve...

  5. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Molleman, F.; Zwaan, B J; Brakefield, P M; Carey, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30 000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on forty-seven species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which...

  6. The effects of dopamine on digit span in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Clara; Hwang, Jaclyn; Marshall, Anisa; Fenesy, Michelle; Poston, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease patients are at an elevated risk of developing cognitive impairment. Although cognitive impairment is one of the strongest predictors of quality of life, dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications are designed to target motor symptoms. However, there is substantial evidence that dopamine also impacts cognition, in particular working memory. It is therefore critical for movement disorders physicians to understand the potential dopaminergic effects on working memory when prescribing these medications. Verbal digit span tasks offer a potentially straightforward and quick assessment of baseline working memory. Moreover, Digit Span Backward was recently validated as a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease when participants were medicated. Research indicates that the interaction between dopamine and working memory follows an Inverted-U shaped curve, but the effect of dopamine on Digit Span has not been well studied. Our study seeks to: (1) determine the validity of verbal Digit Spans for detecting cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients both ON and OFF medications; and (2) ascertain the effects of dopaminergic medications on verbal Digit Span. We recruited 64 Parkinson's disease patients and 22 age-and education-matched controls. Parkinson's patients completed Digit Span Backward and Digit Span Forward ON and OFF medications, while healthy controls completed them once. All participants were categorized by cognitive diagnosis using level-II consensus criteria. Digit Span Backward successfully identified mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, both ON and OFF medications. Combining patients with and without cognitive impairment, we found that dopamine significantly improved performance on Digit Span Backward, but not Forward. In a secondary analysis, we found this dopaminergic improvement was restricted to the Low baseline working memory group; the High baseline working memory group was unaffected

  7. Recognition memory span in autopsy-confirmed Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, David P; Heindel, William C; Hamilton, Joanne M; Vincent Filoteo, J; Cidambi, Varun; Hansen, Lawrence A; Masliah, Eliezer; Galasko, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from patients with amnesia suggests that recognition memory span tasks engage both long-term memory (i.e., secondary memory) processes mediated by the diencephalic-medial temporal lobe memory system and working memory processes mediated by fronto-striatal systems. Thus, the recognition memory span task may be particularly effective for detecting memory deficits in disorders that disrupt both memory systems. The presence of unique pathology in fronto-striatal circuits in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) compared to AD suggests that performance on the recognition memory span task might be differentially affected in the two disorders even though they have quantitatively similar deficits in secondary memory. In the present study, patients with autopsy-confirmed DLB or AD, and Normal Control (NC) participants, were tested on separate recognition memory span tasks that required them to retain increasing amounts of verbal, spatial, or visual object (i.e., faces) information across trials. Results showed that recognition memory spans for verbal and spatial stimuli, but not face stimuli, were lower in patients with DLB than in those with AD, and more impaired relative to NC performance. This was despite similar deficits in the two patient groups on independent measures of secondary memory such as the total number of words recalled from long-term storage on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test. The disproportionate vulnerability of recognition memory span task performance in DLB compared to AD may be due to greater fronto-striatal involvement in DLB and a corresponding decrement in cooperative interaction between working memory and secondary memory processes. Assessment of recognition memory span may contribute to the ability to distinguish between DLB and AD relatively early in the course of disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of herpes simplex virus-related antigens in the nuclei and cytoplasm of biochemically transformed cells with peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, M; Dubbs, D R; Kit, S

    1977-09-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related antigens have been demonstrated in the nuclei and cytoplasm of human and mouse cells biochemically transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated HSV. This was accomplished by using peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence with rabbit antisera that had high neutralizing titers against the HSV-specific thymidine kinase activity and virus infectivity. HSV-1 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by type 1 HSV, but not with those of cells biochemically transformed by type 2 HSV. Similarly, HSV-2 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-2, but not with those in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-1. In contrast, herpes virus-related antigens were detected in cells cytolytically infected with HSV-1 and with HSV-2 by either type 1 or type 2 HSV antisera. These observations suggest that the antigens detected in the biochemically transformed cells were a type-specific subset of the HSV-related antigens synthesized in cells undergoing productive infection by HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  9. Integrated analysis of miRNAs and transcriptomes in Aedes albopictus midgut reveals the differential expression profiles of immune-related genes during dengue virus serotype-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Fen-Xiang; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Jia, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Yan-He; Zhang, Hao; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Xian-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-virus interaction, and have been reported to be altered by dengue virus (DENV) infection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Aedes albopictus midgut-the first organ to interact with DENV-involved in its resistance to DENV. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in Aedes albopictus midgut in response to dengue virus serotype 2. A total of three miRNAs and 777 mRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed upon DENV infection. For the mRNAs, we identified 198 immune-related genes and 31 of them were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses also showed that the differentially expressed immune-related genes were involved in immune response. Then the differential expression patterns of six immune-related genes and three miRNAs were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, seven known miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs were identified by aligning our two datasets. These analyses of miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes provide valuable information for uncovering the DENV response genes and provide a basis for future study of the resistance mechanisms in Aedes albopictus midgut. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. HPV and EBV Infections in Neck Metastases from Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Another Virus-Related Neoplastic Disease in the Head and Neck Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussu, Francesco; Sali, Michela; Gallus, Roberto; Petrone, Gianluigi; Autorino, Rosa; Santangelo, Rosaria; Pandolfini, Manlio; Miccichè, Francesco; Delogu, Giovanni; Almadori, Giovanni; Galli, Jacopo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rindi, Guido; Tommasino, Massimo; Valentini, Vincenzo; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 1-9 % of all head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are neck metastases from clinically undetectable primary tumors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are proven carcinogenic factors that are associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in neck metastases from unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma. We evaluated fresh samples from a consecutive series of 22 neck dissections for metastases from unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma obtained between 2010 and 2012 at a single institution. The samples were tested for the presence of HPV E6 and E7 mRNA and EBV DNA. Oncogenic viral infections were detected in 12 cases (54 % total; 2 HPV18, 5 HPV16, 2 EBV infection, and 3 EBV/HPV16 coinfections). The most frequent primarily involved neck level in our series was IIA (70 %), which had the highest prevalence of viral infection (66 %). We did not find any other significant correlations between virus detection and clinicopathologic parameters or prognosis. Neck metastasis from unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma could be another virus-related malignancy in the head and neck region, along with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal carcinoma. An evaluation of the impact of viral infection on patient prognosis and sensitivities to different treatment modalities could modify our prognostic assessments and treatment planning. Furthermore, virus detection would have a decisive impact on diagnostic/decisional algorithms, especially if detection methods are implemented on cytologic samples (e.g., thin prep).

  11. The Magnitude and Specificity of Influenza A Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses in Humans Is Related to HLA-A and -B Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, A. C. M.; de Mutsert, G.; Graus, Y. M. F.; Fouchier, R. A. M.; Sintnicolaas, K.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.

    2002-01-01

    The repertoire of human cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) in response to influenza A viruses has been shown to be directed towards multiple epitopes, with a dominant response to the HLA-A2-restricted M158–66 epitope. These studies, however, were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of individuals selected randomly with respect to HLA phenotype or selected for the expression of one HLA allele without considering an influence of other HLA molecules. In addition, little information is available on the influence of HLA makeup on the overall CTL response against influenza viruses. Here, the influenza A virus-specific CTL response was investigated in groups of HLA-A and -B identical individuals. Between groups the individuals shared two or three of the four HLA-A and -B alleles. After in vitro stimulation of PBMC with influenza virus, the highest CTL activity was found in HLA-A2+ donors. A similar pattern was observed for the precursor frequency of virus-specific CTL (CTLp) ex vivo, with a higher CTLp frequency in HLA-A2-positive donors than in HLA-A2-negative donors, which were unable to recognize the immunodominant M158–66 epitope. In addition, CTL activity and frequency of CTLp for the individual influenza virus epitopes were determined. The frequency of CTLp specific for the HLA-B8-restricted epitope NP380–388 was threefold lower in HLA-B27-positive donors than in HLA-B27-negative donors. In addition, the frequency of CTLp specific for the HLA-A1-restricted epitope NP44–52 was threefold higher in HLA-A1-, -A2-, -B8-, and -B35-positive donors than in other donors, which was confirmed by measuring the CTL activity in vitro. These findings indicate that the epitope specificity of the CTL response is related to the phenotype of the other HLA molecules. Furthermore, the magnitude of the influenza virus-specific CTL response seems dependent on the HLA-A and -B phenotypes. PMID:11752149

  12. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... of T antigen by the associated kinase is reduced whereas a p34cdc2-kinase-specific peptide has no influence. In addition, the T-antigen-associated protein kinase can use GTP and ATP as phosphate donors. These properties together with the observation that immunopurified T antigen can be phosphorylated...

