Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.
OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
A previous review of historical descriptions and theories about the character and pathogenesis of writer’s cramp and other comparable chronic upper limb “overuse” work-related pain syndromes has indicated that somatic dysfunctions explain symptoms and findings. The first case studies and case...... series suggested that these conditions were caused by pathology affecting the peripheral nerves. The general perception gradually changed, however, with symptoms becoming attributed to central nervous system dysfunction and ultimately to represent a psychiatric condition. Work-related upper limb...... disorders remain diagnostically challenging to clinicians and there is still a tendency to see many patients’ pain as a psychiatric problem when a standard physical examination does not explain the condition. This article describes reports of writer’s cramp and comparable occupational upper limb “overuse...
Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva
Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.
Premalatha, G D; Noor Hassim, I
A total of 323 workers from 5 different occupational groups in the telecommunication industry were studied in this cross sectional study, which sought to determine the prevalence of Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) in 5 occupational groups; operators using the Video Display Terminals, switchboard operators, clerks, data entry processors and the supervisors. WRULD was also studied with regard to factors such as sex, race, height, age, stress and the discomfort perceived due to the work station design. The possibility of WRULD was determined from a self-administered questionnaire and confirmed by history and physical examination. Psychological stress and the discomfort due to the workstation were measured from the questionnaire. The overall prevalence was found to be 31.2% and the prevalence among the various occupations differed with it being the highest in the switchboard operators and data processors and the lowest in the supervisors. The older workers and the female workers were found to have higher prevalences of WRULD. It was also found that a higher stress score and a higher score of discomfort perceived at the work station were associated with higher prevalences of WRULD.
S. A. Moussavi-Najarkola A. Khavanin
Full Text Available For high occurrences of upper extremity disorders in working populations and in order to compare the occurrence of musculoskeletal alterations due to ergonomic risk factors such as highly force exertion, repetition, awkward posture between exposed and non-exposed groups, the research was carried out in Tabarestan steel industry. All 526 male workers (316 as exposed group : 132 aged 20-35 years, 184 aged >35 years; 210 as Non-exposed group: 89 aged 20-35 years, 121 aged > 35 years performing tasks exposed / not exposed to risk factors for WMSDS of the upper limbs underwent a clinical examinations as well as completing standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires. The anamnestic cases were defined on the basis of pain, paraesthesia, hyposthenia, and vegetative disorders during previous months. Mean age of exposed and non- exposed groups were obtained 36.3 years (SD= 5.9 and 37.9 years (SD = 7.3 respectively. There were distinguished differences in occurrences of WMSDS of upper limbs between two mentioned groups. The major occurrence was found for the right and left hands. Nocturnal and diurnal paraesthesia obtained an occurrence of about 54% and 53% respectively. Data bears witness to the greater occurrence of affected individuals in exposed group, with a non- exposed / exposed ratio of 1:7.2. The greater occurrences of affected individuals in exposed group (P = 0.006 and in subjects>35 years (P = 0.002 were significant. Structural, organizational and educational measures can be applied to prevent WMSDS or diminish the relative effects to acceptable limit.
Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.
The objectives of this study were to examine the association between work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) and duration of computer and mouse use, to investigate differences in these associations between men and women, and to examine whether a possible relationship between duration of computer
van der Laan, Tallie M J; Postema, Sietke G; Reneman, Michiel F; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K
Reliability study. Quantifying compensatory movements during work-related tasks may help to prevent musculoskeletal complaints in individuals with upper limb absence. (1) To develop a qualitative scoring system for rating compensatory shoulder and trunk movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of functional capacity evaluation tests adjusted for use by 1-handed individuals (functional capacity evaluation-one handed [FCE-OH]); (2) to examine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the scoring system; and (3) to assess its feasibility. Movement patterns of 12 videotaped upper limb prosthesis wearers and 20 controls were analyzed. Compensatory movements were defined for each FCE-OH test, and a scoring system was developed, pilot tested, and adjusted. During reliability testing, 18 raters (12 FCE experts and 6 physiotherapists/gait analysts) scored videotapes of upper limb prosthesis wearers performing 4 FCE-OH tests 2 times (2 weeks apart). Agreement was expressed in % and kappa value. Feasibility (focus area's "acceptability", "demand," and "implementation") was determined by using a questionnaire. After 2 rounds of pilot testing and adjusting, reliability of a third version was tested. The interrater reliability for the first and second rating sessions were к = 0.54 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.57) and к = 0.64 (CI: 0.61-0.66), respectively. The intrarater reliability was к = 0.77 (CI: 0.72-0.82). The feasibility was good but could be improved by a training program. It seems possible to identify compensatory movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of FCE-OH tests reliably by observation using the developed observational scoring system. Interrater reliability was satisfactory in most instances; intrarater reliability was good. Feasibility was established. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J
Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.
