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Sample records for related virus strains

  1. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Dutta, Anil; Weinberger, Clement; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2006-11-30

    Mumps immunization can easily be included in national schedules, particularly if combined with measles or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains. The opportunities for control of mumps are also being affected by differences in the cost of the vaccines prepared with different strains of mumps virus. The present report evaluates available data on the association of the Urabe and other strains of mumps vaccine with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis. We also review the comparative immunogenicity and efficacies of the most widely used mumps vaccines in controlled clinical trials and field evaluations, and briefly examine relative cost as it relates to the implementation of national immunization programs. We conclude that extensive experience with the most widely used mumps vaccine strains in many countries has shown that the risk-benefit ratio of live mumps vaccines is highly favourable for vaccination, despite the occasional occurence of aseptic meningitis.

  2. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  3. Analysis of bluetongue serotype 3 spread in Tunisia and discovery of a novel strain related to the bluetongue virus isolated from a commercial sheep pox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Soufien; Di Domenico, Marco; Barbria, Mohamed Elias; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Megdich, Aida; Portanti, Ottavio; Seliman, Imed Ben; Spedicato, Massimo; Pizzurro, Federica; Carmine, Irene; Teodori, Liana; Mahjoub, Mejdi; Mangone, Iolanda; Leone, Alessandra; Hammami, Salah; Marcacci, Maurilia; Savini, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT), is one of the OIE-listed major diseases of ruminants. Following the official report of BT virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) in a sheep in Cap Bon (Tunisia), blood and serum samples of ruminants were collected from some areas of Tunisia to further investigate the presence of this virus in the country. A quantitative real time RT-PCR has been first developed for the detection and quantitation of BTV-3 RNA from field specimens. Out of 62 collected blood samples, 23 were shown to be positive for BTV-3 RNA. Isolation on cell cultures was also possible from six samples. Genome sequencing revealed the circulation of two unrelated western strains of BTV-3, one circulating in Cap Bon and neighboring areas, and the other circulating nearby the border with Libya. The presence of a putative novel BTV serotype (BTV-Y TUN2017) in sheep introduced from Libya to Tunisia, genomically related to the BTV strain contaminating a commercially-available sheep pox vaccine and to BTV-26, has been also demonstrated. This finding highlights the pressing need for a prompt production and release of a novel inactivated BTV-3 vaccine to be used in case of emergence or proactively in the areas of Southern Europe at major risk of BTV introduction. The assessment of a novel vaccine will certainly exalt the role and importance of surveillance activities and collaboration with Northern African countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  5. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  6. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  7. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two strains of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were studied for six years in Yaounde in the forest zone of Cameroon. These strains, SNCL2 and SNCL4, were characterized on Lisbon lemon in Nyombe in the littoral zone of Cameroon. They were inoculated onto combinations of Mexican lime/citrange Troyer. The virulent strain ...

  8. Genetic analysis of imported dengue virus strains by Iranian travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman Shahhosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus sequences used in this study were obtained from two Iranian patients who were both with a history of traveling to Malaysia. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree demonstrated that two sequences were grouped into dengue virus 1. Specifically, strains IranDF1 and Iran-DF2 clustered in genotype I and III, respectively.

  9. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  10. Complete genome sequences of six measles virus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, M.V.T. (My V.T.); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); B.B. Oude Munnink (Bas B.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); R.L. de Swart (Rik); Cotten, M. (Matthew)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractGenetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. We have obtained complete genome sequences of six MV strains belonging to different genotypes, using random-primed next generation sequencing.

  11. Assessing niche separation among coexisting Limnohabitans strains through interactions with a competitor, viruses, and a bacterivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtech; Hornák, Karel; Hahn, Martin W; Weinbauer, Markus G

    2010-03-01

    We investigated potential niche separation in two closely related (99.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) syntopic bacterial strains affiliated with the R-BT065 cluster, which represents a subgroup of the genus Limnohabitans. The two strains, designated B4 and D5, were isolated concurrently from a freshwater reservoir. Differences between the strains were examined through monitoring interactions with a bacterial competitor, Flectobacillus sp. (FL), and virus- and predator-induced mortality. Batch-type cocultures, designated B4+FL and D5+FL, were initiated with a similar biomass ratio among the strains. The proportion of each cell type present in the cocultures was monitored based on clear differences in cell sizes. Following exponential growth for 28 h, the cocultures were amended by the addition of two different concentrations of live or heat-inactivated viruses concentrated from the reservoir. Half of virus-amended treatments were inoculated immediately with an axenic flagellate predator, Poterioochromonas sp. The presence of the predator, of live viruses, and of competition between the strains significantly affected their population dynamics in the experimentally manipulated treatments. While strains B4 and FL appeared vulnerable to environmental viruses, strain D5 did not. Predator-induced mortality had the greatest impact on FL, followed by that on D5 and then B4. The virus-vulnerable B4 strain had smaller cells and lower biomass yield, but it was less subject to grazing. In contrast, the seemingly virus-resistant D5, with slightly larger grazing-vulnerable cells, was competitive with FL. Overall, our data suggest contrasting ecophysiological capabilities and partial niche separation in two coexisting Limnohabitans strains.

  12. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosuknia, Sean M.; Zink, Steven D.; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Morrissette, Madeline N.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1–7.5 log10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas. PMID:28430564

  13. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Bialosuknia, Sean M; Zink, Steven D; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Morrissette, Madeline N; Kramer, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1-7.5 log 10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log 10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas.

  14. Genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 strain KOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Stuart J; Mostafa, Heba H; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2012-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KOS has been extensively used in many studies to examine HSV-1 replication, gene expression, and pathogenesis. Notably, strain KOS is known to be less pathogenic than the first sequenced genome of HSV-1, strain 17. To understand the genotypic differences between KOS and other phenotypically distinct strains of HSV-1, we sequenced the viral genome of strain KOS. When comparing strain KOS to strain 17, there are at least 1,024 small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). The polymorphisms observed in the KOS genome will likely provide insights into the genes, their protein products, and the cis elements that regulate the biology of this HSV-1 strain.

  15. Genomic heterogeneity among human and nonhuman strains of hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, S.M.; Chao, S.F.; Jansen, R.W.; Binn, L.N.; LeDuc, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cloned cDNA probes derived from the P1 and P2 regions of the genome of HM175 virus, a reference strain of human hepatitis A virus (HAV), failed to hybridize under standard stringency criteria with RNA from PA21 and PA33 viruses, two epizootiologically related HAV strains recovered from naturally infected New World owl monkeys. Hybridization of these probes to PA21 RNA was only evident under reduced stringency conditions. However, cDNA representing the 5' nontranslated region of the MH175 genome hybridized equally to HM175 and PA21 RNA under standard stringency conditions, while a probe derived from the 3', 1400 bases of the genome yielded a reduced hybridization signal with PA21 RNA. In contrast, no differences could be discerned between HM175 virus and three other HAV strains of human origin (GR8, LV374, and MS1) in any region of the genome, unless increased stringency conditions were used. These results suggest that PA21 and PA33 are unique among HAV isolates and may represent a virus native to the owl monkey. Despite extremely poor homology within the P1 region, which encodes capsid polypeptides, monoclonal antibody analysis confirmed that the immunodominant neutralization epitopes of HAV were highly conserved between HM175 and PA21 viruses. These data provide molecular evidence for the existence of HAV strains unique to nonhuman species and indicate that strict conservation of antigenic function may accompany substantial genetic divergence in HAV

  16. The Ondersteport Canine distemper virus strain and measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  17. Molecular analysis of yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Post

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation produces most of the yellow fever (YF vaccine prepared world wide. As part of a broader approach to determine the genetic variability in YF l7D seeds and vaccines and its relevance to viral attenuation the 17DD virus was purifed directly from chick embryo homogenates which is the source of virus used for vaccination of millions of people in Brazil and other countries for half a century. Neutralization and hemagglutination tests showed that the purified virus is similar to the original stock. Furthermore, radioimmune precipitation of 35S-methionine-labeled viral proteins using mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid revealed identical patterns for the purified 17DD virus and the YF l7D-204 strain except for the 17DD E protein which migrated slower on SDS-PAGE. This difference is likely to be due to N-linked glycosylation. Finally, comparison by northern blot nybridization of virion RNAs of purified 17DD with two other strains of YF virus only fenome-sized molecules for all three viruses. These observations suggest that vaccine phenotype is primarily associated with the accumulation of mutations.

  18. Translation efficiency determines differences in cellular infection among dengue virus type 2 strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgil, Dianna; Diamond, Michael S.; Holden, Katherine L.; Paranjape, Suman M.; Harris, Eva

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the molecular basis for differences in the ability of natural variants of dengue virus type 2 (DEN2) to replicate in primary human cells. The rates of virus binding, virus entry, input strand translation, and RNA stability of low-passage Thai and Nicaraguan and prototype DEN2 strains were compared. All strains exhibited equivalent binding, entry, and uncoating, and displayed comparable stability of positive strand viral RNA over time in primary cells. However, the low-passage Nicaraguan isolates were much less efficient in their ability to translate viral proteins. Sequence analysis of the full-length low-passage Nicaraguan and Thai viral genomes identified specific differences in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Substitution of the different sequences into chimeric RNA reporter constructs demonstrated that the changes in the 3'UTR directly affected the efficiency of viral translation. Thus, differences in infectivity among closely related DEN2 strains correlate with efficiency of translation of input viral RNA

  19. [Production of monoclonal antibodies against a wild strain of rabies virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacem, O; Benmansour, A; Coulon, P; Brahimi, M; Benhassine, M

    1992-01-01

    Production of monoclonal antibodies against a wild strain of rabies virus. Cell fusion of SP 2/O, a murine myeloma against a wild strain of rabies virus has originated five monoclonal antibodies (M.A.) specific for virus nucleocapsid , one M.A. specific for virus glycoprotein and one M.A. specific for a viral membrane protein.

  20. Genetic Characterization of Zika Virus Strains: Geographic Expansion of the Asian Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    et al. 2008). {SM-6 V-1 is a strain of Spondweni virus , all other viruses listed within the table are Zika virus strains. {Sequenced in this study. doi...1956) A simple technique for infection of mosquitoes with viruses ; transmission of Zika virus . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 50: 238–242. 5. Henderson BE...Tukei PM (1970) Summary of an apparent epizootic of Zika virus : Pattern of incidence from Aedes africanus collected from the Zika Forest, 1969–1970. In

  1. Complete Genomic Sequences of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Strains Used as Vaccine Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2018-03-22

    We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Nemoto et al.

  2. Diverse Effects of Cyclosporine on Hepatitis C Virus Strain Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoto; Watashi, Koichi; Hishiki, Takayuki; Goto, Kaku; Inoue, Daisuke; Hijikata, Makoto; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Nobuyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a production system for infectious particles of hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizing the genotype 2a JFH1 strain has been developed. This strain has a high capacity for replication in the cells. Cyclosporine (CsA) has a suppressive effect on HCV replication. In this report, we characterize the anti-HCV effect of CsA. We observe that the presence of viral structural proteins does not influence the anti-HCV activity of CsA. Among HCV strains, the replication of genotype 1b replicons was strongly suppressed by treatment with CsA. In contrast, JFH1 replication was less sensitive to CsA and its analog, NIM811. Replication of JFH1 did not require the cellular replication cofactor, cyclophilin B (CyPB). CyPB stimulated the RNA binding activity of NS5B in the genotype 1b replicon but not the genotype 2a JFH1 strain. These findings provide an insight into the mechanisms of diversity governing virus-cell interactions and in the sensitivity of these strains to antiviral agents. PMID:16611911

  3. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  4. On generalization uniaxial stress-strain relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, C.; Dubey, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of constitutive relations have been advanced for elastic, plastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of materials. It is shown that the various forms of the stress-strain relationship are specialized forms of generalization of a single stress-strain relation. For example, it is shown how the laws of elastic deformation, and the incremental and total deformation relationship for plastic behaviour are derivable from the Ramberg-Osgood relation. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...

  6. Unique Safety Issues Associated with Virus Vectored Vaccines: Potential for and Theoretical Consequences of Recombination with Wild Type Virus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard C.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Sheets, Rebecca; Seligman, Stephen J.; Monath, Thomas P.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Gurwith, Marc; Bok, Karin; Robertson, James S.; Kim, Denny; Hendry, Michael; Singh, Vidisha; Mac, Lisa M.; Chen, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003 and 2013, the World Health Organization convened informal consultations on characterization and quality aspects of vaccines based on live virus vectors. In the resulting reports, one of several issues raised for future study was the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. This paper presents an assessment of this issue formulated by the Brighton Collaboration. To provide an appropriate context for understanding the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines, we review briefly the current status of virus vectored vaccines, mechanisms of recombination between viruses, experience with recombination involving live attenuated vaccines in the field, and concerns raised previously in the literature regarding recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type virus strains. We then present a discussion of the major variables that could influence recombination between a virus-vectored vaccine and circulating wild type virus and the consequences of such recombination, including intrinsic recombination properties of the parent virus used as a vector; sequence relatedness of vector and wild virus; virus host range, pathogenesis and transmission; replication competency of vector in target host; mechanism of vector attenuation; additional factors potentially affecting virulence; and circulation of multiple recombinant vectors in the same target population. Finally, we present some guiding principles for vector design and testing intended to anticipate and mitigate the potential for and consequences of recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. PMID:27346303

  7. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  8. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...

  9. Assessing Niche Separation among Coexisting Limnohabitans Strains through Interactions with a Competitor, Viruses, and a Bacterivore ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Horňák, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.; Weinbauer, Markus G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated potential niche separation in two closely related (99.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) syntopic bacterial strains affiliated with the R-BT065 cluster, which represents a subgroup of the genus Limnohabitans. The two strains, designated B4 and D5, were isolated concurrently from a freshwater reservoir. Differences between the strains were examined through monitoring interactions with a bacterial competitor, Flectobacillus sp. (FL), and virus- and predator-induced mortality....

  10. Differentiation of strains of varicella-zoster virus by changes in neutral lipid metabolism in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerkofsky, M.; De Siervo, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven isolates of varicella-zoster virus were tested for their effects on the incorporation of [ 14 C]acetate into lipids in infected human embryonic lung cells. By relative percent, all virus isolates demonstrated a shift from polar lipid synthesis to neutral lipid, especially triglyceride, synthesis. By data expressed as counts per minute per microgram of protein, the VZV strains could be separated into two groups: those strains which depressed lipid synthesis and those strains which did not depress, and may even have stimulated, lipid, especially triglyceride, synthesis. These results may be useful in understanding the development of lipid changes seen in children affected with Reye's syndrome following chickenpox

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus strains from naturally infected cats in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Taffin, Elien R L; Daminet, Sylvie; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-01-22

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a major pathogen in feline populations worldwide, with seroprevalences up to 26%. Virus strains circulating in domestic cats are subdivided into different phylogenetic clades (A-E), based on the genetic diversity of the V3-V4 region of the env gene. In this report, a phylogenetic analysis of the V3-V4 env region, and a variable region in the gag gene was made for 36 FIV strains isolated in Belgium and The Netherlands. All newly generated gag sequences clustered together with previously known clade A FIV viruses, confirming the dominance of clade A viruses in Northern Europe. The same was true for the obtained env sequences, with only one sample of an unknown env subtype. Overall, the genetic diversity of FIV strains sequenced in this report was low. This indicates a relatively recent introduction of FIV in Belgium and The Netherlands. However, the sample with an unknown env subtype indicates that new introductions of FIV from unknown origin do occur and this will likely increase genetic variability in time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Superior infectivity for mosquito vectors contributes to competitive displacement among strains of dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirtzinger Erin E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competitive displacement of a weakly virulent pathogen strain by a more virulent strain is one route to disease emergence. However the mechanisms by which pathogens compete for access to hosts are poorly understood. Among vector-borne pathogens, variation in the ability to infect vectors may effect displacement. The current study focused on competitive displacement in dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3, a mosquito-borne pathogen of humans. In Sri Lanka in the 1980's, a native DENV3 strain associated with relatively mild dengue disease was displaced by an invasive DENV3 strain associated with the most severe disease manifestations, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS, resulting in an outbreak of DHF/DSS. Here we tested the hypothesis that differences between the invasive and native strain in their infectivity for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of DENV, contributed to the competitive success of the invasive strain Results To be transmitted by a mosquito, DENV must infect and replicate in the midgut, disseminate into the hemocoel, infect the salivary glands, and be released into the saliva. The ability of the native and invasive DENV3 strains to complete the first three steps of this process in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was measured in vivo. The invasive strain infected a similar proportion of mosquitoes as the native strain but replicated to significantly higher titers in the midgut and disseminated with significantly greater efficiency than the native strain. In contrast, the native and invasive strain showed no significant difference in replication in cultured mosquito, monkey or human cells. Conclusion The invasive DENV3 strain infects and disseminates in Ae. aegypti more efficiently than the displaced native DENV3 strain, suggesting that the invasive strain is transmitted more efficiently. Replication in cultured cells did not adequately characterize the known phenotypic differences between

  13. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  14. Seroprevalence and Genomic Divergence of Circulating Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae Species†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today. PMID:15956574

  15. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  16. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M

    2016-05-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  17. R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from rapid progressors lacking X4 strains do not possess X4-type pathogenicity in human thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, R. D.; van't Wout, A. B.; Kootstra, N. A.; Moreno, M. E.; Linquist-Stepps, V. D.; Bare, C.; Stoddart, C. A.; Schuitemaker, H.; McCune, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid

  18. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target...... material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF...

  19. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśnik Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  20. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moutailler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  1. [The characteristics of epidemic influenza A and B virus strains circulating in Russia during the 2007-2008 season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V T; Trushakova, S V; Oskerko, T A; Shevchenko, E S; Kolobukhina, L V; Vartanian, R V; Beliakova, N V; Iatsyshina, S B; Feodoritova, E L; Zueva, N D; Burtseva, E I

    2009-01-01

    In 2007-2008 in Russia, the epidemic upsurge of influenza morbidity was caused by the active circulation of influenza A(H1N1, A(H3N2), and B viruses. The center for Ecology and Epidemiology of Influenza studied 334 epidemic strains. The results of a comparative study of the svirus specificity of commercial test systems (AmpliSens Influenza virus A/B and AmpliSens Influenza virus A/H5N1) for the polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and virological assays, including virus isolation, revealed their high correlation, which confirms that they may be expensively used to monitor the circulation of influenza viruses in the Russian Federation. All the strains were isolated in the MDCK cell culture. Influenza A(H1N1) viruses (n = 127) were antigenic variants of the reference strains A/Solomon Islands/3/06 and A/Brisbane/59107. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses (n = 49) were antigenic variants of the reference strains A/Wisconsin/67/05 and A/Brisbane/10/08. One hundred and fifty seven Influenza B strains were drift variants of the reference strains B/Florida/4/06 and B/Shanghai/361/02 of lineage B/Yamagata/16/88 and one strain, a variant of Malaysia/2506/04 related to lineage B/victoria/2/87. The isolates interacted actively with human 0(I) blood group erythrocytes and much more weakly with chicken ones. All study influenza A(H1N1) viruses (n = 74) preserved their sensitivity to rimantadine while 24 (77%) of the 31 study influenza A(H3N2) virus strains were resistant. A study of the time course of changes in the generation of antibodies in the donor sera obtained in Moscow and the Moscow Region in different periods of the epidemic process revealed an increase in antibodies to the reference influenza A and B virus strains circulating in this period.

  2. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Haddow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two

  3. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Transmission of Hemagglutinin D222G Mutant Strain of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Marzia; Spagnolo, Domenico; De Marco, Maria A.; Calzoletti, Laura; Zanetti, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Roberto; Tanzi, Maria L.; Cassone, Antonio; Rezza, Giovanni; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain carrying the D222G mutation was identified in a severely ill man and was transmitted to a household contact. Only mild illness developed in the contact, despite his obesity and diabetes. The isolated virus reacted fully with an antiserum against the pandemic vaccine strain. PMID:20409386

  5. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  6. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Marco V Neira; Romoser, William S; James, Calvin Bl; Mahmood, Farida; Reisen, William K

    2011-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. METHODS: Using immunostained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains - Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV) and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR); and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP), and WEEV resistance (WR). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth, whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR

  7. Epstein-Barr virus strains and variations: Geographic or disease-specific variants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Marco; Marinho-Dias, Joana; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with the development of several diseases, including infectious mononucleosis (IM), Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL), Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, and other neoplasias. The publication of EBV genome 1984 led to several studies regarding the identification of different viral strains. Currently, EBV is divided into EBV type 1 (B95-8 strain) and EBV type 2 (AG876 strain), also known as type A and type B, which have been distinguished based upon genetic differences in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) sequence. Several other EBV strains have been described in the past 10 years considering variations on EBV genome, and many have attempted to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related. Indeed, there is an increasing interest to describe possible specific disease associations, with emphasis on different malignancies. These studies aim to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related, thus being important to characterize the epidemiologic genetic distribution of EBV strains on our population. Here, we review the current knowledge on the different EBV strains and variants and its association with different diseases. J. Med. Virol. 89:373-387, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to Variola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infections caused by several orthopoxviruses (OPV like monkeypox virus or vaccinia virus have a significant impact on human health. In Europe, the number of diagnosed infections with cowpox viruses (CPXV is increasing in animals as well as in humans. CPXV used to be enzootic in cattle; however, such infections were not being diagnosed over the last decades. Instead, individual cases of cowpox are being found in cats or exotic zoo animals that transmit the infection to humans. Both animals and humans reveal local exanthema on arms and legs or on the face. Although cowpox is generally regarded as a self-limiting disease, immunosuppressed patients can develop a lethal systemic disease resembling smallpox. To date, only limited information on the complex and, compared to other OPV, sparsely conserved CPXV genomes is available. Since CPXV displays the widest host range of all OPV known, it seems important to comprehend the genetic repertoire of CPXV which in turn may help elucidate specific mechanisms of CPXV pathogenesis and origin. Therefore, 22 genomes of independent CPXV strains from clinical cases, involving ten humans, four rats, two cats, two jaguarundis, one beaver, one elephant, one marah and one mongoose, were sequenced by using massive parallel pyrosequencing. The extensive phylogenetic analysis showed that the CPXV strains sequenced clearly cluster into several distinct clades, some of which are closely related to Vaccinia viruses while others represent different clades in a CPXV cluster. Particularly one CPXV clade is more closely related to Camelpox virus, Taterapox virus and Variola virus than to any other known OPV. These results support and extend recent data from other groups who postulate that CPXV does not form a monophyletic clade and should be divided into multiple lineages.

  9. Differentiation and distribution of potato virus Y strains isolated from tobacco in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorster, L L

    1986-01-01

    Four strains of potato virus Y (PVY) orginally isolated from tobacco in South Africa belonging to three different strain groups (PVY/sup N/, PVY/sup c/ and PVY/sup o/) were differentiated according to their effect on various tobacco cultivars. The results obtained in this study confirm previous reports which indicated that inoculation with PVY had a detrimental effect on the yield and quality of tobacco. The severity of the effects was generally related to the length of time that the virus was present in the host, with late infections having less effect than early infections. An important aspect that evolved from the present study is the differences in reactions of the various strains (necrotic to mild strains) of PVY on the tobacco cultivars tested. A direct correlation was evident between the virulence of the different PVY strains and the effect of O/sub 2/-uptake of the host. cDNA probes prepared from PVY-RNA are specific to RNA extracted from purified PVY suspensions as well as crude sap from tobacco plants infected with the PVY strains used in this study. Radioactive probes and /sup 32/Phosporus labelling were used in the DNA and RNA studies of PVY. A procedure described by Bar-Joseph, et al (1983) were used successfully for the isolation of viral double-stranded RNA from various tissues. However, from the results obtained in this study it is clear that this method is of little or no value for the detection and diagnosis of PVY strains.

  10. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Phylogenetic features of hemagglutin gene in canine distemper virus strains from different genetic lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Guo, Li; Wen, Yongjun; Yang, Yangling; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the genotype of two Canine distemper virus (CDV) strains, namely, ZJJ-SD and ZJJ-LN, were investigated, based on the whole hemagglutinin (HA) gene. The CDV strains were obtained from two foxes in Shandong Province and Liaoning Province in 2011. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out for 260 CDV strains worldwide, and a statistical analysis was performed in the amino acid substitutions at positions 530 and 549 of the HA protein. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the two strains, ZJJ-SD and ZJJ-LN, belonged to the CDV Asia I lineage. Site 530 of HA protein was found to be relatively conserved within CDV lineages in different host species by combining the genetic sequence data with the published data from 260 CDV strains worldwide. The data analysis showed a bias toward the predicted substitution Y549H for the non-dog strains in Asia I and Europe lineages. The ratio of site 549 genetic drift in the HA gene were significantly different between dogs and non-dogs in the two lineages. The strain ZJJ-SD, from wild canid, has an Y549H substitution. It is one of three Y549H substitution for wild canids in Asia I lineages. Site 530 of HA protein was not immediately relative to CDV genetic drift from dogs to non-dogs. Statistical analysis indicated that non-dog strains have a high probability to contain Y549H than dog strains in Asia I and Europe lineages. Thus, site 549 is considered important in genetic drift from dogs to non-dogs, at least in Asia I and Europe lineages.

  12. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1 viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1 and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs. ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  13. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  14. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-09

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  16. Antigenic variants of influenza A virus, PR8 strain. I. Their development during serial passage in the lungs of partially immune mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERBER, P; LOOSLI, C G; HAMBRE, D

    1955-06-01

    Antigenically different strains of mouse-adapted PR8 influenza A virus have been produced by 17 serial passages of the virus in the lungs of mice immunized with the homologous agent. Comparative serological tests show that the variant strains share antigenic components with the parent strain but the dominant antigen is different. By means of antibody absorption it was shown that the "new" antigenic component of the variant was already present in minor amounts up to the eighth passage and thereafter gained prominence with continued passage in vaccinated mice. Groups of mice vaccinated with either the PR8-S or T(21) virus and having comparable antibody titers showed no growth of virus in the lungs following aid-borne challenge with homologous strains. On the other hand, following heterologous air-borne challenge no deaths occurred, but virus grew in the lungs of both groups of vaccinated mice. Almost unrestricted virus multiplication took place in the lungs of mice vaccinated with the parent strain and challenged with the PR8-T(21) virus which resulted in extensive consolidation. Less virus grew in the lungs of the mice vaccinated with the variant strains and challenged with the PR8-S virus. In these animals only microscopic evidence of changes due to virus growth in the lungs was observed. The successful serial passage of PR8 influenza A virus in immunized animals was dependent on the initial selection of mice with uniformly low H.I. antibody titers as determined on tail blood, and the intranasal instillation of sufficient virus to favor the survival of those virus particles least related to the antibodies present. The epidemiological implications of these observations are discussed briefly.

  17. Characterization of glycoprotein C of HSZP strain of herpes simplex virus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oravcova, [No Value; Kudelova, M; Mlcuchova, J; Matis, J; Bystricka, M; Westra, DF; Welling-Wester, S; Rajcani, J

    Sequences of UL44 genes of strains HSZP, KOS and 17 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) were determined and the amino acid sequences of corresponding glycoproteins (gC) were deduced. In comparison with the 17 strain, the HSZP strain showed specific changes in 3 nucleotides and in 2 amino acids (aa 139

  18. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the he......A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis...... of the hemagglutinin gene. The strains exhibited a considerable genomic diversity, which is at odds with the assumption that one genome type prevailed among globally circulating MV strains prior to the advent of live-attenuated vaccines. Our data indicate that the similarity of the various vaccine strains...... is attributed to their having originated from the same primary isolate. Consequently, it is implied that a small number of clinical manifestations of MV worldwide from which strains similar to the vaccine strain were identified were vaccine related rather than being caused by members of a persistently...

  19. Comparisons of Venezuelan encephalitis virus strains by hemagglutination-inhibition tests with chicken antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Pancake, B A

    1977-01-01

    Twenty strains of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus inoculated intravenously in large doses into roosters produced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies detectable in plasmas within 7 to 10 days. No signs of illness occurred, and there was no evidence of viral growth in tissues since blood concentrations of infectious virus steadily decreased after inoculation. HI antibodies in early plasmas were specific for VE virus and did not cross-react significantly with two other North American alphaviruses, eastern and western encephalitis viruses. VE virus strains could be distinquished by virus-dilution, short-incubation HI, but not by plasma-dilution neutralization tests, by using early rooster antibodies. The distinctions by HI test were similar with some strains to, but different with other strains from, those described by Young and Johnson with the spiny rat antisera used to establish their subtype classifications of VE virus (14, 28). Nevertheless, results of HI tests with rooster antibodies correlated with equine virulence, as did results with spiny rat antibodies, and distinguished the new strains of virus that appeared in Middle America during the VE outbreak of 1969 from preexisting strains. PMID:591629

  20. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome Sequences of Three Vaccine Strains and Two Wild-Type Canine Distemper Virus Strains from a Recent Disease Outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Angelika K; Du Plessis, Morné; Dalton, Desiré Lee; Mitchell, Emily; Venter, Estelle H

    2017-07-06

    Canine distemper virus causes global multihost infectious disease. This report details complete genome sequences of three vaccine and two new wild-type strains. The wild-type strains belong to the South African lineage, and all three vaccine strains to the America 1 lineage. This constitutes the first genomic sequences of this virus from South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Loots et al.

  2. Failure of attenuated canine distemper virus (Rockborn strain) to suppress lymphocyte blastogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R D

    1976-01-01

    The attenuated Rockborn strain of canine distemper virus is commonly used in commercial vaccines. Since immunosuppression is a common feature of virulent (Snyder Hill) distemper virus infection of the dog, an evaluation of the cellular immune functions of dogs given inoculums of the less virulent Rockborn strain was done using lymphocyte blastogenesis responses to various mitogens. Unlike the viruslent Snyder Hill strain, the attenuated distemper virus did not alter lymphocyte blastogenesis responses to phytohemaglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) which are considered in vitro correlates of T and B cell immunity.

  3. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterhaus Albert DME

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and were unlikely to be hybrids. Their mitochondrial haplotype suggested that they descended from founder animals in Cameroon or northern Gabon, close to the habitat of the drill. SIVdrl has once before been found in a wild-caught mandrill from the same region, indicating that mandrills are naturally infected with a SIVdrl-like virus. This suggests that mandrills are the first primate species to be infected with three strains of SIV: SIVmnd1, SIVmnd2, and SIVdrl.

  4. Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Saif, Linda J; Marthaler, Douglas; Esseili, Malak A; Meulia, Tea; Lin, Chun-Ming; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Jung, Kwonil; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiuhong

    2014-10-10

    The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Genetic characterisation of Powassan virus (POWV) isolated from Haemophysalis longicornis ticks in Primorye and two strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Alma-Arasan virus (AAV) isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan and Malyshevo virus isolated from Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes in Khabarovsk kray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Aristova, V A

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomes of the three tick-borne flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, fam. Bunyaviridae) were sequenced: Povassan virus (POWV, strain LEIV-3070Prm, isolated from Haemophysalis logicornis in Primorsky Krai, Russia in 1977), Alma-Arasan virus (AAV, strain LEIV-1380Kaz, isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan in 1977) and Malyshevo virus (isolated from a pool of Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes, in the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia in 1978). It is shown that AAV and Malyshevo virus are the strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and belong to Sibirian and Far-Eastern genotypes, respectively (GenBank ID: AAV KJ744033; strain Malyshevo KJ744034). Phylogenetically AAV is closest related (94,6% nt and 98,3% aa identity) to TBEV strains, isolated in Sibiria (Vasilchenko, Aino, Chita-653, Irkutsk-12). Malyshevo virus is closest related (96,4% nt and 98,3% nt identity) to strains of TBEV, isolated in Far Eastern part of Russia (1230, Spassk-72, Primorye-89). POWV LEIV-3070Prm has 99.7% identity with the prototype strain POWV LB, isolated in Canada and 99.5% of isolates with Far-Eastern strains of POWV (Spassk-9 and Nadezdinsk-1991).

  6. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Danher; Hevey, Michael; Juompan, Laure Y.; Trubey, Charles M.; Raja, Nicholas U.; Deitz, Stephen B.; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Luo Min; Yu Hong; Swain, Benjamin M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Dong, John Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 10 7 pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV

  7. Strain-specific viral distribution and neuropathology of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; MacMillan, Martha; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Henriksen, Steven; Elder, John; VandeWoude, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring lentivirus of domestic cats, and is the causative agent of feline AIDS. Similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogenesis of FIV involves infection of lymphocytes and macrophages, and results in chronic progressive immune system collapse and death. Neuropathologic correlates of FIV infection have not yet been elucidated, and may be relevant to understanding HIV-associated neurologic disease (neuroAIDS). As in HIV, FIV strains have been shown to express differential tendencies towards development of clinical neuroAIDS. To interrogate viral genetic determinants that might contribute to neuropathogenicity, cats were exposed to two well-characterized FIV strains with divergent clinical phenotypes and a chimeric strain as follows: FIV(PPR) (PPR, relatively apathogenic but associated with neurologic manifestations), FIV(C36) (C36, immunopathogenic but without associated neurologic disease), and Pcenv (a chimeric virus consisting of a PPR backbone with substituted C36 env region). A sham inoculum control group was also included. Peripheral nerve conduction velocity, CNS imaging studies, viral loads and hematologic analysis were performed over a 12 month period. At termination of the study (350 days post-inoculation), brain sections were obtained from four anatomic locations known to be involved in human and primate lentiviral neuroAIDS. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation with seven markers of inflammation revealed that Pcenv infection resulted in mild inflammation of the CNS, microglial activation, neuronal degeneration and apoptosis, while C36 and PPR strains induced minimal neuropathologic changes. Conduction velocity aberrations were noted peripherally in all three groups at 63 weeks post-infection. Pcenv viral load in this study was intermediate to the parental strains (C36 demonstrating the highest viral load and PPR the lowest). These results collectively suggest that (i) 3' C36

  8. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    , whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR strains than in the HVP and COAV strains. Once the virus disseminated from the midgut, all strains were able to develop salivary gland infections. The possible roles of observed pathology will be discussed in a subsequent paper.Keywords: western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Culex tarsalis, vector competence, viral tropism, mosquito/virus interaction

  9. Hepatitis a virus genotypes and strains from an endemic area of Europe, Bulgaria 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Costantino, Angela; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Golkocheva-Markova, Elitsa; Bankova, Diljana; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Teoharov, Pavel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-07-14

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is endemic in Eastern European and Balkan region countries. In 2012, Bulgaria showed the highest rate (67.13 cases per 100,000) in Europe. Nevertheless, HAV genotypes and strains circulating in this country have never been described. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HAV from 105 patients from Bulgaria. Anti-HAV IgM positive serum samples collected in 2012-2014 from different towns and villages in Bulgaria were analysed by nested RT-PCR, sequencing of the VP1/2A region and phylogenetic analysis; the results were analysed together with patient and geographical data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two main sequence groups corresponding to the IA (78/105, 74%) and IB (27/105, 26%) sub-genotypes. In the IA group, a major and a minor cluster were observed (62 and 16 sequences, respectively). Most sequences from the major cluster (44/62, 71%) belonged to either of two strains, termed "strain 1" and "strain 2", differing only for a single specific nucleotide; the remaining sequences (18/62, 29%) showed few (1 to 4) nucleotide variations respect to strain 1 and 2. Strain 2 is identical to the strain previously responsible for an outbreak in the Czech Republic in 2008 and a large multi-country European outbreak caused by contaminated mixed frozen berries in 2013. Most sequences of the IA minor cluster and the IB group were detected in large/medium centers (LMCs). Overall, sequences from the IA major cluster were more frequent in small centers (SCs), but strain 1 and strain 2 showed an opposite relative frequency in SCs and LMCs (strain 1 more frequent in SCs, strain 2 in LMCs). Genotype IA predominated in Bulgaria in 2012-2014 and phylogenetic analysis identified a major cluster of highly related or identical IA sequences, representing 59% of the analysed cases; these isolates were mostly detected in SCs, in which HAV shows higher endemicity than in LMCs. The distribution of viral sequences suggests the existence

  10. Sequence-based comparative study of classical swine fever virus genogroup 2.2 isolate with pestivirus reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Saxena, Arpit; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim to compare and establish the genetic relatedness between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genogroup 2.2 isolate and pestivirus reference strains. The available complete genome sequences of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 strain and other pestivirus reference strains were retrieved from GenBank. The complete genome sequence, complete open reading frame, 5' and 3' non-coding region (NCR) sequences were analyzed and compared with reference pestiviruses strains. Clustal W model in MegAlign program of Lasergene 6.0 software was used for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA 6.06 software package. The complete genome sequence alignment of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate and reference pestivirus strains showed 58.9-72% identities at the nucleotide level and 50.3-76.9% at amino acid level. Sequence homology of 5' and 3' NCRs was found to be 64.1-82.3% and 22.9-71.4%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, overall tree topology was found similar irrespective of sequences used in this study; however, whole genome phylogeny of pestivirus formed two main clusters, which further distinguished into the monophyletic clade of each pestivirus species. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate placed with the CSFV Eystrup strain in the same clade with close proximity to border disease virus and Aydin strains. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 exhibited the analogous genomic organization to those of all reference pestivirus strains. Based on sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate showed close homology to Aydin/04-TR virus and distantly related to Bungowannah virus.

  11. History and genomic sequence analysis of the herpes simplex virus 1 KOS and KOS1.1 sub-strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrove, Robert C; Liu, Xueqiao; Griffiths, Anthony; Raja, Priya; Deluca, Neal A; Newman, Ruchi M; Coen, Donald M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-01

    A collection of genomic DNA sequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains has been defined and analyzed, and some information is available about genomic stability upon limited passage of viruses in culture. The nature of genomic change upon extensive laboratory passage remains to be determined. In this report we review the history of the HSV-1 KOS laboratory strain and the related KOS1.1 laboratory sub-strain, also called KOS (M), and determine the complete genomic sequence of an early passage stock of the KOS laboratory sub-strain and a laboratory stock of the KOS1.1 sub-strain. The genomes of the two sub-strains are highly similar with only five coding changes, 20 non-coding changes, and about twenty non-ORF sequence changes. The coding changes could potentially explain the KOS1.1 phenotypic properties of increased replication at high temperature and reduced neuroinvasiveness. The study also provides sequence markers to define the provenance of specific laboratory KOS virus stocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  13. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  14. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus.

  15. Two avian H10 influenza A virus strains with different pathogenicity for mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, L; Hård af Segerstad, C

    1998-01-01

    We compared two strains of avian influenza A viruses of subtype H10 by exposing mink to aerosols of A/mink/Sweden/3,900/84 (H10N4) naturally pathogenic for mink, or A/chicken/Germany/N/49, (H10N7). Lesions in the respiratory tract during the first week after infection were studied and described. Both virus strains caused inflammatory reactions in the lungs and antibody production in exposed mink but only mink/84 virus was reisolated. The lesions caused by mink/84 virus were more severe with higher area density of pneumonia, lower daily weight gain, and more virus in the tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that mink/84 (H10N4), but not chicken/49 virus (H10N7), established multiple cycle replication in infected cells in the mink.