  13. Life-span plasticity of the brain and cognition: from questions to evidence and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-11-01

    Experience-related changes induced by modification of environment, physical exercise, or cognitive training affect brain structure and function. Research on brain plasticity and its relationship to experiential changes gathers momentum and attracts significant public interest. This collection of papers is based on presentation at the First International Conference on Life-Span Plasticity of Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective that took place in Detroit, MI, on October 12-14, 2011. The conference honored Margret M. and Paul B. Baltes, the pioneers of life-span developmental psychology who initiated some of the first studies on experience- and training-related changes in cognition across the life span. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring working memory in aphasia: Comparing performance on complex span and N-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    No significant correlations were observed between performance on complex span task and N-back tasks.Furthermore, performance on the modified listening span was related to performance on the comprehension subtest of the QASA, while no relationship was found for 2-back and 0-back tasks.Our results mirror studies in healthy controls that demonstrated no relationship between performance on the two tasks(Jaeggi et al., 2010; Kane et al., 2007. Thus although N-back tasks seem similar to traditional complex span measures and may also index abilities related to cognitive processing, the evidence to date does not warrant their direct association with the construct of WM. Implications for future investigation of cognitive deficits in aphasia will be discussed.

  15. Long span cable supported bridges - present technology and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The activity within the field of long-span cable supported bridges has never been larger than at the end of the 20th century. The technology is well advanced to cope with the present challenges but it is also approaching its limits so if the trend towards ever increasing spans continues...

  16. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  17. Headed tone spans: Binarity and minimal overlap | Key | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a theoretical framework for tone that builds on the Headed Spans theory of assimilation. We propose that spans have two important properties, which we term binarity and minimal overlap. Cilungu (Bantu, Zambia) exhibits a process of binary H tone spreading onto the following mora, and then onto the following ...

  18. Measuring Boundary-Spanning Behaviors in Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Jordan, Jenny W.; Mull, Casey D.; Valentine, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement professionals and partners serve as, work with, study, and build the capacity of boundary spanners. To augment knowledge about these functions, the Weerts-Sandmann Boundary Spanning Conceptual Framework (2010) has been operationalized through a survey instrument to examine community engagement boundary-spanning behaviors by…

  19. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  20. Increasing Endurance by Building Fluency: Precision Teaching Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Precision teaching techniques can be used to chart students' attention span or endurance. Individual differences in attention span can then be better understood and dealt with effectively. The effects of performance duration on performance level, on error rates, and on learning rates are discussed. Implications for classroom practice are noted.…

  1. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the paper holds that amongst other things, the life span approach helps us to gain an understanding of our own history, as an infant, a child, an adolescent or a young adult – Finally, the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will ...

  2. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and

  3. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  4. Putting things into perspective: individual differences in working-memory span and the integration of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2005-01-01

    An important function of working memory is the integration of incoming information into an appropriate model of the contextual situation. We hypothesized that individual variability in working-memory function (estimated using Engle's operation-span measure) may lead to differential reactivity to a changing context. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and reaction-time measures to stimuli embedded in long stimulus series (two auditory discrimination tasks), and examined the participants' responses in relation to how the current stimuli fit with the context generated by the previous stimuli. In both tasks, participants with low working-memory span scores showed larger brain responses as a function of variations in the local stimulus sequence than participants with high span scores. These data suggest that the low working-memory span group is more affected by the local stimulus sequence than the high span group, possibly because they are more easily swayed by ongoing changes and are therefore less capable of maintaining their attention on the overall sequence.

  5. Elevated core-fucosylated IgG is a new marker for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang-Hong; Weng, Hong-Lei; Zhou, Fei-Guo; Fang, Meng; Ji, Jun; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Hao; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglubulin G (IgG) and its abnormal glycosylations are associated with carcinogenesis. The present study investigates the relationship between cancer-derived IgG and clinicopathological characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and assesses the value of serum N-glycosylated IgG in diagnosing and monitoring hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Tissue microarray analysis of 90 HCC tissues showed that HCC patients with IgG immunopositivity had higher levels of core-fucosylated α fetoprotein (AFP-L3), larger tumors, and a higher incidence of portal vein tumor thrombus. HCC-derived IgG stimulated the growth of liver cancer cells in vitro. HCC patients presented a significantly increased fraction of Lens culinaris agglutinin binding IgG (core-fucosylated IgG, IgG-L3) among total serum IgG. The clinical diagnostic performance of serum IgG-L3% was evaluated in 3 case-control studies (1 training set and 2 validation cohorts), including 293 patients with HCC, 131 with liver cirrhosis, 132 HBV carriers, and 151 healthy controls. IgG-L3% had better general diagnostic performance than AFP in the training set and validation cohort 1 (accuracy: 81.33–85.11% versus 63.33–78.61%). In validation cohort 2, where we aimed to assess the efficiency of IgG-L3% in patients with AFP-negative HCC, the diagnostic accuracy of IgG-L3% was 72.54–73.60%. Finally, a longitudinal evaluation based on 31 HCC patients demonstrated that IgG-L3% decreased in 24 patients after curative surgery. The remaining 7 patients showed elevated IgG-L3% and post-operative recurrence. HCC patients with higher IgG-L3% had poor survival during a 3-year follow up. We conclude that HCC-derived IgG is correlated with progressive behavior of HCC. Therefore, elevated core-fucosylated IgG is a new diagnostic and prognostic marker in HBV-related HCC. PMID:26587313

  6. Favorable outcome of Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder complicated by immunoglobulin G4-related disease treated with rituximab-based therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koki; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Sukegawa, Masumi; Sano, Takahiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yuko; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-08-24

    After acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells survive but usually do not show clonal proliferation. However, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells occasionally acquire a proliferative capacity that provokes clonal lymphoproliferative disorders. We herein present a case with Epstein-Barr virus-infected CD30+ B cell and immunoglobulin G4+ plasmacytoid cell proliferation in the lymph nodes, suggesting a pathological and clinical interaction between Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease has been recognized as a benign disease with proliferation of IgG4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells. Several studies have recently reported the coexistence of immunoglobulin G4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in lymph nodes in some immunoglobulin G4-related disease cases. However, the pathogenic role of the clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in immunoglobulin G4-related disease, as well as the treatments for patients with both Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and immunoglobulin G4-related disease, have never been discussed. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to us for persistent fatigue and lymphadenopathy. His blood examination showed elevated IgG4, and detected high levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. A lymph node biopsy revealed IgG4+ plasmacytoid cells and infiltration of large lymphoid cells, which were positive for CD20, CD30, Epstein-Barr virus-related late membrane protein 1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, and were negative for IgG4. Based on the diagnosis of both Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and IgG4-related disease, the patient received eight cycles of rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, which resulted in the complete disappearance of lymphadenopathy. Moreover, his serum IgG4 level was significantly

  7. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Fumio, E-mail: fnomura@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University and Divisions of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Noda, Kenta; Seimiya, Masanori; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Miura, Toshihide [Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University and Divisions of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Tomonaga, Takeshi [Laboratory of Proteome Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshitomi, Hideyuki [Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Imazeki, Fumio [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Hirotaka [Kashiwado Clinic in Port-Square of the Kashiwado Memorial Foundation, Chiba (Japan); Mogushi, Kaoru [Information Center for Medical Sciences, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Masaru [Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Ku86 in human liver cancer was shown by immunohistochemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 was significantly elevated in early hepatocellular carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-Ku86 may be more sensitive than the conventional markers for early detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 significantly decreased after surgical resection of liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevation of serum anti-Ku86 in other non-liver solid tumors was minimal. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Imaging studies including ultrasound and computed tomography are recommended for early detection of HCC, but they are operator dependent, costly and involve radiation. Therefore, there is a need for simple and sensitive serum markers for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our recent proteomic studies, a number of proteins overexpressed in HCC tissues were identified. We thought if the serum autoantibodies to these overexpressed proteins were detectable in HCC patients. Of these proteins, we focused on Ku86, a nuclear protein involved in multiple biological processes and aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serum anti-Ku86 in the early detection of HCC. Serum samples were obtained prior to treatment from 58 consecutive patients with early or relatively early hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC and 137 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis without evidence of HCC. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure serum levels of autoantibodies. Serum levels of anti-Ku86 antibodies were significantly elevated in HCC patients compared to those in liver cirrhosis patients (0.41 {+-} 0.28 vs. 0.18 {+-} 0.08 Abs at 450 nm, P < 0001). Setting the cut-off level to give 90% specificity, anti-Ku86 was positive in 60.7% of