Nicoletti, S; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Carella, F; Rubino, G; Leone, E; Popolizio, R; Colafiglio, S; Ambrosi, L
The upholstered furniture industry, the so-called "triangle of the sofa industry", is a geographic area of national and strategic economic importance in southern Italy. The single tasks are carried out mostly manually, with the characteristics of a handicraft approach. The aim of the survey was to assess the prevalence of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in 30 factories of the sofa industry located in a large geographic area of the Puglia and Basilicata Regions. In the period 1 January-31 December 2003 a network of occupational physicians investigated a population of 5.477 subjects (exposed n=3481, controls n=1996, M=3865, F=1612) in 30 different factories of the area. More than 60 percent of the total workforce studied was employed in large-sized companies (>500 employees). The following work tasks were considered: filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. Case-definition was assessed through standardized procedures: symptoms by questionnaire plus physical and laboratory/imaging findings. Cumulative prevalence rates of UL-WMSDs as at 31 December 2003 reached values of up to 30% in high risk groups. Prevalence rates showed good correlation with the concise OCRA index used for assessment of exposure to repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb. The most frequently occurring disorders were tendon-related cysts and wrist tendonitis. Shoulder disorders were more frequent in male and female leather-cutting operators. This survey showed a significantly high prevalence of UL-WMSDs in sofa industry workers. It did not seem to be confirmed in this study that there was a greater female susceptibility to UL-WMSDs with the exception of carpal tunnel syndrome: gender difference seems to be less relevant at increasing levels of occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertion of the upper limbs.
Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.
Sen, A; Richardson, Stanley
Personal computers are one of the commonest office tools in Malaysia today. Their usage, even for three hours per day, leads to a health risk of developing Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS), Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), low back pain, tension headaches and psychosocial stress. The study was conducted to investigate how a multiethnic society in Malaysia is coping with these problems that are increasing at a phenomenal rate in the west. This study investigated computer usage, awareness of ergonomic modifications of computer furniture and peripherals, symptoms of CVS and risk of developing OOS. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 136 computer users was conducted on a sample population of university students and office staff. A 'Modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) for office work' technique was used for evaluation of OOS. The prevalence of CVS was surveyed incorporating a 10-point scoring system for each of its various symptoms. It was found that many were using standard keyboard and mouse without any ergonomic modifications. Around 50% of those with some low back pain did not have an adjustable backrest. Many users had higher RULA scores of the wrist and neck suggesting increased risk of developing OOS, which needed further intervention. Many (64%) were using refractive corrections and still had high scores of CVS commonly including eye fatigue, headache and burning sensation. The increase of CVS scores (suggesting more subjective symptoms) correlated with increase in computer usage spells. It was concluded that further onsite studies are needed, to follow up this survey to decrease the risks of developing CVS and OOS amongst young computer users.
Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.
Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...
Di Leone, G; Carino, M; Nicoletti, S; Trani, G; Ambrosi, L
In cooperation with the IRCCS Fondazione Maugeri and the IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico - EPM-CEMOC, of Milan, the Local Health Unit in Bari, Italy carried out a research project, sponsored partly by the Italian Ministry of Health, on upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in a specific manufacturing sector, the upholstered furniture industry. This "sofa district" is widely represented with approximately 14,000 workers and 500 factories over a wide geographic area of southern Italy. Advanced technology in the manufacturing process is combined with workers performing intensive arm-hand tasks. The aim of the study included: a) assessment of exposure to repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb in a representative sample of the factories using the OCRA method, b) analysis of the annual prevalence and incidence rates, c) definition of possible improvement via ergonomic solutions in the various factories. Via a network of occupational physicians a total of more than 6000 subjects were examined over a 5-year period. Case-definition was assessed through standardized procedures. A detailed description of the manufacturing process of the upholstered furniture industry and of the characteristics of the working population is provided Exposed groups at risk were:filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. Data collected in private companies of different size in this extensive industrial "sofa area" emphasize the importance of prevention through adequate ergonomic solutions and the need to improve training programmes covering the whole area.
BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP, remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. Methods/Design Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. Discussion The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying
Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be
Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.
γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr
Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed motor commands to achieve good performance. The efficiency of this motor control mechanism can be compromised by pathological disorders or by muscular-skeletal modifications such as the ones due to the natural aging process. In this respect, the present study aimed at identifying the age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies during adaptation and de-adaptation processes in velocity dependent force fields. Methods Eight young and eight elderly healthy subjects were included in the experiment. Subjects were instructed to perform pointing movements in the horizontal plane both in a null field and in a velocity dependent force field. The evolution of smoothness and hand path were used to characterize the performance of the subjects. Furthermore, the ability of modulating the interactive torque has been used as a paradigm to explain the observed discoordinated patterns during the adaptation process. Results The evolution of the kinematics during the experiments highlights important behavioural differences between the two groups during the adaptation and de-adaptation processes. In young subjects the improvement of movement smoothness was in accordance with the expected learning trend related to the consolidation of the internal model. On the contrary, elders did not show a coherent learning process. The kinetic analysis pointed out the presence of different strategies for the compensation of the external perturbation: older people required an increased involvement of the shoulder with a different modulation of joint torque components during the evolution of the experiments. Conclusion The results
Lindner, Helen; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Hermansson, Liselotte
The International Classification of functioning, disability and health refers capacity to what an individual can do in a standardised environment and describes performance as what an individual really does and whether the individual encounters any difficulty in the real-life environment. Measures of capacity and performance can help to determine if there is any gap between them that may restrict participation. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between capacity scores obtained in a standardised clinical setting and proportional ease of performance obtained from a real-life environment. The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control and the Prosthetic Upper Extremity Functional Index were used to assess capacity and performance in 62 prosthetic users (age 3-17). Spearman coefficient and generalised linear model were used to examine the association between these measures. A strong correlation (Spearman = 0.75) was found between the capacity scores and the ease of performance. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, capacity was significantly associated with proportional ease of performance. The adjusted model showed that, by 1 unit increase in the Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control score, the ratio of proportional ease of performance increases by 45%. This implies that Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control can be a predictor for ease of performance in real-life environment. Clinical relevance The ACMC scores may serve as an indicator to predict the difficulties that the children may encounter in their home environment. This prediction can help the clinician to make decisions, such that if the child requires more control training or is ready to move on to learn more complex tasks.
Nicoletti, S; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E
One of the most common procedures for risk assessment of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in Italy is the OCRA synthetic index, which is recommended as the preferred method in the ISO standard 11228-3. The aim of the survey was to assess the risk of UL-WMSDs due to repetitive strain and movements in thirty factories of the sofa industry located in a large geographic area of southern Italy. The most characteristic working tasks of the manufacturing process were studied: filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. The single tasks were carried out almost exclusively manually, with features of a handicraft approach. Data were collected through questionnaires and video tape recordings in each factory. The mean value of the OCRA index of every group of factories was calculated by weighting the values of the index of each single task group with the number of the workers. Figures obtained in the different factories showed values of the OCRA index ranging between 4 and 15. A 2,9 OCRA value was attributed to a low exposure group. Even though the work tasks analyzed were characterized by long duration of the manufacturing cycle (between 5 and 60 min), a particular but rigorous application of the OCRA procedures made it possible for a detailed risk assessment to be made for each of the working groups analysed.
It was considered that the most important elements of the treatment used in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb are: exercise matching the anti-spasm pattern, maintaining appropriate position for exercise that provide an approximation of the shoulder joint and the use of cross-facilitation. The study indicates that the treatment of a post stroke upper limb should be based on the: physiotherapy, kinesiotherapy and specific positioning - all of them corresponding to a given stage of the disease. The work also presents the most frequently used methods, especially highlighting: the Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF, Bobath, Brunnstrom, CIMT and OIT. It was also shown that in order to enhance the effects of a post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, it should be extended by modern methods such as Mirror Therapy, Virtual Reality or Robot-assisted Therapy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.
Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.
Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H
Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.
Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)
The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)
Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin
Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.
Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria
Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.