  16. Relation between job strain and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Nielsen, F E; Kristensen, T S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of different job related and socioeconomic factors for development of myocardial infarction (MI). METHOD: The study was a case-control study of 76 male wage earners who had been admitted to hospital with MI. As a control group 176 male wage earners not admitted......, the isostrain model. RESULTS: The most significant findings were consistent with Karasek's job strain model in that mean with a high degree of demand combined with a low degree of control at work had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.1 (1.2 to 3.8) for MI after...... adjustment for age compared with men with a low degree of demand and a high degree of control at work. Further adjustment for smoking, socioeconomic status, employment sector, job category, and social network did not affect the OR substantially (OR 2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)). Other factors significantly associated...

  17. Complete genome sequence of a divergent strain of lettuce chlorosis virus from Periwinkle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel strain of Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) was identified from periwinkle in China (PW) with foliar interveinal chlorosis and plant dwarfing. Complete nucleotide (nt) sequences of genomic RNA1 and RNA2 of the virus are 8,602 nt and 8,456 nt, respectively. The genomic organization of LCV-PW rese...

  18. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59: Isolation, Characterization and Neuropathogenic Properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Koolen (Marck); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractTwenty 5-fluorouracil-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 were isolated from 1284 virus clones. Mutants were preselected on the basis of their inability to induce syncytia in infected cells at the restrictive temperature (40 degrees) vs the

  19. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the envelope gene of the Vasilchenko strain of TBE virus; comparison with other flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Venugopal, K; Gould, E A

    1993-02-01

    A strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus known as Vasilchenko (Vs) exhibits relatively low virulence characteristics in monkeys, Syrian hamsters and humans. The gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein of this virus was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence with those of other known tick-borne flaviviruses and identification of the recognised amino acid genetic marker EHLPTA confirmed its identity as a member of the TBE complex. However, Vs virus was distinguishable from eastern and western tick-borne serotypes by the presence of the sequence AQQ at amino acid positions 232-234 and also by the presence of other specific amino acid substitutions which may be genetic markers for these viruses and could determine their pathogenetic characteristics. When compared with other tick-borne flaviviruses, Vs virus had 12 unique amino acid substitutions including an additional potential glycosylation site at position (315-317). The Vs virus strain shared closest nucleotide and amino acid homology (84.5% and 95.5% respectively) with western and far eastern strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison with the far eastern serotype of tick-borne encephalitis virus, by cross-immunoelectrophoresis of Vs virions and PAGE analysis of the extracted virion proteins, revealed differences in surface charge and virus stability that may account for the different virulence characteristics of Vs virus. These results support and enlarge upon previous data obtained from molecular and serological analysis.

  20. [The growth of attenuated strains of canine parvovirus, mink enteritis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and rabies virus on various types of cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffa, T

    1987-10-01

    The growth characteristics were studied in the attenuated strains of canine parvovirus CPVA-BN 80/82, mink enteritis virus MEVA-BN 63/82 and feline panleucopenia virus FPVA-BN 110/83 on the stable feline kidney cell line FE, and in the attenuated canine distemper virus CDV-F-BN 10/83 on chicken embryo cell cultures (KEB) and cultures of the stable cell line VERO. When the FE cultures were infected with different parvoviruses in cell suspension at MOI 2-4 TKID50 per cell, the first multiplication of the intracellular virus was recorded 20 hours p. i. In the canine parvovirus, the content of intracellular and extracellular virus continued increasing parallelly until the fourth day; then, from the fourth to the sixth day, the content of extracellular virus still increased whereas that of intracellular virus fell rapidly. In the case of the mink enteritis virus the release of the virus into the culture medium continued parallelly with the production of the cellular virus until the sixth day. In the case of the feline panleucopenia virus the values concerning free virus and virus bound to cells were lower, starting from the second day p. i. When KEB or VERO cultures were infected in cell suspension with the canine distemper virus at MOI about 0.004 per 1 cell, the replicated intracellular virus was first recorded in the KEB cultures five hours after infection but in the VERO cultures only 20 hours after infection, with a timely release of the virus into the culture medium in both kinds of tissue. In the KEB and VERO cultures the highest values of infection titres were recorded on the fourth day p. i., the course of virus multiplication on the cells being parallel with its release into the culture medium.

  1. Genetic characterization of Italian field strains of Schmallenberg virus based on N and NSs genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Francesca; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Polci, Andrea; Iapaolo, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Monaco, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Following its first identification in Germany in 2011, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has rapidly spread to many other European countries. Despite the wide dissemination, the molecular characterization of the circulating strains is limited to German, Belgian, Dutch, and Swiss viruses. To fill this gap, partial genetic characterization of 15 Italian field strains was performed, based on S segment genes. Samples were collected in 2012 in two different regions where outbreaks occurred during distinct epidemic seasons. The comparative sequence analysis demonstrated a high molecular stability of the circulating viruses; nevertheless, we identified several variants of the N and NSs proteins not described in other SBV isolates circulating in Europe.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  3. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga A; Indran, Sabarish V; Kalveram, Birte; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Head, Jennifer A; Gong, Bin; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Juelich, Terry L; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1) induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2) inhibits interferon (IFN)-β promoter activation, and 3) promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs) or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs) in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which are

  4. Differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgeorge, R.; Bradish, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mouse sensitized by optimal, sub-lethal γ-irradiation has been used for the differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus and for the resolution of their immunogenicity and pathogenicity as distinct characteristics. For different strains of yellow fever virus, the patterns of antibody-synthesis, regulatory immunity (pre-challenge) and protective immunity (post-challenge) are differentially sensitive to γ-irradiation. These critical differentiations of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice have been compared with those shown in normal athymic and immature mice in order to elucidate the range of quantifiable in vivo characteristics and the course of the virus-host interaction. This is discussed as a basis for the comparisons of the responses of model and principal hosts to vaccines and pathogens. (author)

  5. Genetic analysis of Asian measles virus strains--new endemic genotype in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, A T; Mulders, M N; Gautam, D C; Ammerlaan, W; de Swart, R L; King, C C; Osterhaus, A D; Muller, C P

    2001-07-01

    In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.

  6. Limitations of Hollomon and Ludwigson stress-strain relations in assessing the strain hardening parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, K G

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the deviation from the ideal Hollomon relation in describing the stress-strain behaviour is characteristic of all materials at low strains. The Ludwigson relation describing the deviation from the Hollomon relation at low strains is critically analysed and it is shown that the deviation at low strains is a consequence of some unknown 'plastic strain equivalent' present in the material. Stress strain curves obeying an ideal Hollomon relation as well as that of a structurally modified (prior cold worked) material were simulated and compared. The results show that the yield strength and the flow strength of a material at constant strain rate and temperature are dictated by the magnitude of the 'plastic strain equivalent' term. It is shown that this component need not necessarily mean a prior plastic strain present in the material due to prior cold work alone and that prior cold work strain will add to this. If this component is identified, the stress-strain behaviour can be adequately described by the Swift relation. It is shown that in both formalisms, the strain hardening index is a function of the yield strength of the material

  7. Antiviral activity of the exopolysaccharide produced by Serratia sp. strain Gsm01 against Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipper, Nagesh S; Cho, Saeyoull; Lee, Seon Hwa; Cho, Jun Mo; Hur, Jang Hyun; Lim, Chun Keun

    2008-01-01

    The potential of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Serratia sp. strain Gsm01 as an antiviral agent against a yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) was evaluated in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc). The spray treatment of plants using an EPS preparation, 72 before CMV-Y inoculation, protected them against symptom appearance. Fifteen days after challenge inoculation with CMVY, 33.33% of plants showed mosaic symptoms in EPS-treated plants compared with 100% in the control plants. The EPS-treated plants, which showed mosaic symptoms, appeared three days later than the controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of the leaves of the protected plants revealed that the EPS treatment affected virus accumulation in those plants. Analysis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and phenols in protected plants revealed enhanced accumulation of these substances. The pathogenesis-related (PR) genes expression represented by PR-1b was increased in EPS-treated plants. This is the first report of a systemic induction of protection triggered by EPS produced by Serratia sp. against CMV-Y.

  8. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    -prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase resulting in the majority of circulating forms being non-functional. However, since any infectious virus particle should necessarily be the offspring of a functional virus, we hypothesized that it should be possible to synthesize a highly virulent form...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Strain Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghamnia, Hamid Reza; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Azizi, Abdolbaset

    2018-03-01

    The complete genome sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain Kurdistan (ZYMV-Kurdistan) infecting squash from Iran was determined from 13 overlapping fragments. Excluding the poly (A) tail, ZYMV-Kurdistan genome consisted of 9593 nucleotides (nt), with 138 and 211 nt at the 5' and 3' non-translated regions, respectively. It contained two open-reading frames (ORFs), the large ORF encoding a polyprotein of 3080 amino acids (aa) and the small overlapping ORF encoding a P3N-PIPO protein of 74 aa. This isolate had six unique aa differences compared to other ZYMV isolates and shared 79.6-98.8% identities with other ZYMV genome sequences at the nt level and 90.1-99% identities at the aa level. A phylogenetic tree of ZYMV complete genomic sequences showed that Iranian and Central European isolates are closely related and form a phylogenetically homogenous group. All values in the ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites ( d N / d S ) were below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ZYMV protein history. This is the first report of complete genome sequence information of the most prevalent virus in the west of Iran. This study helps our understanding of the genetic diversity of ZYMV isolates infecting cucurbit plants in Iran, virus evolution and epidemiology and can assist in designing better diagnostic tools.

  10. Lights and shades on an historical vaccine canine distemper virus, the Rockborn strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, V; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Elia, G; Lucente, M S; Cirone, F; Decaro, N; Nielsen, L; Bányai, K; Carmichael, L E; Buonavoglia, C

    2011-02-01

    Both egg- and cell-adapted canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccines are suspected to retain residual virulence, especially if administered to immuno-suppressed animals, very young pups or to highly susceptible animal species. In the early 1980s, post-vaccine encephalitis was reported in dogs from various parts of Britain after administration of a particular batch of combined CDV Rockborn strain/canine adenovirus type-1 vaccine, although incrimination of the Rockborn strain was subsequently retracted. Notwithstanding, this, and other reports, led to the view that the Rockborn strain is less attenuated and less safe than other CDV vaccines, and the Rockborn strain was officially withdrawn from the markets in the mid 1990s. By sequencing the H gene of the strain Rockborn from the 46th laboratory passage, and a commercial vaccine (Candur(®) SH+P, Hoechst Rousell Vet GmbH), the virus was found to differ from the commonly used vaccine strain, Onderstepoort (93.0% nt and 91.7% aa), and to resemble more closely (99.6% nt and 99.3% aa) a CDV strain detected in China from a Lesser Panda (Ailurus fulgens). An additional four CDV strains matching (>99% nt identity) the Rockborn virus were identified in the sequence databases. Also, Rockborn-like strains were identified in two vaccines currently in the market. These findings indicate that Rockborn-like viruses may be recovered from dogs or other carnivores with distemper, suggesting cases of residual virulence of vaccines, or circulation of vaccine-derived Rockborn-like viruses in the field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vector Competence of American Mosquitoes for Three Strains of Zika Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weger-Lucarelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus emerged in the Americas, causing millions of infections in dozens of countries. The rapid spread of the virus and the association with disease outcomes such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly make understanding transmission dynamics essential. Currently, there are no reports of vector competence (VC of American mosquitoes for ZIKV isolates from the Americas. Further, it is not clear whether ZIKV strains from other genetic lineages can be transmitted by American Aedes aegypti populations, and whether the scope of the current epidemic is in part facilitated by viral factors such as enhanced replicative fitness or increased vector competence. Therefore, we characterized replication of three ZIKV strains, one from each of the three phylogenetic clades in several cell lines and assessed their abilities to be transmitted by Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, laboratory colonies of different Culex spp. were infected with an American outbreak strain of ZIKV to assess VC. Replication rates were variable and depended on virus strain, cell line and MOI. African strains used in this study outcompeted the American strain in vitro in both mammalian and mosquito cell culture. West and East African strains of ZIKV tested here were more efficiently transmitted by Ae. aegypti from Mexico than was the currently circulating American strain of the Asian lineage. Long-established laboratory colonies of Culex mosquitoes were not efficient ZIKV vectors. These data demonstrate the capacity for additional ZIKV strains to infect and replicate in American Aedes mosquitoes and suggest that neither enhanced virus replicative fitness nor virus adaptation to local vector mosquitoes seems likely to explain the extent and intensity of ZIKV transmission in the Americas.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a new Pseudomonas-related strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % with Pseudomonas putida ()AB680847). The phylogenetic tree formed by 16S rDNA sequences from both strain SKDP-1 and its most related bacteria also proved strain SKDP-1 to be one member of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SKDP-1 ...

  13. Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1995-11-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that can produce a severe and often fatal acute encephalitis in humans, with significant neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the serious nature of the disease, an investigational inactivated EEE vaccine (PE-6) is available to individuals at risk for infection. Both serologic and recent molecular analyses of EEE viruses have demonstrated marked differences between the two antigenic varieties of EEE virus, designated North American (NA) and South American (SA). In view of these findings, we have examined the reactivity of sera from three individuals immunized with the EEE vaccine, derived from an NA isolate, with field strains of EEE virus. Anti-EEE serum antibodies from vaccinees reacted strongly in Western blot assays with both of the envelope (E1 and E2) glycoproteins of each NA strain examined, while reactivities with the glycoproteins of SA strains were substantially weaker and variable and dependent upon both the immune response of the vaccinee and the virus isolate assayed. Most striking was the modest to virtual lack of reactivity with the E2 protein of SA strains. Antigenic differences among the glycoproteins of EEE viruses were not as pronounced in immunoprecipitation analysis. Most significantly, although human immune sera displayed high neutralizing titers against each of the NA isolates examined, only negligible neutralizing titers were obtained against SA isolates. These data suggest that immunized individuals would mount an effective antibody response against infection with NA strains of EEE virus, but that further investigation is clearly warranted to fully assess the protective capability of the vaccine against infection with SA strains.

  14. Zika Virus Strains Potentially Display Different Infectious Profiles in Human Neural Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Simonin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent Zika virus (ZIKV epidemic has highlighted the poor knowledge on its physiopathology. Recent studies showed that ZIKV of the Asian lineage, responsible for this international outbreak, causes neuropathology in vitro and in vivo. However, two African lineages exist and the virus is currently found circulating in Africa. The original African strain was also suggested to be neurovirulent but its laboratory usage has been criticized due to its multiple passages. In this study, we compared the French Polynesian (Asian ZIKV strain to an African strain isolated in Central African Republic and show a difference in infectivity and cellular response between both strains in human neural stem cells and astrocytes. Consistently, this African strain led to a higher infection rate and viral production, as well as stronger cell death and anti-viral response. Our results highlight the need to better characterize the physiopathology and predict neurological impairment associated with African ZIKV.

  15. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

    2013-10-01

    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.

  17. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-09-07

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateljak-Lukacevic Sanja

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL, RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Šantak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes. PMID:18616793

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Santak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-07-10

    The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  2. Emotional distress and strain in relatives of patients with severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of emotional distress and strain were examined in two groups of relatives of psychiatric patients using standard instruments. The dementia group had more GHQ - 30 cases than the schizophrenic group. Even though the schizophrenic relatives had higher distress and strain scores than the dementia relatives, ...

  3. Genetic mapping of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-inducing loci in five mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Rowe, W P

    1980-07-01

    A single mendelian gene was identified for induction of the endogenous xenotropic murine leukemia virus in five mouse strains (C57BL/10, C57L, C57BR, AKR, and BALB/c). This locus, designated Bxv-1, mapped to the same site on chromosome 1 in all strains: Id-1-Pep-3-[Bxv-1-Lp]. Thus, inducibility loci for xenotropic virus are more limited in number and chromosomal distribution than ecotropic inducibility loci. Virus expression in mice with Bxv-1 was induced by treatment of fibroblasts with 5-iododeoxyuridine or by exposure of spleen cells to a B cell mitogen, bacterial lipopolysaccharide. An analysis of the hamster X mouse somatic cell hybrids indicated that chromosome 1, alone, was sufficient for virus induction.

  4. New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundstrom K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Lundstrom PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland Abstract: Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses – adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses – have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses. Most encouragingly, the first cancer gene-therapy drug – Gendicine, based on oncolytic adenovirus type 5 – was approved in China. Likewise, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based drug for the treatment of melanoma has been registered in the US and Europe as talimogene laherparepvec. Keywords: immunotherapy, viral vectors, clinical trials, drug approval

  5. Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martella, V.; Cirone, F.; Elia, G.

    2006-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing lethal disease in dogs and other mammalians. A high degree of genetic variation is found between recent CDV strains and the old CDV isolates used in the vaccines and such genetic variation is regarded as a possible cause....... These results suggest that at least three different CDV lineages are present in Italy. Keywords: Canine distemper virus; Dogs; Lineages; H gene...

  6. Highly efficient full-length hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (strain TN) infectious culture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Jensen, Sanne B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. In the United States, most HCV-related disease is associated with genotype 1 infection, which remains difficult to treat. Drug and vaccine development was hampered by inability to culture...... full-length TN infection dose-dependently. Given the unique importance of genotype 1 for pathogenesis, this infectious 1a culture system represents an important advance in HCV research. The approach used and the mutations identified might permit culture development for other HCV isolates, thus......) culture systems in Huh7.5 cells. Here, we developed a highly efficient genotype 1a (strain TN) full-length culture system. We initially found that the LSG substitutions conferred viability to an intergenotypic recombinant composed of TN 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-NS5A and JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR; recovered...

  7. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... region within the O1K B64 strain that inhibits replication in cattle. These chimeric infectious cDNA plasmids provide a basis for the analysis of FMDV pathogenicity and characterization of receptor utilization in vivo....

  8. Genetic and antigenic analysis of the G attachment protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvander, M.; Vilcek, S.; Baule, C.

    1998-01-01

    Antigenic and genetic studies of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were made on isolates obtained from three continents over 27 years. Antigenic variation between eight isolates was initially determined using protein G-specific monoclonal antibodies. Four distinct reaction patterns were...... of a 731 nucleotide fragment in the G protein gene. Nine of the BRSV strains were analysed by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons whereas sequences of 18 BRSV and three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains were obtained from GenBank. The analysis revealed similarities of 88-100% among BRSV...

  9. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliota, Matthew T; Peinado, Stephen A; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against other arboviruses. At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. These results support the use of Wolbachia biocontrol as a multivalent strategy against Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses.

  10. African, Amerindian and European hepatitis B virus strains circulate on the Caribbean Island of Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichler, Ségolène; Lagathu, Gisèle; Chekaraou, Mariama Abdou; Le Gal, Frédéric; Edouard, André; Dény, Paul; Césaire, Raymond; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Ten Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, as well as numerous subgenotypes, have been described in well-characterized ethnogeographical populations. Martinique has been at a crossroads between Africa, Europe, India and the Americas because of the slave trade (17th-19th centuries), followed by an important immigration of Indian and West African workers. In this work, we aimed to study the molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Martinique according to this unique settlement pattern. To that end, blood samples from 86 consecutive HBV-infected patients from the main hospitals of the island, were retrospectively analysed. Direct sequencing of the pre-S1 or pre-C-C region or complete genome sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analyses were performed. HBV genotypes were: HBV/A1 (68.6 %), HBV/A2 (10.5 %), HBV/D, mainly HBV/D3 and HBV/D4 (8.1 %), HBV/F (3.5 %), and also HBV/E (2.3 %), two strains isolated from two West-African patients. Moreover, 74 % of the HBeAg-negative strains harboured classical pre-C-C mutations, and most HBV/A1 strains also containing specific mutations. Finally, various patterns of deletion mutants in pre-S and pre-C-C regions were found. In conclusion, our findings point to historical and migration-related issues in HBV-genotype distribution suggesting that HBV/A1, but not HBV/E, was imported from Africa during the slave trade, and further supporting the hypothesis that HBV/E has emerged recently in West Africa (<150 years). Potential origins of 'European' HBV/A2 and HBV/D3, 'Amerindian' HBV/F, and HBV/D4 strains are also discussed. Such HBV genetic diversity, beyond its epidemiological interest, may have a clinical impact on the natural history of HBV infection in Martinique.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Chinikar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: We analyzed partial and complete nucleotide sequences of the S and M segments derived from 50 Iranian patients. The extracted RNA was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and then sequenced. The sequences were ana­lyzed using Mega5 software.Results: Phylogenetic analysis of partial S segment sequences demonstrated that clade IV-(Asia 1, clade IV-(Asia 2 and clade V-(Europe accounted for 80 %, 4 % and 14 % of the circulating genomic variants of CCHFV in Iran respectively. However, one of the Iranian strains (Iran-Kerman/22 was associated with none of other sequences and formed a new clade (VII. The phylogenetic analysis of complete S-segment nucleotide sequences from selected Ira­nian CCHFV strains complemented with representative strains from GenBank revealed similar topology as partial sequences with eight major clusters. A partial M segment phylogeny positioned the Iranian strains in either associa­tion with clade III (Asia-Africa or clade V (Europe.Conclusion: The phylogenetic analysis revealed subtle links between distant geographic locations, which we pro­pose might originate either from international livestock trade or from long-distance carriage of CCHFV by infected ticks via bird migration.

  12. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated Chinese QX-like infectious bronchitis virus strain as a candidate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Cheng, Jin-long; Liu, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yan-xin; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2015-10-22

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious respiratory and urogenital disease of chickens caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This disease is of considerable economic importance and is primarily controlled through biosecurity and immunization with live attenuated and inactivated IB vaccines of various serotypes. In the present study, we tested the safety and efficacy of an attenuated predominant Chinese QX-like IBV strain. The results revealed that the attenuated strain has a clear decrease in pathogenicity for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens compared with the parent strain. Strain YN-inoculated birds had clinical signs of varying severity with 30% mortality, while the attenuated group appeared healthy, with less tissue damage. The attenuated strain also had relatively low tissue replication rates and higher antibody levels. The superior protective efficacy of the attenuated strain was observed when vaccinated birds were challenged with a homologous or heterologous field IBV strain, indicating the potential of the attenuated YN (aYN) as a vaccine. Producing a vaccine targeting the abundant serotype in China is essential to reducing the economic impact of IB on the poultry industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequencing and characterization of Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strain SuduVax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanism by full genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of the Korean vaccine strain SuduVax. Results SuduVax was found to contain a genome that was 124,759 bp and possessed 74 open reading frames (ORFs. SuduVax was genetically most close to Oka strains and these Korean-Japanese strains formed a strong clade in phylogenetic trees. SuduVax, similar to the Oka vaccine strains, underwent T- > C substitution at the stop codon of ORF0, resulting in a read-through mutation to code for an extended form of ORF0 protein. SuduVax also shared certain deletion and insertion mutations in ORFs 17, 29, 56 and 60 with Oka vaccine strains and some clinical strains. Conclusions The Korean VZV vaccine strain SuduVax is genetically similar to the Oka vaccine strains. Further comparative genomic and bioinformatics analyses will help to elucidate the molecular basis of the attenuation of the VZV vaccine strains.

  14. Experimental exposure of pregnant mares to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Paweska

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV. The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4, intramuscularly (n = 2, intravenously (n = 1, or contact-exposed (n = 3. All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from

  15. Viral replication kinetics and in vitro cytopathogenicity of parental and reassortant strains of bluetongue virus serotype 1, 6 and 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, M.P.A.; Vuuren, van M.; Stokstad, M.; Myrmel, M.; Gennip, van H.G.P.; Rijn, van P.A.; Venter, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a segmented dsRNA virus, is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important viral haemorrhagic disease of ruminants. Bluetongue virus can exchange its genome segments in mammalian or insect cells that have been co-infected with more than one strain of the

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Strains Isolated from the Blood of Patients in Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Complete genome sequences of Zika Virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in 1 Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012). 2 Ellison,D.W.1...Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20 21 Running Head: Zika Virus Genomes 22 23 ABSTRACT 24 ZIKV is an arbovirus and member of the family...genome sequences of two Zika Virus (ZIKV) strains, Zika virus /H.sapiens-27 tc/THA/2014/SV0127-14 and Zika virus /H.sapiens-tc/PHL/2012/CPC-0740, isolated

  17. Thermostability of reconstituted newcastle disease virus strains at 36 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination (HA) test was employed to determine the stability of HA titers of reconstituted form of Hitchner – B1 (B1), LaSota (L) and Komarov (K) strains of Newcastle Disease Vaccine (NDV) at 360c. The temperature treatment method was through incubation (in water bath) of the reconstituted vaccines at selected ...

  18. Stability of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain V4-UPM Coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of village chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) is considered feasible through food-delivered vaccines. Vaccine virus strain V4-UPM coated on cassava granules with or without additive (2% gelatin) was tested for stability at room temperature (RT) for 8 weeks and 40oC for 12 hours at weekly and two hourly ...

  19. Host range and symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blystad, Dag Ragnar; Vlugt, van der René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Carmen Córdoba, del María; Bese, Gábor; Hristova, Dimitrinka; Pospieszny, Henryk; Mehle, Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja; Tomassoli, Laura; Varveri, Christina; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has caused great concern in the greenhouse tomato industry after it was found causing a new disease in tomato in 1999. The objective of this paper is to investigate alternative hosts and compare important biological characteristics of the three PepMV strains occurring

  20. Host range of symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; van der Vlugt, René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has caused great concern in the greenhouse tomato industry after it was found causing a new disease in tomato in 1999. The objective of this paper is to investigate alternative hosts and compare important biological characteristics of the three PepMV strains occurring...

  1. Pathogenesis of new strains of Newcastle disease virus from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains—1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenoty...

  2. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.; Knowles, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in Turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype O strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and Asia1 strains were only rarely identified. The data...... genotypes. It is suggested that further studies to reveal the nature of the difference in epidemiological dynamics of type A and type O strains might lead to an understanding of the measures required to control foot-and-mouth disease in islands of persistent circulation....

  3. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Tripathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  4. Influence of vaccine strains on the evolution of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Streck, André Felipe; Nunes Weber, Matheus; Maboni Siqueira, Franciele; Muniz Guedes, Rafael Lucas; Wageck Canal, Cláudio

    2016-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major dog pathogen belonging to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. CDV causes disease and high mortality in dogs and wild carnivores. Although homologous recombination has been demonstrated in many members of Paramyxoviridae, these events have rarely been reported for CDV. To detect potential recombination events, the complete CDV genomes available in GenBank up to June 2015 were screened using distinct algorithms to detect genetic conversions and incongruent phylogenies. Eight putative recombinant viruses derived from different CDV genotypes and different hosts were detected. The breakpoints of the recombinant strains were primarily located on fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins. These results suggest that homologous recombination is a frequent phenomenon in morbillivirus populations under natural replication, and CDV vaccine strains might play an important role in shaping the evolution of this virus.

  5. [Virus strain specific serum neutralizing antibodies in children and adolescents immunized with a Russian mumps vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Krasil'nikov, I V; Ignat'ev, G M

    2010-01-01

    Postvaccination immunity was studied in the children and teenagers without a history of clinical mumps infection, who had been immunized with the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine. The level of specific lgG in ELISA and that and spectrum of their neutralizing activity against a vaccine strain and three heterologous mumps virus (MV) strains (genotypes A, C, and H) were measured. The investigation included 151 sera from the vaccinees aged 3 to 17 years, possessing the detectable specific IgG titers in ELISA and the detectable neutralizing titers against the vaccine strain. 97.4% of the vaccinees had neutralizing activity against 1-3 heterologous MV strains. A preponderance of neutralizing titers against heterologous MV strains by 1-log2 in some sera (6.5-32.5 depending on age) was most likely to suggest that the vaccinees' had been in contact with these virus strains in the past. In our investigation, a combination of positive IgG titers and neutralizing titers against the vaccine strain 2-log2 or higher provided the protection of the vaccinated children and teenagers against the symptomatic infection. There was a pronounced buster effect of the second immunization and a drop in the neutralizing activity of the sera from the vaccinated children and adolescents over time after the first and second immunization.

  6. Full genome sequences and molecular characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanová, Petra; Černý, Jiří; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Valdés, James J; Kozlova, Irina; Dzhioev, Yuri; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), one of the most important human neuroinfections across Eurasia. Up to date, only three full genome sequences of human European TBEV isolates are available, mostly due to difficulties with isolation of the virus from human patients. Here we present full genome characterization of an additional five low-passage TBEV strains isolated from human patients with severe forms of TBE. These strains were isolated in 1953 within Central Bohemia in the former Czechoslovakia, and belong to the historically oldest human TBEV isolates in Europe. We demonstrate here that all analyzed isolates are distantly phylogenetically related, indicating that the emergence of TBE in Central Europe was not caused by one predominant strain, but rather a pool of distantly related TBEV strains. Nucleotide identity between individual sequenced TBEV strains ranged from 97.5% to 99.6% and all strains shared large deletions in the 3' non-coding region, which has been recently suggested to be an important determinant of virulence. The number of unique amino acid substitutions varied from 3 to 9 in individual isolates, but no characteristic amino acid substitution typical exclusively for all human TBEV isolates was identified when compared to the isolates from ticks. We did, however, correlate that the exploration of the TBEV envelope glycoprotein by specific antibodies were in close proximity to these unique amino acid substitutions. Taken together, we report here the largest number of patient-derived European TBEV full genome sequences to date and provide a platform for further studies on evolution of TBEV since the first emergence of human TBE in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  8. Characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of Cucumber mosaic virus strain New Delhi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Vikas; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul; Praveen, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    The genome of Cucumber mosaic virus New Delhi strain (CMV-ND) from India, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known CMV strains from subgroups I and II, for their genetic diversity. Sequence analysis suggests CMV-ND shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a CMV strain from Taiwan. Among all 15 strains of CMV, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (CP) is most conserved. Sequence identity values and phylogram results indicate that CMV-ND belongs to subgroup I. Based on the recombination detection program result, it appears that CMV is prone to recombination, and different RNA components of CMV-ND have evolved differently. Recombinational analysis of all 15 CMV strains detected maximum recombination breakpoints in RNA2; CP showed the least recombination sites.

  9. Cross-species infection of specific-pathogen-free pigs by a genotype 4 strain of human hepatitis E virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagins, A. R.; Opriessnig, T.; Huang, Y. W.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important pathogen. The animal strain of HEV, swine HEV, is related to human HEV. The genotype 3 swine HEV infected humans and genotype 3 human HEV infected pigs. The genotype 4 swine and human HEV strains are genetically related, but it is unknown whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. A swine bioassay was utilized in this study to determine whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. Fifteen, 4-week-old, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. Group 1 pigs were each inoculated intravenously with PBS buffer as negative controls, group 2 pigs similarly with genotype 3 human HEV (strain US-2), and group 3 pigs similarly with genotype 4 human HEV (strain TW6196E). Serum and fecal samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days postinoculation (dpi) and tested for evidence of HEV infection. All pigs were necropsied at 56 dpi. As expected, the negative control pigs remained negative. The positive control pigs inoculated with genotype 3 human HEV all became infected as evidenced by detection of HEV antibodies, viremia and fecal virus shedding. All five pigs in group 3 inoculated with genotype 4 human HEV also became infected: fecal virus shedding and viremia were detected variably from 7 to 56 dpi, and seroconversion occurred by 28 dpi. The data indicated that genotype 4 human HEV has an expanded host range, and the results have important implications for understanding the natural history and zoonosis of HEV. PMID:18551597

  10. Establishment of a nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay to distinguish field strains and attenuated strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gui-Hua; Cui, Yu-Dong; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. Previous studies have indicated that PEDV vaccine strains have a partial deletion in ORF3. In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine rotavirus (RV), and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay we describe here can be used to distinguish field strains from vaccine strains of PEDV, and it shows promise for reducing economic loss due to PEDV infection.

  11. Full-length genome sequence analysis of four subgroup J avian leukosis virus strains isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lulu; Wang, Peikun; Yang, Yongli; Li, Haijuan; Huang, Teng; Wei, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody. The complete genomes of the isolates were sequenced and it was found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative, while env was variable especially the gp85 gene. Homology analysis of the env gene sequences showed that the env gene of all the four isolates had higher similarities with the hemangioma (HE)-type reference strains than that of the myeloid leukosis (ML)-type strains, and moreover, the HE-type strains' specific deletion of 205-bp sequence covering the rTM and DR1 in 3'UTR fragment was also found in the four isolates. Further analysis on the sequences of subunits of env gene revealed an interesting finding: the gp85 of isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 had a higher similarity with HPRS-103 and much lower similarity with the HE-type reference strains resulting in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HPRS-103 being clustered in the same branch, while gp37 had higher similarities with the HE-type reference strains when compared to that of HPRS-103, resulted in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HE-type reference strains being clustered in the same branch. The results suggested that isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 may be the recombinant strains of the foreign strain HPRS-103 with the local epidemic HE-type strains of ALV-J.

  12. Capture of cell culture-derived influenza virus by lectins: strain independent, but host cell dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Lars; Zimmermann, Anke; Lehmann, Sylvia; Genzel, Yvonne; Lübben, Holger; Reichl, Udo; Wolff, Michael W

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.

  13. Lights and shades on an historical vaccine canine distemper virus, the Rockborn strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martella, V.; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Elia, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both egg- and cell-adapted canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccines are suspected to retain residual virulence, especially if administered to immuno-suppressed animals, very young pups or to highly susceptible animal species. In the early 1980s, post-vaccine encephalitis was reported in dogs from...... in the sequence databases. Also, Rockborn-like strains were identified in two vaccines currently in the market. These findings indicate that Rockborn-like viruses may be recovered from dogs or other carnivores with distemper, suggesting cases of residual virulence of vaccines, or circulation of vaccine...

  14. Delayed Disease Progression in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Ebola Virus Makona Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Hanley, Patrick W; Scott, Dana P; Günther, Stephan; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-10-01

    In late 2013, the largest documented outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever started in Guinea and has since spread to neighboring countries, resulting in almost 27,000 cases and >11,000 deaths in humans. In March 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the causative agent. This study compares the pathogenesis of a new EBOV strain, Makona, which was isolated in Guinea in 2014 with the prototype strain from the 1976 EBOV outbreak in the former Zaire. Both strains cause lethal disease in cynomolgus macaques with similar pathologic changes and hallmark features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. However, disease progression was delayed in EBOV-Makona-infected animals, suggesting decreased rather than increased virulence of this most recent EBOV strain.

  15. A strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR for Australian rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses uncovers a new recombinant virus variant in rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R N; Mahar, J E; Read, A J; Mourant, R; Piper, M; Huang, N; Strive, T

    2018-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI.1a strain, GI.1a-K5 (also known as 08Q712), was released nationwide in March 2017 as a supplementary tool for wild rabbit management. To discriminate between these lagoviruses, a highly sensitive strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed, which allows fast, cost-effective and sensitive detection of the four pathogenic lagoviruses currently known to be circulating in Australia. In addition, we developed a universal RT-qPCR assay to be used in conjunction with the multiplex assay that broadly detects all four viruses and facilitates quantification of viral RNA load in samples. These assays enable rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic lagoviruses in the Australian context. Using these assays, a novel recombinant lagovirus was detected in rabbit tissue samples, which contained the non-structural genes of GI.1a-Aus and the structural genes of GI.2. This variant was also recovered from the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The impact of this novel recombinant on Australian wild lagomorph populations and its competitiveness in relation to circulating field strains, particularly GI.2, requires further studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Suspension culture process for H9N2 avian influenza virus (strain Re-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglin; Guo, Suying; Li, Zhenguang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Zexiang; Song, Guicai

    2017-10-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus has caused huge economic loss for the Chinese poultry industry since it was first identified. Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the disease. Meanwhile suspension culture has become an important tool for the development of influenza vaccines. To optimize the suspension culture conditions for the avian influenza H9N2 virus (Re-2 strain) in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we studied the culture conditions for cell growth and proliferation parameters for H9N2 virus replication. MDCK cells were successfully cultured in suspension, from a small scale to industrial levels of production, with passage time and initial cell density being optimized. The influence of pH on the culture process in the reactor has been discussed and the process parameters for industrial production were explored via amplification of the 650L reactor. Subsequently, we cultivated cells at high cell density and harvested high amounts of virus, reaching 10log2 (1:1024). Furthermore an animal experiment was conducted to detect antibody. Compared to the chicken embryo virus vaccine, virus cultured from MDCK suspension cells can produce a higher amount of antibodies. The suspension culture process is simple and cost efficient, thus providing a solid foundation for the realization of large-scale avian influenza vaccine production.