  8. Insights into intercontinental spread of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dachao; Leung, Ross Ka Kit; Lee, Shui Shan; Kam, Kai Man

    2017-01-01

    The epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in South America has led to World Health Organization's declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To further inform effective public health policy, an understanding of ZIKV's transmission mechanisms is crucial. To characterize the intercontinental transmission of ZIKV, we compiled and analyzed more than 250 gene sequences together with their sequence-related geographic and temporal information, sampled across 27 countries spanning from 1947 to 2016. After filtering and selecting appropriate sequences, extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed. Although phylogeographic reconstruction supported the transmission route of the virus in Africa, South-eastern Asia, Oceania and Latin America, we discovered that the Eastern Africa origin of ZIKV was disputable. On a molecular level, purifying selection was found to be largely responsible for the evolution of non-structural protein 5 and envelope protein E. Our dataset and ancestral sequences reconstruction analysis captured previously unidentified amino acid changes during evolution. Finally, based on the estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestors for the non-structural protein 5 gene, we hypothesized potential specific historic events that occurred in the 1940s and might have facilitated the spread of Zika virus from Africa to South-eastern Asia. Our findings provide new insights into the transmission characteristics of ZIKV, while further genetic and serologic studies are warranted to support the design of tailored prevention strategies.

  9. Insights into intercontinental spread of Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachao Liang

    Full Text Available The epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in South America has led to World Health Organization's declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To further inform effective public health policy, an understanding of ZIKV's transmission mechanisms is crucial. To characterize the intercontinental transmission of ZIKV, we compiled and analyzed more than 250 gene sequences together with their sequence-related geographic and temporal information, sampled across 27 countries spanning from 1947 to 2016. After filtering and selecting appropriate sequences, extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed. Although phylogeographic reconstruction supported the transmission route of the virus in Africa, South-eastern Asia, Oceania and Latin America, we discovered that the Eastern Africa origin of ZIKV was disputable. On a molecular level, purifying selection was found to be largely responsible for the evolution of non-structural protein 5 and envelope protein E. Our dataset and ancestral sequences reconstruction analysis captured previously unidentified amino acid changes during evolution. Finally, based on the estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestors for the non-structural protein 5 gene, we hypothesized potential specific historic events that occurred in the 1940s and might have facilitated the spread of Zika virus from Africa to South-eastern Asia. Our findings provide new insights into the transmission characteristics of ZIKV, while further genetic and serologic studies are warranted to support the design of tailored prevention strategies.

  10. Discrimination between dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies viruses in Brazil by strain-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikako; Itou, Takuya; Shoji, Youko; Sakai, Takeo; Ito, Fumio H; Arai, Yohko T; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro

    2003-04-01

    There is a geographical overlap between the two main rabies epidemiological cycles maintained by dogs and vampire bats in Latin America. The geographical and temporal coincidence of rabies outbreaks of respective origins is not unusual in rural areas of Latin America. These circumstances make it difficult to discriminate the intraspecies and interspecies transmission pathways of rabies. This study was conducted to develop techniques to discriminate dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies virus isolates (DRRV and VRRV, respectively) in Brazil. The 1396 nucleotides of the nucleoprotein gene of a total of 27 DRRV and VRRV were sequenced. Strain-specific (SS) primers were developed based on these sequences. Forty-nine rabies virus strains isolated from animals and humans in several parts of Brazil were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with SS primers. These rabies viruses were also amplified by RT-PCR with general rabies primers and the PCR products were cut by three restriction enzymes, Blp I, Bsu36 I and BspE I. All the DRRV and VRRV were distinguished by RT-PCR with SS primers. The PCR products obtained from DRRV were cut at one site by Blp I, but not by Bsu36 I. The PCR products obtained from VRRV were cut at one or two sites by Bsu36 I, but not by Blp I. Blp I and Bsu36 I clearly discriminated DRRV and VRRV in restriction fragment length polymorphysim (RFLP) assays. The results of SS RT-PCR and RFLP were consistent. SS RT-PCR and RFLP assays have been developed for determining the origins of rabies virus isolates in Brazil. These assays are simple and rapid, and will be useful for identifying the rabies virus reservoirs of field isolates in Brazil, especially when used together.

  11. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturing<span class=SpellE>Penaeus<span class=SpellE>monodon

  12. EPIPOX: Immunoinformatic Characterization of the Shared T-Cell Epitome between Variola Virus and Related Pathogenic Orthopoxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero-Abraham, Magdalena; Glutting, John-Paul; Flower, Darren R.; Lafuente, Esther M.; Reche, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns that variola viruses might be used as bioweapons have renewed the interest in developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction. We recognized 8,106, and 8,483 unique class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes that are shared by all mentioned orthopoxviruses. Subsequently, we developed an immunological resource, EPIPOX, upon the predicted T-cell epitome. EPIPOX is freely available online and it has been designed to facilitate reverse vaccinology. Thus, EPIPOX includes key epitope-focused protein annotations: time point expression, presence of leader and transmembrane signals, and known location on outer membrane structures of the infective viruses. These features can be used to select specific T-cell epitopes suitable for experimental validation restricted by single MHC alleles, as combinations thereof, or by MHC supertypes. PMID:26605344

  13. Molecular characterization of genetic variation related to pea enation mosaic virus resistance in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genetically diverse lentil germplasm with resistance to pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) through combined approach of molecular marker analysis and phenotyping could prove useful in breeding programs. A total of 44 lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) accessions, were screened for resista...

  14. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  15. HIV-associated lymphoma: histopathology and association with Epstein-Barr virus genome related to clinical, immunological and prognostic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1991-01-01

    (6)/l, P less than 0.05), and more often a history of previous AIDS-defining illnesses (50% vs. 0%, P less than 0.005), compared with patients with Burkitt-type lymphomas. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was demonstrated in 14 of 19 immunoblast-rich tumours, and in 2 of 7 Burkitt-type lymphomas (P = 0...

  16. Antiviral agents in hepatitis B virus transfected cell lines: Inhibitory and cytotoxic effect related to time of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kruining; R.A. Heijtink; S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe antiviral and cytotoxic effects of ara-arabinoside monophosphate, 2′,3′, dideoxy-cytidine, ganciclovir, 9-2(-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine, 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine and recombinant interferon-alpha were studied using two human hepatitis B virus transfected hepatoma cell lines,

  17. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Interventions for treating patients with chikungunya virus infection-related rheumatic and musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martí-Carvajal

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV is caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus. CHIKV causes high fever and painful rheumatic disorders that may persist for years. Because little is known about interventions for treating CHIKV-related illness, we conducted a systematic review.We used Cochrane methods. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS and other sources from the earliest records to March 2016. We had no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials assessing any intervention for treating acute or chronic CHIKV-related illness. Our primary outcomes were pain relief, global health status (GHS or health related quality of life (HRQL, and serious adverse events (SAEs. We assessed bias risk with the Cochrane tool and used GRADE to assess evidence quality.We screened 2,229 records and found five small trials with a total of 402 participants. Patients receiving chloroquine (CHQ had better chronic pain relief than those receiving placebo (relative risk [RR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23 to 5.77, N = 54, but acute pain relief was marginally not different between groups (mean difference [MD] 1.46, 95% CI 0.00 to 2.92, N = 54. SAEs were similar (RR = 15.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 250.24, N = 54. Comparing CHQ with paracetamol (PCM, CHQ patients had better pain relief (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.93, N = 86. Compared with hydroxychloroquine (HCHQ, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs reduced pain (MD = -14.80, 95% CI -19.12 to -10.48, N = 72. DMARDs patients had less disability (MD = -0.74, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.56, N = 72 and less disease activity (MD = -1.35; 95% CI -1.70 to -1.00; N = 72. SAEs were similar between DMARDs and HCHQ groups (RR = 2.84, 95% CI 0.12 to 67.53, N = 72. Comparing meloxicam (MXM with CHQ, there was no difference in pain relief (MD = 0.24, 95% CI = -0.81 to 1.29; p = 0.65, N = 70, GHS or HRQL (MD = -0.31, 95% CI -2.06 to 1.44, N = 70 or SAEs (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.42, N = 70. Finally

  19. Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreassen Ashild

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is among the most important vector borne diseases of humans in Europe and is currently identified as a major health problem in many countries. TBE endemic zones have expanded over the past two decades, as well as the number of reported cases within endemic areas. Multiple factors are ascribed for the increased incidence of TBE, including climatic change. The number of TBE cases has also increased in Norway over the past decade, and the human cases cluster along the southern coast of Norway. In Norway the distribution and prevalence of TBE virus (TBEV in tick populations is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the TBEV prevalence in Ixodes ricinus from seven locations and to assess the relationship between the TBEV prevalence and site-specific climatic variables. Methods A total of 5630 questing nymphs were collected and analyzed in pools of ten. All pools were screened with an in-house real-time RT-PCR, and the positive pools were pyrosequenced. Two methods, minimum infection rate (MIR and a frequentist method (EPP for pooled prevalence estimations were calculated and compared. Climatic data were descriptively compared to the corresponding EPP of each location in order to explain variations in TBEV prevalence. Results The seven foci of TBEV had an estimated overall prevalence (EPP in pools of nymphs combined, of 0.53% with 95% CI (0.35–0.75, with point prevalence ranging between 0.11%–1.22%. The sites with the highest point prevalences were within the municipalities which had the highest numbers of registered TBE cases. The results indicate that the location with highest point prevalence had the highest relative mean humidity and lowest mean saturation deficit and vice versa for the lowest EPP. Conclusion Our study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci in Norway. These results are of importance to increase the awareness of TBEV infections in Norway and could be

  20. Impact of pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems and laboratory markers in outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa; Carnevale, Renata Cavalcanti; Rodrigues, Aline Teotonio; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Moriel, Patricia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2014-01-01

    Background Substantial complexity has been introduced into treatment regimens for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many drug-related problems (DRPs) are detected in these patients, such as low adherence, therapeutic inefficacy, and safety issues. We evaluated the impact of pharmacist interventions on CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, and DRPs in patients with HIV infection. Methods In this 18-month prospective controlled study, 90 outpatients were selected by convenience sampling from the Hospital Dia–University of Campinas Teaching Hospital (Brazil). Forty-five patients comprised the pharmacist intervention group and 45 the control group; all patients had HIV infection with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pharmaceutical appointments were conducted based on the Pharmacotherapy Workup method, although DRPs and pharmacist intervention classifications were modified for applicability to institutional service limitations and research requirements. Pharmacist interventions were performed immediately after detection of DRPs. The main outcome measures were DRPs, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and HIV viral load. Results After pharmacist intervention, DRPs decreased from 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] =4.1–6.2) to 4.2 (95% CI =3.3–5.1) per patient (P=0.043). A total of 122 pharmacist interventions were proposed, with an average of 2.7 interventions per patient. All the pharmacist interventions were accepted by physicians, and among patients, the interventions were well accepted during the appointments, but compliance with the interventions was not measured. A statistically significant increase in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the intervention group was found (260.7 cells/mm3 [95% CI =175.8–345.6] to 312.0 cells/mm3 [95% CI =23.5–40.6], P=0.015), which was not observed in the control group. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding HIV viral load. Conclusion This study suggests that pharmacist

  1. Personal computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, C.; Martella, G. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dell' Informazione)

    1991-01-01

    This article reveals the origin and nature of what is known as the 'computer virus'. For illustrative purposes, the most common types of computer viruses are described and classified; the relative contagion and damage mechanisms are analyzed. Then techniques are presented to assist wary users in detecting and removing viruses, as well as, in protecting their computer systems from becoming contaminated.

  2. The visual attention span deficit in Chinese children with reading fluency difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit. Further analyses on d' values revealed that the attention distribution seemed to exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern without lateralization for normal readers, but a W-shaped pattern with a rightward bias for children with RFD, which was discussed based on between-group variation in reading strategies. Results of the correlation analyses showed that visual attention span was associated with reading fluency at the sentence level for normal readers, but was related to reading fluency at the single-character level for children with RFD. The different patterns in correlations between groups revealed that visual attention span might be affected by the variation in reading strategies. The current findings extend previous data from alphabetic languages to Chinese, a logographic language with a particularly deep orthography, and have implications for reading-dysfluency remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstration of almost octave-spanning cascaded four-wave mixing in optical microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Zhao, Y Y; Wang, L J

    2012-08-15

    We demonstrate almost octave-spanning cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM) in optical microfibers. Pumped by two synchronized picosecond lasers at about 850 nm, microfibers with a length of 10-20 cm can generate CFWM spanning from a few hundred nanometers to almost one octave, depending on the diameter of the microfibers and the detuning between the two pumps. CFWM in microfibers, which has the advantages of easy fabrication, highly efficient coupling, relatively short length, and easy integration with fiber systems, can be used for applications in widely tunable multiline phase-sensitive amplification, multiwavelength coherent sources, and ultrashort pulse synthesis.

  4. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  5. Life-span changes in P3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2004-07-01

    The relationship of visual P3a to age was investigated in a life-span sample. The aims of the study were (1) to assess to what extent P3a, relative to P3b, decreases with increasing age; (2) To assess at which recording sites the relationship between P3a and age is strongest; (3) to investigate whether the relationship between P3a and age is best described as linear or nonlinear. One hundred and three well-functioning adults, 20-92 years old, were given a health interview, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and performed a visual three-stimuli oddball ERP task yielding both a P3a and a P3b. P3a and age was moderately correlated, with coefficients reaching.53 (Cz) and -.52 (Pz) for latency and amplitude, respectively. P3b was to a much lesser extent related to age. Generally, the age-P3a relationship was strongest at midline and central electrodes. Finally, the relationship between age and P3a was best described as linear. P3a seems selectively more impaired with age than P3b, but this impairment seems less pronounced at Fz than at Cz and Pz. There is a need for complex theoretical integration of these and previous findings.

  6. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerger, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  7. Optimisation by Selection and Compensation: Balancing Primary and Secondary Control in Life Span Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Schulz, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Discusses individuals as producers of their life span developments, and examines individuals' selection of their life paths and their proneness to failure. Considers a model that explains individuals' optimization of their life course management in terms of selection of life paths and compensation for age-related losses such that potential for…

  8. Minimal Spanning Tree Graphs and Power Like Scaling in FOREX Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, A. Z.; Kwapień, J.; Oświęcimka, P.; Drożdż, S.

    2008-09-01

    Correlation matrices of foreign exchange rate time series are investigated for 60 world currencies. Minimal spanning tree graphs for the gold, silver and platinum are presented. Inverse power like scaling is discussed for these graphs as well as for four distinct currency groups (major, liquid, less liquid and non-tradable). The worst scaling was found for USD and related currencies.

  9. Examining Unusual Digit Span Performance in a Population of Postsecondary Students Assessed for Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Rosenblum, Yoni; Currie, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Methods of identifying poor test-related motivation using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subtest are based on identification of performance patterns that are implausible if the test taker is investing full effort. No studies to date, however, have examined the specificity of such measures, particularly when evaluating persons…

  10. Examining Boundary-Spanning Leadership in University-School-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics and influences of boundary-spanning leadership in university-school-community partnership contexts. To gain a clear understanding of the diffuse literature in this area, over 60 related articles and books were reviewed; common themes were identified; and emergent connections were drawn. The most common…

  11. The Private and Common Benefits of Spanning Structural Holes within the MNE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärber, Lisa Katarina; Pedersen, Torben; Rogbeer, Shalini

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that spanning structural holes creates private benefits through innovation. However, the extent to which other network members profit from spanning structural holes remains unclear. This research considers how subunits that span structural holes within the MNE network reap...... private benefits in terms of innovation, as well as contribute to the common network benefits through knowledge outflows. Acknowledging that a direct relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation exists, we use a 3SLS model to elucidate the various individual and simultaneous links among brokerage......, innovation and knowledge outflows. In this way, we decompose some of the ways in which brokerage simultaneously affects knowledge outflows and innovation to map out the private and common benefits of brokering within the MNE network. We find that brokerage is indeed positively related to innovation...

  12. The maximum weight spanning star forest problem on cactus graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A star is a graph in which some node is incident with every edge of the graph, i.e., a graph of diameter at most 2. A star forest is a graph in which each connected component is a star. Given a connected graph G in which the edges may be weighted positively. A spanning star forest of G is a subgraph of G which is a star forest spanning the nodes of G. The size of a spanning star forest F of G is defined to be the number of edges of F if G is unweighted and the total we...