  17. Dengue virus infection-enhancing antibody activities against Indonesian strains in inhabitants of central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Oddgun, Duangjai; Chantawat, Nantarat; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection-enhancing antibodies are a hypothetic factor to increase the dengue disease severity. In this study, we investigated the enhancing antibodies against Indonesian strains of DENV-1-4 in 50 healthy inhabitants of central Thailand (Bangkok and Uthai Thani). Indonesia and Thailand have seen the highest dengue incidence in Southeast Asia. The infection history of each subject was estimated by comparing his/her neutralizing antibody titers against prototype DENV-1-4 strains. To resolve the difficulty in obtaining foreign live viruses for use as assay antigens, we used a recombinant system to prepare single-round infectious dengue viral particles based on viral sequence information. Irrespective of the previously infecting serotype(s), most serum samples showed significantly higher enhancement titers against Indonesian DENV-2 strains than against Thai DENV-2 strains, whereas the opposite effect was observed for the DENV-3 strains. Equivalent enhancing activities were observed against both DENV-1 and DENV-4. These results suggest that the genotype has an impact on enhancing antibody activities against DENV-2 and DENV-3, because the predominant circulating genotypes of each serotype differ between Indonesia and Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological features and genetic characterization of virus strains in rotavirus associated gastroenteritis in children of Odisha in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Eileena; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, S K; Acharya, A S

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the clinical characteristics, severity and seasonality of rotavirus infection and prevalent genotypes in 652 non-rota vaccinated children in Odisha in eastern India. P genotypes were analysed for their association with host blood group antigens. P type of the virus is determined by the VP8* gene, and specific recognition of A - type of Histo - blood group antigen by P[14]VP8* has been reported. VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes of commonly identified G1P[8] strain were compared with genes of the same strain isolated from other parts of India, elsewhere and strains used for Rotarix and Rotateq vaccines. In 54.75% of children with gastroenteritis, rota virus was found. 9.65% of children had moderate, 78.07% severe, and 12.28% very severe disease as assessed using the Vesikari scoring system. The incidence of infection was highest during winter months. There was no association between any blood group and specific P genotypes. G1P[8] was the commonest cause of gastroenteritis, followed by G1P[11], G3P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G2P[6], G9P[4], G9P[11] and G1P[6]. Predominant G genotypes identified were G1 (72.9%), G9 (10.81%), G2 (8.10%) and G3 (8.10%). Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene, placed the G1P[8] strain in lineage 1 and of VP6 gene placed nine G1P[8] strains in subgroup II and one in subgroup I. The VP7 gene segment of two Odisha G1P[8] strains were found to cluster relatively close to the VP7 sequences of Rotarix vaccine. Antigenic differences were found with vaccine strains. Ten G1P[8] strains sequenced for the VP4 gene had 91-93% nucleotide and 92-96% amino acid identity with Rotateq vaccine P[8]). Rotarix vaccine VP4 had 89-91% nucleotide and 90-92% amino acid identity. Our findings indicate genetic variability of rotavirus strains circulating in the region and are significant, given the introduction of rota vaccination in the State. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two avirulent, lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus are cytotoxic for some human pancreatic tumor lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robert J; Attar, Bashar M; Rafiq, Asad; Delimata, Megan; Tejaswi, Sooraj

    2012-09-10

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Highly infectious Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains are known to be very cytotoxic for an array of human tumor cell types in vitro and in vivo but the effects of these and avirulent NDV strains on pancreatic neoplasms are little known. Here, the direct cytolytic effects of the avirulent Hitchner-B1 (B1) and Ulster (U) NDV strains on 7 human pancreatic tumor cell lines and 4 normal human cell lines were studied. Cytotoxicity assays used serially diluted NDV to determine minimum cytotoxic plaque forming unit (PFU) doses. For NDV-B1, normal human cells were killed only by relatively high doses (range: 471-3,724 PFU) whereas NDV-U killed these cells at low PFU (range: 0.32-1.60 PFU). Most pancreatic cancer cell types were killed by much lower NDV-B1 doses (range: 0.40-2.60 PFU) while NDV-U killed Capan-1 and SU.86.86 cultures at very low doses (0.00041 PFU and 0.0034 PFU, respectively). On average, 1,555 times more NDV-B1 was needed to kill normal cells than most pancreatic tumor cells and 558 times more NDV-U to kill the two most sensitive pancreatic cancer lines. These innately-targeted lentogenic viruses may have meaningful potential in treating pancreatic cancer.

  20. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  1. The nucleotide sequence of satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus, strain F13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M; Pinck, M; Serghini, M A; Ravelonandro, M; Walter, B; Pinck, L

    1989-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of cDNA copies of grapevine fanleaf virus (strain F13) satellite RNA has been determined. The primary structure obtained was 1114 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained only one long open reading frame encoding a 341 residue, highly hydrophilic polypeptide of Mr37275. The coding sequence was bordered by a leader of 14 nucleotides and a 3'-terminal non-coding region of 74 nucleotides. No homology has been found with small satellite RNAs associated with other nepoviruses. Two limited homologies of eight nucleotides have been detected between the satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus and those in tomato black ring virus, and a consensus sequence U.G/UGAAAAU/AU/AU/A at the 5' end of nepovirus RNAs is reported. A less extended consensus exists in this region in comovirus and picornavirus RNA.

  2. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1 strain in Lower Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie J Sinn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. Case presentation A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7 and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 – 95 %. Conclusions In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.

  3. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Cai, Wei-Song; Jiang, Kai-Lei; Yuan, Zheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  4. Gliopathy of Demyelinating And Non-Demyelinating Strains Of Mouse Hepatitis Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Charles Kenyon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Demyelination in the central nervous system induced by neurovirulent strains of Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV is mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein, but it is not clear whether the mechanism of this disease pathology involves direct viral infection of oligodendrocytes. Detailed studies of glial cell tropism of MHV are presented, demonstrating that direct MHV infection of oligodendrocytes differs between demyelinating (RSA59 and non-demyelinating (RSMHV2 viral strains both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that direct injury of mature oligodendrocytes is an important mechanism of virus-induced demyelination. In vivo, RSA59 infection was identified in spinal cord gray and white matter, but infected oligodendrocytes were restricted to white matter. In contrast, RSMHV2 infection was restricted to gray matter neurons and was not localized to oligodendrocytes. In vitro, RSA59 can infect both oligodendrocyte precursors and differentiated oligodendrocytes, whereas RSMHV2 can infect oligodendrocyte precursors but not differentiated oligodendrocytes. Viral spreading through axonal means to white matter and release of the demyelinating strain MHV at the nerve end is critical for oligodendrocytes infection and subsequent demyelination. Understanding the mechanisms by which known viruses effect demyelination in this animal model has important therapeutic implications in the treatment of human demyelinating disease.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Goatpox Virus Strain Gorgan Obtained Directly from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank; Haegeman, Andy; Al-Majali, Ahmad; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequence of the goatpox virus strain Gorgan, which was obtained directly from a commercial live attenuated vaccine (Caprivac, Jordan Bio-Industries Centre). PMID:27738031

  6. Pathogenesis of bat rabies in a natural reservoir: Comparative susceptibility of the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) to three strains of Lagos bat virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu-Ire, Richard; Begeman, Lineke; Banyard, Ashley C; Breed, Andrew C; Drosten, Christian; Eggerbauer, Elisa; Freuling, Conrad M; Gibson, Louise; Goharriz, Hooman; Horton, Daniel L; Jennings, Daisy; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Marston, Denise; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Riesle Sbarbaro, Silke; Selden, David; Wise, Emma L; Kuiken, Thijs; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation. To allow comparison between strains, we ensured the same titer of virus was inoculated in the same location of the brain of each bat. All bats (n = 3 per strain) were infected, and developed neurological signs, and fatal meningoencephalitis with lyssavirus antigen expression in neurons. There were three main differences among the groups. First, time to death was substantially shorter in the Senegal and Ghana groups (4 to 6 days) than in the Nigeria group (8 days). Second, each virus strain produced a distinct clinical syndrome. Third, the spread of virus to peripheral tissues, tested by hemi-nested reverse transcriptase PCR, was frequent (3 of 3 bats) and widespread (8 to 10 tissues positive of 11 tissues examined) in the Ghana group, was frequent and less widespread in the Senegal group (3/3 bats, 3 to 6 tissues positive), and was rare and restricted in the Nigeria group (1/3 bats, 2 tissues positive). Centrifugal spread of virus from brain to tissue of excretion in the oral cavity is required to enable lyssavirus transmission. Therefore, the Senegal and Ghana strains seem most suitable for further pathogenesis, and for transmission, studies in the straw-colored fruit bat.

  7. Genotyping of canine distemper virus strains circulating in Brazil from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaszewski, Renata da Fontoura; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Weber, Matheus Nunes; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Alves, Christian Diniz Beduschi Travassos; Martella, Vito; Ikuta, Nilo; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2014-02-13

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and represents a serious threat to both unvaccinated and vaccinated animals. This study surveyed dogs with or without clinical signs related to canine distemper from different regions of Brazil from 2008 to 2012. A total of 155 out of 386 animals were found to be CDV positive by RT-PCR; 37 (23.8%) dogs were asymptomatic at the time of sampling, and 90 (58%) displayed clinical signs suggestive of distemper. Nineteen (12.2%) dogs had a record of complete vaccination, 15 (9.6%) had an incomplete vaccination protocol, and 76 (49%) had no vaccination record. Based on the sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin gene of 13 samples, 12 of the strains were characterized as Genotype South America-I/Europe. Considering criteria of at least 95% nucleotide identity to define a genotype and 98% to define a subgenotype, South America-I/Europe sequences segregated into eight different phylogenetically well-defined clusters that circulated or co-circulated in distinct geographical areas. Together, these findings highlight the relevance of CDV infection in Brazilian dogs, demonstrate the predominance of one genotype in Brazil and support the need to intensify the current control measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain snyder hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); D. Silin; O. Lyubomska; R.D. de Vries (Rory); V. von Messling; S. McQuaid (Stephen); R.L. de Swart (Rik); W.P. Duprex (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDVSH) and show that this virus rapidly

  9. Epitopes on the peplomer protein of infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 as defined by monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M.C. Bleumink-Pluym; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractSixteen monoclonal antibodies (Mcabs) were prepared against infectious bronchitis virus strain M41, all of them reacting with the peplomer protein. One of them, Mcab 13, was able to neutralize the virus and to inhibit hemagglutination. Competition binding assays allowed the definition of

  10. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  11. What difference does it make if viruses are strain-, rather than species-specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron Frede Thingstad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical work has suggested an important role of lytic viruses in controlling the diversity of their prokaryotic hosts. Yet, providing strong experimental or observational support (or refutation for this has proven evasive. Such models have usually assumed host groups to correspond to the species level, typically represented by 16S rDNA data. Recent model developments take into account the resolution of species into strains with differences in their susceptibility to viral attack. With strains as the host groups, the models will have explicit viral control of abundance at strain level, combined with explicit predator or resource control at community level, but the direct viral control at species level then disappears. Abundance of a species therefore emerges as the combination of how many strains, and at what abundance, this species can establish in competition with other species from a seeding community. We here discuss how species diversification and strain diversification may introduce competitors and defenders, respectively, and that the balance between the two may be a factor in the control of species diversity in mature natural communities. These models suggest that the balance between the two may be a factor in the control of species diversity in mature natural communities. These models can also give a dominance of individuals from strains with high cost of resistance; suggesting that the high proportion of dormant cells among pelagic heterotrophic prokaryotes may reflect their need for expensive defense rather than the lack of suitable growth substrates in their environment.

  12. Pathogenesis of New Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus From Israel and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarangga, P; Brown, C C; Miller, P J; Haddas, R; Rehmani, S F; Afonso, C L; Susta, L

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains-1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenotype XIIIb isolated in Pakistan (Karachi/07)-were characterized by intracerebral pathogenicity index and detailed clinicopathologic assessment. The intracerebral pathogenicity index values for Kvuzat/13 and Karachi/07 were 1.89 and 1.85, respectively, classifying these strains as virulent by international standards. In 4-week-old White Leghorn chickens, both strains caused 100% mortality within 4 (Kvuzat/13) and 5 (Karachi/07) days postinfection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for NDV nucleoprotein showed that both strains had wide systemic distribution, especially targeting lymphoid organs and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in the respiratory and intestinal tracts. Results of the animal experiment confirm that both Kvuzat/13 and Karachi/07 are highly virulent and behaved as velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  14. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the California MSW strain of myxoma virus reveals potential host adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Depasse, Jay V; Cattadori, Isabella M; Hudson, Peter J; Tscharke, David C; Holmes, Edward C; Ghedin, Elodie

    2013-11-01

    Myxomatosis is a rapidly lethal disease of European rabbits that is caused by myxoma virus (MYXV). The introduction of a South American strain of MYXV into the European rabbit population of Australia is the classic case of host-pathogen coevolution following cross-species transmission. The most virulent strains of MYXV for European rabbits are the Californian viruses, found in the Pacific states of the United States and the Baja Peninsula, Mexico. The natural host of Californian MYXV is the brush rabbit, Sylvilagus bachmani. We determined the complete sequence of the MSW strain of Californian MYXV and performed a comparative analysis with other MYXV genomes. The MSW genome is larger than that of the South American Lausanne (type) strain of MYXV due to an expansion of the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of the genome, with duplication of the M156R, M154L, M153R, M152R, and M151R genes and part of the M150R gene from the right-hand (RH) end of the genome at the left-hand (LH) TIR. Despite the extreme virulence of MSW, no novel genes were identified; five genes were disrupted by multiple indels or mutations to the ATG start codon, including two genes, M008.1L/R and M152R, with major virulence functions in European rabbits, and a sixth gene, M000.5L/R, was absent. The loss of these gene functions suggests that S. bachmani is a relatively recent host for MYXV and that duplication of virulence genes in the TIRs, gene loss, or sequence variation in other genes can compensate for the loss of M008.1L/R and M152R in infections of European rabbits.

  15. Amplification and sequencing of varicella zoster virus (VZV) gene 4: point mutation in a VZV strain causing chickenpox during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, V.T.K.; Lim, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox (varicella) as the primary disease and shingles (zoster) as a recurrent manifestation of infection, both being generality benign and self-limiting. While these infections may be severe in adults and even life-threatening in immunosuppressed individuals, they may be amenable to effective antiviral drugs or varicella-zoster immune globulin, provided the treatment is administered early. The prompt diagnosis of VZV infections may be accelerated by rapid, sensitive and specific molecular techniques such as amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with slower and more cumbersome tissue culture and serological procedures. Based on the VZV gene 4 which encodes a transcriptional activator, primers were designed for use in PCR to amplify a target fragment of 381 bp. Distinct diagnostic bands were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products of VZV strains isolated from II varicella and 7 zoster patients in Singapore, as well as of the Japanese vaccine Oka strain. The detection sensitivity of this PCR assay was determined to be 1 pg of purified VZV DNA equivalent to about 7,000 viral DNA copies. No target bands were amplified from negative control templates from five related human herpes-viruses and from human DNA. The specificity of the PCR products was ensured by direct cycle DNA sequencing, which revealed complete identity of the 18 VZV isolates with the published European Dumas strain. The strong sequence conservation of the target fragment renders this PCR assay highly reliable for detecting the VZV sequence. Only one VZV strain isolated from a patient with varicella during pregnancy exhibited a Gaga to GAA point mutation at codon 46 of gene 4, culminating in the non-conservative substitution of Ser with Phe. The predicted secondary structure of the mutant polypeptide portrayed a radical alteration, which may influence its function in transcriptional activation. (authors)

  16. Analysis of antigenic relationships among influenza virus strains using a taxonomic cluster procedure. Comparison of three kinds of antibody preparations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F. Weijers; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack); F.M. de Ronde-Verloop; K. Bijlsma (Klaas); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractHemagglutination inhibiting (HI) monoclonal antibody preparations (MA) were raised against six influenza A (H3N2) strains from the period 1977-1982. Twenty-three hybridomas were selected and titrated in HI assays against these strains and against 18 influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in

  17. Zika-Virus-Related Photo Sharing on Pinterest and Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Goff, M Elizabeth; Mullican, Lindsay A; Chan, Kwun Cheung; Saroha, Nitin; Duke, Carmen H; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-12-01

    Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram. We retrieved and manually coded 616 Pinterest (key words: "zika" AND "virus") and 616 Instagram (hashtag: #zikavirus) photos. Among the manually coded samples, 47% (290/616) of Pinterest photos and 23% (144/616) of Instagram photos were relevant to Zika virus. Words were embedded in 57% (164/290) of relevant Pinterest photos and all 144 relevant Instagram photos. Among the photos with embedded words, photos in Spanish or Portuguese were more prevalent on Instagram (77/144, 53%) than on Pinterest (14/164, 9%). There were more Zika-virus-related photos on Instagram than on Pinterest pertinent to Zika virus prevention (59/144, 41%, versus 41/290, 14%; PInstagram are similar platforms for Zika virus prevention communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:656-659).

  18. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  19. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  20. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  1. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Pneumonia Virus of Mice in a Resistant and a Susceptible Mouse Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. T. Watkiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of infant bronchiolitis. The closely related pneumonia virus of mice (PVM causes a similar immune-mediated disease in mice, which allows an analysis of host factors that lead to severe illness. This project was designed to compare the immune responses to lethal and sublethal doses of PVM strain 15 in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Balb/c mice responded to PVM infection with an earlier and stronger innate response that failed to control viral replication. Production of inflammatory cyto- and chemokines, as well as infiltration of neutrophils and IFN-γ secreting natural killer cells into the lungs, was more predominant in Balb/c mice. In contrast, C57Bl/6 mice were capable of suppressing both viral replication and innate inflammatory responses. After a sublethal infection, PVM-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes was stronger early during infection and weaker at late time points in C57Bl/6 mice when compared to Balb/c mice. Furthermore, although the IgG levels were similar and the mucosal IgA titres lower, the virus neutralizing antibody titres were higher in C57Bl/6 mice than in Balb/c mice. Overall, the difference in susceptibility of these two strains appeared to be related not to an inherent T helper bias, but to the capacity of the C57Bl/6 mice to control both viral replication and the immune response elicited by PVM.

  2. Comparative physicochemical and biological properties of two strains of Kilham rat virus, a non-defective parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Snyder, C.E.; Bates, R.C.; Banerjee, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Two antigenically indistinguishable strains, 171 and 308, of Kilham rat virus (KRV) have distinct host ranges and contain capsid proteins of identical size, but with different isoelectric points. The single-stranded DNA genomes of the viruses are also the same size but appear to have different secondary and tertiary structures. The genomes of the two strains have nearly identical cleavage maps for 11 restriction endonucleases. However, there is a lack of extended heteroloy in the nucleotide sequence of the two virus genomes, as judged by electron microscopic analysis of the heteroduplex of the two virus DNAs. This suggests that very subtle differences in the sequences of the genome, and possibly of the capsid proteins, may play a role in the host specificity without affecting the antigenic similarity of KRV strains.

  3. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Proteomics analysis of BHK-21 cells infected with a fixed strain of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Fatemeh; Eslami, Naser; Soheili, Masoomeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Gholami, Alireza; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2009-05-01

    Rabies is a neurotropic virus that causes a life threatening acute viral encephalitis. The complex relationship of rabies virus (RV) with the host leads to its replication and spreading toward the neural network, where viral pathogenic effects appeared as neuronal dysfunction. In order to better understand the molecular basis of this relationship, a proteomics study on baby hamster kidney cells infected with challenge virus standard strain of RV was performed. This cell line is an in vitro model for rabies infection and is commonly used for viral seed preparation. The direct effect of the virus on cellular protein machinery was investigated by 2-DE proteome mapping of infected versus control cells followed by LC-MS/MS identification. This analysis revealed significant changes in expression of 14 proteins, seven of these proteins were viral and the remaining were host proteins with different known functions: cytoskeletal (capping protein, vimentin), anti-oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase), regulatory (Stathmin), and protein synthesis (P0). Despite of limited changes appeared upon rabies infection, they present a set of interesting biochemical pathways for further investigation on viral-host interaction.

  5. Alisporivir Has Limited Antiviral Effects Against Ebola Virus Strains Makona and Mayinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiramel, Abhilash I; Banadyga, Logan; Dougherty, Jonathan D; Falzarano, Darryl; Martellaro, Cynthia; Brees, Dominique; Taylor, R Travis; Ebihara, Hideki; Best, Sonja M

    2016-10-15

    Antiviral therapeutics with existing clinical safety profiles would be highly desirable in an outbreak situation, such as the 2013-2016 emergence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa. Although, the World Health Organization declared the end of the outbreak early 2016, sporadic cases of EBOV infection have since been reported. Alisporivir is the most clinically advanced broad-spectrum antiviral that functions by targeting a host protein, cyclophilin A (CypA). A modest antiviral effect of alisporivir against contemporary (Makona) but not historical (Mayinga) EBOV strains was observed in tissue culture. However, this effect was not comparable to observations for an alisporivir-susceptible virus, the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus. Thus, EBOV does not depend on (CypA) for replication, in contrast to many other viruses pathogenic to humans. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Serological reactions in Rhesus monkeys inoculated with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROOT, H

    1962-01-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests, which depend on the appearance of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum in virus infections, are in common use in the study of arthropod-borne diseases. This paper contains the results of an investigation into the appearance and pattern of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum of rhesus monkeys inoculated intracerebrally with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus during the testing of seed lots of yellow fever vaccine. These antibodies appeared on the tenth day after inoculation, and were still demonstrable four years later. In all of the eight monkeys tested complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever antigens also developed, and in six out of the eight heterologous antigens developed.

  7. Purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Sun, Shiqi; Dong, Jinjie; Zhi, Xiaoying; Chang, Yanyan; Teng, Zhidong; Guo, Huichen; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cell culture. Heparin resins HipTrap Heparin HP and AF-Heparin HC-650 were utilized to purify FMDV O/HN/CHA/93. Results showed that the purity of AF-Heparin HC-650 was ideal. Then, the O/HN/CHA/93, O/Tibet/CHA/99, Asia I/HN/06, and A/CHA/HB/2009 strains were purified by AF-Heparin HC-650. Their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 51.2%/45.8%, 71.5%/70.9%, 96.4%/73.5, and 59.5%/42.1%, respectively. During a stepwise elution strategy, the viral particles were mainly eluted at 300mM ionic strength peaks. The heparin affinity chromatography process removed more than 94% of cellular and medium proteins. Anion exchange resin Capto Q captured four FMD virus particles; 40% of binding proteins and 80%-90% of viral particles were eluted at 450mM NaCl. Moreover, ionic strength varied from 30 to 450mM had no effect on the immunity to FMDV. The results revealed that heparin sulfate may be the main receptor for CHA/99 strain attachment-susceptible cells. Heparin affinity chromatography can reach perfect results, especially when used as a ligand of the virus. Anion exchange is useful only as previous step for further purification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  9. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian dengue virus type 3 strain isolated from a fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Pereira Miagostovich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the complete nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of Brazilian dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 from a dengue case with fatal outcome, which occurred during an epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002. This constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian DENV-3 strain since its introduction into the country in 2001. DENV-3 was responsible for the most severe dengue epidemic in the state, based on the highest number of reported cases and on the severity of clinical manifestations and deaths reported.

  11. Unraveling the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Leishmania RNA virus 1 strains of infected Leishmania isolates circulating in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirera, Sourakhata; Ginouves, Marine; Donato, Damien; Caballero, Ignacio S; Bouchier, Christiane; Lavergne, Anne; Bourreau, Eliane; Mosnier, Emilie; Vantilcke, Vincent; Couppié, Pierre; Prevot, Ghislaine; Lacoste, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) is an endosymbiont of some Leishmania (Vianna) species in South America. Presence of LRV1 in parasites exacerbates disease severity in animal models and humans, related to a disproportioned innate immune response, and is correlated with drug treatment failures in humans. Although the virus was identified decades ago, its genomic diversity has been overlooked until now. We subjected LRV1 strains from 19 L. (V.) guyanensis and one L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from cutaneous leishmaniasis samples identified throughout French Guiana with next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly. We generated and analyzed 24 unique LRV1 sequences over their full-length coding regions. Multiple alignment of these new sequences revealed variability (0.5%-23.5%) across the entire sequence except for highly conserved motifs within the 5' untranslated region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viral genomes of L. (V.) guyanensis grouped into five distinct clusters. They further showed a species-dependent clustering between viral genomes of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, confirming a long-term co-evolutionary history. Noteworthy, we identified cases of multiple LRV1 infections in three of the 20 Leishmania isolates. Here, we present the first-ever estimate of LRV1 genomic diversity that exists in Leishmania (V.) guyanensis parasites. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of these viruses has shed light on their evolutionary relationships. To our knowledge, this study is also the first to report cases of multiple LRV1 infections in some parasites. Finally, this work has made it possible to develop molecular tools for adequate identification and genotyping of LRV1 strains for diagnostic purposes. Given the suspected worsening role of LRV1 infection in the pathogenesis of human leishmaniasis, these data have a major impact from a clinical viewpoint and for the management of Leishmania-infected patients.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Yan, Xi-Jun; Chai, Xiu-Li; Martella, Vito; Luo, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Gao, Han; Liu, Ying-Xue; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Tao; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Chun-Fei; Wang, Feng-Xue; Shao, Xi-Qun; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2010-01-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. Genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various CDV strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (H) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. Based on sequence analysis of the H gene, wild-type CDV strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined. All the CDV strains but two (strains HL and HLJ2) were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (96.2-99.7% at the amino acid [aa] level) and to other Asia-1 strains (96.1-99.5% aa) previously detected in China. The CDV strains HL and HLJ2 were both collected from foxes in Heilongjiang province in 2005. Strain HL resembled CDVs of the Arctic genotype (GR88-like) and displayed high aa identity (98.0%) to the Chinese canine strain Liu. By converse, strain HLJ2 was barely related to CDVs of the Asia-2 genotype (88.7-90.3% aa identity), and could represent a novel CDV genotype, tentatively proposed as Asia-3. These results suggest that at least three different CDV genotypes, distantly related (81.8-91.6% aa identity) to the vaccine strains, Onderstepoort-like (America-1 genotype), are currently circulating in breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China, and that the genotype Asia-1 is predominant. Whether the diversity between wild-type CDVs and the vaccine strains may affect, to some extent, the efficacy of the vaccines deserves further investigations.

  13. A flow cytometry-based assay for quantifying non-plaque forming strains of yellow fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hammarlund

    Full Text Available Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar could not be measured by plaque assay (PA, focus-forming assay (FFA, or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6 and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine. Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses.

  14. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  15. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  16. Expression analysis of several antiviral related genes to BmNPV in different resistant strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Wang, Xue-yang; Du, Chang; Gao, Juan; Xu, Jia-ping

    2014-05-30

    Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly pathogenic virus in the sericultural industry, often causing severe damage leading to large economic losses. The immune mechanisms of B. mori against this virus remain obscure. Previous studies had demonstrated Bmlipase-1, BmNox and Bmserine protease-2 showing antiviral activity in vitro, but data on the transcription levels of these proteins in different resistant strains were not reported. In order to determine the resistance level of the four different strains (P50, A35, A40, A53) and gain a better understanding of the mechanism of resistance to BmNPV in B. mori, the relative expression level of the genes coding the three antiviral proteins in larval haemolymph and midgut of different B. mori strains resistant to BmNPV was determined. The results showed that these genes expressed significantly higher in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain, and the differential expression levels were consistent with the LC50 values in different strains. The transcription level of the target genes almost all up-regulated in the larvae midgut and down-regulated in the haemolymph. The results indicate the correlation of these genes to BmNPV resistance in B. mori. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  17. Differential Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in African Buffalo Is Related to Virus Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Gubbins, Simon; Zhang, Fuquan; Seago, Julian; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Reid, Liz; Scott, Katherine; van Schalkwyk, Louis; Bengis, Roy; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas

    2016-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. In particular, the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the African buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple SAT serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. However, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. FMD in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study FMDV persistence, as transmission from carrier ruminants has convincingly been demonstrated for only this species. Following coinfection of naive African buffaloes with isolates of three SAT serotypes from field buffaloes, palatine tonsil swabs were the sample of choice for recovering infectious FMDV up to 400 days postinfection (dpi). Postmortem examination identified infectious virus for up to 185 dpi and viral genomes for up to 400 dpi in lymphoid tissues of the head and neck, focused mainly in germinal centers. Interestingly, viral persistence in vivo was not homogenous, and the SAT-1 isolate persisted longer than the SAT-2 and SAT-3 isolates. Coinfection and passage of these SAT isolates in goat and buffalo cell lines demonstrated a direct correlation between persistence and cell-killing capacity. These data suggest that FMDV persistence occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid tissue but that the duration of persistence is related to virus replication and cell-killing capacity. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in domestic livestock and wildlife species. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the primary carrier hosts of FMDV in African savannah ecosystems, where the disease is endemic. We have shown that the virus persists for up to 400 days in buffaloes and that there is competition between viruses during mixed infections. There was similar competition in cell culture: viruses that killed cells quickly persisted more

  18. Genomic Changes in an Attenuated ZB Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia1 and Comparison with Its Virulent Parental Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiguo Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1 ZB strain remains unknown. To understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated ZB strains (ZB/CHA/58(att, ZBRF168, and ZBRF188 and their virulent parental strains (ZBCF22 and YNBS/58. The results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutation in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR and another one in the 3′-UTR. In addition, a total of 21 nucleotides silent mutations had been found after attenuation. These substitutions, alone or in combination, may be responsible for the attenuated phenotype of the ZB strain in cattle. This will contribute to elucidation of attenuating molecular basis of the FMDV ZB strain.

  19. High genetic diversity of equine infectious anaemia virus strains from Slovenia revealed upon phylogenetic analysis of the p15 gag gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Malovrh, T

    2016-03-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region phylogenetically in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between 4 separate monophyletic groups and 9 branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains were European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most probably infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographical region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse-owners not following legislation, thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, because some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Carlow virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million). Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002-2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. RESULTS: Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3) which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1), in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A) were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu\\/NoV\\/GII\\/Carlow\\/2002\\/Ire) genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. CONCLUSION: Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  1. In Vivo Characterisation of Five Strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 1 (Subgenotype 1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1 is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected. In contrast, BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c is by far the most commonly reported in Australia. Despite this, uneven distribution of the biological importance of the subgenotypes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the in vivo properties of five strains of BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c in cattle infection studies. No overt respiratory signs were reported in any of the infected cattle regardless of strain. Consistent with other subgenotypes, transient pyrexia and leukopenia were commonly identified, while thrombocytopenia was not. The quantity of virus detected in the nasal secretions of transiently infected animals suggested the likelihood of horizontal transmission was very low. Further studies are required to fully understand the variability and importance of the BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c.

  2. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-08

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  3. Morphologic and Molecular Characterization of a Strain of Zika Virus Imported into Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Li

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV disease have caused worldwide concerns. Guangdong province is one of the commercial centers in China and communicates frequently with the epidemic areas. To date, 65.2% of the ZIKV infection cases in China were imported via port of entry in Guangdong. The continuous surveillance of imported cases is crucial for the prevention and control of potential ZIKV infection outbreak in China. In this study, a strain of ZIKV was isolated from the serum of a 6-year-old child returning from Venezuela. The morphology of the ZIKV was analyzed in vivo and in vitro by electron microscopy, and clusters of virus particles were found in the loose cytoplasmic membrane structures. The genomic sequence of the isolated ZIKV was determined, and the alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified one unique amino acid substitution occurring in the non-structural protein 4B (NS4B, and the isolated virus belonged to the Asian lineage.

  4. Isolation of an attenuated myxoma virus field strain that can confer protection against myxomatosis on contacts of vaccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Pagès-Manté, A; March, R; Morales, M; Ramírez, M A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Torres, J M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty MV strains obtained from a survey of field strains currently circulating throughout Spain were analyzed for their virulence and horizontal spreading among rabbits by contact transmission. A virus strain with suitable characteristics to be used as a potential vaccine against myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations was selected. Following inoculation, the selected MV strain elicited high levels of MV specific antibodies and induced protection of rabbits against a virulent MV challenge. Furthermore, the attenuated MV was transmitted to 9 out of 16 uninoculated rabbits by contact, inducing protection against myxomatosis.

  5. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; van den Burg, Remco; Hoyer, Mark J.; Gruters, Rob A.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and were unlikely

  6. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  7. Antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75 against currently circulating viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; Paton, D J; Srinivasan, V A; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  9. A duck hepatitis B virus strain with a knockout mutation in the putative X ORF shows similar infectivity and in vivo growth characteristics to wild-type virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.; Scougall, C.A.; Will, H.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses including human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) express X proteins, HBx and DHBx, respectively. Both HBx and DHBx are transcriptional activators and modulate cellular signaling in in vitro assays. To test whether the DHBx protein plays a role in virus infection, we compared the in vivo infectivity and growth characteristics of a DHBV3 strain with a stop codon in the X-like ORF (DHBV3-X-K.O.) to those of the wild-type DHBV3 strain. Here we report that the two strains showed no significant difference in (i) their ability to induce infection that resulted in stable viraemia measured by serum surface antigen (DHBsAg) and DHBV DNA, and detection of viral proteins and replicative DNA intermediates in the liver; (ii) the rate of spread of infection in liver and extrahepatic sites after low-dose virus inoculation; and (iii) the ability to produce transient or persistent infection under balanced age/dose conditions designed to detect small differences between the strains. Thus, none of the infection parameters assayed were detectably affected by the X-ORF knockout mutation, raising the question whether DHBx expression plays a physiological role during in vivo infection with wild-type DHBV

  10. Antibody responses in humans infected with newly emerging strains of West Nile Virus in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Chabierski

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile Virus (WNV affects an increasing number of countries worldwide. Although most human infections result in no or mild flu-like symptoms, the elderly and those with a weakened immune system are at higher risk for developing severe neurological disease. Since its introduction into North America in 1999, WNV has spread across the continental United States and caused annual outbreaks with a total of 36,000 documented clinical cases and ∼1,500 deaths. In recent years, outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease also have been reported in Europe. The WNV strains isolated during these outbreaks differ from those in North America, as sequencing has revealed that distinct phylogenetic lineages of WNV concurrently circulate in Europe, which has potential implications for the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tests. Here, we studied the human antibody response to European WNV strains responsible for outbreaks in Italy and Greece in 2010, caused by lineage 1 and 2 strains, respectively. The WNV structural proteins were expressed as a series of overlapping fragments fused to a carrier-protein, and binding of IgG in sera from infected persons was analyzed. The results demonstrate that, although the humoral immune response to WNV in humans is heterogeneous, several dominant peptides are recognized.

  11. Vaccination against porcine parvovirus protects against disease, but does not prevent infection and virus shedding after challenge infection with a heterologous virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, A; Manteufel, J; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2009-10-01

    The demonstration of field isolates of porcine parvovirus (PPV) that differ genetically and antigenically from vaccine strains of PPV raises the question of whether the broadly used inactivated vaccines can still protect sows against the novel viruses. Ten specific-pathogen-free primiparous sows were assigned to three groups and were vaccinated with one of two vaccines based on the old vaccine strains, or served as non-vaccinated controls. After insemination, all sows were challenged with the prototype genotype 2 virus, PPV-27a, on gestation day 41; fetuses were delivered on gestation day 90 and examined for virus infection. The fetuses of the vaccinated sows were protected against disease, but both the vaccinated and the non-vaccinated sows showed a marked increase in antibody titres after challenge infection, indicating replication of the challenge virus. All sows (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) shed the challenge virus for at least 10 days after infection, with no difference in the pattern or duration of virus shedding.

  12. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  13. Host-cell reactivation of uv-irradiated and chemically treated Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selsky, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain mp was studied in normal human skin fibroblasts and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts from XP genetic complementation groups A-D and in an XP variant. The increasing relative order for the host-cell reactivation of both types of damaged virus in the different complementation groups is A = D < B < C; XP variant = normal controls. XP complementation group D cells, which manifest the most severe inhibition of her ability for both UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus, can reactivate nitrogen mustard treated HSV-1 mp to the same extent as normal cells. Together, these results indicate that (1) Excision repair of UV and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene DNA damaged viruses share a common rate limiting enzymatic step and (2) The repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells plays little or no role in the recovery of nitrogen mustard treated virus. The results of studies on the effect of caffeine on the survival of both UV- and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus in normal and XP cells imply that the reactivation of HSV-1 mp is mediated by an excision repair process with little if any recovery contributed by post-replication repair mechanisms. The host-cell reactivation of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated HSV-1 mp was also correlated with the defective UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in two skin fibroblast strains established from a skin biopsy obtained from each of two juvenile females who had been clinically diagnosed as xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are discussed in relation to the further characterization of the xeroderma pigmentosum phenotype and their possible utilization for the selection and isolation of new mammalian cell DNA repair mutants

  14. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus does not pose a risk to blood recipient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Stress–strain relations for hydrogels under multiaxial deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    and solvent-dependent reference configuration. The importance of introduction of a reference configuration evolving under swelling is confirmed by the analysis of experimental data on nanocomposite hydrogels subjected to swelling and drying. Adjustable parameters in the stress–strain relations are found...... by fitting observations on swollen elastomers, chemical gels (linked by covalent bonds and sliding cross-links), and physical gels under uniaxial stretching, equi-biaxial tension, and pure shear. Good agreement is demonstrated between the observations and results of numerical simulation. A pronounced...

  16. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  17. The serological response of young dogs to the Flury LEP strain of rabies virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghomo, H O; Oduye, O O; Rupprecht, C E

    1990-01-01

    The serological response of puppies from Nigeria to live Flury low egg passage (LEP) rabies vaccine was determined. Two sets of puppies were used: one set from rabies-vaccinated bitches and another set from non-vaccinated bitches. Puppies were vaccinated intramuscularly with Flury LEP strain rabies vaccine and serially bled from the 4th week to the 30th week. Serum rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were measured by a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Puppies from non-vaccinated bitches responded well to vaccination after the 4th week and through to the 10th week of age, showing a progressive increase in VNA. In contrast, puppies from vaccinated bitches responded well to rabies vaccination only at 10 weeks of age, although detectable maternal rabies VNA and rabies anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies had decreased by 6 weeks post partum.

  18. In vitro virucidal activity of a styrylpyrone derivative against herpes simplex virus strain KOS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Micheal; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2014-09-01

    In this study, styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) extracted from Goniothalamus umbrosus root was tested against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strain KOS-1. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of SPD on Vero cells was tested and the value of cytotoxic concentration, CC50, was 44 μM (8.88 μg/mL), and the 50% Effective Concentration, EC50, was 3.35 μM (0.67 μg/mL). Selectivity index of SPD against HSV Kos-1 was more than 13 indicating potential as antiviral agent. Three treatments were used in the antiviral test; 1) post-treatment, 2) pre-treatment, and 3) virucidal. The results revealed that the post-treatment was more effective in inhibiting viral replication compared to pre-treatment. The findings indicated that the SPD from G. umbrosus has good potential for prospective nature-based antiviral drug.