  13. The predominance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 02 (CRF02_AG in West Central Africa may be related to its replicative fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butel Christelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G were obtained from a well-described Cameroonian cohort. Growth competition experiments were carried out at equal multiplicity of infection in activated T cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DC in parallel. Results Dual infection/competition experiments in activated T cells clearly indicated that CRF02_AG isolates had a significant replication advantage over the subtype A and subtype G viruses. The higher fitness of CRF02_AG was evident for isolates from patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/μL (non-AIDS or CD4+ T cell counts Conclusion We observed a higher ex vivo replicative fitness of CRF02_AG isolates compared to subtype A and G viruses from the same geographic region and showed that this was independent of the co-receptor tropism and irrespective of high or low CD4+ T cell count. This advantage in replicative fitness may contribute to the dominant spread of CRF02_AG over A and G subtypes in West and West Central Africa.

  14. Gain of virulence by Soybean mosaic virus on Rsv4-genotype soybeans is associated with a relative fitness loss in a susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Hajimorad, M R

    2016-09-01

    'Gene-for-gene' theory predicts that gain of virulence by an avirulent pathogen on plants expressing resistance (R) genes is associated with fitness loss in susceptible hosts. However, the validity of this prediction has been studied in only a few plant viral pathosystems. In this study, the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-Rsv4 pathosystem was exploited to test this prediction. In Rsv4-genotype soybeans, P3 of avirulent SMV strains provokes an as yet uncharacterized resistance mechanism that restricts the invading virus to the inoculated leaves. A single amino acid substitution in P3 functionally converts an avirulent to a virulent strain, suggesting that the genetic composition of P3 plays a crucial role in virulence on Rsv4-genotype soybeans. In this study, we examined the impact of gain of virulence mutation(s) on the fitness of virulent variants derived from three avirulent SMV strains in a soybean genotype lacking the Rsv4 gene. Our data demonstrate that gain of virulence mutation(s) by all avirulent viruses on Rsv4-genotype soybean is associated with a relative fitness loss in a susceptible host. The implications of this finding on the durable deployment of the Rsv4 gene in soybean are discussed. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2003-06-01

    Infection of baboons (Papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infection of humans. The development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on HVP-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. In order to characterize the molecular biology of HVP-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the HVP-2 genome. The results of these studies have identified the presence of 26 reading frames that closely resemble HSV homologues. Furthermore, the HVP-2 genome shares a collinear arrangement with the genome of HSV. These studies further validate the development of the HVP-2 model as a surrogate system to study the biology of HSV infections.

  16. Performance Comparison between Optimised Camber and Span for a Morphing Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Simon Beaverstock

    2015-09-01

    planform, the camber change required for optimum performance is only a 5% trailing edge tip deflection relative to cross-sectional chord length. Span morphing, at the optimal mission velocity range, with 25% allowable retraction, can allow up to a 12% increase in mass before no performance advantage is observed, where the camber morphing only allows up to 3%. This provides the designer with a mass budget that must be achieved for morphing to be viable to increase the mission performance.

  17. Some Attenuated Variants of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Show Enhanced Oncolytic Activity against Human Glioblastoma Cells relative to Normal Brain Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wollmann, Guido; Rogulin, Vitaliy; Simon, Ian; Rose, John K.; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2009-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been shown in laboratory studies to be effective against a variety of tumors, including malignant brain tumors. However, attenuation of VSV may be necessary to balance the potential toxicity toward normal cells, particularly when targeting brain tumors. Here we compared 10 recombinant VSV variants resulting from different attenuation strategies. Attenuations included gene shifting (VSV-p1-GFP/RFP), M protein mutation (VSV-M51), G protein cytoplasmic tail t...

  18. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Regulation, Functions, and Underlying Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Lipeng; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xiuquan; Wu, Yihang; Tang, Qi; Chen, Keping

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its X gene-encoded protein (HBx) play important roles in the progression of HCC. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) cannot encode proteins, growing evidence indicates that they play essential roles in HCC progression, and contribute to cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, autophagy, and apoptosis by targeting a large number of pivota...

  19. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

    2010-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for "exotic" viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km(2), i.e. 42%) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km(2), i.e. by 89%.

  20. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  1. Plate tectonics of virus shell assembly and reorganization in phage φ8, a distant relative of mammalian reoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Kamel; Sutton, Geoff; Ravantti, Janne J; Zhang, Hanwen; Walter, Thomas S; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bamford, Dennis H; Stuart, David I; Mancini, Erika J

    2013-08-06

    The hallmark of a virus is its capsid, which harbors the viral genome and is formed from protein subunits, which assemble following precise geometric rules. dsRNA viruses use an unusual protein multiplicity (120 copies) to form their closed capsids. We have determined the atomic structure of the capsid protein (P1) from the dsRNA cystovirus Φ8. In the crystal P1 forms pentamers, very similar in shape to facets of empty procapsids, suggesting an unexpected assembly pathway that proceeds via a pentameric intermediate. Unlike the elongated proteins used by dsRNA mammalian reoviruses, P1 has a compact trapezoid-like shape and a distinct arrangement in the shell, with two near-identical conformers in nonequivalent structural environments. Nevertheless, structural similarity with the analogous protein from the mammalian viruses suggests a common ancestor. The unusual shape of the molecule may facilitate dramatic capsid expansion during phage maturation, allowing P1 to switch interaction interfaces to provide capsid plasticity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EPIPOX: Immunoinformatic Characterization of the Shared T-Cell Epitome between Variola Virus and Related Pathogenic Orthopoxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Molero-Abraham

    2015-01-01

    developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction. We recognized 8,106, and 8,483 unique class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes that are shared by all mentioned orthopoxviruses. Subsequently, we developed an immunological resource, EPIPOX, upon the predicted T-cell epitome. EPIPOX is freely available online and it has been designed to facilitate reverse vaccinology. Thus, EPIPOX includes key epitope-focused protein annotations: time point expression, presence of leader and transmembrane signals, and known location on outer membrane structures of the infective viruses. These features can be used to select specific T-cell epitopes suitable for experimental validation restricted by single MHC alleles, as combinations thereof, or by MHC supertypes.

  3. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  4. El citoesqueleto en la infección con virus dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Díaz Castrillón

    2004-03-01

    de vimentina cambian su patrón reticular, formando prolongaciones celulares en donde se detecta aglomeración de haces con un aumento en inmunorreactividad.

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">Estos hallazgos son compatibles con el efecto citopático del DV, pero se requieren anticuerpos que marquen específicamente los viriones, para poder vislumbrar la posible interacción entre el citoesqueleto y los virus. Estamos probando otros anticuerpos, y esperamos lograr detectar con más detalle este fenómeno. Las perspectivas son promisorias y nos darán aportes originales, pues hasta ahora no hay reportes al respecto. Además, estos datos pueden ser de utilidad para comprender la patogénesis del dengue desde la perspectiva de la biología celular.

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">REFERENCIAS

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">1. ARCANGELETTI MC, PINARDI F, MISSORINI S, DE CONTO F, CONTI G, PORTINCASA P, SCHERRER K, CHEZZI C. 1997. Modification of cytoskeleton and prosome networks in relation to protein synthesis in influenza A virus-infected LLC-MK2 cells. <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">Virus Res. 51: 19-34.

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">2. GALLEGO-GÓMEZ, J.C. 2003. El Dengue Hemorrágico: Emergencia, Re-emergencia y Globalización de la Pobreza. Simposio Anual “Tópicos en Enfermedades Infecciosas” del Depto. Microb. Parasit., Fac. Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Septiembre 24.

    <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">3. GALLEGO-GÓMEZ, J.C., et al. <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Arial">“Vaccinia Virus and their Attenuated Mutants induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition” XIV th International Poxvirus and Iridovirus Workshop Lake

  5. USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  6. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963

  7. Study Looks At Parkinson's Effect on Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165589.html Study Looks at Parkinson's Effect on Life Span 2-year difference seen ... HealthDay News) -- People with brain diseases such as Parkinson's and dementia with Lewy bodies die about two ...

  8. Anti-cytokinspan>e autoantibodies in postherpetic neuralgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayat, Ahmad; Burbelo, Peter D; Browne, Sarah K; Quinlivan, Mark; Martinez, Bianca; Holland, Steven M; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Mannes, Andrew J; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    ...), a debilitating chronic pain condition, have not been fully elucidated. Based on previous studies identifying a causative role for anti-cytokinspan>e autoantibodies in patients with opportunistic infections, we explored this possibility in PHN...