  19. Molecular characterization of the virulent infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV strain 220-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaPatra Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV is the type species of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae, infecting several species of wild and hatchery reared salmonids. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, IHNV has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11,000 nucleotides. The IHNV genome encodes six genes; the nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, non-virion protein and polymerase protein genes, respectively. This study describes molecular characterization of the virulent IHNV strain 220-90, belonging to the M genogroup, and its phylogenetic relationships with available sequences of IHNV isolates worldwide. Results The complete genomic sequence of IHNV strain 220-90 was determined from the DNA of six overlapping clones obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of 220-90 comprises 11,133 nucleotides (GenBank GQ413939 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. An additional uracil nucleotide was found at the end of the 5'-trailer region, which was not reported before in other IHNV strains. The first 15 of the 16 nucleotides at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the genome are complementary, and the first 4 nucleotides at 3'-ends of the IHNV are identical to other novirhadoviruses. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of the glycoprotein genes show that 220-90 strain is 97% identical to most of the IHNV strains. Comparison of the virulent 220-90 genomic sequences with less virulent WRAC isolate shows more than 300 nucleotides changes in the genome, which doesn't allow one to speculate putative residues involved in the virulence of IHNV. Conclusion We have molecularly characterized one of the well studied IHNV isolates, 220-90 of genogroup M, which is virulent for rainbow trout, and compared phylogenetic relationship with North American

  20. The Epstein-Barr Virus BART miRNA Cluster of the M81 Strain Modulates Multiple Functions in Primary B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Shumilov, Anatoliy; Poirey, Remy; Bannert, Helmut; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Feederle, Regina; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a B lymphotropic virus that infects the majority of the human population. All EBV strains transform B lymphocytes, but some strains, such as M81, also induce spontaneous virus replication. EBV encodes 22 microRNAs (miRNAs) that form a cluster within the BART region of the virus and have been previously been found to stimulate tumor cell growth. Here we describe their functions in B cells infected by M81. We found that the BART miRNAs are downregulated in replicating cells, and that exposure of B cells in vitro or in vivo in humanized mice to a BART miRNA knockout virus resulted in an increased proportion of spontaneously replicating cells, relative to wild type virus. The BART miRNAs subcluster 1, and to a lesser extent subcluster 2, prevented expression of BZLF1, the key protein for initiation of lytic replication. Thus, multiple BART miRNAs cooperate to repress lytic replication. The BART miRNAs also downregulated pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators such as caspase 3 and LMP1, and their deletion did not sensitize B-cells to apoptosis. To the contrary, the majority of humanized mice infected with the BART miRNA knockout mutant developed tumors more rapidly, probably due to enhanced LMP1 expression, although deletion of the BART miRNAs did not modify the virus transforming abilities in vitro. This ability to slow cell growth could be confirmed in non-humanized immunocompromized mice. Injection of resting B cells exposed to a virus that lacks the BART miRNAs resulted in accelerated tumor growth, relative to wild type controls. Therefore, we found that the M81 BART miRNAs do not enhance B-cell tumorigenesis but rather repress it. The repressive effects of the BART miRNAs on potentially pathogenic viral functions in infected B cells are likely to facilitate long-term persistence of the virus in the infected host. PMID:26694854

  1. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko M Nikolin

    Full Text Available Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV. The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150. Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F. We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by

  2. Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Fitness Trade-Offs Reveal Specialist and Generalist Traits in Strains of Canine Distemper Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Veljko M.; Osterrieder, Klaus; von Messling, Veronika; Hofer, Heribert; Anderson, Danielle; Dubovi, Edward; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150). Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H) to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F). We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H) in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by antagonistic

  3. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Maren; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Rabenau, Holger F; Doerr, Hans W; Diedrich, Sabine; Enders, Gisela; Enders, Martin

    2010-12-09

    In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.

  4. Distribution, persistence and interchange of Epstein-Barr virus strains among PBMC, plasma and saliva of primary infection subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready interchange of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle.

  5. Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toffan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in non-vaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopatological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined.

  6. Re-emergence of dengue virus serotype 2 strains in the 2013 outbreak in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Birendra Prasad; Singh, Sneha; Kurmi, Roshan; Malla, Rajani; Sreekumar, Easwaran; Manandhar, Krishna Das

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Epidemiological interventions and mosquito control are the available measures for dengue control. The former approach uses serotype and genetic information on the circulating virus strains. Dengue has been frequently reported from Nepal, but this information is mostly lacking. The present study was done to generate a comprehensive clinical and virological picture of a dengue outbreak in Nepal during 2013. Methods: A hospital-based study involving patients from five districts of Nepal was carried out. Demographic information, clinical details and dengue serological status were obtained. Viral RNA was characterized at the molecular level by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: From among the 2340 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during the study period, 198 patients consented for the study. Clinically they had fever (100%), headache (59.1%), rashes (18.2%), retro-orbital pain (30.3%), vomiting (15.1%), joint pain (28.8%) and thrombocytopenia (74.3%). Fifteen (7.5%) of them had mucosal bleeding manifestations, and the rest were uncomplicated dengue fever. The patients were mostly adults with a mean age of 45.75 ± 38.61 yr. Of the 52 acute serum samples tested, 15 were positive in RT-PCR. The causative virus was identified as DENV serotype 2 belonging to the Cosmopolitan genotype. Interpretations & conclusions: We report here the involvement of DENV serotype 2 in an outbreak in Nepal in 2013. Earlier outbreaks in the region in 2010 were attributed to serotype 1 virus. As serotype shifts are frequently associated with secondary infections and severe disease, there is a need for enhancing surveillance especially in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods to prevent large-scale, severe dengue outbreaks in the region. PMID:26905233

  7. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Doblies, D.; Arquint, A.; Schaller, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, six immunocompetent calves were experimentally infected with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and the effects of the viral infection on parameters of the innate immune response of the host were analyzed. Clinical and virological data were compared...

  8. Genome sequence variation in the constricta strain dramatically alters the protein interaction and localization map of Potato yellow dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence of the constricta strain of Potato yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) was determined to be 12,792 nucleotides long and organized into seven open reading frames with the gene order 3’-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5’, which encodes the nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, movement, matrix, glycoprotein and RNA-d...

  9. Transcriptome analysis of sweet orange trees infected with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and two strains of citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza, are diseases of citrus caused by a member of the a-proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CaLas), and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) respectively. HLB is a devastating disease, but CTV strains vary from very severe to very mild. Both CaLas and CTV are p...

  10. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); J.A. Karlas (Jos); M.C. Burger; F.R. Mooi (Frits); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSalmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens

  11. Detection and phylogenetic analyses of spike genes in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains circulating in China in 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoling; Liu, Xinsheng; Fang, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-10-10

    Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus (PEDV) in China in 2016-2017. To address this issue, in this study, 116 diarrhea samples were collected from pig farms in 6 Chinese provinces in 2016-2017 and were detected using PCR for main porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV). In addition, the complete S genes from 11 representative PEDV strains were sequenced and analyzed. PCR detection showed that 52.6% (61/116) of these samples were positive for PEDV. Furthermore, sequencing results for the spike (S) genes from 11 of the epidemic PEDV strains showed 93-94% nucleotide identity and 92-93% amino acid identity with the classical CV777 strain. Compared with the CV777 vaccine strain, these strains had an insertion (A 133 ), a deletion (G 155 ), and a continuous 4-amino-acid insertion ( 56 NNTN 59 ) in the S1 region. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene indicated that the 11 assessed PEDV strains were genetically diverse and clustered into the G2 group. These results demonstrate that the epidemic strains of PEDV in China in 2016-2017 are mainly virulent strains that belong to the G2 group and genetically differ from the vaccine strain. Importantly, this is the first report that the samples collected in Hainan Province were positive for PEDV (59.2%, 25/42). To our knowledge, this article presents the first report of a virulent PEDV strain isolated from Hainan Island, China. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of PEDV in China.

  12. Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus BA71, the Virulent Parental Strain of the Nonpathogenic and Tissue-Culture Adapted BA71V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Javier M; Moreno, Leticia Tais; Alejo, Alí; Lacasta, Anna; Rodríguez, Fernando; Salas, María L

    2015-01-01

    The strain BA71V has played a key role in African swine fever virus (ASFV) research. It was the first genome sequenced, and remains the only genome completely determined. A large part of the studies on the function of ASFV genes, viral transcription, replication, DNA repair and morphogenesis, has been performed using this model. This avirulent strain was obtained by adaptation to grow in Vero cells of the highly virulent BA71 strain. We report here the analysis of the genome sequence of BA71 in comparison with that of BA71V. They possess the smallest genomes for a virulent or an attenuated ASFV, and are essentially identical except for a relatively small number of changes. We discuss the possible contribution of these changes to virulence. Analysis of the BA71 sequence allowed us to identify new similarities among ASFV proteins, and with database proteins including two ASFV proteins that could function as a two-component signaling network.

  13. Atypical patterns of neural infection produced in mice by drug-resistant strains of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H J; Anderson, J R; Wildy, P

    1982-03-01

    Mice inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) with a mutant strain of HSV were found to develop cataracts 1 to 2 months after inoculation. Cataract formation was subsequently shown to follow an acute retinitis which commenced within 1 week of inoculation. The mutant had been selected for high resistance to the nucleoside analogue acyclovir and has been shown previously to be defective in the induction of thymidine kinase and also to express an altered DNA polymerase. The LD50 for mice inoculated i.c. was greater than 10(5) p.f.u. compared with approx 7 p.f.u. for the parental strain. Studies of virus replication following i.c. inoculation with a sublethal dose of the mutant revealed that only small amounts of infectious virus were produced in the brain, but during a period from 6 to 12 days after inoculation vigorous replication occurred in retinal tissue, producing very high titres of virus.

  14. Implementation of a National Measles Elimination Program in Iran: Phylogenetic Analysis of Measles Virus Strains Isolated during 2010–2012 Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Vahid; Abbasi, Simin; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Fatemi-Nasab, Ghazal; Adjaminezhad-Fard, Fatemeh; Shadab, Azadeh; Ghavami, Nastaran; Zareh-Khoshchehre, Raziyeh; Soltanshahi, Rambod; Bont, Louis; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) causes small and large outbreaks in Iran. Molecular assays allow identifying and the sources of measles imported from neighboring countries. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of measles virus circulating in Iran over the period 2010–2012. Specimens from suspected cases of measles were collected from different regions of Iran. Virus isolation was performed on urine and throat swabs. Partial nucleoprotein gene segments of MV were amplified by RT-PCR. PCR products of 173 samples were sequenced and analyzed. The median age of confirmed cases was 2 years. Among all confirmed cases, 32% had unknown vaccination status, 20% had been vaccinated, and 48% had not been vaccinated. Genotypes B3 and D8 (for the first time), H1 and D4 were detected mainly in unvaccinated toddlers and young children. Genotype B3 became predominant in 2012 and was closely related to African strains. H1 strains were also found in small and large outbreaks during 2012 but were not identical to Iranian H1-2009 strains. A majority of the Iranian D4 strains during 2010–2012 outbreaks were linked to the D4 strain identified in the Pakistan in 2007. We identified a single case in 2010 belonging to D8 genotype with 99.7% identity to Indian isolates. Although the vaccination program is currently good enough to prevent nationwide epidemics and successfully decreased measles incidence in Iran, the fraction of protected individuals in the population was not high enough to prevent continuous introduction of cases from abroad. Due to increasing number of susceptible individuals in some areas, sustained transmission of the newly introduced viral genotype remains possible. PMID:24736720

  15. Safety study of the Bio-10-SAD Bern strain of the rabies virus on the rhesus macaque monkey species

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    Vladimír Vrzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a WHO recommendation, residual pathogenicity of the Bio-10-SAD Bern rabies virus strain (component of the Lysvulpen por. ad us. vet. vaccine was tested on rhesus macaque monkeys. Each of the ten monkeys, females, two years old, was administered orally 2 ml × 109 TCID50 of the Bio-10-SAD Bern rabies strain. The animals were monitored for 90 days. Subsequently, the animals were sacrificed and their brains were examined for presence of the vaccination rabies virus by the immunofluorescence and PCR methods. The occurrence of anti-rabies antibodies prior to and following administration of the vaccination rabies virus was also evaluated. No clinical signs of rabies were observed nor did any of the animals die of rabies following application of the virus. No rabies was detected in the study animals by post mortem examination. All of the 10 animals developed anti-rabies antibodies during the 90 days following administration of the rabies virus. It can be concluded, that Bio-10-SAD Bern virus administered at a dose equal to the tenfold maximum dose specified for field uses is safe to monkeys of the rhesus macaque species. This study is the first of its type performed in rhesus macaque monkey species.

  16. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was poor HIV preventive practices; indicating ... Gyawali, et al.: HIV related knowledge, risk perception and practices among married women. Annals of Medical .... of this study correspond to the Indian, Nigerian and Iranian studies cited ...

  18. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  19. Molecular and cellular insights into Zika virus-related neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Wang, Long; Yu, Di; Huang, Hesuyuan; Ji, Hong; Mo, Xuming

    2017-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a relatively elusive Aedes mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, had been brought into spotlight until recent widespread outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical neuropathies, including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the adult. In this review, we focus on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vertically transmitted microorganisms reach the fetus and trigger neuropathies.

  20. Fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Appolinário

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2, Desmodus rotundus (variant 3, crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene. Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.

  1. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich Sabine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.

  2. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed...... efficiently after transfection and subsequent infection of naive Huh7.5 cells, reaching titers of 10(3.5) and 10(4.4) FFU/ml, respectively. IMPORTANCE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989 with the cloning of the prototype strain HCV-1 genome. In 1997, two molecular clones of H77, the other HCV...... prototype strain, were shown to be infectious in chimpanzees, but not in vitro. HCV research was hampered by a lack of infectious cell culture systems, which became available only in 2005 with the discovery of JFH1 (genotype 2a), a genome that could establish infection in Huh7.5 cells. Recently, we...

  3. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its known hosts include only species from the Acanthamoeba genus. The existence of mimivirus relatives was first suggested by the analysis of the Sargasso Sea metagenomic data. Results We now further demonstrate the presence of numerous "mimivirus-like" sequences using a larger marine metagenomic data set. We also show that the DNA polymerase sequences from three algal viruses (CeV01, PpV01, PoV01 infecting different marine algal species (Chrysochromulina ericina, Phaeocystis pouchetii, Pyramimonas orientalis are very closely related to their homolog in mimivirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that the numerous mimivirus-related sequences identified in marine environments are likely to originate from diverse large DNA viruses infecting phytoplankton. Micro-algae thus constitute a new category of potential hosts in which to look for new species of Mimiviridae.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of sweet orange trees infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and two strains of Citrus Tristeza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Zhou, Changyong; Hartung, John S

    2016-05-11

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza, are diseases of citrus caused by a member of the α-proteobacteria, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas), and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) respectively. HLB is a devastating disease, but CTV strains vary from very severe to very mild. Both CaLas and CTV are phloem-restricted. The CaLas-B232 strain and CTV-B6 cause a wide range of severe and similar symptoms. The mild strain CTV-B2 doesn't induce significant symptoms or damage to plants. Transcriptome profiles obtained through RNA-seq revealed 611, 404 and 285 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) after infection with CaLas-B232, CTV-B6 and CTV-B2. These DETs were components of a wide range of pathways involved in circadian rhythm, cell wall modification and cell organization, as well as transcription factors, transport, hormone response and secondary metabolism, signaling and stress response. The number of transcripts that responded to both CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232 was much larger than the number of transcripts that responded to both strains of CTV or to both CTV-B2 and CaLas-B232. A total of 38 genes were assayed by RT-qPCR and the correlation coefficients between Gfold and RT-qPCR were 0.82, 0.69, 0.81 for sweet orange plants infected with CTV-B2, CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232, respectively. The number and composition of DETs reflected the complexity of symptoms caused by the pathogens in established infections, although the leaf tissues sampled were asymptomatic. There were greater similarities between the sweet orange in response to CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232 than between the two CTV strains, reflecting the similar physiological changes caused by both CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232. The circadian rhythm system of plants was perturbed by all three pathogens, especially by CTV-B6, and the ion balance was also disrupted by all three pathogens, especially by CaLas-B232. Defense responses related to cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, hormones, secondary metabolites, kinases and

  5. Characterization of a Brome mosaic virus strain and its use as a vector for gene silencing in monocotyledonous hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin Shun; Schneider, William L; Chaluvadi, Srinivasa Rao; Mian, M A Rouf; Nelson, Richard S

    2006-11-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to analyze gene function in dicotyledonous plants but less so in monocotyledonous plants (particularly rice and corn), partially due to the limited number of virus expression vectors available. Here, we report the cloning and modification for VIGS of a virus from Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue) that caused systemic mosaic symptoms on barley, rice, and a specific cultivar of maize (Va35) under greenhouse conditions. Through sequencing, the virus was determined to be a strain of Brome mosaic virus (BMV). The virus was named F-BMV (F for Festuca), and genetic determinants that controlled the systemic infection of rice were mapped to RNAs 1 and 2 of the tripartite genome. cDNA from RNA 3 of the Russian strain of BMV (R-BMV) was modified to accept inserts from foreign genes. Coinoculation of RNAs 1 and 2 from F-BMV and RNA 3 from R-BMV expressing a portion of a plant gene to leaves of barley, rice, and maize plants resulted in visual silencing-like phenotypes. The visual phenotypes were correlated with decreased target host transcript levels in the corresponding leaves. The VIGS visual phenotype varied from maintained during silencing of actin 1 transcript expression to transient with incomplete penetration through affected tissue during silencing of phytoene desaturase expression. F-BMV RNA 3 was modified to allow greater accumulation of virus while minimizing virus pathogenicity. The modified vector C-BMV(A/G) (C for chimeric) was shown to be useful for VIGS. These BMV vectors will be useful for analysis of gene function in rice and maize for which no VIGS system is reported.

  6. Viral forensic genomics reveals the relatedness of classic herpes simplex virus strains KOS, KOS63, and KOS79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Christopher D; Renner, Daniel W; Shreve, Jacob T; Tafuri, Yolanda; Payne, Kimberly M; Dix, Richard D; Kinchington, Paul R; Gatherer, Derek; Szpara, Moriah L

    2016-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread global pathogen, of which the strain KOS is one of the most extensively studied. Previous sequence studies revealed that KOS does not cluster with other strains of North American geographic origin, but instead clustered with Asian strains. We sequenced a historical isolate of the original KOS strain, called KOS63, along with a separately isolated strain attributed to the same source individual, termed KOS79. Genomic analyses revealed that KOS63 closely resembled other recently sequenced isolates of KOS and was of Asian origin, but that KOS79 was a genetically unrelated strain that clustered in genetic distance analyses with HSV-1 strains of North American/European origin. These data suggest that the human source of KOS63 and KOS79 could have been infected with two genetically unrelated strains of disparate geographic origins. A PCR RFLP test was developed for rapid identification of these strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A bovine respiratory syncytial virus strain with mutations in subgroup-specific antigenic domains of the G protein induces partial heterologous protection in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) strains are tentatively divided in subgroups A, AB and B, based on antigenic differences of the G protein. A Dutch BRSV strain (Waiboerhoeve: WBH), could not be assigned to one of the subgroups, because the strain did not react with any monoclonal antibody

  8. Evolutionary relationship between Old World West Nile virus strains Evidence for viral gene flow between africa, the middle east, and europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrel, R.N.; Brault, A.C.; Gallian, P.; Lemasson, J.-J.; Murgue, B.; Murri, S.; Pastorino, B.; Zeller, H.; Chesse, R. de; Micco, P. de; Lamballerie, X. de

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic relationships between European and other Old-World strains of West Nile virus (WNV) and persistence of WNV North of Mediterranean. We characterized the complete genomes of three WNV strains from France (horse-2000), Tunisia (human-1997) and Kenya (mosquito-1998), and the envelope, NS3 and NS5 genes of the Koutango virus. Phylogenetic analyses including all available full-length sequences showed that: (1) Koutango virus is a distant variant of WNV; (2) the three characterized strains belong to lineage 1, clade 1a; (3) the Tunisian strain roots the lineage of viruses introduced in North America. We established that currently available partial envelope sequences do not generate reliable phylogenies. Accordingly, establishing a large WNV sequence database is pivotal for the understanding of spatial and temporal epidemiology of this virus. For rapid completion of that purpose, colinearized E-NS3-NS5 gene sequences were shown to constitute a valuable surrogate for complete sequences

  9. The biological properties of different Epstein-Barr virus strains explain their association with various types of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Lin, Xiaochen; Shumilov, Anatoliy; Bernhardt, Katharina; Feederle, Regina; Poirey, Remy; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Pereira, Bruno; Almeida, Raquel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-02-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but it is unclear whether this diversity is due to infection with different EBV strains. We report a comparative characterization of SNU719, GP202, and YCCEL1, three EBV strains that were isolated from gastric carcinomas, M81, a virus isolated in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma and several well-characterized laboratory type A strains. We found that B95-8, Akata and GP202 induced cell growth more efficiently than YCCEL1, SNU719 and M81 and this correlated positively with the expression levels of the viral BHRF1 miRNAs. In infected B cells, all strains except Akata and B95-8 induced lytic replication, a risk factor for carcinoma development, although less efficiently than M81. The panel of viruses induced tumors in immunocompromised mice with variable speed and efficacy that did not strictly mirror their in vitro characteristics, suggesting that additional parameters play an important role. We found that YCCEL1 and M81 infected primary epithelial cells, gastric carcinoma cells and gastric spheroids more efficiently than Akata or B95-8. Reciprocally, Akata and B95-8 had a stronger tropism for B cells than YCCEL1 or M81. These data suggest that different EBV strains will induce the development of lymphoid tumors with variable efficacy in immunocompromised patients and that there is a parallel between the cell tropism of the viral strains and the lineage of the tumors they induce. Thus, EBV strains can be endowed with properties that will influence their transforming abilities and the type of tumor they induce.

  10. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain ZJ7 isolate from domestic dogs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Bin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV, named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N, phosphoprotein (P and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China.

  11. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain ZJ7 isolate from domestic dogs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Wen, Yong-Jun; Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Dong; Hu, Jia-Xin; Shi, Xin-Chuan; Yang, Bo-Chao; Chen, Li-Zhi; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wu, Hua

    2011-11-16

    A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV), named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P) and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China.

  12. Case report: probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus to an infant via breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Susan; Twele-Montecinos, Loreto; MacDonald, Judy; Webster, Patricia; Law, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The 17D yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been in use since the 1940s. The incidence of encephalitis after yellow fever vaccination among young infants is much higher than among children older than nine months of age. Until recently, avoidance of vaccination by breastfeeding women who have received yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only. We report the probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus from a mother to her infant through ...

  13. The supposedly attenuated Hy-HK variant of highly virulent Hypr strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus is obviously a strain of Langat virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Štěrba, Ján; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 277-278 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Grant - others:Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) 35/2005/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TBE virus * Langat virus * Hy-HK attenuated variant Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2006

  14. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain Snyder Hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, M; Nguyen, D T; Silin, D; Lyubomska, O; de Vries, R D; von Messling, V; McQuaid, S; De Swart, R L; Duprex, W P

    2012-07-01

    The propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDV(SH)) and show that this virus rapidly circumvents the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers to spread into the subarachnoid space to induce dramatic viral meningoencephalitis. The use of recombinant CDV(SH) (rCDV(SH)) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or red fluorescent protein (dTomato) facilitated the sensitive pathological assessment of routes of virus spread in vivo. Infection of ferrets with these viruses led to the full spectrum of clinical signs typically associated with distemper in dogs during a rapid, fatal disease course of approximately 2 weeks. Comparison with the ferret-adapted CDV(5804P) and the prototypic wild-type CDV(R252) showed that hematogenous infection of the choroid plexus is not a significant route of virus spread into the CSF. Instead, viral spread into the subarachnoid space in rCDV(SH)-infected animals was triggered by infection of vascular endothelial cells and the hematogenous spread of virus-infected leukocytes from meningeal blood vessels into the subarachnoid space. This resulted in widespread infection of cells of the pia and arachnoid mater of the leptomeninges over large areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The ability to sensitively assess the in vivo spread of a neurovirulent strain of CDV provides a novel model system to study the mechanisms of virus spread into the CSF and the pathogenesis of acute viral meningitis.

  15. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  16. A Novel Expression Cassette of Lyssavirus Shows that the Distantly Related Mokola Virus Can Rescue a Defective Rabies Virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Philippe; Jacob, Yves; Tanner, Kyle; Tordo, Noël

    2002-01-01

    By comparing three expression vectors for the rabies virus (Rv) minigenome, we show that the characteristic of the Rv RNA is important for efficient rescue despite its not being crucial for replication. Moreover, we show that the coexpression of the viral proteins from helper Rv and Mokola virus could rescue the Rv minigenome while Rv-related European bat lyssavirus 1 could not, suggesting that the signals controlling transcription and replication are conserved in the distantly related Rv and Mokola virus. PMID:11799201

  17. Mutation profiling of the hepatitis B virus strains circulating in North Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tuteja

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic mutations in the circulating Hepatitis B virus strains causing infection in the Indian population. Further, we wanted to analyze the biological significance of these mutations in HBV mediated disease. METHODS: 222 HBsAg positive patients were enrolled in the study. The genotype and mutation profile was determined for the infecting HBV isolate by sequencing overlapping fragments. These sequences were analyzed by using different tools and compared with previously available HBV sequence information. Mutation Frequency Index (MFI for the Genes and Diagnosis group was also calculated. RESULTS: HBV Genotype D was found in 55% (n = 121 of the patient group and genotype A was found in 30% (n = 66 of samples. The majority (52% of the HBV-infected individuals in the present study were HBeAg-negative in all the age groups studied. Spontaneous drug associated mutations implicated in resistance to antiviral therapy were also identified in about quarter of our patients, which is of therapeutic concern. The MFI approach used in the study indicated that Core peptide was the most conserved region in both genotypes and Surface peptide had highest mutation frequency. Few mutations in X gene (T36A and G50R showed high frequency of association with HCC. A rare recombinant strain of HBV genotype A and D was also identified in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: HBV genotype D was found out to be most prevalent. More than half of the patients studied had HBeAg negative disease. Core region was found to be most conserved. Drug Associated mutations were detected in 22% of the patient group and T36A and G50R mutations in X gene were found to be associated with HCC.

  18. Development and characterization of the first infectious clone of alfalfa latent virus, a strain of Pea streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a natural host plant for many plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses. Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa. The first complete genomic sequence of the ALV that was recently obtained i...

  19. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Aldaz, Jaime; Alfieri, Amauri A; Alfieri, Alice F; Name, Daniela; Llanes, Jessika; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV, Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the causative agent of a severe infectious disease affecting terrestrial and marine carnivores worldwide. Phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of the hemagglutinin (H) protein and the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) allow for the classification of field strains into genetic lineages. Currently, there are nine CDV lineages worldwide, two of them co-circulating in South America. Using the Fsp-coding region, we analyzed the genetic variability of strains from Uruguay, Brazil, and Ecuador, and compared them with those described previously in South America and other geographical areas. The results revealed that the Brazilian and Uruguayan strains belong to the already described South America lineage (EU1/SA1), whereas the Ecuadorian strains cluster in a new clade, here named South America 3, which may represent the third CDV lineage described in South America.

  20. Job strain in relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, S T; Heikkilä, K; Fransson, E I

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses.......Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses....

  1. No evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Switzer

    Full Text Available The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents.All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV (SA-14-14-2, varicella (Varivax, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II, measles (Attenuvax, rubella (Meruvax-II, rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix, and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells.We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans.

  2. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Published sequences do not support transfer of oseltamivir resistance mutations from avian to human influenza A virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Lindh, Magnus; Olofsson, Sigvard

    2015-03-28

    Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate ester, OE) is a widely used antiviral active against influenza A virus. Its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is chemically stable and secreted into wastewater treatment plants. OC contamination of natural habitats of waterfowl might induce OC resistance in influenza viruses persistently infecting waterfowl, and lead to transfer of OC-resistance from avian to human influenza. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such has occurred. A genomics approach including phylogenetic analysis and probability calculations for homologous recombination was applied on altogether 19,755 neuraminidase (N1 and N2) genes from virus sampled in humans and birds, with and without resistance mutations. No evidence for transfer of OE resistance mutations from avian to human N genes was obtained, and events suggesting recombination between human and avian influenza virus variants could not be traced in the sequence material studied. The results indicate that resistance in influenza viruses infecting humans is due to the selection pressure posed by the global OE administration in humans rather than transfer from avian influenza A virus strains carrying mutations induced by environmental exposure to OC.

  4. The NS3 proteins of global strains of bluetongue virus evolve into regional topotypes through negative (purifying) selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, U B R; Nadler, S A; Wilson, W C; Pritchard, L I; Smythe, A B; Savini, G; Monaco, F; De Santis, P; Zhang, N; Tabachnick, W J; Maclachlan, N J

    2008-01-01

    Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes (S10) encoding the NS3 protein of 137 strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Mediterranean Basin showed limited variation. Common to all NS3 sequences were potential glycosylation sites at amino acid residues 63 and 150 and a cysteine at residue 137, whereas a cysteine at residue 181 was not conserved. The PPXY and PS/TAP late-domain motifs were conserved in all but three of the viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of these same sequences yielded two principal clades that grouped the viruses irrespective of their serotype or year of isolation (1900-2003). All viruses from Asia and Australia were grouped in one clade, whereas those from the other regions were present in both clades. Each clade segregated into distinct subclades that included viruses from single or multiple regions, and the S10 genes of some field viruses were identical to those of live-attenuated BTV vaccines. There was no evidence of positive selection on the S10 gene as assessed by reconstruction of ancestral codon states on the phylogeny, rather the functional constraints of the NS3 protein are expressed through substantial negative (purifying) selection.

  5. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  6. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in Iquitos, Peru: Urban Transmission of a Sylvatic Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amy C.; Forshey, Brett M.; Notyce, Desiree; Astete, Helvio; Lopez, Victor; Rocha, Claudio; Carrion, Rebecca; Carey, Cristhiam; Eza, Dominique; Montgomery, Joel M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2008-01-01

    Enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) have been isolated from febrile patients in the Peruvian Amazon Basin at low but consistent levels since the early 1990s. Through a clinic-based febrile surveillance program, we detected an outbreak of VEEV infections in Iquitos, Peru, in the first half of 2006. The majority of these patients resided within urban areas of Iquitos, with no report of recent travel outside the city. To characterize the risk factors for VEEV infection within the city, an antibody prevalence study was carried out in a geographically stratified sample of urban areas of Iquitos. Additionally, entomological surveys were conducted to determine if previously incriminated vectors of enzootic VEEV were present within the city. We found that greater than 23% of Iquitos residents carried neutralizing antibodies against VEEV, with significant associations between increased antibody prevalence and age, occupation, mosquito net use, and overnight travel. Furthermore, potential vector mosquitoes were widely distributed across the city. Our results suggest that while VEEV infection is more common in rural areas, transmission also occurs within urban areas of Iquitos, and that further studies are warranted to identify the precise vectors and reservoirs involved in urban VEEV transmission. PMID:19079600

  7. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  9. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Insights into the evolution of the new variant rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (GI.2) and the identification of novel recombinant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, D; Lopes, A M; Melo-Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M J; Monterroso, P; Serronha, A; Maio, E; Alves, P C; Esteves, P J; Abrantes, J

    2018-02-11

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a viral disease that affects the European rabbit. RHD was detected in 1984 in China and rapidly disseminated worldwide causing a severe decline in wild rabbit populations. The aetiological agent, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), is an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, genus Lagovirus. Pathogenic (G1-G6 or variants GI.1a-GI.1d) and non-pathogenic strains (GI.4) have been characterized. In 2010, a new variant of RHDV, RHDV2/RHDVb/GI.2, was detected in France. GI.2 arrived to the Iberian Peninsula in 2011, and several recombination events were reported. Here, we sequenced full genomes of 19 samples collected in Portugal between 2014 and 2016. New GI.2 recombinant strains were detected, including triple recombinants. These recombinants possess a non-structural protein p16 related to a non-pathogenic strain. Evolutionary analyses were conducted on GI.2 VP60 sequences. Estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) suggests an emergence of GI.2 in July 2008, not distant from its first detection in 2010. This is the first study on GI.2 evolution and highlights the need of continued monitoring and characterization of complete genome sequences when studying lagoviruses' evolution. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  12. Construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Methods A mini-F vector as a BAC that allows the maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli was introduced into the intergenic region between UL15B and UL18 of a DEV vaccine strain by homologous recombination in chicken embryoblasts (CEFs). Then, the full-length DEV clone pDEV-vac was obtained by electroporating circular viral replication intermediates containing the mini-F sequence into E. coli DH10B and identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The infectivity of the pDEV-vac was validated by DEV reconstitution from CEFs transfected with pDEV-vac. The reconstructed virus without mini-F vector sequence was also rescued by co-transfecting the Cre recombinase expression plasmid pCAGGS-NLS/Cre and pDEV-vac into CEF cultures. Finally, the in vitro growth properties and immunoprotection capacity in ducks of the reconstructed viruses were also determined and compared with the parental virus. Results The full genome of the DEV vaccine strain was successfully cloned into the BAC, and this BAC clone was infectious. The in vitro growth properties of these reconstructions were very similar to parental DEV, and ducks immunized with these viruses acquired protection against virulent DEV challenge. Conclusions DEV vaccine virus was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome maintaining full

  13. Experimental Infection of Young Pigs with an Early European Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus and a Recent US Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Krog, Jesper Schak; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) were reported across Europe during the 1980s and 1990s, but only sporadic outbreaks occurred in recent years. PED virus (PEDV) spread for the first time into the USA in 2013 and has caused severe economic losses. Retrospectively, it was found that two...

  14. Challenge Pools of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1–6 Prototype Strains: Replication Fitness and Pathogenicity in Chimpanzees and Human Liver–Chimeric Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond; Engle, Ronald E.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Eder, Gerald; Satterfield, William C.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Krawczynski, Krzysztof; Miller, Roger H.; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Purcell, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1–6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >104.7 IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 103–105 chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver–chimeric mice developed high-titer infections after inoculation with the challenge viruses of genotypes 1–6. Inoculation studies with different doses of the genotype 1b pool suggested that a relatively high virus dose is required to consistently infect chimeric mice. The challenge pools represent a unique resource for studies of HCV molecular virology and for studies of pathogenesis, protective immunity, and vaccine efficacy in vivo. PMID:20353362

  15. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  16. Characterization of two recent Japanese field isolates of canine distemper virus and examination of the avirulent strain utility as an attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Yoneda, Misako; Seki, Takahiro; Uema, Masashi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Nishi, Toshiya; Fujita, Kentaro; Miura, Ryuichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2014-12-05

    Recently, several new strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) have been isolated in Japan. To investigate their pathogenesis in dogs, the Yanaka and Bunkyo-K strains were investigated by infecting dogs and determining clinical signs, amount of virus, and antibody responses. The Yanaka strain is avirulent and induced an antibody response. The Bunkyo-K strain induced typical CDV clinical signs in infected dogs and virulence was enhanced by brain passage. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H genes demonstrated the Bunkyo-K strains were of a different lineage from Asia-1 group including the Yanaka strain and Asia-2 group that contain recent Japanese isolates, which were recently identified as major prevalent strains worldwide but distinct from old vaccine strains. Based on these data, we tested the ability of the Yanaka strain for vaccination. Inoculation with the Yanaka strain efficiently induced CDV neutralizing antibodies with no clinical signs, and the protection effects against challenge with either old virulent strain or Bunkyo-K strain were equal or greater when compared with vaccination by an original vaccine strain. Thus, the Yanaka strain is a potential vaccine candidate against recent prevalent CDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative usage of herpesvirus entry mediator A and nectin-1 by laboratory strains and clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummenacher, Claude; Baribaud, Frederic; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Baribaud, Isabelle; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Xu Ruliang; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.

    2004-01-01

    The herpesvirus entry mediator A (HVEM/HveA) and nectin-1 (HveC/CD111) are two major receptors for herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although structurally unrelated, both receptors can independently mediate entry of wild-type (wt) HSV-1 and HSV-2 by interacting with the viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Laboratory strains with defined mutations in gD (e.g. rid1) do not use HVEM but use nectin-2 (HveB/CD112) for entry. The relative usage of HVEM and nectin-1 during HSV infection in vivo is not known. In the absence of a defined in vivo model, we used in vitro approaches to address this question. First, we screened HSV clinical isolates from various origins for receptor tropism and found that all used both HVEM and nectin-1. Second, we determined the numbers of surface receptors on various susceptible and resistant cell lines as well as on primary fibroblasts derived from an individual with cleft lip/palate ectodermal dysplasia (CLPED1). Although CLPED1 cells can only express a defective form of nectin-1, they allowed entry of wild type and mutant HSV strains by usage of either HVEM or nectin-2. Finally, we compared the ability of HVEM and nectin-1 to mediate entry when expressed at varying cell surface densities. Both receptors showed a direct relationship between the number of receptors and HSV susceptibility. Direct comparison of receptors suggests that nectin-1 is more efficient at promoting entry than HVEM. Overall, our data suggest that both receptors play a role during HSV infection in vivo and that both are highly efficient even at low levels of expression

  18. Comparison of the Pathogenesis of the Angola and Ravn Strains of Marburg Virus in the Outbred Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Ebihara, Hideki; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Phylogenetic comparisons of known Marburg virus (MARV) strains reveal 2 distinct genetic lineages: Ravn and the Lake Victoria Marburg complex (eg, Musoke, Popp, and Angola strains). Nucleotide variances of >20% between Ravn and other MARV genomes suggest that differing virulence between lineages may accompany this genetic divergence. To date, there exists limited systematic experimental evidence of pathogenic differences between MARV strains. Uniformly lethal outbred guinea pig models of MARV-Angola (MARV-Ang) and MARV-Ravn (MARV-Rav) were developed by serial adaptation. Changes in genomic sequence, weight, temperature, histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical findings, hematologic profiles, circulating biochemical enzyme levels, coagulation parameters, viremia levels, cytokine levels, eicanosoid levels, and nitric oxide production were compared between strains. MARV-Rav infection resulted in delayed increases in circulating inflammatory and prothrombotic elements, notably lower viremia levels, less severe histologic alterations, and a delay in mean time to death, compared with MARV-Ang infection. Both strains produced more marked coagulation abnormalities than previously seen in MARV-infected mice or inbred guinea pigs. Although both strains exhibit great similarity to pathogenic markers of human and nonhuman primate MARV infection, these data highlight several key differences in pathogenicity that may serve to guide the choice of strain and model used for development of vaccines or therapeutics for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Genetic and antigenic characterization of serotype O FMD viruses from East Africa for the selection of suitable vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Katie; Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Paton, David J; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-14

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eastern Africa with circulation of multiple serotypes of the virus in the region. Most of the outbreaks are caused by serotype O followed by serotype A. The lack of concerted FMD control programmes in Africa has provided little incentive for vaccine producers to select vaccines that are tailored to circulating regional isolates creating further negative feedback to deter the introduction of vaccine-based control schemes. In this study a total of 80 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 1993 to 2012 from East and North Africa were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using bovine antisera to three existing (O/KEN/77/78, O/Manisa and O/PanAsia-2) and three putative (O/EA/2002, O/EA/2009 and O/EA/2010) vaccine strains and by capsid sequencing. Genetically, these viruses were grouped as either of East African origin with subdivision into four topotypes (EA-1, 2, 3 and 4) or of Middle-East South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Egypt and Libya reflecting the trade links with the Middle East countries. There was good serological cross-reactivity between the vaccine strains and most of the field isolates analysed, indicating that vaccine selection should not be a major constraint for control of serotype O FMD by vaccination, and that both local and internationally available commercial vaccines could be used. The O/KEN/77/78 vaccine, commonly used in the region, exhibited comparatively lower percent in vitro match against the predominant topotypes (EA-2 and EA-3) circulating in the region whereas O/PanAsia-2 and O/Manisa vaccines revealed broader protection against East African serotype O viruses, even though they genetically belong to the ME-SA topotype. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Immune responses of mature chicken bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus strains with differing pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Zhu, Wenxian; Li, Yaling; Gao, Pei; Liang, Jianpeng; Liu, Di; Ding, Chan; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Infection of chickens with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is associated with severe pathology and increased morbidity and mortality. The innate immune response contributes to the pathogenicity of NDV. As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a unique role in innate immunity. However, the contribution of DCs to NDV infection has not been investigated in chickens. In this study, we selected two representative NDV strains, i.e., the velogenic NDV strain Chicken/Guangdong/GM/2014 (GM) and the lentogenic NDV strain La Sota, to investigate whether NDVs could infect LPS-activated chicken bone-derived marrow DCs (mature chicken BM-DCs). We compared the viral titres and innate immune responses in mature chicken BM-DCs following infection with those strains. Both NDV strains could infect mature chicken BM-DC, but the GM strain showed stronger replication capacity than the La Sota strain in mature chicken BM-DCs. Gene expression profiling showed that MDA5, LGP2, TLR3, TLR7, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-8, CCL5, IL-10, IL-12, MHC-I, and MHC-II levels were altered in mature DCs after infection with NDVs at all evaluated times postinfection. Notably, the GM strain triggered stronger innate immune responses than the La Sota strain in chicken BM-DCs. However, both strains were able to suppress the expression of some cytokines, such as IL-6 and IFN-α, in mature chicken DCs at 24 hpi. These data provide a foundation for further investigation of the role of chicken DCs in NDV infection.

  1. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus-related sequences in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J A; Cywinski, A; Chen, P J; Taylor, J M

    1986-08-01

    We detected sequences related to the avian retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus within the genome of the Japanese quail, a species previously considered to be free of endogenous avian leukosis virus elements. Using low-stringency conditions of hybridization, we screened a quail genomic library for clones containing retrovirus-related information. Of five clones so selected, one, lambda Q48, contained sequence information related to the gag, pol, and env genes of Rous sarcoma virus arranged in a contiguous fashion and spanning a distance of approximately 5.8 kilobases. This organization is consistent with the presence of an endogenous retroviral element within the Japanese quail genome. Use of this element as a high-stringency probe on Southern blots of genomic digests of several quail DNA demonstrated hybridization to a series of high-molecular-weight bands. By slot hybridization to quail DNA with a cloned probe, it was deduced that there were approximately 300 copies per diploid cell. In addition, the quail element also hybridized at low stringency to the DNA of the White Leghorn chicken and at high stringency to the DNAs of several species of jungle fowl and both true and ruffed pheasants. Limited nucleotide sequencing analysis of lambda Q48 revealed homologies of 65, 52, and 46% compared with the sequence of Rous sarcoma virus strain Prague C for the endonuclease domain of pol, the pol-env junction, and the 3'-terminal region of env, respectively. Comparisons at the amino acid level were also significant, thus confirming the retrovirus relatedness of the cloned quail element.

  2. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  3. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1975-06-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease.

  4. A live, attenuated pseudorabies virus strain JS-2012 deleted for gE/gI protects against both classical and emerging strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wu; Li, Guoxin; Liang, Chao; Liu, Fei; Tian, Qing; Cao, Yanyun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Xuchen; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-06-01

    Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant have led to pseudorabies outbreaks in Chinese pig farms. The commercially available PRV vaccine provides poor protection against the PRV variant. In this study, a gE/gI deleted PRV strain JS-2012-△gE/gI was generated from a PRV variant strain using homologous DNA recombination. Compared to the parental strain JS-2012, JS-2012-△gE/gI grew slowly and showed small plaque morphology on Vero cells. The safety and immunological efficacy of JS-2012-△gE/gI was evaluated as a vaccine candidate. JS-2012-△gE/gI was avirulent to suckling piglets, but was able to provide full protection for young piglets against challenge with both the classical virulent PRV and the emerging PRV variant. After sows were vaccinated with the gE/gI-deleted strain, their suckling offspring were resistant to an otherwise lethal challenge with the classical and the variant PRVs. Piglets inoculated with JS-2012-△gE/gI did not develop PRV-specific gE-ELISA antibodies. Thus, JS-2012-△gE/gI appears to be a promising marker vaccine candidate to control PRV variant circulating in pig farms in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Prostate Biopsy Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, F. A.; Mirza, T.; Khanani, R.; Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of Xenotropic murine leukemia virus related virus (XMRV) infection with prostate cancer and compare it with benign prostate hyperplasia. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology and Molecular Pathology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2012. Methodology: XMRV was screened in 50 prostate cancer and 50 benign prostatic hyperplasia biopsies using conventional end-point PCR. Other studied variables were family history of prostate cancer, patients age and Gleason score. Results: XMRV was detected in 4 (8%) of the 50 prostate cancer biopsy specimens compared to none in biopsies with benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, there was no significant statistical association of XMRV infection with the other variables. Conclusion: A low frequency of XMRV infection was found in this case-control study. Men, who harbor XMRV infection, may be at increased risk of prostate cancer but this needs to be investigated further at a larger scale. (author)

  6. Evidence of Two Cocirculating Canine Distemper Virus Strains in Mesocarnivores from Northern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostenberg, Darren J; Walker, Nikki; Fox, Karen A; Spraker, Terry R; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Gilbert, Amy

    2018-03-02

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that principally infects wildlife and domestic carnivores. Peridomestic species such as raccoons ( Procyon lotor) experience outbreaks with high mortality. Clinical signs of infection include anorexia, fever, respiratory infection, and neurologic complications. Although not zoonotic, CDV poses a high risk to unvaccinated domestic animals and the conservation of endangered species. During 2013-2016, we opportunistically collected wild and domestic carnivore specimens through a rabies surveillance program in northern Colorado. Brainstem and cerebellar tissue samples were independently tested for rabies and CDV by fluorescent antibody test. We tested a total of 478 animals for CDV, comprised of 10 wild and domestic carnivore species. A total of 24% (71/300) raccoons and 4% (1/26) coyotes ( Canis latrans) tested positive for CDV, but coinfection with rabies virus was not observed among CDV-positive animals. We extracted RNA from positive tissues, and a reverse-transcription PCR was used to create complementary DNA. We amplified and sequenced the hemagglutinin gene from 60 CDV-positive tissues, and a median joining network and maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree revealed two major lineages among samples. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that our sequences were most similar to: 1) the America-2 ( n=55) and 2) the America-3 ( n=5) CDV lineages circulating in North America. Our results indicated two distinct and distantly related clades of CDV overlapping geographically and temporally among raccoon populations in northern Colorado.

  7. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  8. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  9. Co-infection of sweet orange with severe and mild strains of citrus tristeza virus is overwhelmingly dominated by the severe strain on both the transcriptional and biological levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing and s...

  10. Antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralizes a heterologous wild-type mumps virus associated with a large outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steven A; Qi, Li; Audet, Susette A; Sullivan, Bradley; Carbone, Kathryn M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Sirota, Lev; Beeler, Judy

    2008-08-15

    Recent mumps outbreaks in older vaccinated populations were caused primarily by genotype G viruses, which are phylogenetically distinct from the genotype A vaccine strains used in the countries affected by the outbreaks. This finding suggests that genotype A vaccine strains could have reduced efficacy against heterologous mumps viruses. The remote history of vaccination also suggests that waning immunity could have contributed to susceptibility. To examine these issues, we obtained consecutive serum samples from children at different intervals after vaccination and assayed the ability of these samples to neutralize the genotype A Jeryl Lynn mumps virus vaccine strain and a genotype G wild-type virus obtained during the mumps outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2006. Although the geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers against the genotype G virus were approximately one-half the titers measured against the vaccine strain, and although titers to both viruses decreased with time after vaccination, antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralized the outbreak-associated virus at all time points tested.

  11. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Amanda L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use. Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being developed as therapeutics and are potential treatments for VEEV as they have been shown to be protective in the mouse model of disease. However, to be truly effective, the antibody should recognise multiple strains of VEEV and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies are rarely and only coincidentally isolated using classical hybridoma technology. Results In this work, methods were developed to reliably derive broadly reactive murine antibodies. A phage library was created that expressed single chain variable fragments (scFv isolated from mice immunised with multiple strains of VEEV. A broadly reactive scFv was identified and incorporated into a murine IgG2a framework. This novel antibody retained the broad reactivity exhibited by the scFv but did not possess virus neutralising activity. However, the antibody was still able to protect mice against VEEV disease induced by strain TrD when administered 24 h prior to challenge. Conclusion A monoclonal antibody possessing reactivity to a wide range of VEEV strains may be of benefit as a generic antiviral therapy. However, humanisation of the murine antibody will be required before it can be tested in humans. Crown Copyright © 2009

  12. Engineering related neutron diffraction measurements probing strains, texture and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balogh, Levente [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used for engineering applications for nearly three decades. The basis of the technique is powder diffraction following Bragg's Law. From the measured diffraction patterns information about internal, or residual, strain can be deduced from the peak positions, texture information can be extracted from the peak intensities, and finally the peak widths can provide information about the microstructure, e.g. dislocation densities and grain sizes. The strains are measured directly from changes in lattice parameters, however, in many cases it is non-trivial to determine macroscopic values of stress or strain from the measured data. The effects of intergranular strains must be considered, and combining the neutron diffraction measurements with polycrystal deformation modeling has proven invaluable in determining the overall stress and strain values of interest in designing and dimensioning engineering components. Furthelmore, the combined use of measurements and modeling has provided a tool for elucidating basic material properties, such as critical resolved shear stresses for the active deformation modes and their evolution as a function of applied deformation.

  13. Nucleotide sequence analyses of genomic RNAs of peanut stunt virus Mi, the type strain representative of a novel PSV subgroup from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.; Goldbach, R.W.; Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Peanut stunt virus strain Mi (PSV-Mi) from China was determined and compared to other viruses of the genus Cucumovirus. The tripartite genome of PSV-Mi encoded five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of cucumoviruses. Distance analyses of four ORFs indicated that

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II. PMID:27469959

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II.

  16. Association of a cucumber mosaic virus strain with mosaic disease of banana, Musa paradisiaca--an evidence using immuno/nucleic acid probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Raj, S K; Haq, Q M; Srivastava, K M; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1995-12-01

    Virus causing severe chlorosis/mosaic disease of banana was identified as a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Association of CMV with the disease was established by Western immunoblot using polyclonal antibodies to CMV-T and slot blot hybridization with nucleic acid probe of CMV-P genome.

  17. Challenge pools of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 prototype strains: replication fitness and pathogenicity in chimpanzees and human liver-chimeric mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional a...

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of a novel re-assorted epidemic strain of equine influenza virus in Pakistan in 2015-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Ahmad, Mansur Ud Din; Nazir, Jawad; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Khan, Asghar

    2017-08-15

    A widespread epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in nonvaccinated equine population across multiple districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan during 2015-2016. An epidemiological surveillance study was conducted from Oct 2015 to April 2016 to investigate the outbreak. EI virus strains were isolated in embryonated eggs from suspected equines swab samples and were subjected to genome sequencing using M13 tagged segment specific primers. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences were concluded using Geneious. Haemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the isolated viruses were aligned with those of OIE recommended, FC-1, FC-2, and contemporary isolates of influenza A viruses from other species. HA and NA genes amino acid sequences were very similar to Tennessee/14 and Malaysia/15 of FC-1 and clustered with the contemporary isolates recently reported in the USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were mostly identical (with 99.6% and 97.4% nucleotide homology) to, and were reassortants containing chicken/Pakistan/14 (H7N3) and Canine/Beijing/10 (H3N2) like M and NP genes. Genetic analysis indicated that A/equine/Pakistan/16 viruses were most probably the result of several re-assortments between the co-circulating avian and equine viruses, and were genetically unlike the other equine viruses due to the presence of H7N3 or H3N2 like M and NP genes. Epidemiological data analysis indicated the potential chance of mixed, and management such as mixed farming system by keeping equine, canine and backyard poultry together in confined premises as the greater risk factors responsible for the re-assortments. Other factors might have contributed to the spread of the epidemic, including low awareness level, poor control of equine movements, and absence of border control disease strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the NS1 protein of non-cultured influenza B virus strains circulating in Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad; Sugrue, Richard J.; Tan, Boon Huan; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lee, Raphael Tze Chuen; Wong, Puisan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the NS1 protein of Influenza B/Lee/40 and several non-cultured Influenza B virus clinical strains detected in Singapore. In B/Lee/40 virus-infected cells and in cells expressing the recombinant B/Lee/40 NS1 protein a full-length 35 kDa NS1 protein and a 23 kDa NS1 protein species (p23) were detected. Mutational analysis of the NS1 gene indicated that p23 was generated by a novel cleavage event within the linker domain between an aspartic acid and proline at amino acid residues at positions 92 and 93 respectively (DP92–93), and that p23 contained the first 92 amino acids of the NS1 protein. Sequence analysis of the Singapore strains indicated the presence of either DP92–93 or NP92–93 in the NS1 protein, but protein expression analysis showed that p23 was only detected in NS1 proteins with DP92–93.. An additional adjacent proline residue at position 94 (P94) was present in some strains and correlated with increased p23 levels, suggesting that P94 has a synergistic effect on the cleavage of the NS1 protein. The first 145 amino acids of the NS1 protein are required for inhibition of ISG15-mediated ubiquitination, and our analysis showed that Influenza B viruses circulating in Singapore with DP92–93 expressed truncated NS1 proteins and may differ in their capacity to inhibit ISG15 activity. Thus, DP92–93 in the NS1 protein may confer a disadvantage to Influenza B viruses circulating in the human population and interestingly the low frequency of DP92–93detection in the NS1 protein since 2004 is consistent with this suggestion.

  2. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the NS1 protein of non-cultured influenza B virus strains circulating in Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan

    2016-08-04

    In this study we compared the NS1 protein of Influenza B/Lee/40 and several non-cultured Influenza B virus clinical strains detected in Singapore. In B/Lee/40 virus-infected cells and in cells expressing the recombinant B/Lee/40 NS1 protein a full-length 35 kDa NS1 protein and a 23 kDa NS1 protein species (p23) were detected. Mutational analysis of the NS1 gene indicated that p23 was generated by a novel cleavage event within the linker domain between an aspartic acid and proline at amino acid residues at positions 92 and 93 respectively (DP92–93), and that p23 contained the first 92 amino acids of the NS1 protein. Sequence analysis of the Singapore strains indicated the presence of either DP92–93 or NP92–93 in the NS1 protein, but protein expression analysis showed that p23 was only detected in NS1 proteins with DP92–93.. An additional adjacent proline residue at position 94 (P94) was present in some strains and correlated with increased p23 levels, suggesting that P94 has a synergistic effect on the cleavage of the NS1 protein. The first 145 amino acids of the NS1 protein are required for inhibition of ISG15-mediated ubiquitination, and our analysis showed that Influenza B viruses circulating in Singapore with DP92–93 expressed truncated NS1 proteins and may differ in their capacity to inhibit ISG15 activity. Thus, DP92–93 in the NS1 protein may confer a disadvantage to Influenza B viruses circulating in the human population and interestingly the low frequency of DP92–93detection in the NS1 protein since 2004 is consistent with this suggestion.

  3. Health-Related Strains and Subsequent Delinquency and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    General strain theory provides one framework for explaining the relationship between physical health and delinquency, pointing to mechanisms such as negative emotions, social bonds, and stress proliferation. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine these hypothetical mediators. Controlling for demographic…

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Puumala virus strains from Central Europe highlights the need for a full-genome perspective on hantavirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Róbert; Radosa, Lukáš; Ličková, Martina; Sláviková, Monika; Heroldová, Marta; Stanko, Michal; Pejčoch, Milan; Osterberg, Anja; Laenen, Lies; Schex, Susanne; Ulrich, Rainer G; Essbauer, Sandra; Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains. The new sequences from Šumava (Bohemian Forest), Czech Republic, are most closely related to the strains from the neighboring Bavarian Forest, a known hantavirus disease outbreak region. Interestingly, the Slovak strains clustered with the sequences from Bohemian and Bavarian Forests only in the M but not S segment analyses. This well-supported topological incongruence suggests a segment reassortment event or, as we analyzed only partial sequences, homologous recombination. Our data highlight the necessity of sequencing all three hantavirus genome segments and of a broader bank vole screening not only in recognized endemic foci but also in regions with no reported human hantavirus disease cases.

  5. Inheritance and Gene Mapping of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Strain SC14 in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Chao Li; Hai-Jian Zhi; Jun-Yi Gai; Dong-Quan Guo; Yan-Wei Wang; Kai Li; Li Bai; Hua Yang

    2006-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most broadly distributed diseases worldwide. It causes severe yield loss and seed quality deficiency in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV Strain SC14 isolated from Shanxi Province, China, was a newly identified virulent strain and can infect Kefeng No. 1, a source with wide spectrum resistance. In the present study, soybean accessions, PI96983, Qihuang No. 1 and Qihuang No. 22 were identified to be resistant (R) and Nannong 1138-2, Pixianchadou susceptible (S) to SC14. Segregation analysis of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 indicated that a single dominant gene (designated as Rsc14) controlled the resistance to SC14 at both V2 and R1 developmental stages. The same results were obtained for the crosses of Qihuang No. 1 × Nannong 1138-2 and Qihuang No. 22 × Nannong 1138-2 as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 at V2 stage, but at R1 stage,the F1 performed as necrosis (a susceptible symptom other than mosaic), F2 segregated in a ratio of 1R:2N:1S,and the progenies of necrotic (N) F2 individuals segregated also in R, N and S. It indicated that a single gene (designated as Rsc14o, to be different from that of PI96983) controlled the resistance to SC14, its dominance was the same as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 (without symptoms) at V2 stage and not the same at R1 stage. The tightly linked co-dominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Satt334 indicated that all the heterozygous bands were completely corresponding to the necrotic F2 individuals, or all the necrotic F2 individuals were heterozygotes.It was inferred that necrosis might be due to the interaction among SMV strains, resistance genes, genetic background of the resistance genes, and plant development stage. Furthermore, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of SSR markers was conducted to map the resistance genes. In F2 of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2, five SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_234, Sat_154, Sct_033 and Sat_120, were found closely linked to Rsc14, with genetic distances of 14

  6. Timing of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia based on early virus strains and subsequent virus diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, A.; Lukashov, V. V.; Pollakis, G.; Kliphuis, A.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To trace the introduction of HIV-1 subtype C into Ethiopia based on virus diversification during the epidemic. DESIGN: A set of 474 serum samples obtained in Ethiopia in 1982-1985 was tested for HIV-1. HIV-1 env gp120 V3 and gag or pol regions were sequenced and analysed together with

  7. Identification of mutations in the M RNA of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, K; Min, M K; Battles, J K; Sugiyama, K; Emery, V C; Dalrymple, J M; Bishop, D H

    1989-04-01

    The M RNA species of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV ZH-548M12), derived by consecutive high level mutagenesis using 5-fluorouracil (H. Caplen, C. J. Peters, and D. H. L. Bishop, J. Gen. Virol., 66, 2271-2277, 1985), has been cloned and the cDNA sequenced. The data have been compared to those obtained for the parent virus strain RVFV ZH-548 as well as the previously published data for RVFV ZH-501 (M. S. Collett, A. F. Purchio, K. Keegan, S. Frazier, W. Hays, D. K. Anderson, M. D. Parker, C. Schmaljohn, J. Schmidt, and J. M. Dalrymple, Virology, 144, 228-245, 1985). Some eight nucleotide and three amino acid differences were identified between the M RNAs of ZH-501 and ZH-548. Between the M RNAs of ZH-548 and that of the M12 mutant there were 12 nucleotide and 7 amino acid changes. Unique to the mutant virus is a new AUG codon upstream of that which initiates the open reading frame of the RVFV M gene product (the viral glycoprotein precursor). The significance of this and other differences in the mutant RNA with regard to the derivation and potential attenuation of the candidate vaccine is discussed.

  8. Strain-related acid production by oral streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Soet, JJ; Nyvad, Bente; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Acid production, in particular at low pH, is thought to be an important ecological determinant in dental caries. The aim of the present study was to determine the acid producing capability at different pH levels of 47 streptococcal strains, representing 9 species, isolated from human dental plaque....... The bacteria were grown until mid log-phase under anaerobic conditions and acid production was measured in a pH-stat system at pH 7.0, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.0. At all pH values, the mean velocity of acid production (V(ap)) by Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly higher (p... that of the other oral streptococci, including S. mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, S. intermedius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. vestibularis. However, the V(ap) of some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis, particularly at pH values of 7.0 and 6.0, exceeded that of some strains of S. mutans...

  9. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Liu, Qiaorong; Qiao, Mingming; Deng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xizhao; Sun, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1) have been continuously isolated in China in recent years. Complete genome sequences of these isolates are important to investigate the prevalence and evolution of Chinese PRRSV 1. Herein, we describe the isolation of a novel PRRSV 1 isolate, denominated HLJB1, in the Heilongjiang province of China. Complete genome sequencing of HLJB1 showed that it shares 90.66% and 58.21% nucleotide identities with PRRSV 1 and 2 prototypic strains Lelystad virus and ATCC VR-2332, respectively. HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates. Whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese PRRSV 1 isolates are clustered in pan-European subtype 1 and can be divided into four subgroups. HLJB1 resides in the subgroup of BJEU06-1-like isolates but is also closely related to the Amervac-like isolates. Additionally, recombination analyses suggested that HLJB1 is a recombinant from the Amervac vaccine and the BJEU06-1 isolate. To our best knowledge, our results provide the first genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains. These findings are also beneficial for studying the origin and evolution of PRRSV 1 in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from giant panda and raccoon dogs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species. Conclusions These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China. PMID:23566727

  11. Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus Strains AF2240 and V4-UPM on Cytolysis and Apoptosis of Leukemia Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabsi, Aied M.; Bakar, Siti Aishah Abu; Ali, Rola; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is used as an antineoplastic agent in clinical tumor therapy. It has prompted much interest as an anticancer agent because it can replicate up to 10,000 times better in human cancer cells than in most normal cells. This study was carried out to determine the oncolytic potential of NDV strain AF2240 and V4-UPM on WEHI-3B leukemia cell line. Results from MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the CD50 values for both strains were 2 and 8 HAU for AF2240 and V4-UPM, respectively. In addition, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and trypan blue dye exclusion assays showed inhibition in cell proliferation after different periods. Increase in the cellular level of caspase-3 and detection of DNA laddering using agarose gel electrophoresis on treated cells with NDV confirmed that the mode of cell death was apoptosis. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of cellular DNA content showed that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 region (apoptosis peaks). In conclusion, NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM caused cytolytic effects against WEHI-3B leukemic cell line. PMID:22272097

  12. Genetic characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated from cattle in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an Orbivirus not previously reported in Israel, was isolated from Israeli cattle during a “bluetongue like” disease outbreak in 2006. To ascertain the origin of this new virus, three isolates from the outbreak were fully sequenced and compared with availab...

  13. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  14. The early use of yellow fever virus strain 17D for vaccine production in Brazil - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Post

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of yellow fever (YF virus 17D strain for vaccine production adapted in Brazil since its introduction in 1937 was reviewed. This was possible due to the availability of official records of vaccine production. The retrieved data highlight the simultaneous use of several serially passaged 17D substrain viruses for both inocula and vaccine preparation that allowed uninterrupted production. Substitution of these substrain viruses became possible with the experience gained during quality control and human vaccination. Post-vaccinal complications in humans and the failure of some viruses in quality control tests (neurovirulence for monkeys indicated that variables needed to be reduced during vaccine production, leading to the development of the seed lot system. The 17DD substrain, still used today, was the most frequently used substrain and the most reliable in terms of safety and efficacy. For this reason, it is possible to derive an infectious cDNA clone of this substrain combined with production in cell culture that could be used to direct the expression of heterologous antigens and lead to the development of new live vaccines.

  15. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocaña-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert; Stech, Jürgen; Stech, Olga; Summerfield, Artur

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-κB translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  16. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland); Stech, Juergen; Stech, Olga [Friedrich-Loeffler Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems (Germany); Summerfield, Artur, E-mail: artur.summerfield@ivi.admin.ch [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-{kappa}B translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  17. Mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. In order to save costs of specimens and tests, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is applied to manage the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, respectively, -1, -0.52, 0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, are applied to study the effects. Total 104 specimens are fatigued. Since the material exhibits an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress under the six ratios and, in addition, there is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case, previous Zhao's random strain-life relations are therefore applied for effective characterization of the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Coffin-Manson equation.Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average fatigue lives, the standard deviations of the logarithms of fatigue lives, and the fatigue lives under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios greater than zero exhibit a positive effect of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under the survival probability of 0.999 and the confidence of 95%. A negative effect is exhibited for the case of the ratios less than zero. In addition, the assessment of the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion for the practice of higher reliabilities. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the average lives, the scattering regularity of test data, and the size of sampling. (author)

  18. Recombination of strain O segments to HCpro-encoding sequence of strain N of Potato virus Y modulates necrosis induced in tobacco and in potatoes carrying resistance genes Ny or Nc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to strains O and C of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) is conferred by potato genes Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr), respectively; however, PVY N strains overcome these resistance genes. The viral helper component proteinases (HCpro, 456 amino acids) from PVY(N) and PVY(O) are distinguished by an eight-amino-acid signature sequence, causing HCpro to fold into alternative conformations. Substitution of only two residues (K269R and R270K) of the eight-amino-acid signature in PVY(N) HCpro was needed to convert the three-dimensional (3D) model of PVY(N) HCpro to a PVY(O) -like conformation and render PVY(N) avirulent in the presence of Ny(tbr), whereas four amino acid substitutions were necessary to change PVY(O) HCpro to a PVY(N) -like conformation. Hence, the HCpro conformation rather than other features ascribed to the sequence were essential for recognition by Ny(tbr). The 3D model of PVY(C) HCpro closely resembled PVY(O), but differed from PVY(N) HCpro. HCpro of all strains was structurally similar to β-catenin. Sixteen PVY(N) 605-based chimeras were inoculated to potato cv. Pentland Crown (Ny(tbr)), King Edward (Nc(tbr)) and Pentland Ivory (Ny(tbr)/Nc(tbr)). Eleven chimeras induced necrotic local lesions and caused no systemic infection, and thus differed from both parental viruses that infected King Edward systemically, and from PVY(N) 605 that infected Pentland Crown and Pentland Ivory systemically. These 11 chimeras triggered both Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr) and, in addition, six induced veinal necrosis in tobacco. Further, specific amino acid residues were found to have an additive impact on necrosis. These results shed new light on the causes of PVY-related necrotic symptoms in potato. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Zika virus infection in Vietnam: current epidemic, strain origin, spreading risk, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dinh-Toi; Ngoc, Vo Truong Nhu; Tao, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus infection and its associated microcephaly have being receiving global concern. This infection has spread widely since the first outbreak was recorded in Africa in 1952. Now, it has been reported in over 70 countries on five continents including Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Vietnam is one of the most recent countries which had cases of Zika virus infection at the end of 2016. This country has also reported the first case of a microcephaly-born baby which was probably linked to Zika virus infection. However, information on the Zika virus epidemic in Vietnam is still limited. This brief report intends to update the current Zika virus epidemic, and to discuss challenges and perspectives in controlling this infection in Vietnam.

  20. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  1. Dynamics of a New Strain of the H1N1 Influenza A Virus Incorporating the Effects of Repetitive Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntani Pongsumpun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory disease caused by the Influenza A Virus is occurring worldwide. The transmission for new strain of the H1N1 Influenza A virus is studied by formulating a SEIQR (susceptible, exposed, infected, quarantine, and recovered model to describe its spread. In the present model, we have assumed that a fraction of the infected population will die from the disease. This changes the mathematical equations governing the transmission. The effect of repetitive contact is also included in the model. Analysis of the model by using standard dynamical modeling method is given. Conditions for the stability of equilibrium state are given. Numerical solutions are presented for different values of parameters. It is found that increasing the amount of repetitive contacts leads to a decrease in the peak numbers of exposed and infectious humans. A stability analysis shows that the solutions are robust.

  2. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte; Bukh, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed efficient infectious cell culture systems for these genotype 1a strains by using the HCV-1/SF9_A and H77C in vivo infectious clones. We initially adapted a genome with the HCV-1 5'UTR-NS5A (where UTR stands for untranslated region) and the JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR (5-5A recombinant), including the genotype 2a-derived mutations F1464L/A1672S/D2979G (LSG), to grow efficiently in Huh7.5 cells, thus identifying the E2 mutation S399F. The combination of LSG/S399F and reported TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations A1226G/Q1773H/N1927T/Y2981F/F2994S promoted adaptation of the full-length HCV-1 clone. An HCV-1 recombinant with 17 mutations (HCV1cc) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 cells and produced supernatant infectivity titers of 10(4.0) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. Eight of these mutations were identified from passaged HCV-1 viruses, and the A970T/I1312V/C2419R/A2919T mutations were essential for infectious particle production. Using CD81-deficient Huh7 cells, we further demonstrated the importance of A970T/I1312V/A2919T or A970T/C2419R/A2919T for virus assembly and that the I1312V/C2419R combination played a major role in virus release. Using a similar approach, we found that NS5B mutation F2994R, identified here from culture-adapted full-length TN viruses and a common NS3 helicase mutation (S1368P) derived from viable H77C and HCV-1 5-5A recombinants, initiated replication and culture adaptation of H77C containing LSG and TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations. An H77C recombinant harboring 19 mutations (H77Ccc) replicated and spread efficiently after transfection and subsequent infection of naive Huh7.5 cells, reaching titers of 10(3.5) and 10(4.4) FFU/ml, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989 with

  3. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of a Typical and a High Pathogenic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type II Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Amilcar Malacari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-cytopathic (ncp type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2 is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124 compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93, using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells. Experimental infection of CDC (n = 4 each with these strains caused an enteric syndrome. High pyrexia was detected in both groups. Viremia and shedding were more prolonged in the CDC infected with the NY-93 strain. In addition, NY-93 infection elicited a severe lymphopenia that lasted for 14 days, whereas 98-124 strain reduced the leukocyte counts for 5 days. All infected animals had a diminished lymphoproliferation activity in response to a mitogen. Neutralizing and anti-NS3 antibodies were detected 3 weeks after infection in all infected calves. Virulence was associated with a more severe clinical score, prolonged immune-suppression, and a greater window for transmission. Studies of apoptosis/necrosis performed after in vitro PBMC infection also revealed differences between both strains that might be correlated to the in vivo pathogenesis. Our results identified 98-124 as a low-virulence strain.

  5. A non mouse-adapted dengue virus strain as a new model of severe dengue infection in AG129 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Tan

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue (DEN worldwide combined with an increased severity of the DEN-associated clinical outcomes have made this mosquito-borne virus of great global public health importance. Progress in understanding DEN pathogenesis and in developing effective treatments has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Most of the DEN clinical isolates and cell culture-passaged DEN virus strains reported so far require either host adaptation, inoculation with a high dose and/or intravenous administration to elicit a virulent phenotype in mice which results, at best, in a productive infection with no, few, or irrelevant disease manifestations, and with mice dying within few days at the peak of viremia. Here we describe a non-mouse-adapted DEN2 virus strain (D2Y98P that is highly infectious in AG129 mice (lacking interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma receptors upon intraperitoneal administration. Infection with a high dose of D2Y98P induced cytokine storm, massive organ damage, and severe vascular leakage, leading to haemorrhage and rapid death of the animals at the peak of viremia. In contrast, very interestingly and uniquely, infection with a low dose of D2Y98P led to asymptomatic viral dissemination and replication in relevant organs, followed by non-paralytic death of the animals few days after virus clearance, similar to the disease kinetic in humans. Spleen damage, liver dysfunction and increased vascular permeability, but no haemorrhage, were observed in moribund animals, suggesting intact vascular integrity, a cardinal feature in DEN shock syndrome. Infection with D2Y98P thus offers the opportunity to further decipher some of the aspects of dengue pathogenesis and provides a new platform for drug and vaccine testing.

  6. Intracerebral infection of Cebus apella with the XJ-Clone 3 strain of Junín virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, G; Oubiña, J R; Molinas, F C; Nagle, C; de la Vega, M T; Videla, C; Elsner, B

    1987-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of the South American primate Cebus apella as a model for neurovirulence of Junín virus, eight monkeys were inoculated with 10(5) LD50 of the attenuated XJ-Clone 3 Junín virus strain by the intrathalamic route. After the second week, weight loss and polyadenopathies were observed in most animals, one-half of which had a transient leukothrombocytopenia. Moderate clinical central nervous system (CNS) involvement was present in four of eight monkeys, while the rest had only mild neurologic signs. All recovered except one, which developed a deep coma and was killed in a pre-mortem stage at 18 days post-infection (pi). Junín virus was isolated from the throat from five, from the blood from three, and from the brain from two monkeys. In the most severely ill animal, virus titers higher than viremia were detected in both inoculated and contralateral brain hemispheres, as well as in lung, lymph node, and small intestine. Junín antigens and "in vivo" bound immunoglobulins were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) in the brain of four animals at 18, 21, 40, and 155 days pi. Moderate lymphocytic parenchymal and meningeal infiltration were observed in the brain of four animals, and gliosis was also present in the most affected monkey. Although the clinical response to infection was not uniform, all infected monkeys developed high IF antibodies. Cebus apella cannot be used as a highly sensitive model for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). However, the results obtained show that the XJ-Clone 3 strain can replicate in the primate CNS and to induce lesions and immunoglobulin deposition. In addition, viral persistence is suggested by the late detection of viral antigens in brain at 40 and 155 days pi.

  7. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.

    2007-01-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  8. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V [National Security Programs, Computer Science Corporation, Alexandria (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  9. A new wine Torulaspora delbrueckii killer strain with broad antifungal activity and its toxin-encoding double-stranded RNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Manuel; Velázquez, Rocío; Maqueda, Matilde; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Ribas, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Wine Torulaspora delbrueckii strains producing a new killer toxin (Kbarr-1) were isolated and selected for wine making. They killed all the previously known Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer strains, in addition to other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The Kbarr-1 phenotype is encoded by a medium-size 1.7 kb dsRNA, TdV-Mbarr-1, which seems to depend on a large-size 4.6 kb dsRNA virus (TdV-LAbarr) for stable maintenance and replication. The TdV-Mbarr-1 dsRNA was sequenced by new generation sequencing techniques. Its genome structure is similar to those of S. cerevisiae killer M dsRNAs, with a 5′-end coding region followed by an internal A-rich sequence and a 3′-end non-coding region. Mbarr-1 RNA positive strand carries cis acting signals at its 5′ and 3′ termini for transcription and replication respectively, similar to those RNAs of yeast killer viruses. The ORF at the 5′ region codes for a putative preprotoxin with an N-terminal secretion signal, potential Kex2p/Kexlp processing sites, and N-glycosylation sites. No relevant sequence identity was found either between the full sequence of Mbarr-1 dsRNA and other yeast M dsRNAs, or between their respective toxin-encoded proteins. However, a relevant identity of TdV-Mbarr-1 RNA regions to the putative replication and packaging signals of most of the M-virus RNAs suggests that they are all evolutionarily related. PMID:26441913

  10. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Amara, Ali

    2016-02-09

    The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a "gold standard" for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry

  11. Comparison analysis of microRNAs in response to dengue virus type 2 infection between the Vero cell-adapted strain and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Lin, Yao; Jiang, Liming; Xi, Juemin; Wang, Xiaodan; Guan, Jiaoqiong; Chen, Junying; Pan, Yue; Luo, Jia; Ye, Chao; Sun, Qiangming

    2018-05-02

    To elucidate the differences in microRNAs during dengue virus infection between Vero cell-adapted strain (DENV-2-Vero) and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain (DENV-2-C6/36), a comparison analysis was performed in Vero cells by high throughput sequencing. The results showed that the expression of 16 known and 3 novel miRNAs exhibited marked differences. 5 known miRNAs were up-regulated in DENV-2-C6/36 group, while 11 known microRNAs were down-regulated in DENV-2-Vero group. The GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis showed that there was a distinct difference in regulating viral replication between two strains. In DENV-2-Vero infection group, significantly enriched GO terms included virion attachment to host cells, viral structural protein/genome processing and packaging. Meanwhile, the regulation of cell death and apoptosis between two groups were different in the early stage of infection. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DENV-2-C6/36 infection induced more intense regulation of immune-related pathways, including Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, etc. DENV-2-Vero infection could partially alleviate the immune defense of Vero cells compared with DENV-2-C6/36. The results indicated that the distinct microRNA changes induced by two DENV-2 strains may be partly related to their infective abilities. Our data provide useful insights that help elucidate the host-pathogen interactions following DENV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the distinctive type i/XhoI+ strain of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Paula; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ding, Shan; Yoshiwara, Elena; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Takano, Juan; Chirinos, Jesus L; Watanabe, Jose; Miyagui, Juan; Hidalgo, Heriberto; Chacon, Pedro; Linares, Victor; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the reason for the low frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in Peru, despite the high frequency reported in neighboring countries, the distribution of the distinctive EBV (type i/XhoI+) strain in EBVaGC and a healthy population was examined. EBV polymorphisms in BamHI W1/I1 and XhoI restriction site of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1) were examined among 11 EBVaGCs and 172 healthy controls from Peru, and these frequencies were compared with those in a previous study of Chile and Colombia (n=303). The frequency of the distinctive EBV strain in EBVaGCs (55%) was significantly higher than that in controls (7%). Furthermore, the frequency of this EBV type in Peruvian controls was significantly lower than that in controls from Chile and Colombia (27%, pPeru, as compared with neighboring countries.

  13. Hepatitis A virus strains circulating during 1997-2015 in Campania, a Southern Italy region with periodic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Angela; Coppola, Nicola; Spada, Enea; Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Sagnelli, Caterina; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Tosone, Grazia; Mascolo, Silvia; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-11-01

    In Italy, the incidence of hepatitis A has progressively declined over the last 30 years, though not homogeneously throughout the country. In Campania, Southern Italy, high annual incidence rates have been reported and several periodic outbreaks have occurred. To investigate the phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among HAV strains circulating in Campania over the period 1997-2015, 87 hepatitis A cases were investigated. The most frequent risk factor was the consumption of raw/undercooked shellfish (75/87, 86.2%). During 1997-2002 most viral strains were subtype IA (16/23, 70%); the phylogenetic pattern suggests that the incidence peaks observed in 2000-2001 had likely been caused by multiple strains. During a large 2004 outbreak, almost all viral variants were subtype IB (38/41, 93%); most of them (22/38, 58%) were recognized to be one of two main strains (differing for just a single nucleotide), the remaining sequences were strictly related variants. In 2014/2015, only IA strains were observed; two phylogenetically related but distinct strains were responsible, respectively, for a small cluster in 2014 and an outbreak in 2015. In each outbreak, several strains unrelated to those responsible for most cases were detected in a minority of patients, documenting a background of sporadic cases occurring even in the course of outbreaks; some of them proved to be identical to strains detected 11-14 years previously. Overall, the data suggest that several related and unrelated HAV strains have endemically circulated over the last 15 years in Campania, with some strains gaining epidemic transmission likely because of a local combination of multiple factors, including inadequate waste water purification and dietary habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Infection of epithelial cells with dengue virus promotes the expression of proteins favoring the replication of certain viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Betancur, Viviana; Marín-Villa, Marcel; Martínez-Gutierrez, Marlén

    2014-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue and severe dengue. To understand better the dengue virus-host interaction, it is important to determine how the expression of cellular proteins is modified due to infection. Therefore, a comparison of protein expression was conducted in Vero cells infected with two different DENV strains, both serotype 2: DENV-2/NG (associated with dengue) and DENV-2/16681 (associated with severe dengue). The viability of the infected cells was determined, and neither strain induced cell death at 48 hr. In addition, the viral genomes and infectious viral particles were quantified, and the genome of the DENV-2/16681 strain was determined to have a higher replication rate compared with the DENV-2/NG strain. Finally, the proteins from infected and uninfected cultures were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with the uninfected controls, the DENV-2/NG- and DENV-2/16681-infected cultures had five and six differentially expressed proteins, respectively. The most important results were observed when the infected cultures were compared to each other (DENV-2/NG vs. DENV-2/16681), and 18 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Based on their cellular functions, many of these proteins were linked to the increase in the replication efficiency of DENV. Among the proteins were calreticulin, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl transferase, and fatty acid-binding protein. It was concluded that the infection of Vero cells with DENV-2/NG or DENV-2/16681 differentially modifies the expression of certain proteins, which can, in turn, facilitate infection. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Shift of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Innate Immunity-Deficient Mutant rde-1 Strain of C. elegans upon Orsay Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host–virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 (ne219 strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals. Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by Orsay virus on intestinal microbiota in wildtype and innate immunity-deficient animals using C. elegans as the model species. Our findings indicate that virus infection may alters the microbiome in animals with defective immune response.