  9. Young Skilled Deaf Readers Have an Enhanced Perceptual Span in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Nathalie N; Lee, Michelle; Schotter, Elizabeth R

    2017-04-27

    Recently, Bélanger, Slattery, Mayberry and Rayner (2012) showed, using the moving window paradigm, that profoundly deaf adults have a wider perceptual span during reading relative to hearing adults matched on reading level. This difference might be related to the fact that deaf adults allocate more visual attention to simple stimuli in the parafovea (Bavelier, Dye & Hauser, 2006). Importantly, this reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals is already manifesting in deaf children (Dye, Hauser & Bavelier, 2009). This leads to questions about the time course of the emergence of an enhanced perceptual span (which is under attentional control; Rayner, 2014; Miellet, O'Donnell, & Sereno, 2009) in young deaf readers. The present research addressed this question by comparing the perceptual spans of young deaf readers (age 7-15) and young hearing children (age 7-15). Young deaf readers, like deaf adults, were found to have a wider perceptual span relative to their hearing peers matched on reading level, suggesting that strong and early reorganization of visual attention in deaf individuals goes beyond the processing of simple visual stimuli and emerges into more cognitively complex tasks, such as reading.

  10. Completely Independent Spanning Trees in (Partial k-Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsushita Masayoshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two spanning trees T1 and T2 of a graph G are completely independent if, for any two vertices u and v, the paths from u to v in T1 and T2 are internally disjoint. For a graph G, we denote the maximum number of pairwise completely independent spanning trees by cist(G. In this paper, we consider cist(G when G is a partial k-tree.

  11. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  12. Concepts and new perspectives for long span bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brancaleoni Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the dominant factors affecting the behaviour of long span cable supported bridges is the subject of this paper. The main issue is the evolution of properties and response of the bridge with the size of the structure, represented by the critical parameter of span length, showing how this affects the conceptual design. After a review of the present state of the art, perspectives for future developments are discussed.

  13. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  15. The eye movements of dyslexic children during reading and visual search: impact of the visual attention span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Chloé; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-09-01

    The eye movements of 14 French dyslexic children having a VA span reduction and 14 normal readers were compared in two tasks of visual search and text reading. The dyslexic participants made a higher number of rightward fixations in reading only. They simultaneously processed the same low number of letters in both tasks whereas normal readers processed far more letters in reading. Importantly, the children's VA span abilities related to the number of letters simultaneously processed in reading. The atypical eye movements of some dyslexic readers in reading thus appear to reflect difficulties to increase their VA span according to the task request.

  16. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  17. Management of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar/span>s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edriss, A.S.; Mesták, J.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Scar management for the prevention of excessive scar formation has always been important but never so important as it is today. Optimal management continues to be an enigma for surgeons, and the best modality of treatment has been debated for many years. However, most studies have unfortunately been either retrospective or case report descriptions. Advances in scar management have been hampered by confusing or ambiguous terminology. There is no consensus on what amount of post-traumatic skin scar formation is "normal" and what should be considered "hypertrophic". In the World Health Organization's ICD-9, there is no diagnostic code for hypertrophic scar - only keloid is listed. Yet the medical and scientific literature distinguishes them as different conditions. This confusion results in inappropriate management of scar formation, and occasionally contributes to decision making related to elective or cosmetic surgery. Our experience suggests that there is no single treatment for scars that is adequate and that clinical judgement is very important when considering treatment and balancing the potential benefits of the various treatments available. The goal of treating scars is to restore functionality, provide relief of symptoms, enhance cosmetics, and prevent recurrence. This article is based on our scientific and clinical experiences and focuses on over-the-counter options to manage keloid and hypertrophic scar/span>s. PMID:21991008

  18. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    mink coronavirus (MCV) seems to be widespread in the Danish mink population with a prevalence approaching 100%. Analysis by immunoblotting has shown that MCV is closely related to TGEV by the spike (S), matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) polypeptides. Furthermore, antibodies to MCV also cross...

  19. Genomewide analysis of reassortment and evolution of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulating between 1968 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgeest, Kim B; Russell, Colin A; Lin, Xudong; Spronken, Monique I J; Bestebroer, Theo M; Bahl, Justin; van Beek, Ruud; Skepner, Eugene; Halpin, Rebecca A; de Jong, Jan C; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smith, Derek J; Wentworth, David E; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Graaf, Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Influenza A(H3N2) viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 virus pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. These viruses evolve continuously by reassortment and genomic evolution. Antigenic drift is the cause for the need to update influenza vaccines frequently. Using two data sets that span the entire period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses, it was shown that influenza A(H3N2) virus evolution can be mapped to 13 antigenic clusters. Here we analyzed the full genomes of 286 influenza A(H3N2) viruses from these two data sets to investigate the genomic evolution and reassortment patterns. Numerous reassortment events were found, scattered over the entire period of virus circulation, but most prominently in viruses circulating between 1991 and 1998. Some of these reassortment events persisted over time, and one of these coincided with an antigenic cluster transition. Furthermore, selection pressures and nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates of all proteins were studied, including those of the recently discovered PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, and PA-N182 proteins. Rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were most pronounced for the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1-F2 proteins. Selection pressures were highest in hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix 1, and nonstructural protein 1. This study of genotype in relation to antigenic phenotype throughout the period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses leads to a better understanding of the evolution of these viruses. Each winter, influenza virus infects approximately 5 to 15% of the world's population, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses evolve continuously by reassortment and genomic evolution. This leads to changes in antigenic recognition (antigenic drift) which make it necessary to update vaccines against influenza A(H3N2) viruses frequently. In this study, the relationship of genetic evolution

  20. A Novel DNA Motif Contributes to Selective Replication of a Geminivirus-Associated Betasatellite by a Helper Virus-Encoded Replication-Related Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Xu, Xiongbiao; Huang, Changjun; Qian, Yajuan; Li, Zhenghe; Zhou, Xueping

    2015-12-09

    Rolling-circle replication of single-stranded genomes of plant geminiviruses is initiated by sequence-specific DNA binding of the viral replication-related protein (Rep) to its cognate genome at the replication origin. Monopartite begomovirus-associated betasatellites can be trans replicated by both cognate and some noncognate helper viruses, but the molecular basis of replication promiscuity of betasatellites remains uncharacterized. Earlier studies showed that when tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) or tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) is coinoculated with both cognate and noncognate betasatellites, the cognate betasatellite dominates over the noncognate one at the late stages of infection. In this study, we constructed reciprocal chimeric betasatellites between tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite and tobacco curly shoot betasatellite and assayed their competitiveness against wild-type betasatellite when coinoculated with TYLCCNV or TbCSV onto plants. We mapped a region immediately upstream of the conserved rolling-circle cruciform structure of betasatellite origin that confers the cognate Rep-mediated replication advantage over the noncognate satellite. DNase I protection and in vitro binding assays further identified a novel sequence element termed Rep-binding motif (RBM), which specifically binds to the cognate Rep protein and to the noncognate Rep, albeit at lower affinity. Furthermore, we showed that RBM-Rep binding affinity is correlated with betasatellite replication efficiency in protoplasts. Our data suggest that although strict specificity of Rep-mediated replication does not exist, betasatellites have adapted to their cognate Reps for efficient replication during coevolution. Begomoviruses are numerous circular DNA viruses that cause devastating diseases of crops worldwide. Monopartite begomoviruses are frequently associated with betasatellites which are essential for induction of typical disease symptoms. Coexistence of two distinct

  1. Upper airway viruses and bacteria detection in clinical pneumonia in a population with high nasal colonisation do not relate to clinical signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australian children have high (up to 90% rates of nasopharyngeal microbial colonisation and of hospitalisation for pneumonia. In Indigenous children hospitalised with pneumonia in Central Australia, we describe the nasopharyngeal detection of viruses and bacteria and assessed whether their presence related to signs of pneumonia (tachypnoea and/or chest in-drawing on hospital admission and during subsequent days. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS and data were prospectively collected from 145 children (median age = 23.5 months, interquartile range [IQR] 8.7–50 hospitalised with pneumonia at Alice Springs Hospital, Australia, between April 2001 and July 2002. The cohort was enrolled in a randomised controlled study using zinc and/or vitamin A supplementation. NPS were taken within 24 hours of hospitalisation and kept frozen at -80oC until analysed in 2014. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and 16 respiratory viruses. Uni- and multi-variate analyses were used to examine the relationships. One or more organisms were present in 137(94.5% NPS; 133(91.7% detected ³1 bacterium, 34(37.2% for ³1 virus and 50(34.5% were positive for both viruses and bacteria. C. pneumoniae (n = 3 and M. pneumoniae (n = 2 were rare. In multi-variate analyses, age <12 months (odds ratio [OR] 6.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.7–25.4] and fever (OR 4.1 [95% CI 1.7–10.4] were associated with tachypnoea and chest in-drawing. However the presence of bacteria and/or virus type was not associated with tachypnoea and/or chest in-drawing on admission or during recovery. In children with high nasopharyngeal microbial colonisation rates, the utility of NPS in determining the diagnosis of clinical pneumonia or duration of tachypnoea or in-drawing is likely limited. Larger cohort and case-control studies are required