  16. The Shift of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Innate Immunity-Deficient Mutant rde-1 Strain of C. elegans upon Orsay Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Xun, Zhe; Coffman, Stephanie R; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host-virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 ( ne219 ) strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 ( ne219 ) mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 ( ne219 ) mutant animals. Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by Orsay virus on intestinal microbiota in wildtype and innate immunity-deficient animals using C. elegans as the model species. Our findings indicate that virus infection may alters the microbiome in animals with defective immune response.

  17. Cross-Protection against Marburg Virus Strains by Using a Live, Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Geisbert, Thomas W; Geisbert, Joan B; Stroeher, Ute; Hensley, Lisa E; Grolla, Allen; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) has been associated with sporadic episodes of hemorrhagic fever, including a recent highly publicized outbreak in Angola that produced severe disease and significant mortality in infected patients...

  18. Cross-Protection against Marburg Virus Strains by Using a Live, Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Geisbert, Thomas W; Geisbert, Joan B; Stroeher, Ute; Hensley, Lisa E; Grolla, Allen; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    .... MARV is also considered to have potential as a biological weapon. Recently, we reported the development of a promising attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against MARV based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV...

  19. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  20. Molecular characterization of Plum pox virus Rec isolates from Russia suggests a new insight into evolution of the strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Field isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV), belonging to the strain Rec, have been found for the first time in Russia. Full-size genomes of the isolates K28 and Kisl-1pl from myrobalan and plum, respectively, were sequenced on the 454 platform. Analysis of all known PPV-Rec complete genomes using the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4) revealed yet another recombination event in the 5'-terminal region. This event was detected by seven algorithms, implemented in the RDP4, with statistically significant P values and supported by a phylogenetic analysis with the bootstrap value of 87%. A putative PPV-M-derived segment, encompassing the C-terminus of the P1 gene and approximately two-thirds of the HcPro gene, is bordered by breakpoints at positions 760-940 and 1838-1964, depending on the recombinant isolate. The predicted 5'-distal breakpoint for the isolate Valjevka is located at position 2804. The Dideron (strain D) and SK68 (strain M) isolates were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively. Finding of another recombination event suggests more complex evolutionary history of PPV-Rec than previously assumed. Perhaps the first recombination event led to the formation of a PPV-D variant harboring the PPV-M-derived fragment within the 5'-proximal part of the genome. Subsequent recombination of its descendant with PPV-M in the 3'-proximal genomic region resulted in the emergence of the evolutionary successful strain Rec.

  1. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  2. Replacing a native Wolbachia with a novel strain results in an increase in endosymbiont load and resistance to dengue virus in a mosquito vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowu Bian

    Full Text Available Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium that is estimated to infect up to 65% of insect species. The ability of Wolbachia to both induce pathogen interference and spread into mosquito vector populations makes it possible to develop Wolbachia as a biological control agent for vector-borne disease control. Although Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus (DENV, filarial worms, and Plasmodium in mosquitoes, species like Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes albopictus, which carry native Wolbachia infections, are able to transmit dengue and filariasis. In a previous study, the native wPolA in Ae. polynesiensis was replaced with wAlbB from Ae. albopictus, and resulted in the generation of the transinfected "MTB" strain with low susceptibility for filarial worms. In this study, we compare the dynamics of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2 within the wild type "APM" strain and the MTB strain of Ae. polynesiensis by measuring viral infection in the mosquito whole body, midgut, head, and saliva at different time points post infection. The results show that wAlbB can induce a strong resistance to DENV-2 in the MTB mosquito. Evidence also supports that this resistance is related to a dramatic increase in Wolbachia density in the MTB's somatic tissues, including the midgut and salivary gland. Our results suggests that replacement of a native Wolbachia with a novel infection could serve as a strategy for developing a Wolbachia-based approach to target naturally infected insects for vector-borne disease control.

  3. Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysome, James R; Wang, Pengju; Alusi, Ghassan; Briat, Arnaud; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Jiwei; Bhakta, Vipul; Fodor, Istvan; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2011-09-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents a promising strategy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with dl1520 (ONYX-015) the most widely used oncolytic adenovirus in clinical trials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus as well as a vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene (VVhEA) as a novel therapy for HNSCC and to compare them with dl1520. The potency and replication of the Lister strain and VVhEA and the expression and function of the fusion protein were determined in human HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of VVhEA was compared with dl1520 in vivo in a human HNSCC model. The Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was more effective than the adenovirus against all HNSCC cell lines tested in vitro. Although the potency of VVhEA was attenuated in vitro, the expression and function of the endostatin-angiostatin fusion protein was confirmed in HNSCC models both in vitro and in vivo. This novel vaccinia virus (VVhEA) demonstrated superior antitumor potency in vivo compared with both dl1520 and the control vaccinia virus. This study suggests that the Lister strain vaccinia virus armed with an endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene may be a potential therapeutic agent for HNSCC.

  4. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Jensen, Tanja B; Meuleman, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(ΔHVR1), 1b(ΔHVR1), 2b(ΔHVR1), and 3a(ΔHVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...... density distribution, whereas infectious particle density changed from a range of 1.0 to 1.1 g/ml to a single peak at ∼1.1 g/ml, suggesting that HVR1 was critical for low-density HCV particle infectivity. Using chronic-phase HCV patient sera, we found three distinct neutralization profiles...

  5. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, Jannick Cornelius; Jensen, Tanja Bertelsen; Meuleman, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(¿HVR1), 1b(¿HVR1), 2b(¿HVR1), and 3a(¿HVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...... density distribution, whereas infectious particle density changed from a range of 1.0 to 1.1 g/ml to a single peak at ~1.1 g/ml, suggesting that HVR1 was critical for low-density HCV particle infectivity. Using chronic-phase HCV patient sera, we found three distinct neutralization profiles...

  6. Management of hepatitis B virus infection during treatment for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Shoji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Shinkawa, Hiroji; Nishioka, Takayoshi; Nozawa, Akinori; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Hamano, Genya; Ito, Tokuji; Urata, Yorihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although liver resection is considered the most effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), treatment outcomes are unsatisfactory because of the high rate of HCC recurrence. Since we reported hepatitis B e-antigen positivity and high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA concentrations are strong risk factors for HCC recurrence after curative resection of HBV-related HCC in the early 2000s, many investigators have demonstrated the effects of viral status on HCC recurrence and post-treatment outcomes. These findings suggest controlling viral status is important to prevent HCC recurrence and improve survival after curative treatment for HBV-related HCC. Antiviral therapy after curative treatment aims to improve prognosis by preventing HCC recurrence and maintaining liver function. Therapy with interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogs may be useful for preventing HCC recurrence and improving overall survival in patients who have undergone curative resection for HBV-related HCC. In addition, reactivation of viral replication can occur after liver resection for HBV-related HCC. Antiviral therapy can be recommended for patients to prevent HBV reactivation. Nevertheless, further studies are required to establish treatment guidelines for patients with HBV-related HCC. PMID:26217076

  7. The genomic diversity and stability of field strains of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    The genomic diversity among isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected in the same herd and among clones from the same isolate was studied by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis using BamHI. Tentatively defining a field strain as a transmissible entity, it was concluded that strains...

  8. Validated reverse transcription droplet digital PCR serves as a higher order method for absolute quantification of Potato virus Y strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Nataša; Dobnik, David; Ravnikar, Maja; Pompe Novak, Maruša

    2018-05-03

    RNA viruses have a great potential for high genetic variability and rapid evolution that is generated by mutation and recombination under selection pressure. This is also the case of Potato virus Y (PVY), which comprises a high diversity of different recombinant and non-recombinant strains. Consequently, it is hard to develop reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with the same amplification efficiencies for all PVY strains which would enable their equilibrate quantification; this is specially needed in mixed infections and other studies of pathogenesis. To achieve this, we initially transferred the PVY universal RT-qPCR assay to a reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) format. RT-ddPCR is an absolute quantification method, where a calibration curve is not needed, and it is less prone to inhibitors. The RT-ddPCR developed and validated in this study achieved a dynamic range of quantification over five orders of magnitude, and in terms of its sensitivity, it was comparable to, or even better than, RT-qPCR. RT-ddPCR showed lower measurement variability. We have shown that RT-ddPCR can be used as a reference tool for the evaluation of different RT-qPCR assays. In addition, it can be used for quantification of RNA based on in-house reference materials that can then be used as calibrators in diagnostic laboratories.

  9. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long bean.  Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  10. Evolutionary and network analysis of virus sequences from infants infected with an Australian recombinant strain of human parechovirus type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, Soren; Nelson, Tiffanie M; Hodge, Jason; Druce, Julian

    2017-06-20

    We present the near complete virus genome sequences with phylogenetic and network analyses of potential transmission networks of a total of 18 Australian cases of human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection in infants in the period from 2012-2015. Overall the results support our previous finding that the Australian outbreak strain/lineage is a result of a major recombination event that took place between March 2012 and November 2013 followed by further virus evolution and possibly recombination. While the nonstructural coding region of unknown provenance appears to evolve significantly both at the nucleotide and amino acid level, the capsid encoding region derived from the Yamagata 2011 lineage of HPeV3 appears to be very stable, particularly at the amino acid level. The phylogenetic and network analyses performed support a temporal evolution from the first Australian recombinant virus sequence from November 2013 to March/April 2014, onto the 2015 outbreak. The 2015 outbreak samples fall into two separate clusters with a possible common ancestor between March/April 2014 and September 2015, with each cluster further evolving in the period from September to November/December 2015.

  11. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C A; Pickel, K [Wurzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Virologie und Immunbiologie

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal {sup 60}Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author).

  12. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.A.; Pickel, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal 60 Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author) [pt

  13. Flavone Enhances Dengue Virus Type-2 (NGC Strain Infectivity and Replication in Vero Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Zandi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of 2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one (flavone on DENV-2 infectivity in Vero cells. Virus adsorption and attachment and intracellular virus replication were investigated using a foci forming unit assay (FFUA and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Addition of flavone (100 μg/mL significantly increased the number of DENV-2 foci by 35.66% ± 1.52 and 49.66% ± 2.51 when added during and after virus adsorption to the Vero cells, respectively. The average foci size after 4 days of infection increased by 33% ± 2.11 and 89% ± 2.13. The DENV-2 specific RNA copy number in the flavone-treated infected cells increased by 6.41- and 23.1-fold when compared to the mock-treated infected cells. Flavone (100 μg/mL did not promote or inhibit Vero cell proliferation. The CC50 value of flavone against Vero cells was 446 µg/mL. These results suggest that flavone might enhance dengue virus replication by acting antagonistically towards flavonoids known to inhibit dengue virus replication.

  14. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  15. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Kunkun; Chang, Li; Zheng, Bailin; Tang, Youhong; Wang, Hongjian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  16. Modelling Hepatitis B Virus Antiviral Therapy and Drug Resistant Mutant Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Julie; Dix, Trevor; Allison, Lloyd; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Yuen, Lilly

    Despite the existence of vaccines, the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a serious global health concern. HBV targets liver cells. It has an unusual replication process involving an RNA pre-genome that the reverse transcriptase domain of the viral polymerase protein translates into viral DNA. The reverse transcription process is error prone and together with the high replication rates of the virus, allows the virus to exist as a heterogeneous population of mutants, known as a quasispecies, that can adapt and become resistant to antiviral therapy. This study presents an individual-based model of HBV inside an artificial liver, and associated blood serum, undergoing antiviral therapy. This model aims to provide insights into the evolution of the HBV quasispecies and the individual contribution of HBV mutations in the outcome of therapy.

  17. The Relation between Heat strain and hydration status among

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bolghanabadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: during the physical activity in hot environments, sweating with evaporation, the important physiological response of the body  increases which can be lead to dehydration . Long-term water shortages could adversely affect vital organs. The aim of this study was to determine heat stress and dehydration status of workers in hot workplaces. Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 90 workers of workers in sugar factory which were exposed to heat. Heart rate and oral temperature were respectively measured using a heart rate meter and an oral thermometer. WBGT index was recorded and the HSSI questionnaire was completed simultaneously, in order to assess dehydration level was measured of refractometer. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using compare means and t-test, paired t-test tests by SPSS 20 software Results: Heat stress exceeded the national and international recommended limits based on the WBGT index in 44% of cases of workstations. According to this study, 8.5% of our population had some degree of dehydration.63.4% of them were significantly dehydrated (urine SG>1.020 and 28% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1.030 and the mean specific gravity was 1.025±0.043 The correlations between heat strains, Urine Density and heat stress including oral temperature, heart rate were significant(p<0.05. Conclusion: A high percentage of the study population had some degree of dehydration that based on the results is worrying. It seems that planning in order to control of heat stresses by replace drinking is necessary.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenesis of UL21 in Multiple Strains of Herpes Simplex Virus Reveals Differential Requirements for pUL21 in Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée L. Finnen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies from multiple laboratories using different strains or species of herpes simplex virus (HSV with deletions in UL21 have yielded conflicting results regarding the necessity of pUL21 in HSV infection. To resolve this discrepancy, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to isolate pUL21 deficient viruses in multiple HSV backgrounds, and performed a side-by-side comparison of the cell-to-cell spread and replication phenotypes of these viruses. These analyses confirmed previous studies implicating the involvement of pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread of HSV. Cell-to-cell spread of HSV-2 was more greatly affected by the lack of pUL21 than HSV-1, and strain-specific differences in the requirement for pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread were also noted. HSV-2 strain 186 lacking pUL21 was particularly crippled in both cell-to-cell spread and viral replication in non-complementing cells, in comparison to other HSV strains lacking pUL21, suggesting that the strict requirement for pUL21 by strain 186 may not be representative of the HSV-2 species as a whole. This work highlights CRISPR/Cas9 technology as a useful tool for rapidly constructing deletion mutants of alphaherpesviruses, regardless of background strain, and should find great utility whenever strain-specific differences need to be investigated.

  19. S1 gene sequence analysis of infectious bronchitis virus vaccinal strains (H120 & H52 and their embryo-passaged derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshesh, M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease that mainly causes respiratory symptoms in poultry. A number of serotypes and variants of the viral agent with poor cross-protection are the major problem to achieve desired immunity from vaccination. The S1 subunit of S glycoprotein (spike is the major determinant of IBV so that a minor change in amino acid sequence of this protein, alters the virus strain. Therefore, characterization of the sequence of S1 gene is necessary to identify virus strains and their similarities with the vaccinal strains. In this research, the S1 sequence of H52 and H120 vaccinal strains of Razi Institute was fully characterized, and also the effect of serial passages in embryonated - eggs (5 passages beyond the master seed on the S1 gene was investigated. The results showed that H120 and H52 strains of Razi Institute are 100% identical to the reference vaccine strains available in the GenBank. In addition, the H52 strain showed one amino acid substitution from the 3rd passage in which Glycine (G was replaced by Valine (V at position 118 making these passages exactly identical to the H120 strain while no change occurred for the H120 strain during these passages. Analysis of the original vaccinal strains which are widely administered in Iran, is definitely useful for prevention and control strategies against the circulating viruses. To identify the genetic change(s responsible for attenuation of these strains during passages in embryonated-egg, characterization of other genes, especially those involved in replication is recommended.

  20. Efficacy, Safety, and Interactions of a Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chickens Based on Strain IBD V877.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Harm J; Ons, Ellen; Boelm, Gert Jan; Vancraeynest, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease in young chickens which can result in high morbidity and mortality and also in great economic losses. The main target for the virus is the lymphoid tissue with a special predilection for the bursa of Fabricius. Several vaccines are available to control the disease. Intermediate plus vaccines are used in chickens with high maternal antibody titers which face high infection pressure. An example of an intermediate plus vaccine is a live vaccine based on IBD strain V877. The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. The safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in a study in which specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain and a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain after five back passages in SPF chickens. The vaccine virus caused lesions, as could be expected for an intermediate plus vaccine, but the scores were not much higher than the maximal scores allowed for mild IBD vaccines in the European Pharmacopoeia, and reversion to virulence was absent. In studies in SPF chickens, there were no negative impacts by the IBD V877 vaccine on the efficacy of a live QX-like IB vaccine and a live Newcastle disease La Sota vaccine in vaccination challenge studies, although the IBD vaccine had a negative effect on the antibody response generated by the QX-like IB vaccine. It is concluded that the IBD V877 vaccine has the capacity to break through high levels of MDA, has a satisfactory safety profile, and interactions with other live vaccines are limited. In order to limit bursal lesions after vaccination it is recommended to confirm the presence of MDA before vaccinating with the V877 vaccine.

  1. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Caroline; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2002-04-01

    Camelpox virus (CMPV) and variola virus (VAR) are orthopoxviruses (OPVs) that share several biological features and cause high mortality and morbidity in their single host species. The sequence of a virulent CMPV strain was determined; it is 202182 bp long, with inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 6045 bp and has 206 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). As for other poxviruses, the genes are tightly packed with little non-coding sequence. Most genes within 25 kb of each terminus are transcribed outwards towards the terminus, whereas genes within the centre of the genome are transcribed from either DNA strand. The central region of the genome contains genes that are highly conserved in other OPVs and 87 of these are conserved in all sequenced chordopoxviruses. In contrast, genes towards either terminus are more variable and encode proteins involved in host range, virulence or immunomodulation. In some cases, these are broken versions of genes found in other OPVs. The relationship of CMPV to other OPVs was analysed by comparisons of DNA and predicted protein sequences, repeats within the ITRs and arrangement of ORFs within the terminal regions. Each comparison gave the same conclusion: CMPV is the closest known virus to variola virus, the cause of smallpox.

  2. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Attenuation of pathogenic Rift Valley fever virus strain through the chimeric S-segment encoding sandfly fever phlebovirus NSs or a dominant-negative PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Slack, Olga A L; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Hill, Terence E; Juelich, Terry L; Zhang, Lihong; Smith, Jennifer K; Perez, David; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-11-16

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting ruminants and humans. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) causes abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or retinitis in humans. The live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine is conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the US. However, this vaccine lacks a marker for the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). NSs gene is dispensable for RVFV replication, and thus, rMP-12 strains lacking NSs gene is applicable to monitor vaccinated animals. However, the immunogenicity of MP-12 lacking NSs was not as high as parental MP-12. Thus, chimeric MP-12 strains encoding NSs from either Toscana virus (TOSV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) or Punta Toro virus Adames strain (PTA) were characterized previously. Although chimeric MP-12 strains are highly immunogenic, the attenuation through the S-segment remains unknown. Using pathogenic ZH501 strain, we aimed to demonstrate the attenuation of ZH501 strain through chimeric S-segment encoding either the NSs of TOSV, SFSV, PTA, or Punta Toro virus Balliet strain (PTB). In addition, we characterized rZH501 encoding a human dominant-negative PKR (PKRΔE7), which also enhances the immunogenicity of MP-12. Study done on mice revealed that attenuation of rZH501 occurred through the S-segment encoding either PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs. However, rZH501 encoding either TOSV, PTA, or PTB NSs in the S-segment uniformly caused lethal encephalitis. Our results indicated that the S-segments encoding PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs are attenuated and thus applicable toward next generation MP-12 vaccine candidates that encode a DIVA marker.

  4. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) is replacing endemic strains of RHDV in the Australian landscape within 18 months of its arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E; Hall, Robyn N; Peacock, David; Kovaliski, John; Piper, Melissa; Mourant, Roslyn; Huang, Nina; Campbell, Susan; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Urakova, Nadya; Cox, Tarnya; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) and various hare ( Lepus ) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI.1) in mainland Australia. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of 127 Australian GI.2 isolates revealed that the virus arrived in Australia at least several months before its initial description and likely circulated unnoticed in wild rabbit populations in the east of the continent prior to its detection. GI.2 sequences isolated from five hares clustered with sequences from sympatric rabbit populations sampled contemporaneously, indicating multiple spillover events into hares rather than an adaptation of the Australian GI.2 to a new host. Since the presence of GI.2 in Australia may have wide ranging consequences for rabbit biocontrol, particularly with the release of the novel biocontrol agent GI.1a/RHDVa-K5 in March 2017, ongoing surveillance is critical to understanding the interactions of the various lagoviruses in Australia, and their impact on host populations. IMPORTANCE This study describes the spread and distribution of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus 2 (GI.2) in Australia since its first detection in May 2015. Within the first 18 months following its detection, RHDV2 spread from east to west across the continent and became the dominant strain in all mainland states of Australia. This has important implications for pest animal management and for owners of pet and farmed rabbits, as there is currently no effective vaccine available in Australia for GI.2. The closely related RHDV (GI.1) is used

  5. Antibodies to a strain-specific citrullinated Epstein-Barr virus peptide diagnoses rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Heiden, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are crucial for the serological diagnosis of RA, where Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been suggested to be an environmental agent in triggering the onset of the disease. This study aimed...

  6. Survival of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4- UPM coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Results showed that the virus coated onto the carrier foods offal without additive remained stable at ≥ MID value for ≈3 ... meat (Shane, 1984). Velogenic .... the byproducts of food processing that is expected to eliminate any ...

  7. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  8. pathogenecity of two strains of rice yellow mottle virus on aromatic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Valley), Arusha (Ndungu Plains) including parts of Shinyanga and Mwanza regions where the virus induces severe yield losses in farmers' fields. RYMV is a member of the genus. Sobemovirus. ... with contrasting ecological, geographical distribution within a ... importance in country's rice cropping systems. Existing in ...

  9. Pre-crisis mouse cells show strain-specific covariation in the amount of 54-kilodalton phosphoprotein and in susceptibility to transformation by simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Blanck, G; Pollack, R E

    1983-09-01

    We have used several inbred mouse strains to examine the role of the 54-kilodalton (kDa) cellular phosphoprotein in transformation by the papovavirus simian virus 40. We have measured the endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein in cells obtained from these inbred mouse strains. To study the effect of passage, cell cultures were measured for amount of the 54-kDa phosphoprotein at the 2nd and 12th passages. In the absence of any transforming agent, the amount of endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein in early pre-crisis mouse cells varied in a strain-specific way. Transformation frequency varied coordinately with endogenous 54-kDa expression. Mouse strains whose cells produced a high level of endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein on passage did not further increase its expression after simian virus 40 transformation.

  10. Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gustavo; Forrester, Naomi L; Savji, Nazir; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Detoy, Kelly; Popov, Vsevolod L; Walker, Peter J; Lipkin, W Ian; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-07-01

    Farmington virus (FARV) is a rhabdovirus that was isolated from a wild bird during an outbreak of epizootic eastern equine encephalitis on a pheasant farm in Connecticut, USA. Analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence of the prototype CT AN 114 strain indicates that it encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (> 180 nt) in the N and G genes. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of FARV has confirmed that it is a novel rhabdovirus and probably represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. In sum, our analysis indicates that FARV represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae.

  11. Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Farmington virus (FARV) is a rhabdovirus that was isolated from a wild bird during an outbreak of epizootic eastern equine encephalitis on a pheasant farm in Connecticut, USA. Findings Analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence of the prototype CT AN 114 strain indicates that it encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (> 180 nt) in the N and G genes. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of FARV has confirmed that it is a novel rhabdovirus and probably represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. Conclusions In sum, our analysis indicates that FARV represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:23816310

  12. EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS RELATED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIONS AFTER STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Chiusolo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative  disorders are a rare but potentially fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with an incidence of 1-3% and  occurring within 6 months after transplantation.  The most relevant risk factors include the use of in vivo T-cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin, HLA disparities between donor and recipient, donor type,  splenectomy etc. The higher the numbers of risk factors the higher the risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative  disorders. Monitoring EBV viremia after transplantation is of value and it should be applied to high risk patients since it allows pre-emptive therapy initiation  at specified threshold values   and early treatment. This strategy  might reduce mortality which was >80% prior to the implementation of anti-EBV therapy . Treatment of EBV-LPD after allogeneic SCT may consist of anti-B-cell therapy (rituximab, adoptive T-cell immunotherapy or both. Rituximab treatment should be considered the first treatment option, preferably guided by intensive monitoring of EBV DNA while reduction of immunosuppression should be carefully evaluated for the risk of graft versus host disease.

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015 Isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Li, Benqiang; Zhang, Chunling; Liu, Huili

    2016-11-10

    Two porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains, JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015, were isolated from piglets with watery diarrhea in South China. Two genomic sequences were highly homologous to the attenuated DR13 strain. Furthermore, JSLS-1/2015 contains a 24-amino-acid deletion in open reading frame 1b, which was first reported in PEDV isolates. Copyright © 2016 Tao et al.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant NADC30-Like Strain, SCnj16, of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Runmin; Xie, Bo; Tian, Yiming; Yang, Xin; Yu, Jifeng

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are characterized by a 131-amino-acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a recombinant NADC30-like PRRSV strain, SCnj16, that exhibits the molecular marker of the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) in NSP2. PMID:29439029

  15. Whole-genome characterization of Uruguayan strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus reveals extensive recombination between the two major South American lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina; Greif, Gonzalo; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Hernández, Martín; Techera, Claudia; Hernández, Diego; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (Gammacoronavirus, Coronaviridae) is a genetically variable RNA virus that causes one of the most persistent respiratory diseases in poultry. The virus is classified in genotypes and lineages with different epidemiological relevance. Two lineages of the GI genotype (11 and 16) have been widely circulating for decades in South America. GI-11 is an exclusive South American lineage while the GI-16 lineage is distributed in Asia, Europe and South America. Here, we obtained the whole genome of two Uruguayan strains of the GI-11 and GI-16 lineages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The strains here sequenced are the first obtained in South America for the infectious bronchitis virus and provide new insights into the origin, spreading and evolution of viral variants. The complete genome of the GI-11 and GI-16 strains have 27,621 and 27,638 nucleotides, respectively, and possess the same genomic organization. Phylogenetic incongruence analysis reveals that both strains have a mosaic genome that arose by recombination between Euro Asiatic strains of the GI-16 lineage and ancestral South American GI-11 viruses. The recombination occurred in South America and produced two viral variants that have retained the full-length S1 sequences of the parental lineages but are extremely similar in the rest of their genomes. These recombinant virus have been extraordinary successful, persisting in the continent for several years with a notorious wide geographic distribution. Our findings reveal a singular viral dynamics and emphasize the importance of complete genomic characterization to understand the emergence and evolutionary history of viral variants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection of a French Population of Aedes albopictus and of Aedes aegypti (Paea Strain with Zika Virus Reveals Low Transmission Rates to These Vectors’ Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustine Ryckebusch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV is a public health emergency of international concern. Recent epidemics have emerged in different regions of the world and attest to the ability of the virus to spread wherever its vector, Aedes species mosquitoes, can be found. We have compared the transmission of ZIKV by Ae. aegypti (PAEA strain originating from Tahiti and by a French population of Ae. albopictus to better assess their competence and the potential risk of the emergence of ZIKV in Europe. We assessed the transmission of ZIKV by Ae. albopictus in temperatures similar to those in Southern France during the summer. Our study shows that the extrinsic incubation period of Ae. aegypti for transmission was shorter than that of Ae. albopictus. Both vectors were able to transmit ZIKV from 10 to 14 days post-infection. Ae. aegypti, however, had a longer transmission period than the French population of Ae. albopictus. Although the salivary glands of both vectors are highly infected, transmission rates of ZIKV to saliva remain relatively low. These observations may suggest that the risk of emergence of ZIKV in Europe could be low.

  17. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  18. The identification and characterization of novel rat hepatitis E virus strains in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primadharsini, Putu Prathiwi; Mulyanto; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman; Anggoro, Joko; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    All three genetic groups of ratHEV have been found in Indonesia, suggesting the presence of additional variants of ratHEV in unexamined areas of Indonesia. A total of 242 wild rats were captured in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia, during 2014-2016. Among them, 4.1% were seropositive for anti-ratHEV IgG and two (0.8%) had detectable ratHEV RNA: ratESUMBAWA-140L and ratEBali2016D-047L, sharing 84.9-85.4% and 86.9-92.1% nucleotide identity with the reported G2 strains, respectively. The provisional criteria supported the notion that the ratEBali2016D-047L and ratESUMBAWA-140L strains were novel G2 variants. These results suggested the spatial distribution of further divergent ratHEV strains in Indonesia.

  19. Systemically administered DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing four vaccinia virus genes although immunogenic do not protect mice against the highly pathogenic IHD-J vaccinia strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Pacchioni, Sole Maria; Zanotto, Carlo; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Broggi, Achille; Radaelli, Antonia

    2013-12-26

    The first-generation smallpox vaccine was based on live vaccinia virus (VV) and it successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. Therefore, it was not administered any more after 1980, as smallpox no longer existed as a natural infection. However, emerging threats by terrorist organisations has prompted new programmes for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains, which have been shown to cause rare but serious adverse events in immunocompromised patients. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that might also be used as bioweapons, and the increasing number of unvaccinated young people and AIDS-affected immunocompromised subjects, a safer and more effective smallpox vaccine is still required. New avipoxvirus-based vectors should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from newly emerging zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases and from the threat of deliberate release of variola or monkeypox virus in a bioterrorist attack. In this study, DNA and fowlpox recombinants expressing the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R genes were constructed and evaluated in a pre-clinical trial in mouse, following six prime/boost immunisation regimens, to compare their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a challenge with the lethal VV IHD-J strain. Although higher numbers of VV-specific IFNγ-producing T lymphocytes were observed in the protected mice, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and the presence of neutralising antibodies did not always correlate with protection. In spite of previous successful results in mice, rabbits and monkeys, where SIV/HIV transgenes were expressed by the fowlpox vector, the immune response elicited by these recombinants was low, and most of the mice were not protected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunopathogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Related Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo M. Kgatle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a serious consequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, which infects and replicates in the liver. It is characterised by prolonged hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity; this can lead to both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The infection begins when HBV binds its only known functional receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP, which was identified recently. The discovery of NTCP was a significant breakthrough in the field of HBV research, and has facilitated the establishment of a susceptible hepatoma cell line model for studying the mechanisms underlying HBV pathogenesis. Following productive HBV infection, both cellular and humoral immune cells and molecules, such as T cells and chemokines, are activated to resolve infection by destroying HBV-infected hepatocytes. However, host immunity to HBV is not always protective, most likely due to immune evasion mechanisms employed by HBV. These mechanisms may result in viral persistence, accumulation of mutations, and aberrant epigenetic alterations that lead to HCC. Here we highlight our current understanding of the HBV replication cycle, immunopathogenesis, and related mechanisms underlying the progression of CHB to advanced liver disease, along with the attendant complications.

  1. Pathogenesis comparison between the United States porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains in conventional neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C; Stafne, Molly R; Thomas, Joseph T; Madson, Darin M; Huang, Haiyan; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ganwu; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2016-05-01

    At least two genetically different porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains have been identified in the USA: US PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains. The objective of this study was to compare the pathogenicity differences of the US PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains in conventional neonatal piglets under experimental infections. Fifty PEDV-negative 5-day-old pigs were divided into five groups of ten pigs each and were inoculated orogastrically with three US PEDV prototype isolates (IN19338/2013, NC35140/2013 and NC49469/2013), an S-INDEL-variant isolate (IL20697/2014), and virus-negative culture medium, respectively, with virus titres of 104 TCID50 ml- 1, 10 ml per pig. All three PEDV prototype isolates tested in this study, regardless of their phylogenetic clades, had similar pathogenicity and caused severe enteric disease in 5-day-old pigs as evidenced by clinical signs, faecal virus shedding, and gross and histopathological lesions. Compared with pigs inoculated with the three US PEDV prototype isolates, pigs inoculated with the S-INDEL-variant isolate had significantly diminished clinical signs, virus shedding in faeces, gross lesions in small intestines, caeca and colons, histopathological lesions in small intestines, and immunohistochemistry staining in ileum. However, the US PEDV prototype and the S-INDEL-variant strains induced similar viraemia levels in inoculated pigs. Whole genome sequences of the PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains were determined, but the molecular basis of virulence differences between these PEDV strains remains to be elucidated using a reverse genetics approach.

  2. Establishment of recombinase polymerase amplification assay for five hemorrhagic fever-related viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng CAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a one-step recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA method for pathogen screening and rapid detection in the field targeting for five hemorrhagic fever related viruses (Zaire ebola virus, Sudan ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa virus and Yellow fever virus. Methods The specific nucleic acid (NA fragments of each virus were selected as target genes by genome sequence analysis, and the primers and probes for RPA assays were designed according to the sequence. A series of diluted template genes were used for RPA detection to determine the sensitivity. The hemorrhagic fever-related viral nucleic acids were used for RPA detection to determine the specificity. The amplification experiments were carried out at different temperature ranging from 37℃ to 42℃ to validate the reaction temperature range. Results The RPA reaction systems of the five hemorrhagic fever viruses could effectively amplify the target genes, the sensitivities were between 1.5×102 and 1.5×103 copies. No cross reactions existed with the other hemorrhagic fever-related viral genes. Meanwhile, RPA assay could effectively amplify the target genes at 37-42℃. Conclusion The isothermal RPA assays of five hemorrhagic fever viruses are established, which may amply target genes fast and react at a wide temperature range, and be potentially useful for in field pathogens detection. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.09

  3. Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, Hortensia; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-08-15

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections; Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-26

    Scarlatti et al. 1992 (41) 1 1 Arendrup et al. 1992 (42) SIVsm/monkey 7 0 Zhang et al. manuscript (43) B) Sequential samples: serum collected >6 months...983-990. 1991. 12. Scarlatti , G, Lombardi, V, Plebani, A, Principi, N, Chiara, V, Ferraris, G, Bucceri, A, Feny6, E M, Wigzell, H, Rossi, P, and...envelope glycoprotein gp125 of human immunodeficiency virus type2. Manuscript. M2. Scarlatti , G, Albert, J, Rossi, P, Hodara, V, Biraghi, P, Muggiasca

  6. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  7. The pathogenesis of Newcastle disease: A comparison of selected Newcastle disease virus wild-type strains and their infectious clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Nobuko; King, Daniel J.; Seal, Bruce S.; Samal, Siba K.; Brown, Corrie C.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of mutations of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion (F) gene, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene, and phosphoprotein (P) gene and HN chimeras between the virulent Beaudette C and low virulence LaSota strains on pathogenesis and pathogenicity was examined in fully susceptible chickens. A virulent F cleavage site motif within a LaSota backbone increased pathogenicity and severity of clinical disease. A LaSota HN within a Beaudette C backbone decreased pathogenicity indices and disease severity. A Beaudette C HN within a LaSota backbone did not change either pathogenicity indices or severity of disease in chickens. Loss of glycosylation at site 4 of the HN or modified P gene of Beaudette C decreased pathogenicity indices and caused no overt clinicopathologic disease in chickens. Both pathogenicity indices and clinicopathologic examination demonstrated that the F, HN, and P genes of NDV collectively or individually can contribute to viral virulence

  8. Restriction map of the single-stranded DNA genome of Kilham rat virus strain 171, a nondefective parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, P.T.; Rathrock, R.; Mitra, S.

    1981-01-01

    A physical map of Kilham rat virus strain 171 DNA was constructed by analyzing the sizes and locations of restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of the replicative-form viral DNA synthesized in vitro. BglI, KpnI, BamHI, SmaI, XhoI, and XorII did not appear to have any cleavage sites, whereas 11 other enzymes cleaved the genome at one to eight sites, and AluI generated more than 12 distinct fragments. The 30 restriction sites that were mapped were distributed randomly in the viral genome. A comparison of the restriction fragments of in vivo- and in vitro-replicated replicative-form DNAs showed that these DNAs were identical except in the size or configuration of the terminal fragments

  9. A mutation in the envelope protein fusion loop attenuates mouse neuroinvasiveness of the NY99 strain of West Nile virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuliu; Li Li; Woodson, Sara E.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Kinney, Richard M.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Beasley, David W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Substitutions were engineered individually and in combinations at the fusion loop, receptor-binding domain and a stem-helix structure of the envelope protein of a West Nile virus strain, NY99, and their effects on mouse virulence and presentation of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were assessed. A single substitution within the fusion loop (L107F) attenuated mouse neuroinvasiveness of NY99. No substitutions attenuated NY99 neurovirulence. The L107F mutation also abolished binding of a non-neutralizing MAb, 3D9, whose epitope had not been previously identified. MAb 3D9 was subsequently shown to be broadly cross-reactive with other flaviviruses, consistent with binding near the highly conserved fusion loop

  10. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  11. Replacement of glycoprotein B gene in the Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain ANGpath DNA that originating from non-pathogenic strain KOS reduces the pathogenicity of recombinant virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, M.; Bacik, I.; Rajcani, J.; Kaerner, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) strain ANGpath and its recombinants, in which the 8.1 kbp BamHI G restriction fragment (0.345-0.399) containing the glycoprotein B (gB path ) gene (UL27) or its sub-fragments-coding either for cytoplasmic or surface domain of gB-had been replaced with the corresponding fragments from non-pathogenic KOS virus DNA (gB KOS ), were tested for their pathogenicity for DBA/2 mice and rabbits. The recombinant ANGpath/B6 KOS prepared by transferring the 2.7 kbp SstI-SstI sub-fragment (0.351-0.368) of the BamHI G KOS fragment still had the original sequence of ANGpath DNA coding for the syn 3 marker in the cytoplasmic domain of gB and was pathogenic for mice as well as for rabbits. Virological and immuno-histological studies in DBA/2 mice infected with the latter pathogenic recombinant and with ANGpath showed the presence of infectious virus and viral antigen at inoculation site (epidermis, subcutaneous connective tissue and striated muscle in the area of right lip), in homo-lateral trigeminal nerve and ganglion, brain stem, midbrain, thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, non-pathogenic recombinants ANGpath/syn + B6 KOS (prepared by transferring the whole BamHI G KOS fragment) and ANGpath/syn +KOS (prepared by transferring the 0.8 kbp BamHI-SstI sub-fragment of the BamHI G KOS fragment) showed limited hematogenous and neural spread, but no evidence of replication in CNS; thus, their behaviour resembled that of the wild type strain KOS. The recombinant ANGpath/syn +KOS , which was not pathogenic for mice, still remained pathogenic for rabbits, a phenomenon indicating the presence of an additional locus in the gB molecule participating on virulence. Sequencing the 1478 bp SstI-SstI sub-fragment of the BamHI G path fragment (nt 53,348 - 54,826 of UL segment) showed the presence of at least 3 mutations as compared to the KOS sequence, from which the change of cytosine at nt 54,2251 altered the codon for arginine to that histidine

  12. Influenza A virus transmission via respiratory aerosols or droplets as it relates to pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mathilde; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many respiratory viruses of humans originate from animals. For instance, there are now eight paramyxoviruses, four coronaviruses and four orthomxoviruses that cause recurrent epidemics in humans but were once confined to other hosts. In the last decade, several members of the same virus families have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans. Fortunately, these viruses have not become established in humans, because they lacked the ability of sustained transmission between humans. However, these outbreaks highlighted the lack of understanding of what makes a virus transmissible. In part triggered by the relatively high frequency of occurrence of influenza A virus zoonoses and pandemics, the influenza research community has started to investigate the viral genetic and biological traits that drive virus transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets between mammals. Here we summarize recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for airborne transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses of subtypes H5, H7 and H9 and pandemic viruses of subtypes H1, H2 and H3. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of respiratory virus transmission is not only key from a basic scientific perspective, but may also aid in assessing the risks posed by zoonotic viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26385895

  13. Changes in the vibrational properties of graphene and other related nanostructures under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codorniu Pujals, D.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the presence of strain in solids modifies their vibrational properties due to the variation of the atomic position and the changes of the interatomic distances. Monolayer graphene is especially sensible to the effects of strain, for example, to that produced by the curvature of some region of the graphene plane. These changes in the vibrational properties of graphene modifies in different way its Raman spectrum. In the case of other graphene-related materials as fullerenes, nano-onions and nano tubes, the curvature is always present, consequently, there is a modification of the vibrational properties in relation with those in graphene, due to the strain provoked by curvature. In this paper, the overall picture of the effect of strain on the vibrational properties of graphene and other carbon nanostructures is presented from a theoretical point of view and the main considerations are correlated with experimental results from Raman spectroscopy (Author)

  14. [Characteristics of long-term persisting strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in different forms of the chronic process in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1982-01-01

    The properties of the Vasilchenko strain of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and its 3 variants isolated at various stages of persistent infection (383, 453, and 535 days) in Macaca rhesus monkeys and Syrian hamsters with different forms of the chronic TBE were studied. The process characterized by chronic focal inflammatory-degenerative changes in the brains of hamsters without the disturbance of motor functions was associated with persistence of different kinds of virus-specific antigens without virulent virus production. Brain explants of this group of hamsters yielded a virus with cytopathogenic properties but not pathogenic for mice. In a chronic disease developing without the initial acute period, a virus was recovered from hamsters which proved to be virulent for mice and to possess the hemagglutinating and high invasive activity. The most virulent strain was isolated from monkeys with continuously progressive chronic encephalitis with steady paralysis of the extremities. This isolate differed from the parental Vasilchenko strain by a high pathogenicity for hamsters by intracerebral and subcutaneous routes, and thermostability at 50 degrees C.

  15. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  16. Sequence relationships between the genome and the intracellular RNA species 1,3,6 and 7 of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Spaan, W.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der

    1982-01-01

    We have shown by T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting that the genome of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 and its intracellular RNA 1 have identical fingerprints and that RNA 1 and the subgenomic RNAs 3, 6, and 7 contain common sequences. To localize the homologous region between the RNAs, we compared

  17. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  18. Recovery of avirulent, thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain NDV4-C from cloned cDNA and stable expression of an inserted foreign gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Zhao, C.; Kong, X.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse genetics system for thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not currently available. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for the avirulent and thermostable NDV4-C strain. Successful recovery of NDV4-C was achieved by using either T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA

  19. Sequencing of emerging canine distemper virus strain reveals new distinct genetic lineage in the United States associated with disease in wildlife and domestic canine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Matthew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2015-12-18

    Recent outbreaks of canine distemper have prompted examination of strains from clinical samples submitted to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) Clinical Virology Lab. We previously described a new strain of CDV that significantly diverged from all genotypes reported to date including America 2, the genotype proposed to be the main lineage currently circulating in the US. The aim of this study was to determine when this new strain appeared and how widespread it is in animal populations, given that it has also been detected in fully vaccinated adult dogs. Additionally, we sequenced complete viral genomes to characterize the strain and determine if variation is confined to known variable regions of the genome or if the changes are also present in more conserved regions. Archived clinical samples were genotyped using real-time RT-PCR amplification and sequencing. The genomes of two unrelated viruses from a dog and fox each from a different state were sequenced and aligned with previously published genomes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using coding, non-coding and genome-length sequences. Virus neutralization assays were used to evaluate potential antigenic differences between this strain and a vaccine strain and mixed ANOVA test was used to compare the titers. Genotyping revealed this strain first appeared in 2011 and was detected in dogs from multiple states in the Southeast region of the United States. It was the main strain detected among the clinical samples that were typed from 2011-2013, including wildlife submissions. Genome sequencing demonstrated that it is highly conserved within a new lineage and preliminary serologic testing showed significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers between this strain and the strain commonly used in vaccines. This new strain represents an emerging CDV in domestic dogs in the US, may be associated with a stable reservoir in the wildlife population, and could facilitate vaccine

  20. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  1. A new human male diploid cell strain, TIG-7: its age-related changes and comparison with a matched female TIG-1 cell strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kaji, K; Kondo, H; Matsuo, M; Shibata, Y; Tasaki, Y; Utakoji, T; Ooka, H

    1991-01-01

    A new human diploid cell strain, TIG-7, which has the male karyotype, was established and characterized. Isozyme and histocompatibility typing of the cell strain was performed. The average in vitro life span of the cells is 73 population doublings. Changes in cell volume, doubling time, saturation density, the efficiency of cell attachment, plating efficiency, and relative DNA content were examined during in vitro cellular aging. Hydrocortisone slightly prolongs the life span of the cell strain when the hormone is administered to the cultures during middle passages. The age-related changes in the parameters of TIG-7 are not appreciably different from those of the previously established TIG-1 cell strain. These results show that this cell strain is useful for research on cellular aging; further profit is anticipated from research using a combination of these two sexually different cell strains.

  2. A Real-Time PCR Assay to Identify and Discriminate Among Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Varicella-Zoster Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus in Clinical Specimens, and Comparison With the Clinical Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbecke, Ruth; Oxman, Michael N.; Arnold, Beth A.; Ip, Charlotte; Johnson, Gary R.; Levin, Myron J.; Gelb, Lawrence D.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Straus, Stephen E.; Wang, Hui; Wright, Peter F.; Pachucki, Constance T.; Gershon, Anne A.; Arbeit, Robert D.; Davis, Larry E.; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Weinberg, Adriana; Williams, Heather M.; Cheney, Carol; Petrukhin, Luba; Abraham, Katalin G.; Shaw, Alan; Manoff, Susan; Antonello, Joseph M.; Green, Tina; Wang, Yue; Tan, Charles; Keller, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed to identify varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in clinical specimens from subjects with suspected herpes zoster (HZ; shingles). Three sets of primers and probes were used in separate PCR reactions to detect and discriminate among wild-type VZV (VZV-WT), Oka vaccine strain VZV (VZV-Oka), and HSV DNA, and the reaction for each virus DNA was multiplexed with primers and probe specific for the human β-globin gene to assess specimen adequacy. Discrimination of all VZV-WT strains, including Japanese isolates and the Oka parent strain, from VZV-Oka was based upon a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 106262 in ORF 62, resulting in preferential amplification by the homologous primer pair. The assay was highly sensitive and specific for the target virus DNA, and no cross-reactions were detected with any other infectious agent. With the PCR assay as the gold standard, the sensitivity of virus culture was 53% for VZV and 77% for HSV. There was 92% agreement between the clinical diagnosis of HZ by the Clinical Evaluation Committee and the PCR assay results. PMID:19475609

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain KOS carries a defective US9 and a mutated US8A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negatsch, Alexandra; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The membrane protein encoded by the US9 gene of alphaherpesviruses plays an important role during virion assembly and transport in neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KOS, due to base substitutions, the predicted TATA-box of US9 is mutated, and a premature stop is present at codon 58 of US9, which contains 91 codons in other HSV-1 strains. The TATA-box mutation also removes the native stop codon of the adjacent US8A gene, leading to extension of the coding region from 160 to 191 codons. Northern blot analyses revealed reduced transcription of US9 in cells infected with HSV-1 KOS. Moreover, a US9-specific antiserum did not detect any gene products in Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses of KOS-infected cells, indicating that the truncated protein is not stable. In contrast, Western blot reactions of a pUS8A-specific antiserum confirmed enlargement of this protein in HSV-1 KOS.

  4. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C; Neill, John D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; McGill, Jodi L; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-01

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.

  5. Genetic diversity and distribution of a distinct strain of Chili leaf curl virus and associated betasatellite infecting tomato and pepper in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Zaidi, Amal M; Singh, Achuit K; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-10-01

    Tomato and pepper are widely grown in Oman for local consumption. A countrywide survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to collect samples and assess the diversity of begomoviruses associated with leaf curl disease of tomato and pepper. A virus previously only identified on the Indian subcontinent, chili leaf curl virus (ChLCV), was found associated with tomato and pepper diseases in all vegetable grown areas of Oman. Some of the infected plant samples were also found to contain a betasatellite. A total of 19 potentially full-length begomovirus and eight betasatellite clones were sequenced. The begomovirus clones showed >96% nucleotide sequence identity, showing them to represent a single species. Comparisons to sequences available in the databases showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (88.0-91.1%) to isolates of the "Pakistan" strain of ChLCV (ChLCV-PK), indicating the virus from Oman to be a distinct strain, for which the name Oman strain (ChLCV-OM) is proposed. An analysis for recombination showed ChLCV-OM likely to have originated by recombination between ChLCV-PK (the major parent), pepper leaf curl Lahore virus and a third strain of ChLCV. The betasatellite sequences obtained were shown to have high levels of identity to isolates of tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB) previous shown to be present in Oman. For the disease in tomato Koch's postulates were satisfied by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of virus and betasatellites clones. This showed the symptoms induced by the virus in the presence of the betasatellite to be enhanced, although viral DNA levels were not affected. ChLCV-OM is the fourth begomovirus identified in tomato in Oman and the first in Capsicum. The significance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathogenicity evaluation of twelve West Nile virus strains belonging to four lineages from five continents in a mouse model: discrimination between three pathogenicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Del Amo, Javier; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Lubisi, Alison; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2017-04-01

    Rodent models have been used extensively to study West Nile virus (WNV) infection because they develop severe neurological symptoms similar to those observed in human WNV neuroinvasive disease. Most of this research has focused on old lineage (L) 1 strains, while information about pathogenicity is lacking for the most recent L1 and L2 strains, as well as for newly defined lineages. In this study, 4-week-old Swiss mice were inoculated with a collection of 12 WNV isolates, comprising 10 old and recent L1 and L2 strains, the putative L6 strain from Malaysia and the proposed L7 strain Koutango (KOU). The intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-fold dilutions of each strain allowed the characterization of the isolates in terms of LD50, median survival times, ID50, replication in neural and extraneural tissues and antibody production. Based on these results, we classified the isolates in three groups: high virulence (all L1a strains, recent L2 strains and KOU), moderate virulence (B956 strain) and low virulence (Kunjin and Malaysian isolates). We determined that the inoculation of a single dose of 1000 p.f.u. would be sufficient to classify WNV strains by pathotype. We confirmed the enhanced virulence of the KOU strain with a high capacity to cause rapid systemic infection. We also corroborated that differences in pathogenicity among strains do not correlate with phylogenetic lineage or geographic origin, and confirmed that recent European and African WNV strains belonging to L1 and L2 are highly virulent and do not differ in their pathotype profile compared to the prototype NY99 strain.

  7. Co-infection of Sweet Orange with Severe and Mild Strains of Citrus tristeza virus Is Overwhelmingly Dominated by the Severe Strain on Both the Transcriptional and Biological Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out. Four hundred and eleven transcripts were up-regulated and 356 transcripts were down-regulated prior to the onset of symptoms. Repressed genes were overwhelmingly associated with photosynthesis, and carbon and nucleic acid metabolism. Expression of genes related to the glycolytic, oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathways, tetrapyrrole synthesis, redox homeostasis, nucleotide metabolism, protein synthesis and post translational protein modification and folding, and cell organization were all reduced. Ribosomal composition was also greatly altered in response to infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6. Genes that were induced were related to cell wall structure, secondary and hormone metabolism, responses to biotic stress, regulation of transcription, signaling, and secondary metabolism. Transport systems dedicated to metal ions were especially disturbed and ZIPs (Zinc Transporter Precursors showed different expression patterns in response to co-infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6 and single infection by CTV-B2. Host plants experienced root decline that may have contributed to Zn, Fe, and other nutrient deficiencies. Though defense responses, such as, strengthening of the cell wall, alteration of hormone metabolism, secondary metabolites, and signaling pathways, were activated, these defense responses did not suppress the spread of the pathogens

  8. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  9. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20433759

  10. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  11. Chimaeric Virus-Like Particles Derived from Consensus Genome Sequences of Human Rotavirus Strains Co-Circulating in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C.; O'Neill, Hester G.; Potgieter, A. Christiaan; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) are potential alternative non-live vaccine candidates due to their high immunogenicity. They mimic the natural conformation of native viral proteins but cannot replicate because they do not contain genomic material which makes them safe. To date, most RV-VLPs have been derived from cell culture adapted strains or common G1 and G3 rotaviruses that have been circulating in communities for some time. In this study, chimaeric RV-VLPs were generated from the consensus sequences of African rotaviruses (G2, G8, G9 or G12 strains associated with either P[4], P[6] or P[8] genotypes) characterised directly from human stool samples without prior adaptation of the wild type strains to cell culture. Codon-optimised sequences for insect cell expression of genome segments 2 (VP2), 4 (VP4), 6 (VP6) and 9 (VP7) were cloned into a modified pFASTBAC vector, which allowed simultaneous expression of up to four genes using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System (BEVS; Invitrogen). Several combinations of the genome segments originating from different field strains were cloned to produce double-layered RV-VLPs (dRV-VLP; VP2/6), triple-layered RV-VLPs (tRV-VLP; VP2/6/7 or VP2/6/7/4) and chimaeric tRV-VLPs. The RV-VLPs were produced by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda 9 and Trichoplusia ni cells with recombinant baculoviruses using multi-cistronic, dual co-infection and stepwise-infection expression strategies. The size and morphology of the RV-VLPs, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, revealed successful production of RV-VLPs. The novel approach of producing tRV-VLPs, by using the consensus insect cell codon-optimised nucleotide sequence derived from dsRNA extracted directly from clinical specimens, should speed-up vaccine research and development by by-passing the need to adapt rotaviruses to cell culture. Other problems associated with cell culture adaptation, such as possible changes in epitopes, can also be circumvented

  12. Complete genome sequence of a novel H9N2 subtype influenza virus FJG9 strain in China reveals a natural reassortant event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Yan, Zhuanqiang; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Huanmin; Liu, Jun; Sun, Yue; Li, Guangwei; Chen, Feng; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Bee, Yingzuo

    2012-09-01

    A/chicken/FJ/G9/09 (FJ/G9) is an H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) strain causing high morbidity that was isolated from broilers in Fujian Province of China in 2009. FJ/G9 has been used as the vaccine strain against H9N2 AIV infection in Fujian Province of China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of FJ/G9 with natural six-way reassortment, which is the most complex genotype strain in China and even in the world so far. The present findings will aid in understanding the complexity and diversity of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus.

  13. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  14. Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, K; Sonoda, S; Higashi, K; Kondo, T; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, M; Yamanishi, K

    1989-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-related virus was isolated from CD4+ CD8- and CD3+ CD4+ mature T lymphocytes but could not be isolated from CD4- CD8+, CD4- CD8-, and CD3- T cells in the peripheral blood of exanthem subitum patients. HHV-6-related virus predominantly infected CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8-, and CD3+ CD4+ cells with mature phenotypes and rarely infected CD4- CD8+ cells from cord blood mononuclear cells, which suggested predominant CD4 mature T-lymphocyte tropism of HHV-6-related virus.

  15. Genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus A strains circulating in Ontario: a novel genotype with a 72 nucleotide G gene duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshaghi

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the main cause of acute lower respiratory infections in children under 2 years of age and causes repeated infections throughout life. We investigated the genetic variability of RSV-A circulating in Ontario during 2010-2011 winter season by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the G glycoprotein gene.Among the 201 consecutive RSV isolates studied, RSV-A (55.7% was more commonly observed than RSV-B (42.3%. 59.8% and 90.1% of RSV-A infections were among children ≤12 months and ≤5 years old, respectively. On phylogenetic analysis of the second hypervariable region of the 112 RSV-A strains, 110 (98.2% clustered within or adjacent to the NA1 genotype; two isolates were GA5 genotype. Eleven (10% NA1-related isolates clustered together phylogenetically as a novel RSV-A genotype, named ON1, containing a 72 nucleotide duplication in the C-terminal region of the attachment (G glycoprotein. The predicted polypeptide is lengthened by 24 amino acids and includes a23 amino acid duplication. Using RNA secondary structural software, a possible mechanism of duplication occurrence was derived. The 23 amino acid ON1 G gene duplication results in a repeat of 7 potential O-glycosylation sites including three O-linked sugar acceptors at residues 270, 275, and 283. Using Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood analysis, a total of 19 positively selected sites were observed among Ontario NA1 isolates; six were found to be codons which reverted to the previous state observed in the prototype RSV-A2 strain. The tendency of codon regression in the G-ectodomain may infer a decreased avidity of antibody to the current circulating strains. Further work is needed to document and further understand the emergence, virulence, pathogenicity and transmissibility of this novel RSV-A genotype with a72 nucleotide G gene duplication.

  16. Divergent strains of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) within the Cosmopolitan subtype in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Maria E; Dilernia, Dario A; Berini, Carolina A; Jones, Leandro R; Pando, Maria A; Biglione, Mirna M

    2008-10-01

    HTLV-1 Cosmopolitan subtype Transcontinental subgroup A has been described among aboriginal communities from the northwest endemic area of Argentina. Moreover, Transcontinental subgroup A and the Japanese subgroup B were reported among blood donors from the nonendemic central region of the country. We carried out the first HTLV-1 phylogenetic study in individuals residing in Buenos Aires capital city. Phylogenetic analysis performed on the LTR region showed that all 44 new strains clustered within the Cosmopolitan subtype, with 42 (95.4%) belonging to Transcontinental subgroup A. Of them, 20 (45.5%) strains grouped in the large Latin American cluster and 4 (9.1%) in the small Latin American cluster. The majority of them belonged to individuals of nonblack origin, grouped with Amerindian strains. Three (6.8%) were closely related to South African references and two monophyletic clusters including only HIV/HTLV-1 coinfected individuals were observed. Interestingly, two (4.5%) new sequences (divergent strains) branched off from all five known Cosmopolitan subgroups in a well-supported clade. In summary, these findings show that HTLV-1 Cosmopolitan subtype Transcontinental subgroup A is infecting residents of Buenos Aires, a nonendemic area of Argentina, and confirm the introduction of divergent strains in the country.

  17. Founder virus population related to route of virus transmission: a determinant of intrahost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.

    1997-01-01

    We and others have shown that in individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the adaptive evolution of HIV-1 is influenced by host immune competence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in addition to selective forces operating within the host, transmission bottlenecks

  18. Virus detection and cytokine profile in relation to age among acute exacerbations of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Little information is available regarding eosinophil activation and cytokine profiles in relation to age in virus-induced bronchial asthma. We therefore explored the association between age, respiratory viruses, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and cytokines/chemokines in acute exacerbations of childhood asthma. We investigated viruses in nasal secretions from 88 patients with acute exacerbation of childhood asthma by using antigen detection kits and/or RT-PCR, followed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. We also measured peripheral eosinophil counts, and the serum levels of ECP and 27 types of cytokines/chemokines in 71 virus-induced acute asthma cases and 13 controls. Viruses were detected in 71(80.7%) of the 88 samples. The three major viruses detected were rhinoviruses, RS viruses, and enteroviruses; enteroviruses were found to be dominant in patients aged ≥3 years. There was no change in the levels of rhinoviruses and RS viruses between the two age groups, defined as children aged asthma cases compared with controls. Serum ECP values were significantly higher in patients with virus-induced asthma at age ≥3 years compared with those aged asthma in patients childhood asthma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Aygul; Yılmaz, Cevriye; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Yavan, Tülay; Kılıç, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems. Cervical cancer is an important cause of mortality, making up approximately 12% of all cancers in women. Awareness on the part of carriers of human papilloma virus is crucial in preventing transmission of the infection and protecting against cervical cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study consists of 79 human papilloma virus-positive women who had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer and 150 women who had not been diagnosed with human papilloma virus. Data were collected via questionnaires between November 2007 and April 2008. Percentages and chi-square test were used. A significantly higher percentage of women with positive human papilloma virus knew the definition of human papilloma virus, the fact that it is transmitted via sexual contact and that it can lead to cervical cancer than did women with negative human papilloma virus. It was established that approximately half the women with positive human papilloma virus presented at the hospital with a genital wart. None of the women knew that a Pap smear test was a necessary tool in the prevention of cervical cancer. Women with positive human papilloma virus have insufficient knowledge of human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted diseases, the health risks associated with human papilloma virus and the means of preventing these risks. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the education of health workers, and especially of nurses, on human papilloma virus and its prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Lethal influenza virus infection in macaques is associated with early dysregulation of inflammatory related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Cillóniz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous toll on human life during the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic is a constant reminder of the potential lethality of influenza viruses. With the declaration by the World Health Organization of a new H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, and with continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, a better understanding of the host response to highly pathogenic influenza viruses is essential. To this end, we compared pathology and global gene expression profiles in bronchial tissue from macaques infected with either the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Severe pathology was observed in respiratory tissues from 1918 virus-infected animals as early as 12 hours after infection, and pathology steadily increased at later time points. Although tissues from animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04 also showed clear signs of pathology early on, less pathology was observed at later time points, and there was evidence of tissue repair. Global transcriptional profiles revealed that specific groups of genes associated with inflammation and cell death were up-regulated in bronchial tissues from animals infected with the 1918 virus but down-regulated in animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04. Importantly, the 1918 virus up-regulated key components of the inflammasome, NLRP3 and IL-1beta, whereas these genes were down-regulated by A/Vietnam/1203/04 early after infection. TUNEL assays revealed that both viruses elicited an apoptotic response in lungs and bronchi, although the response occurred earlier during 1918 virus infection. Our findings suggest that the severity of disease in 1918 virus-infected macaques is a consequence of the early up-regulation of cell death and inflammatory related genes, in which additive or synergistic effects likely dictate the severity of tissue damage.

  1. Genome Sequence Analysis of New Isolates of the Winona Strain of Plum pox virus and the First Definitive Evidence of Intrastrain Recombination Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delano; Sanderson, Dan; Varga, Aniko; Sheveleva, Anna; Chirkov, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is genetically diverse with nine different strains identified. Mutations, indel events, and interstrain recombination events are known to contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. This is the first report of intrastrain recombination events that contribute to PPV's genetic diversity. Fourteen isolates of the PPV strain Winona (W) were analyzed including nine new strain W isolates sequenced completely in this study. Isolates of other strains of PPV with more than one isolate with the complete genome sequence available in GenBank were included also in this study for comparison and analysis. Five intrastrain recombination events were detected among the PPV W isolates, one among PPV C strain isolates, and one among PPV M strain isolates. Four (29%) of the PPV W isolates analyzed are recombinants; one of which (P2-1) is a mosaic, with three recombination events identified. A new interstrain recombinant event was identified between a strain M isolate and a strain Rec isolate, a known recombinant. In silico recombination studies and pairwise distance analyses of PPV strain D isolates indicate that a threshold of genetic diversity exists for the detectability of recombination events, in the range of approximately 0.78×10(-2) to 1.33×10(-2) mean pairwise distance. RDP4 analyses indicate that in the case of PPV Rec isolates there may be a recombinant breakpoint distinct from the obvious transition point of strain sequences. Evidence was obtained that indicates that the frequency of PPV recombination is underestimated, which may be true for other RNA viruses where low genetic diversity exists.

  2. Genetic and antigenic relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates with the vaccine strain O1/BFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Zhang, Zhidong; Nfon, Charles; Yang, Ming

    2018-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease serotype O viruses (FMDV/O) are responsible for the most outbreaks in FMD endemic countries. O1/BFS is one of the recommended FMD/O vaccine strains by World Reference Laboratory for FMD. In the current study, FMDV/O1 BFS vaccine strain and serotype O field isolates (45) were analyzed phylogenetically and antigenically to gain more insight into the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the vaccine strain and field isolates. O1/BFS showed similarity with 89% of the field isolates using a virus neutralization test (VNT). The P1 region encoding the FMDV capsid was sequenced and analysed for 46 strains of FMDV/O. Phylogenetic analysis showed these viruses originated from five continents and covered eight of 11 reported topotypes. Five isolates that demonstrated low antigenic similarities with O1/BFS were analyzed for their antigenic variation at the known neutralizing antigenic sites. Three of the five isolates demonstrated unique amino acid substitutions at various antigenic sites. No unique amino acid substitutions were observed for the other two unmatched isolates. Positively selected residues were identified on the surface of the FMD virus capsid supporting that it is important to continuously monitor field isolates for their antigenic and phenotypic changes. In conclusion, the vaccine strain O1/BFS is likely to confer protection against 89% of the 45 FMDV/O isolates based on VNT. Thus O1/BFS vaccine strain is still suitable for use in global FMD serotype O outbreak control. Combining data from phylogenetic, molecular and antigenic analysis can provide improvements in the process of vaccine selection. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eradication of hepatitis C virus and non-liver-related non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related events in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rodríguez-Castellano, Elena; Carrero, Ana; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Montero, Marta; Galindo, María J; Mallolas, Josep; Crespo, Manuel; Téllez, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Sanz, José; Barros, Carlos; Tural, Cristina; Santos, Ignacio; Pulido, Federico; Guardiola, Josep M; Rubio, Rafael; Ortega, Enrique; Montes, María L; Jusdado, Juan J; Gaspar, Gabriel; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We assessed non-liver-related non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and nonresponders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted subhazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk. The NLR-NAR events analyzed included diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular events, NLR-NAR cancer, bone events, and non-AIDS-related infections. The variables for adjustment were age, sex, past AIDS, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4 + T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA, liver fibrosis, HCV genotype, and exposure to specific anti-HIV drugs. Of the 1,625 patients included, 592 (36%) had a sustained viral response (SVR). After a median 5-year follow-up, SVR was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the hazard of diabetes mellitus (sHR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93; P = 0.024) and decline in the hazard of chronic renal failure close to the threshold of significance (sHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.09; P = 0.075). Our data suggest that eradication of HCV in coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in the frequency of death, HIV progression, and liver-related events, but also with a reduced hazard of diabetes mellitus and possibly of chronic renal failure. These findings argue for the prescription of HCV therapy in coinfected patients regardless of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2017;66:344-356). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of sweet orange trees co-infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and mild or severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Paul, Cristina; Zhou, Changyong; Hartung, John S

    2017-10-31

    Citrus worldwide is threatened by huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza diseases caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas) and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Although the pathogens are members of the α-proteobacteria and Closteroviridae, respectively, both are restricted to phloem cells in infected citrus and are transmitted by insect vectors. The response of sweet orange to single infection by either of these two pathogens has been characterized previously by global gene expression analysis. But because of the ubiquity of these pathogens where the diseases occur, co-infection by both pathogens is very common and could lead to increased disease severity based on synergism. We therefore co-inoculated sweet orange trees with CaLas and either a mild or a severe strain of CTV, and measured changes of gene expression in host plants. In plants infected with CaLas-B232, the overall alteration in gene expression was much greater in plants co-inoculated with the severe strain of CTV, B6, than when co-infected with the mild strain of CTV, B2. Plants co-infected with CaLas-B232 and either strain of CTV died but trees co-infected with CTV-B2 survived much longer than those co-infected with CTV-B6. Many important pathways were perturbed by both CTV-B2/CaLas-B232 and/or CTV-B6/CaLas-B232, but always more severely by CTV-B6/CaLas-B232. Genes related to cell wall modification and metal transport responded differently to infection by the pathogens in combination than by the same pathogens singly. The expressions of genes encoding phloem proteins and sucrose loading proteins were also differentially altered in response to CTV-B2 or CTV-B6 in combination with CaLas-B232, leading to different phloem environments in plants co-infected by CaLas and mild or severe CTV. Many host genes were expressed differently in response to dual infection as compared to single infections with the same pathogens. Interactions of the pathogens within the host may lead to a better or worse result

  6. Mutation of a Nicotiana tabacum L. eukaryotic translation-initiation factor gene reduces susceptibility to a resistance-breaking strain of Potato Virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Udagawa, Hisashi; Shinjo, Akira; Koga, Kazuharu

    2018-04-06

    Eukaryotic translation-initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E in plants play key roles in infection by potyviruses and other plant RNA viruses. Mutations in the genes encoding these factors reduce susceptibility to the viruses, and are the basis of several recessive virus-resistance genes widely used in plant breeding. Because virus variants occasionally break such resistance, the molecular basis for this process must be elucidated. Although deletion mutants of eIF4E1-S of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resist Potato virus Y (PVY; the type member of the genus Potyvirus), resistance-breaking strains of PVY threaten tobacco production worldwide. Here, we used RNA interference technology to knock down tobacco eIF4E2-S and eIF4E2-T genes or eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T genes. Transgenic plants with reduced transcript levels of both eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T showed reduced susceptibility to a resistance-breaking PVY strain with a K105E mutation in the viral genome-associated protein (VPg). By screening a population of chemically-induced mutants of eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T, we showed that plants with a nonsense mutation in eIF(iso)4E-T, but not eIF(iso)4E-S, showed reduced susceptibility to the resistance-breaking PVY strain. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, VPg of the resistance-breaking strain, but not wild-type PVY, physically interacted with the eIF(iso)4E-T protein. Thus, eIF4E1-S is required for infection by PVY, but eIF(iso)4E-T is required for infection by the resistance-breaking strain. Our study provides the first evidence for the involvement of a host eukaryotic translation-initiation factor in the infection cycle of a resistance-breaking virus strain. The eIF(iso)4E-T mutants will be useful in tobacco breeding to introduce resistance against resistance-breaking PVY strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens

  8. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  9. Combination of Vaccine-Strain Measles and Mumps Viruses Enhances Oncolytic Activity against Human Solid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho Anh; Zhang, LiFeng; Cuong, Bui Khac; Van Tong, Hoang; Cuong, Le Duy; Hang, Ngo Thu; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Yamamoto, Naoki; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2018-02-07

    Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, MM combination significantly improves the treatment of human solid malignancies.

  10. Health Disparity in Human Papilloma Virus Related Infections | Poku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the volume of information of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines, there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HPV infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines. The study was ...

  11. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  12. A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Cai, Guiqin; Lin, Qiying; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2010-01-01

    Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria. PMID:21079776

  13. A bacteriophage-related chimeric marine virus infecting abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhuang

    Full Text Available Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin. The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.

  14. Isolation and characterization of highly replicable hepatitis C virus genotype 1a strain HCV-RMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masaaki; Tokunaga, Yuko; Takagi, Asako; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hirata, Yuichi; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genotype 1a clones have been reported, including the very first hepatitis C virus (HCV) clone called H77. The replication ability of some of these clones has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, although this ability is somehow compromised. We now report a newly isolated genotype 1a clone, designated HCV-RMT, which has the ability to replicate efficiently in patients, chimeric mice with humanized liver, and cultured cells. An authentic subgenomic replicon cell line was established from the HCV-RMT sequence with spontaneous introduction of three adaptive mutations, which were later confirmed to be responsible for efficient replication in HuH-7 cells as both subgenomic replicon RNA and viral genome RNA. Following transfection, the HCV-RMT RNA genome with three adaptive mutations was maintained for more than 2 months in HuH-7 cells. One clone selected from the transfected cells had a high copy number, and its supernatant could infect naïve HuH-7 cells. Direct injection of wild-type HCV-RMT RNA into the liver of chimeric mice with humanized liver resulted in vigorous replication, similar to inoculation with the parental patient's serum. A study of virus replication using HCV-RMT derivatives with various combinations of adaptive mutations revealed a clear inversely proportional relationship between in vitro and in vivo replication abilities. Thus, we suggest that HCV-RMT and its derivatives are important tools for HCV genotype 1a research and for determining the mechanism of HCV replication in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Isolation and characterization of highly replicable hepatitis C virus genotype 1a strain HCV-RMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Arai

    Full Text Available Multiple genotype 1a clones have been reported, including the very first hepatitis C virus (HCV clone called H77. The replication ability of some of these clones has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, although this ability is somehow compromised. We now report a newly isolated genotype 1a clone, designated HCV-RMT, which has the ability to replicate efficiently in patients, chimeric mice with humanized liver, and cultured cells. An authentic subgenomic replicon cell line was established from the HCV-RMT sequence with spontaneous introduction of three adaptive mutations, which were later confirmed to be responsible for efficient replication in HuH-7 cells as both subgenomic replicon RNA and viral genome RNA. Following transfection, the HCV-RMT RNA genome with three adaptive mutations was maintained for more than 2 months in HuH-7 cells. One clone selected from the transfected cells had a high copy number, and its supernatant could infect naïve HuH-7 cells. Direct injection of wild-type HCV-RMT RNA into the liver of chimeric mice with humanized liver resulted in vigorous replication, similar to inoculation with the parental patient's serum. A study of virus replication using HCV-RMT derivatives with various combinations of adaptive mutations revealed a clear inversely proportional relationship between in vitro and in vivo replication abilities. Thus, we suggest that HCV-RMT and its derivatives are important tools for HCV genotype 1a research and for determining the mechanism of HCV replication in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Detection by hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genetic characterization of wild type strains of Canine distemper virus in suspected infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Cristina E; Di Francesco, Daniela; Di Martino, Barbara; Speranza, Roberto; Santori, Domenico; Boari, Andrea; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    A new highly sensitive and specific hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was applied to detect nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Canine distemper virus (CDV) in samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological signs. Thirty-eight out of 86 samples were positive suggesting that despite the vaccination, canine distemper may still represent a high risk to the canine population. The 968 base pair (bp) fragments from the hemagglutinin (H) gene of 10 viral strains detected in positive samples were amplified and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using AluI and PsiI enzymes in order to differentiate among vaccine and wild-type CDV strains and to characterize the field viral strains. The products of the both enzymatic digestions allowed identification all viruses as wild strains of CDV. In addition, the RFLP analysis with AluI provided additional information about the identity level among the strains analyzed on the basis of the positions of the cleavage site in the nucleotide sequences of the H gene. The method could be a more useful and simpler method for molecular studies of CDV strains.

  17. Structural defect linked to nonrandom mutations in the matrix gene of Biden strain subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus defined by cDNA cloning and expression of chimeric genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayata, M.; Hirano, A.; Wong, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Biken strain, a nonproductive measles viruslike agent isolated from a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patient, contains a posttranscriptional defect affecting matrix (M) protein. A putative M protein was translated in vitro with RNA from Biken strain-infected cells. A similar protein was detected in vivo by an antiserum against a peptide synthesized from the cloned M gene of Edmonston strain measles virus. By using a novel method, full-length cDNAs of the Biken M gene were selectively cloned. The cloned Biken M gene contained an open reading frame which encoded 8 extra carboxy-terminal amino acid residues and 20 amino acid substitutions predicted to affect both the hydrophobicity and secondary structure of the gene product. The cloned gene was expressed in vitro and in vivo into a 37,500 M r protein electrophoretically and antigenically distinct from the M protein of Edmonston strain but identical to the M protein in Biken strain-infected cells. Chimeric M proteins synthesized in vitro and in vivo showed that the mutations in the carboxy-proximal region altered the local antigenicity and those in the amino region affected the overall protein conformation. The protein expressed from the Biken M gene was unstable in vivo. Instability was attributed to multiple mutations. These results offer insights into the basis of the defect in Biken strain and pose intriguing questions about the evolutionary origins of SSPE viruses in general

  18. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almajhdi Fahad N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

  19. High level of Bcl-2 counteracts apoptosis mediated by a live rabies virus vaccine strain and induces long-term infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Lafage, Mireille; Yuste, Victor J.; Baloul, Leiela; Edelman, Lena; Kroemer, Guido; Israel, Nicole; Susin, Santos A.; Lafon, Monique

    2003-01-01

    We report here that rabies virus strains, currently used to immunize wildlife against rabies, induce not only caspase-dependent apoptosis in the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cell line (Jurkat-vect), but also a caspase-independent pathway involving the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In contrast, a strain of neurotropic RV that does not induce apoptosis did not activate caspases or induce AIF translocation. Bcl-2 overproduction in Jurkat T cells (Jurkat-Bcl-2) abolished both pathways. ERA infection and production were similar in Jurkat-vect and Jurkat-Bcl-2 cells, indicating Bcl-2 has no direct antiviral effects. Bcl-2 production is naturally upregulated by day 3 in ERA-infected Jurkat-vect cultures. The increase in Bcl-2 levels seems to be controlled by the virus infection itself and results in the establishment of long-term, persistently infected cultures that continue to produce virus. Thus, in infections with live RV vaccine strains, infected cells may be productive reservoirs of virus in the long term. This may account for the high efficacy of live rabies vaccines

  20. Differential interactions of virulent and non-virulent H. parasuis strains with naïve or swine influenza virus pre-infected dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussá, Tufária; Rodríguez-Cariño, Carolina; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Fraile, Lorenzo; Domínguez, Javier; Aragon, Virginia; Montoya, María

    2012-11-16

    Pigs possess a microbiota in the upper respiratory tract that includes Haemophilus parasuis. Pigs are also considered the reservoir of influenza viruses and infection with this virus commonly results in increased impact of bacterial infections, including those by H. parasuis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate responses towards H. parasuis and their implications in a co-infection with influenza virus are unknown. Therefore, the ability of a non-virulent H. parasuis serovar 3 (SW114) and a virulent serovar 5 (Nagasaki) strains to interact with porcine bone marrow dendritic cells (poBMDC) and their modulation in a co-infection with swine influenza virus (SwIV) H3N2 was examined. At 1 hour post infection (hpi), SW114 interaction with poBMDC was higher than that of Nagasaki, while at 8 hpi both strains showed similar levels of interaction. The co-infection with H3N2 SwIV and either SW114 or Nagasaki induced higher levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 compared to mock or H3N2 SwIV infection alone. Moreover, IL-12 and IFN-α secretion differentially increased in cells co-infected with H3N2 SwIV and Nagasaki. These results pave the way for understanding the differences in the interaction of non-virulent and virulent strains of H. parasuis with the swine immune system and their modulation in a viral co-infection.