  2. Linfomas asociados con la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: subtipos histológicos y asociación con los virus de Epstein Barr y Herpes-8 AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH constituyen la segunda neoplasia definitoria de Sida más frecuente. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron 48 casos de linfomas asociados con la enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV diagnosticados en la División Histopatología del Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas de la Academia Nacional de Medicina. Se incluyeron en la investigación 5 mujeres y 43 hombres con una mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico de la neoplasia de 37 años. La evaluación morfológica se realizó en cortes coloreados con hematoxilina-eosina, estudio inmunohistoquímico para la detección del virus de Epstein Barr (VEB en 48/48 casos, y mediante sonda oligonucleotídica biotinilada para la detección del ADN del Herpes virus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8 en 14/14 linfomas plasmoblásticos (LP. Todos fueron linfomas de fenotipo B, con un curso clínico agresivo y enfermedad neoplásica avanzada al momento del diagnóstico. Se pudo demostrar la fuerte asociación del VEB con los linfomas asociados al sida, con frecuencias que variaron según el subtipo histológico: 16/21 (76% para los linfomas difusos de grandes células; 1/3 casos (33% de linfomas de Burkitt y 3/4 (75% en los linfomas primarios del sistema nervioso central. Globalmente, el genoma del VEB se detectó en 20/28 (71% de las muestras de biopsias de LNH de esta serie. La detección del HHV-8 resultó negativa en los 14 LP. Los linfomas de Hodgkin fueron más frecuentes en varones,18/20 (90%, con un curso clínico agresivo y franco predominio de los subtipos histológicos de peor pronóstico (90% de casos. En estas neoplasias también se comprobó una frecuente asociación patogénica con el VEB (90% de casos.Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and AIDS. Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL diagnosed at the

  3. USE OF MEMBRANE EMULSION SPAN 80 AND TOPO IN URANIUM EXTRACTION AND STRIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT USE OF MEMBRANE EMULSION SPAN 80 AND TOPO IN URANIUM EXTRACTION AND STRIPPING. Membrane emulsion span 80 and TOPO used in uranium extraction and stripping has been done. The extraction was carried outby emulsion membrane H3PO4 in TOPO-Kerosene. The feed or external aqueous phase was uranium in  HNO3. The emulgator span-80 was used to obtain a stable emulsion membrane system. The influence factors were percentage of TOPO-Kerosene, time extraction,  molarity of external aqueous phase and  molarity of internal aqueous. After the emulsion membrane was formed, the extractionand stripping process was performed. The ratio volume feed : volume membrane phase equal to 1 : 1 and volume of 5 % TOPO-Kerosene : Volume 3 M H3PO4 equal 1 : 1 were used. The relative good yield were obtained at concentration of TOPO in Kerosene and 3 M H3PO4 was 5 %, molarity of internal aqueous phase equal to 1 M, molarity of external aqueous phase 3 M H3PO4 and time extraction equalto 10 minutes with the speed of emulsification was 8000 rpm. At this condition the extraction efficiency of uranium obtained was 97.8 %, the stripping efficiency 52.56 %, and the total efficiency was 53.80 %. Keywords: membrane emulsion, extraction, stripping, span 80, kerosene, uranium. ABSTRAK PENGGUNAAN MEMBRAN EMULSI SPAN 80 DAN TOPO UNTUK EKSTRASI DAN STRIPPING URANIUM. Telah dilakukan penelitian membran emulsi span 80 dan TOPO yang digunakan untuk ekstraksi uranium. Extraksi dengan membran emulsi H3PO4 dalam TOPO-Kerosen. Larutan umpan untuk fasa air eksternal adalah uranium dalam asam nitrat. Untuk memperoleh sistem emulsi yang stabil dipakai emulgator Span 80. Parameter yang berpengaruh adalah persen TOPO-Kerosene, molaritas fasa air internal H3PO4, molaritas fasa air eksternal HNO3 dan waktu ekstraksi. Setelah diperoleh membran emulsi, kemudian dilakukan proses ekstraksi dan stripping, dengan rasio volume umpan : volume membran sebesar 1 : 1; volume 5% TOPO-Kerose : volume 3M

  4. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wuerger

    Full Text Available It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185 covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1 Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2 Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  5. Quantitative analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related gene expression in patients with chronic active EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Seiko; Wada, Kaoru; Tobita, Satomi; Gotoh, Kensei; Ito, Yoshinori; Demachi-Okamura, Ayako; Shimizu, Norio; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by persistent or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms in patients with no known immunodeficiency. The detailed pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and no standard treatment regimen has been developed. EBV gene expression was analysed in peripheral blood samples collected from 24 patients with CAEBV infection. The expression levels of six latent and two lytic EBV genes were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. EBV-encoded small RNA 1 and BamHI-A rightward transcripts were abundantly detected in all patients, and latent membrane protein (LMP) 2 was observed in most patients. EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 and LMP1 were detected less frequently and were expressed at lower levels. EBNA2 and the two lytic genes were not detected in any of the patients. The pattern of latent gene expression was determined to be latency type II. EBNA1 was detected more frequently and at higher levels in the clinically active patients. Quantifying EBV gene expression is useful in clarifying the pathogenesis of CAEBV infection and may provide information regarding a patient's disease prognosis, as well as possible therapeutic interventions.

  6. Dengue Virus and Its Relation to Human Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Revealed by Fluorescence Microscopy and Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attatippaholkun, Nattapol; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Supraditaporn, Panthipa; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-11-01

    Understanding dengue virus (DENV)-induced hemorrhage remains a challenging jigsaw puzzle with many pieces missing to understand the complex interactions between DENV and blood coagulation system. To use flow cytometry studying the interactions between DENV and human platelet aggregation receptor, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpIIb/IIIa), directly conjugated fluorochrome monoclonal antibody (mAb) is essential to facilitate multifluorochrome immunostaining. However, the obstacle was that no directly conjugated fluorochrome-anti-DENV mAb had been commercially available. To overcome, we directly conjugated fluorochrome to a primary anti-DENV mAb using a LYNX rapid conjugation kit. Flow cytometry analysis showed that this conjugated antibody and anti-gpIIb/IIIa mAb were able to detect DENV and CD41a simultaneously. Fluorescence microscopy analysis further demonstrated CD41a superficially and DENV intracellularly. Potentially, this strategy can facilitate virologists for directly conjugating any virus-specific primary antibodies, which are not commercially available with fluorochrome, to study the infectivity in any surface marker-specific hosts through flow cytometry. Together, DENV can interact with both human gpIIb/IIIa(-) and gpIIb/IIIa(+) cells revealed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy for the first time.

  7. Following cancer viruses through the laboratory, clinic, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    These essays in this special issue follow cancer viruses as a means of better understanding the history of biomedicine. Spanning the worlds of chronic and infectious disease research, the history of cancer viruses touches upon an enormous diversity of settings and scientific disciplines. Cancer viruses appeared during the twentieth century as vaccine targets, vaccine contaminants, laboratory anomalies, and tools for molecular biology. Rather than picking one discipline or setting to privilege above others, this issue suggests what can be learned, not only about cancer viruses but also about the character of modern biomedicine, from following these viruses through their different historical trajectories.

  8. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms

  9. Development of the NTF-117S Semi-Span Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    A new high-capacity semi-span force and moment balance has recently been developed for use at the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. This new semi-span balance provides the NTF a new measurement capability that will support testing of semi-span test models at transonic high-lift testing regimes. Future testing utilizing this new balance capability will include active circulation control and propulsion simulation testing of semi-span transonic wing models. The NTF has recently implemented a new highpressure air delivery station that will provide both high and low mass flow pressure lines that are routed out to the semi-span models via a set high/low pressure bellows that are indirectly linked to the metric end of the NTF-117S balance. A new check-load stand is currently being developed to provide the NTF with an in-house capability that will allow for performing check-loads on the NTF-117S balance in order to determine the pressure tare affects on the overall performance of the balance. An experimental design is being developed that will allow for experimentally assessing the static pressure tare affects on the balance performance.

  10. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  11. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  12. Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, T. J.; Macfarlan, R I; Reagan, K J; Dietzschold, B; Curtis, P. J.; Wunner, W. H.; Kieny, M P; Lathe, R; Lecocq, J P; Mackett, M.