  1. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  2. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  3. Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Reduces Inflammation and Facilitates Establishment of Cross-Strain Protective T Cell Memory to Influenza Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola L Bird

    Full Text Available CD8(+ T cells directed against conserved viral regions elicit broad immunity against distinct influenza viruses, promote rapid virus elimination and enhanced host recovery. The influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, is prescribed for therapy and prophylaxis, although it remains unclear how the drug impacts disease severity and establishment of effector and memory CD8(+ T cell immunity. We dissected the effects of oseltamivir on viral replication, inflammation, acute CD8(+ T cell responses and the establishment of immunological CD8(+ T cell memory. In mice, ferrets and humans, the effect of osteltamivir on viral titre was relatively modest. However, prophylactic oseltamivir treatment in mice markedly reduced morbidity, innate responses, inflammation and, ultimately, the magnitude of effector CD8(+ T cell responses. Importantly, functional memory CD8(+ T cells established during the drug-reduced effector phase were capable of mounting robust recall responses. Moreover, influenza-specific memory CD4(+ T cells could be also recalled after the secondary challenge, while the antibody levels were unaffected. This provides evidence that long-term memory T cells can be generated during an oseltamivir-interrupted infection. The anti-inflammatory effect of oseltamivir was verified in H1N1-infected patients. Thus, in the case of an unpredicted influenza pandemic, while prophylactic oseltamivir treatment can reduce disease severity, the capacity to generate memory CD8(+ T cells specific for the newly emerged virus is uncompromised. This could prove especially important for any new influenza pandemic which often occurs in separate waves.

  4. Pathological lesions in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of ddY mice with street rabies virus (1088 strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Yamada, Kentaro; Shiwa, Nozomi; Inoue, Satoshi; Nishizono, Akira; Park, Chun-Ho

    2017-06-10

    Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10 6 focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis. Axonal degeneration and inflammatory cells increased with infection progress in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia. Right hindlimb paralysis was observed from 7 DPI, which progressed to quadriparalysis. However, no pathological changes were observed in the ventral horn and root fibers of the spinal cord. Viral antigen was first detected in the right hindlimb muscle at 3 DPI, followed by the right lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, dorsal horn of spinal cord, left red nuclei, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex (M1 area) at 5 DPI. These results suggested that the 1088 virus ascended the lumbosacral spinal cord via mainly afferent fibers at early stage of infection and moved to cerebral cortex (M1 area) using descending spinal tract. Additionally, we concluded that significant pathological changes in mice infected with 1088 strain occur in the sensory tract of the spinal cord; this selective susceptibility results in clinical features of the disease.

  5. wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Huat Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika (ZIKV and Chikungunya (CHIKV viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV, Chikungunya (CHIKV, and Yellow Fever (YFV viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background was able to limit ZIKV and CHIKV infection in the mosquito.Five to seven-day old mosquitoes either infected or uninfected with wMel Wolbachia were orally infected with a Ugandan strain of ZIKV and several outbreak strains of CHIKV. The midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were sampled at days 6, 9 and 13 days post infectious blood meal to determine midgut infection and salivary glands dissemination rates, respectively. In general, all wild type Ae. aegypti were found to have high ZIKV and CHIKV infections in their midguts and salivary glands, across all sampling days, compared to Wolbachia infected counterparts. Median viral titre for all viruses in Wolbachia infected mosquitoes were significantly lower across all time points when compared to wild type mosquitoes. Most significantly, all but two and one of the wMel infected mosquitoes had no detectable ZIKV and CHIKV, respectively, in their salivary glands at 14 days post-infectious blood meal.Our results showed that wMel limits both ZIKV and CHIKV infection when introgressed into a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background. These results also strongly suggest that female Aedes aegypti carrying Wolbachia will have a reduced capacity to transmit ZIKV and CHIKV.

  6. Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cloning and Functional Characterization of Gastric Cancer-Derived Epstein-Barr Virus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Teru; Furuse, Yuki; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-05-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to approximately 10% of gastric cancers, in which viral genomes are maintained as multicopy episomes. EBV-positive gastric cancer cells are incompetent for progeny virus production, making viral DNA cloning extremely difficult. Here we describe a highly efficient strategy for obtaining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of EBV episomes by utilizing a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strand break of the viral genome and subsequent homology-directed repair. EBV strains maintained in two gastric cancer cell lines (SNU719 and YCCEL1) were cloned, and their complete viral genome sequences were determined. Infectious viruses of gastric cancer cell-derived EBVs were reconstituted, and the viruses established stable latent infections in immortalized keratinocytes. While Ras oncoprotein overexpression caused massive vacuolar degeneration and cell death in control keratinocytes, EBV-infected keratinocytes survived in the presence of Ras expression. These results implicate EBV infection in predisposing epithelial cells to malignant transformation by inducing resistance to oncogene-induced cell death. Recent progress in DNA-sequencing technology has accelerated EBV whole-genome sequencing, and the repertoire of sequenced EBV genomes is increasing progressively. Accordingly, the presence of EBV variant strains that may be relevant to EBV-associated diseases has begun to attract interest. Clearly, the determination of additional disease-associated viral genome sequences will facilitate the identification of any disease-specific EBV variants. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage of EBV episomal DNA enabled the cloning of disease-associated viral strains with unprecedented efficiency. As a proof of concept, two gastric cancer cell-derived EBV strains were cloned, and the infection of epithelial cells with reconstituted viruses provided important clues about the mechanism of EBV-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis. This

  7. Development and characterization of a reverse genetic system for studying dengue virus serotype 3 strain variation and neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Messer

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. There are four genetically distinct serotypes designated DENV-1 through DENV-4, each further subdivided into distinct genotypes. The dengue scientific community has long contended that infection with one serotype confers lifelong protection against subsequent infection with the same serotype, irrespective of virus genotype. However this hypothesis is under increased scrutiny and the role of DENV genotypic variation in protection from repeated infection is less certain. As dengue vaccine trials move increasingly into field-testing, there is an urgent need to develop tools to better define the role of genotypic variation in DENV infection and immunity. To better understand genotypic variation in DENV-3 neutralization and protection, we designed and constructed a panel of isogenic, recombinant DENV-3 infectious clones, each expressing an envelope glycoprotein from a different DENV-3 genotype; Philippines 1982 (genotype I, Thailand 1995 (genotype II, Sri Lanka 1989 and Cuba 2002 (genotype III and Puerto Rico 1977 (genotype IV. We used the panel to explore how natural envelope variation influences DENV-polyclonal serum interactions. When the recombinant viruses were tested in neutralization assays using immune sera from primary DENV infections, neutralization titers varied by as much as ∼19-fold, depending on the expressed envelope glycoprotein. The observed variability in neutralization titers suggests that relatively few residue changes in the E glycoprotein may have significant effects on DENV specific humoral immunity and influence antibody mediated protection or disease enhancement in the setting of both natural infection and vaccination. These genotypic differences are also likely to be important in temporal and spatial microevolution of DENV-3 in the background of heterotypic neutralization. The recombinant and synthetic tools

  8. Chronic hepatitis E infection with an emerging virus strain in a heart transplant recipient successfully treated with ribavirin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jesper; Castedal, Maria; Konar, Jan; Karason, Kristjan; Lagging, Martin; Norder, Helene

    2015-08-26

    During the last decade hepatitis E infections have been recognized as a health problem in high-income countries, where hepatitis E virus genotype 3 is endemic. The infection is often self-limiting, but may develop into chronic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially in solid organ recipients. If these patients or patients with underlying liver disease get hepatitis E infection, they may develop liver failure and cirrhosis. Hepatitis E virus is occasionally found in blood products and transfusion transmission has been reported. We present the first case of chronic hepatitis E infection in a heart transplant recipient in Sweden. A 63-year-old Swedish white man presented with highly elevated liver enzymes 6 months after heart transplantation. Polymerase chain reaction revealed chronic hepatitis E infection, caused by a virus strain found infecting symptomatic cases in Sweden and other European countries. During transplantation, he received blood products from 17 donors, and transfusion transmission is highly likely. The only detectable marker for hepatitis E infection was hepatitis E virus ribonucleic acid for more than 2 months before anti-hepatitis E virus developed. He was treated successfully with ribavirin and decreased immunosuppression. Our patient was probably infected through contaminated blood products and subsequently developed chronic infection, which was cured upon treatment. This highlights the need for evaluating the problem with chronic hepatitis E infection in immunocompromised patients, and for discussion concerning screening of blood products. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods are recommended for diagnosing hepatitis E infection in patients with compromised immunity. In addition, knowledge needs to be gained on the infecting virus strain, which may be more virulent than other strains.

  9. In situ subsoil stress-strain behaviour in relation to soil precompression stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, T; Arvidsson, J; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    is assumed to be elastic and reversible as long as [sigma] work examined soil stress-strain behavior as measured in situ during wheeling experiments and related it to the stress-strain behavior and [sigma]pc measured on soil cores in uniaxial compression tests in the laboratory. The data......Soil compaction negatively influences many important soil functions, including crop growth. Compaction occurs when the applied stress, [sigma], overcomes the soil strength. Soil strength in relation to compaction is typically expressed by the soil precompression stress, [sigma]pc. Deformation...... analyzed were from a large number of wheeling experiments carried out in Sweden and Denmark on soils with a wide range of texture. Contradicting the concept of precompression stress, we observed residual strain, [Latin Small Letter Open E]res, at [sigma

  10. [Construction and rescue of infectious cDNA clone of pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus strain JS/07/04/Pi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Mei; Hu, Zeng-Lei; Song, Qing-Qing; Duan, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Min; Hu, Shun-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Liu, Xiu-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the complete genome sequence of pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus strain JS/07/04/ Pi(genotype VIb), nine overlapped fragments covering its full-length genome were amplified by RT-PCR. The fragments were connected sequentially and then inserted into the transcription vector TVT7/R resulting in the TVT/071204 which contained the full genome of strain JS/07/04/Pi. The TVT/071204 was co-transfected with three helper plasmids pCI-NP, pCI-P and pCI-L into the BSR cells, and the transfected cells and culture supernatant were inoculated into 9-day-old SPF embryonated eggs 60 h post-transfection. The HA and HI tests were conducted following the death of embryonated eggs. The results showed that the allantoic fluids obtained were HA positive and the HA could be inhibited by anti-NDV serum which indicated that the strain JS/07/04/Pi was rescued successfully. The rescued virus rNDV/071204 showed similar growth kinetics to its parental virus in CEF. The successful recovery of this strain would contribute to the understanding of the host-specificity of pigeon-origin NDV and to the development of the novel vaccines against the NDV infection in pigeons.

  11. Safety and vaccine efficacy of a glycoprotein G deficient strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Lee, Sang-Won; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Gilkerson, James R; O'Rourke, Denise; Devlin, Joanne M

    2012-11-26

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated vaccines. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV and a gG deficient strain of ILTV (ΔgG-ILTV) has shown potential for use as a vaccine. In the poultry industry vaccination via drinking water is common, but technology is now available to allow quicker and more accurate in ovo vaccination of embryos at 18 days of incubation. In this study ΔgG-ILTV was delivered to chicken embryos at three different doses (10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) plaque forming units per egg) using manual in ovo vaccination. At 20 days after hatching, birds were challenged intra-tracheally with wild type ILTV and protection was measured. In ovo vaccination was shown to be safe, as there were no developmental differences between birds from hatching up to 20 days of age, as measured by weight gain. The highest dose of vaccine was the most efficacious, resulting in a weight gain not significantly different from unvaccinated/unchallenged birds seven days after challenge. In contrast, birds vaccinated with the lowest dose showed weight gains not significantly different from unvaccinated/challenged birds. Gross pathology and histopathology of the trachea reflected these observations, with birds vaccinated with the highest dose having less severe lesions. However, qPCR results suggested the vaccine did not prevent the challenge virus replicating in the trachea. This study is the first to assess in ovo delivery of a live attenuated ILTV vaccine and shows that in ovo vaccination with ΔgG-ILTV can be both safe and efficacious. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.

    1975-01-01

    A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress-state was developed. A nonlinear elastic, anisotropic stress-strain relation was derived with two moduli of elasticity, E 1 , E 2 and Poisson's ratios, ν 1 , ν 2 , which depend on the prevailing biaxial stress state. The stress-strain relation is valid in the whole biaxial stress field, that means with a smooth transition between the domains of tension/tension, tension/compression and compression/compression. The stress-dependent moduli E 1 , E 2 and the Poisson's ratios ν 1 , ν 2 are approximated by polynomials, trigonometrical and exponential functions. A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test results of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement. It is shown, that the biaxial stress-strain relation can be extended for use in cases of triaxial tension/tension/compression stress state. Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations

  13. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator...... plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations...

  14. Emergence of CD134 cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2)-independent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with disease progression in naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2014-11-28

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is mediated by sequential interactions with CD134 and CXCR4. Field strains of virus vary in their dependence on cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) of CD134 for infection. Here, we analyse the receptor usage of viral variants in the blood of 39 naturally infected cats, revealing that CRD2-dependent viral variants dominate in early infection, evolving towards CRD2-independence with disease progression. These findings are consistent with a shift in CRD2 of CD134 usage with disease progression.

  15. Stress markers in relation to job strain in human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, C G; Söderfeldt, M; Söderfeldt, B; Jones, I; Theorell, T

    2001-01-01

    Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. Employees in two local units of the social insurance organization and two local units of the individual and family care sections of the social welfare in Sweden were selected and 103 employees participated (56% participation rate). The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model. Questions specially designed to measure emotional demands were also included. The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin. The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Marie-Ève

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude, date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75% PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7, 15.0 km (0.04-45.7 and 218 days (0–852, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic description of Sedimenticola selenatireducens strain CUZ, a marine (per)chlorate-respiring gammaproteobacterium, and its close relative the chlorate-respiring Sedimenticola strain NSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Charlotte I; Loutey, Dana E; Wang, Ouwei; Engelbrektson, Anna; Clark, Iain; Lucas, Lauren N; Somasekhar, Pranav Y; Coates, John D

    2015-04-01

    Two (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria, strains CUZ and NSS, were isolated from marine sediments in Berkeley and San Diego, CA, respectively. Strain CUZ respired both perchlorate and chlorate [collectively designated (per)chlorate], while strain NSS respired only chlorate. Phylogenetic analysis classified both strains as close relatives of the gammaproteobacterium Sedimenticola selenatireducens. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations showed the presence of rod-shaped, motile cells containing one polar flagellum. Optimum growth for strain CUZ was observed at 25 to 30 °C, pH 7, and 4% NaCl, while strain NSS grew optimally at 37 to 42 °C, pH 7.5 to 8, and 1.5 to 2.5% NaCl. Both strains oxidized hydrogen, sulfide, various organic acids, and aromatics, such as benzoate and phenylacetate, as electron donors coupled to oxygen, nitrate, and (per)chlorate or chlorate as electron acceptors. The draft genome of strain CUZ carried the requisite (per)chlorate reduction island (PRI) for (per)chlorate respiration, while that of strain NSS carried the composite chlorate reduction transposon responsible for chlorate metabolism. The PRI of strain CUZ encoded a perchlorate reductase (Pcr), which reduced both perchlorate and chlorate, while the genome of strain NSS included a gene for a distinct chlorate reductase (Clr) that reduced only chlorate. When both (per)chlorate and nitrate were present, (per)chlorate was preferentially utilized if the inoculum was pregrown on (per)chlorate. Historically, (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) and chlorate-reducing bacteria (CRB) have been isolated primarily from freshwater, mesophilic environments. This study describes the isolation and characterization of two highly related marine halophiles, one a PRB and the other a CRB, and thus broadens the known phylogenetic and physiological diversity of these unusual metabolisms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  18. Total synthesis and related studies of large, strained, and bioactive natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMA, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins. PMID:27725470

  19. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2017), s. 1606-1618 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : no-tension material * stress-strain relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286515571786

  20. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Strains Provoke Heterogeneous IFN-α/β Responses That Distinctively Affect Viral Propagation in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to overcome the human IFN

  1. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus strains provoke heterogeneous IFN-α/β responses that distinctively affect viral propagation in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Matthaei

    Full Text Available The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus infecting Portulaca grandiflora represents a new strain distinct from phlox isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A; Mukhamedzhanova, Anna A; Smirnov, Alexander A; Rodionova, Nina P; Karpova, Olga V; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2011-04-01

    A southeastern European isolate of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV-MU) of the genus Potexvirus (family Flexiviridae) was purified from the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora. The complete nucleotide sequence (6606 nucleotides) of AltMV-MU genomic RNA was defined. The AltMV-MU genome is different from those of all isolates described earlier and is most closely related to genomes of partly sequenced portulaca isolates AltMV-Po (America) and AltMV-It (Italy). Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that AltMV-MU belongs to a new "portulaca" genotype distinguishable from the "phlox" genotype.

  3. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  4. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueli; Sun, Yipeng; Pu, Juan; Fan, Lihong; Shi, Weimin; Hu, Yanxin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Dongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1) with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes from a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and another six genes from a North American triple-reassortant H1N2 swine virus). Characterization of rH1N1 in mice showed that this virus had higher replicability and pathogenicity than those of the seasonal human H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 viruses, but was similar to the H1N1/2009 and triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses. Experiments performed on guinea pigs showed that rH1N1 was not transmissible, whereas pandemic H1N1/2009 displayed efficient transmissibility. To further determine which gene segment played a key role in transmissibility, we constructed a series of reassortants derived from rH1N1 and H1N1/2009 viruses. Direct contact transmission studies demonstrated that the HA and NS genes contributed to the transmission of H1N1/2009 virus. Second, the HA gene of H1N1/2009 virus, when combined with the H1N1/2009 NA gene, conferred efficient contact transmission among guinea pigs. The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus.

  5. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Zhao

    Full Text Available Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1 with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes from a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and another six genes from a North American triple-reassortant H1N2 swine virus. Characterization of rH1N1 in mice showed that this virus had higher replicability and pathogenicity than those of the seasonal human H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 viruses, but was similar to the H1N1/2009 and triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses. Experiments performed on guinea pigs showed that rH1N1 was not transmissible, whereas pandemic H1N1/2009 displayed efficient transmissibility. To further determine which gene segment played a key role in transmissibility, we constructed a series of reassortants derived from rH1N1 and H1N1/2009 viruses. Direct contact transmission studies demonstrated that the HA and NS genes contributed to the transmission of H1N1/2009 virus. Second, the HA gene of H1N1/2009 virus, when combined with the H1N1/2009 NA gene, conferred efficient contact transmission among guinea pigs. The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus.

  6. The viral envelope is not sufficient to transfer the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to a related pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Schirrmeier, Horst; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Bungowannah virus is the most divergent pestivirus, and both origin and reservoir host have not been identified so far. We therefore performed in vitro tropism studies, which showed that Bungowannah virus differs remarkably from other pestiviruses. Interestingly, cell lines of vervet monkey, mouse, human and even of bat origin were susceptible. This broad in vitro tropism was not observed for a chimeric bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) expressing all structural proteins of Bungowannah virus. The viral envelope was not sufficient to completely transfer the cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to another pestivirus, and viral RNA replication was either markedly reduced or not detectable in a number of different cell lines for the tested BVDV strain and the chimera. We therefore suggest that the replication machinery together with the viral envelope is responsible for the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Plattet, P; Sattler, U; Robert, N; Casaubon, J; Mavrot, F; Pewsner, M; Wu, N; Giovannini, S; Oevermann, A; Stoffel, M H; Gaschen, V; Segner, H; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2012-11-01

    An ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in Switzerland in the spring of 2009. Compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. Here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain detected in and/or isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), stone (Martes foina) and pine (Martes martes) martens, from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a domestic dog. The main lesions included interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia and meningopolioencephalitis, whereas demyelination--the classic presentation of CDV infection--was observed in few cases only. In the brain lesions, viral inclusions were mainly in the nuclei of the neurons. Some significant differences in brain and lung lesions were observed between foxes and mustelids. Swiss CDV isolates shared together with a Hungarian CDV strain detected in 2004. In vitro analysis of the hemagglutinin protein from one of the Swiss CDV strains revealed functional and structural differences from that of the reference strain A75/17, with the Swiss strain showing increased surface expression and binding efficiency to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). These features might be part of a novel molecular signature, which might have contributed to an increase in virus pathogenicity, partially explaining the high morbidity and mortality, the rapid spread, and the large host spectrum observed in this outbreak.

  8. Tissue tropisms, infection kinetics, histologic lesions, and antibody response of the MR766 strain of Zika virus in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiecki, Anna B; Mayton, E Handly; Dutuze, M Fausta; Goupil, Brad A; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Del Piero, Fabio; Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2017-04-18

    The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia. We further evaluated infection-induced lesions via histopathology and visualized viral antigen via immunohistochemical labeling. We also investigated the antibody response of recovered animals to both the MR766 and a strain from the current outbreak (PRVABC59). We demonstrate that the IRF3/7 DKO mouse is a susceptible, mostly non-lethal model well suited for the study of infection kinetics, pathological progression, and antibody response. Infected mice presented lesions in tissues that have been associated with ZIKV infection in the human population, such as the eyes, male gonads, and central nervous system. In addition, we demonstrate that infection with the MR766 strain produces cross-neutralizing antibodies to the PRVABC59 strain of the Asian lineage. This model provides an additional tool for future studies into the transmission routes of ZIKV, as well as for the development of antivirals and other therapeutics, and should be included in the growing list of available tools for investigations of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

  9. Different levels of immunogenicity of two strains of Fowlpox virus as recombinant vaccine vectors eliciting T-cell responses in heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; van Maurik, Andre; Zago, Manola; Newton, Angela T; Anderson, Richard J; Howard, M Keith; Schneider, Jörg; Skinner, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    The FP9 strain of F has been described as a more immunogenic recombinant vaccine vector than the Webster FPV-M (FPW) strain (R. J. Anderson et al., J. Immunol. 172:3094-3100, 2004). This study expands the comparison to include two separate recombinant antigens and multiple, rather than single, independent viral clones derived from the two strains. Dual-poxvirus heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens using individual clones of recombinant FP9 or FPW in combination with recombinant modified V Ankara expressing the same antigen were evaluated for their ability to elicit T-cell responses against recombinant antigens from Plasmodium berghei (circumsporozoite protein) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein). Gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays of the responses to specific epitopes confirmed the approximately twofold-greater cellular immunogenicity of FP9 compared to FPW, when given as the priming or boosting immunization. Equality of transgene expression in mouse cells infected with the two strains in vitro was verified by Western blotting. Directed partial sequence analysis and PCR analysis of FPW and comparison to available whole-genome sequences revealed that many loci that are mutated in the highly attenuated and culture-adapted FP9 strain are wild type in FPW, including the seven multikilobase deletions. These "passage-specific" alterations are hypothesized to be involved in determining the immunogenicity of fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector.

  10. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both can be transmitted to

  11. Family strain and its relation to psychosocial dysfunction in children and adolescents after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, T; Petersen, I; Petermann, F; Fischer, L; Grabhorn, E; Schulz, K-H

    2014-12-01

    Parental functioning is essential to children's development. Therefore, this cross-sectional single-center study examined the prevalence of family strain in 181 parents and its associations to psychosocial functioning in their children after LT. Median age at LT was one yr. Mean time elapsed since LT was 5.8 yr. The IFS, and the SDQ were applied to parents. Family strain in the present sample was comparable to that in the German normative group of families with a chronically ill or disabled child, but families of LT recipients showed a significantly higher financial impact, impact on coping, and impact on siblings (p family strain (R(2)  = 0.42). Parents reported less family strain after living-related compared with deceased donation. Family strain was significantly correlated to psychosocial dysfunction in children post-LT. Present findings demonstrate a risk of maladjustment to the post-LT condition in families. They emphasize the importance of psychological assessment of parents and patients during transplant and follow-up to ensure the best achievable long-term outcome of patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the deformed wing virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bradford

    Full Text Available European honey bees (Apis mellifera are critically important to global food production by virtue of their pollination services but are severely threatened by deformed wing virus (DWV especially in the presence of the external parasite Varroa destructor. DWV exists as many viral strains with the two major variants (DWV-A and DWV-B varying in virulence. A single plasmid standard was constructed containing three sections for the specific determination of DWV-A (VP2 capsid region, DWV-B (IRES and a conserved region suitable for total DWV (helicase region. The assays were confirmed as specific and discriminatory with limits of detections of 25, 25 and 50 genome equivalents for DWV-A, DWV-B and total-DWV, respectively. The methods were successfully tested on Apis mellifera and V. destructor samples with varying DWV profiles. The new method determined a more accurate total DWV titre in samples with substantial DWV-B than the method currently described in the COLOSS Beebook. The proposed assays could be utilized for the screening of large quantities of bee material for both a total DWV load overview along with more detailed investigations into DWV-A and DWV-B profiles.

  13. FAM134B, the Selective Autophagy Receptor for Endoplasmic Reticulum Turnover, Inhibits Replication of Ebola Virus Strains Makona and Mayinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiramel, Abhilash I; Dougherty, Jonathan D; Nair, Vinod; Robertson, Shelly J; Best, Sonja M

    2016-10-15

    Selective autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (termed ER-phagy) is controlled by members of the FAM134 reticulon protein family. Here we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mice deficient in FAM134B to examine the role of the ER in replication of historic (Mayinga) or contemporary (Makona GCO7) strains of Ebola virus (EBOV). Loss of FAM134B resulted in 1-2 log 10 higher production of infectious EBOV, which was associated with increased production of viral proteins GP and VP40 and greater accumulation of nucleocaspid lattices. In addition, only 10% of wild-type cells contained detectable nucleoprotein, whereas knockout of FAM134B resulted in 80% of cells positive for nucleoprotein. Together, these data suggest that FAM134B-dependent ER-phagy is an important limiting event in EBOV replication in mouse cells and may have implications for further development of antiviral therapeutics and murine models of infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus strains obtained from patients with acute hepatitis A in Mongolia, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Despite the high endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Mongolia, the genetic information on those HAV strains is limited. Serum samples obtained from 935 patients with acute hepatitis in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2004-2013 were tested for the presence of HAV RNA using reverse transcription-PCR with primers targeting the VP1-2B region (481 nucleotides, primer sequences at both ends excluded). Overall, 180 patients (19.3%) had detectable HAV RNA. These 180 isolates shared 94.6-100% identity and formed four phylogenetic clusters within subgenotype IA. One or three representative HAV isolates from each cluster exhibited 2.6-3.9% difference between clusters over the entire genome. Cluster 1 accounted for 65.0% of the total, followed by Cluster 2 (30.6%), Cluster 3 (3.3%), and Cluster 4 (1.1%). Clusters 1 and 2 were predominant throughout the observation period, whereas Cluster 3 was undetectable in 2009 and 2013 and Cluster 4 became undetectable after 2009. The Mongolian HAV isolates were closest to those of Chinese or Japanese origin (97.7-98.5% identities over the entire genome), suggesting the evolution from a common ancestor with those circulating in China and Japan. Further molecular epidemiological analyses of HAV infection are necessary to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV and to implement appropriate prevention measures in Mongolia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and survey of Apis cerana strain of Sacbrood virus (AcSBV) in Taiwan suggests a recent introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Mehmood, Shahid; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Yue-Wen; Ko, Chong-Yu; Su, Songkun

    2017-06-01

    The Sacbrood virus (SBV) is widely distributed in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. AcSBV, a distinct SBV strain in Asian honey bees (A. cerana) causes larva death before pupation and often depopulates colonies, leading to collapse. It is the most severe disease in A. cerana beekeeping. AcSBV infects A. cerana in most natural habitats, yet occurrences were not reported in Taiwan before 2015 and were not a concern for local beekeepers. However, in 2016, A. cerana beekeepers in central Taiwan reported SBV-like symptoms. We screened samples of larvae using RT-PCR and surveyed asymptomatic apiaries in north Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that AcSBV isolates from central Taiwan were introduced; all isolates had high similarity in sequences to AcSBV genomes identified in mainland China, Vietnam, and Korea and distinct differences to SBV sequence identified in Taiwan. The overall prevalence in symptomatic colonies was low. No latent infections were detected in asymptomatic colonies. The AcSBV epizootic may not yet have reached its highest potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  17. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental infection of rock pigeons (Columba livia) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system.

  19. Kinetics of single and dual infection of calves with an Asian atypical bovine pestivirus and a highly virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larskaa, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Riitho, Victor

    2012-01-01

    . Co-infection with both viruses led to prolonged fever in comparison to singlestrain inoculated groups and simultaneous replication of concurrent viruses in blood and in the upper respiratory tract. Following the infections all the calves seroconverted against homologous strains. Atypical pestiviruses......) and an Asianatypicalbovinepestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen) in naïve calves, in comparison to singleinfections. Milder clinical signs were observed in the animals infected with single Th/04_KhonKaen strain. Leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia were observed in all infected groups at a similar level which correlated with the onset of viraemia...... pose a serious threat to livestock health and BVDV eradication, since they may have the potential to be widely spread in cattle populations without being detected and differentiated from other BVDV infections....

  20. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  1. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no tr...

  2. Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J S; Sumner, J W; Roumillat, L F

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. Glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. Bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G. The assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by Cleveland et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. ...

  3. Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0115 TITLE: Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or...Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  4. Isolation, identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 from pigs in southwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. In 2005-2007, FMD outbreaks caused by Asia1 type occurred in many regions of China, as well as some parts of East Asia countries. During the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. Results In this study, a strain of FMDV that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype Asia1, and designated as "Asia1/WHN/CHA/06". To investigate the genomic feature of the strain, complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was sequenced and compared with sequences of other FMDVs by phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was 8161 nucleotides (nt in length, and was closer to JS/CHA/05 than to all other strains. Potential recombination events associated with Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 were found between JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains with partial 3B and 3C fragments. Conclusion This is the first report of the isolation and identification of a strain of FMDV type Asia1 from naturally infected pigs. The Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 strain may evolve from the recombination of JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains.

  5. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kikuchi

    Full Text Available The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  6. Molecular characterization of feline infectious peritonitis virus strain DF-2 and studies of the role of ORF3abc in viral cell tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Hornyák, Ákos; Dencso, László; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis; Belák, Sándor

    2012-06-01

    The full-length genome of the highly lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain DF-2 was sequenced and cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to study the role of ORF3abc in the FIPV-feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) transition. The reverse genetic system allowed the replacement of the truncated ORF3abc of the original FIPV DF-2 genome with the intact ORF3abc of the canine coronavirus (CCoV) reference strain Elmo/02. The in vitro replication kinetics of these two viruses was studied in CrFK and FCWF-4 cell lines, as well as in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Both viruses showed similar replication kinetics in established cell lines. However, the strain with a full-length ORF3 showed markedly lower replication of more than 2 log(10) titers in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Our results suggest that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II FIPV.

  7. Development of a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus vaccine and wild strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chung, Yang-Tsung; Kuo, James; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-07-01

    A multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) was developed for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine and wild-type strains based on a point mutation between the vaccine strain (S) and the wild-type strain (T) located in the p27 gene. This system was further upgraded to obtain a real-time ARMS RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) with a high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) platform. The genotyping of various strains of FeLV was determined by comparing the HRMA curves with the defined wild-type FeLV (strain TW1), and the results were expressed as a percentage confidence. The detection limits of ARMS RT-PCR and ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA were 100 and 1 copies of transcribed FeLV RNA per 0.5 ml of sample, respectively. No false-positive results were obtained with 6 unrelated pathogens and 1 feline cell line. Twelve FeLV Taiwan strains were correctly identified using ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA. The genotypes of the strains matched the defined FeLV wild-type strain genotype with at least 91.17% confidence. A higher degree of sequence polymorphism was found throughout the p27 gene compared with the long terminal repeat region. In conclusion, the current study describes the phylogenetic relationship of the FeLV Taiwan strains and demonstrates that the developed ARMS RT-PCR assay is able to be used to detect the replication of a vaccine strain that has not been properly inactivated, thus acting as a safety check for the quality of FeLV vaccines.

  8. Preparasi Imunoglobulin G Kelinci sebagai Antigen Penginduksi Antibodi Spesifik Terhadap Virus Avian Influenza H5N1 Strain Legok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Karuni Nyanakumari Natih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prepare rabbit Immunoglobulin G as anti-idiotype antibody (Ab2 ofAvian Influenza Virus (AIV H5N1. A polyclonal antibody was collected from guinea pigs immunized withinactivated AI vaccine H5N1of Legok strain. Antibody of H5N1 AI in serum was detected by Agar gelprecipitation test (AGPT and an Inhibition Hemmaglutination test (IHT. The highest titre of antibodywas obtained one week after the third immunization. Serum of guinea pigs containing IgG was purifiedusing the Montage Antibody purification kit & spin column with Prosep A media (Millipore. The AI H5N1IgG concentration was 8 mg/ml. AI H5N1 IgG, was then digested with pepsin to obtain F(ab2 fraction andwas called Ab1. The concentration of IgG and F(ab2 and purity of IgG were determined by UVspectrophotometer which showed Ab1 concentration 1 mg/ml. Molecular weight was estimated by sodiumdodecyl sulfate- polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Ab2 was produced by immunization ofrabbit with Ab1. The first immunization was carried out by subcutaneous injection with 500 ?g of Ab1emulsified in Complete Freund Adjuvant. The immunization was repeated with the same dose of Ab1emulsified in Incomplete Freund Adjuvan at 1 week intervals. One week after the second immunization,rabbit’s serum was harvested and IgG was purified using the Montage Antibody purification kit & spincolumn with Prosep A media (Millipore. The rabbit IgG, called Ab2, was an anti-idiotypic antibody againstAIV-H5N1. In AGPT, a precipitation line appeared between Ab1 and Ab2. A partial reaction appearedbetween Ab2 and the AI H5N1 antigen was also detected. The results indicated that Ab2 is a possiblecandidate of imunogen for protection against an AI virus H5N1 infection.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection and related hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Once the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has infected a person, it then latently infects B cells. This latent infection lasts a lifetime. However, EBV can infect T or NK cells (T/NK cells) in rare cases. Therefore, EBV causes various hematological diseases. Among these diseases, CAEBV is regarded as the most problematic because, although it is not particularly uncommon, the diagnostic tests for this disease are not covered by health insurance, a serious illness in the "non-active" periods is lacking, and the appropriate motivation for early initiation of treatment can easily be lost. However, the symptoms may suddenly change; and if the manifestations are resistant when such exacerbation occurs, CAEBC is potentially lethal. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure. Once the diagnosis has been made, earlier treatment initiation, safer bridging to allogeneic HSCT with multi-drug chemotherapy, and then, planned HSCT can be completed more safely and thereby achieve a better outcome.

  10. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  11. Mapping of the mutations present in the genome of the Rift Valley fever virus attenuated MP12 strain and their putative role in attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialat, P; Muller, R; Vu, T H; Prehaud, C; Bouloy, M

    1997-11-01

    The MP12 attenuated strain of Rift Valley fever virus was obtained by 12 serial passages of a virulent isolate ZH548 in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (Caplen et al., 1985. Mutagen-directed attenuation of Rift Valley fever virus as a method for vaccine development. J. Gen. Virol., 66, 2271-2277). The comparison of the M segment of the two strains has already been reported by Takehara et al. (Takehara et al., 1989. Identification of mutations in the M RNA of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus. Virology 169, 452-457). We have completed the comparison and found that altogether a total of nine, 12 and four nucleotides were changed in the L, M and S segments of the two strains, respectively. Three mutations induced amino acid changes in the L protein but none of them was located in the recognized motifs conserved among RNA dependent polymerases. In the S segment, a single change modified an amino acid in the NSs protein and in the M segment, seven of the mutations resulted in amino acid changes in each of the four encoded G1, G2, 14 kDa and 78 kDa proteins. Characterization of the MP12 virus indicated that determinants for attenuation were present in each segment and that they were introduced progressively during the 12 passages in the presence of the mutagen (Saluzzo and Smith, 1990. Use of reassortant viruses to map attenuating and temperature-sensitive mutations of the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine. Vaccine 8, 369-375). Passages 4 and 7-9 were found to be essential for introduction of temperature-sensitive lesions and attenuation. In an attempt to correlate some of the mutations with the attenuated or temperature-sensitive phenotypes, we determined by sequencing the passage level at which the different mutations appeared. This work should help to address the question of the role of the viral gene products in Rift Valley fever pathogenesis.

  12. Genetic Analyses of an H3N8 Influenza Virus Isolate, Causative Strain of the Outbreak of Equine Influenza at the Kanazawa Racecourse in Japan in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mika; Nagai, Makoto; Hayakawa, Yuji; Komae, Hirofumi; Murakami, Naruto; Yotsuya, Syouichi; Asakura, Shingo; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    In August 2007, an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among vaccinated racehorses with Japanese commercial equine influenza vaccine at Kanazawa Racecourse in Ishikawa prefecture in Japan. Apparent symptoms were pyrexia (38.2-41.0 degrees C) and nasal discharge with or without coughing, although approximately half of the infected horses were subclinical. All horses had been shot with a vaccine that contained two inactivated H3N8 influenza virus strains [A/equine/La Plata/93 (La Plata/93) of American lineage and A/equine/Avesta/93 (Avesta/93) of European lineage] and an H7N7 strain (A/equine/Newmarket/1/77). Influenza virus, A/equine/Kanazawa/1/2007 (H3N8) (Kanazawa/07), was isolated from one of the nasal swab samples of diseased horses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Kanazawa/07 was classified into the American sublineage Florida. In addition, four amino acid substitutions were found in the antigenic sites B and E in the HA1 subunit protein of Kanazawa/07 in comparison with that of La Plata/93. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test using 16 serum samples from recovering horses revealed that 1.4- to 8-fold difference in titers between Kanazawa/07 and either of the vaccine strains. The present findings suggest that Japanese commercial inactivated vaccine contributed to reducing the morbidity rate and manifestation of the clinical signs of horses infected with Kanazawa/07 that may be antigenically different from the vaccine strains.

  13. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV

  14. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59 and Blocking Antireceptor Monoclonal Antibody Bind to the N-Terminal Domain of Cellular Receptor