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of rabbits and mice with a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant (V-RG) virus resulted in rapid induction of high concentrations of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection from severe intracerebral challenge with several strains of rabies virus. Protection from virus challenge also was achieved against the rabies-related Duvenhage virus but not against the Mokola virus. Effective immunization by V-RG depended on the expression of a rabies glycoprotein that registere...

  13. A New Twist on Old Questions: A Life Span Approach to the Trait Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W

    2018-02-01

    We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a life span perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others. The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self-report outcomes in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51. Our analyses have demonstrated that the Big Five can be used to describe childhood personality in this cohort. The stability of the Big Five from childhood teacher assessments to adult self- or observer reports is modest and varies from Big Five trait to trait. Personality mechanisms of life span health behavior and life span trauma experience explain some of the influence of childhood Conscientiousness on adult health outcomes. A life span approach highlights the dynamic nature of traits and their long-term predictive utility, and it offers numerous directions for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of visual span on reading speed and parafoveal processing in eye movements during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Sarah

    2014-07-15

    The visual span (or ‘‘uncrowded window’’), which limits the sensory information on each fixation, has been shown to determine reading speed in tasks involving rapid serial visual presentation of single words. The present study investigated whether this is also true for fixation durations during sentence reading when all words are presented at the same time and parafoveal preview of words prior to fixation typically reduces later word-recognition times. If so, a larger visual span may allow more efficient parafoveal processing and thus faster reading. In order to test this hypothesis, visual span profiles (VSPs) were collected from 60 participants and related to data from an eye-tracking reading experiment. The results confirmed a positive relationship between the readers’ VSPs and fixation-based reading speed. However, this relationship was not determined by parafoveal processing. There was no evidence that individual differences in VSPs predicted differences in parafoveal preview benefit. Nevertheless, preview benefit correlated with reading speed, suggesting an independent effect on oculomotor control during reading. In summary, the present results indicate a more complex relationship between the visual span, parafoveal processing, and reading speed than initially assumed. © 2014 ARVO.

  15. The Structure of Working Memory Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sandra; Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Strube, Michael J; Sommers, Mitchell; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses three questions regarding age differences in working memory: (1) whether performance on complex span tasks decreases as a function of age at a faster rate than performance on simple span tasks; (2) whether spatial working memory decreases at a faster rate than verbal working memory; and (3) whether the structure of working memory abilities is different for different age groups. Adults, ages 20–89 (n=388), performed three simple and three complex verbal span tasks and three simple and three complex spatial memory tasks. Performance on the spatial tasks decreased at faster rates as a function of age than performance on the verbal tasks, but within each domain, performance on complex and simple span tasks decreased at the same rates. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that domain-differentiated models yielded better fits than models involving domain-general constructs, providing further evidence of the need to distinguish verbal and spatial working memory abilities. Regardless of which domain-differentiated model was examined, and despite the faster rates of decrease in the spatial domain, age group comparisons revealed that the factor structure of working memory abilities was highly similar in younger and older adults and showed no evidence of age-related dedifferentiation. PMID:21299306

  16. EFFECT OF THICKNESS AND SPAN IN BENDING DEFORMATION OF WOOD PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Figueiredo Pazetto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the physical and mechanical properties of MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard and MDP (Medium Density Particleboard used in furniture manufacturing. The physical properties density and moisture content and the mechanical properties static bending (MOE and MOR were determined. The experiment was made with three panel thicknesses (15 mm, 18 mm and 25 mm and three different spans with relationship L/h (span divided by thickness of 30, 35 and 40 totaling nine treatments for each type of panel with three replications. These samples were subjected to nondestructive bending test, with loads equivalent to 25 g.cm-² uniformly distributed in conditioned environment (temperature 20º C ±1, humidity 65% ±1. The final deformation load was recorded after a week, and the residual deformation, after removal of the load, was also registered. Statistical analysis of the results evaluated the effect of treatments relative to the span and thickness. The analysis showed significant differences between the results for each thickness, however, the span demonstrated greater influence than the thickness. Among the sample sizes evaluated the best value found was L/h = 30.

  17. Molecular-Scale Description of SPAN80 Desorption from a Squalane-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L; Pratt, L R; Chaudhari, M I

    2017-12-15

    Extensive all-atom molecular dynamics calculations on the water-squalane interface for nine different loadings with sorbitan monooleate (SPAN80), at T = 300 K, are analyzed for the surface tension equation of state, desorption free-energy profiles as they depend on loading, and to evaluate escape times for adsorbed SPAN80 into the bulk phases. These results suggest that loading only weakly affects accommodation of a SPAN80 molecule by this squalane-water interface. Specifically, the surface tension equation of state is simple through the range of high tension to high loading studied, and the desorption free-energy profiles are weakly dependent on loading here. The perpendicular motion of the centroid of the SPAN80 headgroup ring is well-described by a diffusional model near the minimum of the desorption free-energy profile. Lateral diffusional motion is weakly dependent on loading. Escape times evaluated on the basis of a diffusional model and the desorption free energies are 7 × 10-2 s (into the squalane) and 3 × 102 h (into the water). The latter value is consistent with desorption times of related lab-scale experimental work.

  18. Genetic Lineage and Reassortment of Influenza C Viruses Circulating between 1947 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kanetsu; Furuse, Yuki; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Hongo, Seiji; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Mizuta, Katsumi; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since influenza C virus was first isolated in 1947, the virus has been only occasionally isolated by cell culture; there are only four strains for which complete genome sequences are registered. Here, we analyzed a total of 106 complete genomes, ranging from the first isolate from 1947 to recent isolates from 2014, to determine the genetic lineages of influenza C virus, the reassortment events, and the rates of nucleotide substitution. The results showed that there are six lineages, named C/Taylor, C/Mississippi, C/Aichi, C/Yamagata, C/Kanagawa, and C/Sao Paulo. They contain both antigenic and genetic lineages of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene, and the internal genes PB2, PB1, P3, NP, M, and NS are divided into two major lineages, a C/Mississippi/80-related lineage and a C/Yamagata/81-related lineage. Reassortment events were found over the entire period of 68 years. Several outbreaks of influenza C virus between 1990 and 2014 in Japan consisted of reassortant viruses, suggesting that the genomic constellation is related to influenza C virus epidemics. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to each other. The minimum percent identity between viruses ranged from 91.1% for the HE gene to 96.1% for the M gene, and the rate of nucleotide substitution for the HE gene was the highest, at 5.20 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year. These results indicate that reassortment is an important factor that increases the genetic diversity of influenza C virus, resulting in its ability to prevail in humans. IMPORTANCE Influenza C virus is a pathogen that causes acute respiratory illness in children and results in hospitalization of infants. We previously demonstrated (Y. Matsuzaki et al., J Clin Virol 61:87–93, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2014.06.017) that periodic epidemics of this virus occurred in Japan between 1996 and 2014 and that replacement of the dominant antigenic group occurred every several years as a result of selection by herd immunity

  19. Post-reproductive life span and demographic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J; Goodnight, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent field studies suggest that it is common in nature for animals to outlive their reproductive viability. Post-reproductive life span has been observed in a broad range of vertebrate and invertebrate species. But post-reproductive life span poses a paradox for traditional theories of life history evolution. The commonly cited explanation is the "grandmother hypothesis", which applies only to higher, social mammals. We propose that post-reproductive life span evolves to stabilize predator-prey population dynamics, avoiding local extinctions. In the absence of senescence, juveniles would be the most susceptible age class. If juveniles are the first to disappear when predation pressure is high, this amplifies the population's risk of extinction. A class of older, senescent individuals can help shield the juveniles from predation, stabilizing demographics and avoiding extinction. If, in addition, the life history is arranged so that the older individuals are no longer fertile, the stabilizing effect is further enhanced.

  20. [Manual tool grip span and grip force during flower cutting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradei García, M Fernanda; Espinel Correal, Francisco; Galindo Estupiñán, Zuli Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the association between grip span of a manual flower cutting tool and maximum peak force exerted by each finger in the operating hand during apprehension. An experiment was conducted in which 11 women performed the stem cut of a flower. These women did not suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. Grip span was calculated when they exerted the maximum peak force with each finger. The main finding of the study reveals that fingers exert the maximum peak force when the grip span values are the same for everyone. However, due to the shape of the tool commonly used in the Colombian flower industry (first order level), each finger reaches its maximum peak force at different times, bypassing the full capacity of each finger's grip force. These findings could be used to improve the mechanical advantage of manual cutting tools to reduce risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome due to overexertion. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.