This study was aimed at verifying the improvement on the motor impairment and functionality in 19 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke treated with a robot-aided rehabilitation protocol using the ReoGo™ system (Motorika Medical Ltd, Israel), and at evaluating the persistence of the effects after 1 month. The study also focused on the actual possibility of administering the robot-aided therapy with the ReoGo™ for the upper limbs and on the patients' degree of acceptance and compliance with the treatment. Subjects underwent an assessment prior to the start of the rehabilitation project (T-1), one at the start (T0), one at the end of the treatment (T1) and one after one month from the end of the treatment (T2). The following tests were administered: (i) Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper limb; Ashworth scale (AS); Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) (T-1 - T2); (ii) strength evaluation; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain; Frenchay Arm test (FAT); Box and Block test (BBT); Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (T0 - T2). Additionally, the Euro-QoL questionnaire and a VAS for the treatment satisfaction were administered to the subjects. Non-statistical difference of scores at T-1 and T0 on almost the entire battery of tasks suggested a stable patients' performance prior to the start of the rehabilitation. With the exception of the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the AS sub-scales measuring -as appropriate- strength and spasticity of the shoulder, triceps and wrist, all scores showed a significant increase between T0 and T1. The improvement on the pain could not be proved significant (p = 0.10). A significant increase between T0 and T2 was found for all assessment scores, with the exception of the MRC for external shoulder rotators (p = 0.05) and of the AS for shoulder (p = 0.32) and wrist (p = 0.08). Substantial stability was observed between T1 and T2. Patients were capable of completing the treatment and showed good participant satisfaction. This pilot study led to
Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole
The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laursen, Lise H; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Hagert, C G
BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties in specific diagnoses of these disorders. Prior studies have shed light on the nerves in the diagnostic approach beside disorders related to muscles, tendons and joints (MCDs). OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to compare th...
This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...
Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the
Ten Kate, Jelle; Smit, Gerwin; Breedveld, Paul
This paper aims to provide an overview with quantitative information of existing 3D-printed upper limb prostheses. We will identify the benefits and drawbacks of 3D-printed devices to enable improvement of current devices based on the demands of prostheses users. A review was performed using Scopus, Web of Science and websites related to 3D-printing. Quantitative information on the mechanical and kinematic specifications and 3D-printing technology used was extracted from the papers and websites. The overview (58 devices) provides the general specifications, the mechanical and kinematic specifications of the devices and information regarding the 3D-printing technology used for hands. The overview shows prostheses for all different upper limb amputation levels with different types of control and a maximum material cost of $500. A large range of various prostheses have been 3D-printed, of which the majority are used by children. Evidence with respect to the user acceptance, functionality and durability of the 3D-printed hands is lacking. Contrary to what is often claimed, 3D-printing is not necessarily cheap, e.g., injection moulding can be cheaper. Conversely, 3D-printing provides a promising possibility for individualization, e.g., personalized socket, colour, shape and size, without the need for adjusting the production machine. Implications for rehabilitation Upper limb deficiency is a condition in which a part of the upper limb is missing as a result of a congenital limb deficiency of as a result of an amputation. A prosthetic hand can restore some of the functions of a missing limb and help the user in performing activities of daily living. Using 3D-printing technology is one of the solutions to manufacture hand prostheses. This overview provides information about the general, mechanical and kinematic specifications of all the devices and it provides the information about the 3D-printing technology used to print the hands.
Biddiss, Elaine; Beaton, Dorcas; Chau, Tom
To measure consumer satisfaction with upper limb prosthetics and provide an enumerated list of design priorities for future developments. A self-administered, anonymous survey collected information on participant demographics, history of and goals for prosthesis use, satisfaction, and design priorities. The questionnaire was available online and in paper format and was distributed through healthcare providers, community support groups, and one prosthesis manufacturer; 242 participants of all ages and levels of upper limb absence completed the survey. Rates of rejection for myoelectric hands, passive hands, and body-powered hooks were 39%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Prosthesis wearers were generally satisfied with their devices while prosthesis rejecters were dissatisfied. Reduced prosthesis weight emerged as the highest priority design concern of consumers. Lower cost ranked within the top five design priorities for adult wearers of all device types. Life-like appearance is a priority for passive/cosmetic prostheses, while improved harness comfort, wrist movement, grip control and strength are required for body-powered devices. Glove durability, lack of sensory feedback, and poor dexterity were also identified as design priorities for electric devices. Design priorities reflect consumer goals for prosthesis use and vary depending on the type of prosthesis used and age. Future design efforts should focus on the development of more light-weight, comfortable prostheses.
Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Jbali, B.; Daoud, J.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.
Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)
Nicoletti, S; Castoro, V; Iacobellis, M; Loizzo, N; Monopoli, L
The industrial production of upholstered furniture exposes workers to significant risk of occupational disorders due to ergonomics-related problems, such as repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb, manual load lifting, prolonged static postures. This paper describes the main measures taken by the biggest company in the "sofa sector" in southern Italy in order to solve such problems in the years 1996-2004. the classic instruments of ergonomics were used such as risk assessment, medical surveillance, training and information programmes, technological reorganization of the manufacturing process and of single working tasks. The accident rate (number of accidents per million working hours) which showed an increasing trend in the previous years, rose from a value of 31 in 1996 to 51 in the years 1999-2000 (with a percentage of accidents related to load lifting in the range 25-35%). At the same time the incidence rate of work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in the population of workers (which had increased in the meantime from 2500 to 3500 employees) reached nearly 5% in 2001, with peaks of 8-9% in the work tasks with higher exposure. Accident rates progressively fell in the following three years until a value of 20 was reached in 2004 and 2005, while the mean incidence rate of WMSDs reached a value of nearly 1%. The data need to be compared with the trends in the other companies of the sector in the same period, with an average incidence rate of WMSDs around 2% and a generally increasing trend. Ergonomic interventions not only concur in the management and control of negative events for workers health but also in achieving advantages in terms of lower costs and greater productivity.
Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian
One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.
Full Text Available Variations of upper limb arteries are common and there are many reports about this subject. We report multiple variations in arterial pattern of upper extremity, which were encountered in a single cadaver.
van Delden, AL; Peper, CE; Nienhuys, KN; Zijp, NI; Beek, PJ; Kwakkel, G
This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Background and Purpose — Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy, modified bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing,...
Johansen, Heidi; Østlie, Kristin; Andersen, Liv Øinæs; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend
To examine subjective health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) in Norway and to explore the associations between demographic and clinical factors and HRQoL. Cross-sectional study comparing HRQoL, measured by SF-36, among adults with UULD and an age- and gender-matched control group from the Norwegian general population (NGP). Seventy-seven respondents, median age 42 years (range: 20-82); 71% were women. Most had left-sided (61%), below elbow (53%), transverse (73%) deficiency. Compared to the NGP, the UULD group reported reduced HRQoL on all SF-36 subscales except for the role emotional (RE) scale (p=0.321), mental health (MH) (p=0.055) and mental component summary (MCS) (p=0.064). The greatest difference was on the bodily pain (BP) scale (point difference of 20.0). Multiple linear regression models showed significant association between several physical- and mental SF-36 subscales and occupational status, occurrence of comorbidity and chronic pain. Persons with UULD reported reduced HRQoL on most SF-36 subscales, mostly in the physical health domain. Employment status, occurrence of comorbidity and chronic pain seem to have a negative impact on the HRQoL. Measures that can reduce pain and loss of function should be given particular attention in UULD rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Persons with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) who experience pain and discomfort should seek professional help for evaluating their everyday coping strategies. Professionals who meet persons with UULD should examine anomalies, comorbidity, pain and employment status before choosing advices and actions. Individually adapted grip-improving devices, environments, physical exercise and pain management programs should be implemented early to reduce pain, loss of function and decreased HRQoL. A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary when counseling persons with UULD.
Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K
To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
B. Bartels (Bart); R.F. Pangalila (Robert); M.P. Bergen (Michael); N.A.M. Cobben (Nicolle); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)
textabstractTo determine upper limb function and associated factors in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A sample of 70 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range 20-43 years). Methods: General motor function and, in particular, upper limb distal
Di Monaco, Marco; Vallero, Fulvia; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa
To investigate the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the occurrence of simultaneous fractures of the upper limb in older women who sustain a fall-related fracture of the hip. Cross-sectional study. We investigated 472 of 480 white women consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture. Twenty-seven (5.7%) of the 472 women sustained a concomitant upper-limb fracture of either distal radius (20 women) or proximal humerus (seven women). We assessed serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 14.2 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after surgical repair of the hip fracture in the 472 women by an immunoenzymatic assay. Twenty-five-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in the 27 women with concomitant fractures of both hip and upper limb than in the remaining 445 hip-fracture women: mean ± SD values were 6.5 ± 5.0 ng/ml and 11.7 ± 10.4 ng/ml respectively in the two groups (mean difference between groups 5.2 ng/ml: 95% CI 1.2-9.2; p=0.011). Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant fractures of the upper limb (p=0.017), after adjustment for eight potential confounders including age, height, weight, hip-fracture type, cognitive impairment, neurologic impairment, previous hip fracture, and previous upper-limb fracture. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant upper-limb fractures in our sample of older women with a fall-related fracture of the hip. Preventing vitamin D deficiency may lower the incidence of simultaneous fractures due to a singe fall in elderly women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan
In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi
Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.
Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K
OBJECTIVES: To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). SETTING: Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops.
Farina, Dario; Amsüss, Sebastian
Despite progress in research and media attention on active upper limb prostheses, presently the most common commercial upper limb prosthetic devices are not fundamentally different from solutions offered almost one century ago. Limited information transfer for both control and sensory-motor integration and challenges in socket technology have been major obstacles. By analysing the present state-of-the-art and academic achievements, we provide our opinion on the future of upper limb prostheses. We believe that surgical procedures for muscle reinnervation and osseointegration will become increasingly clinically relevant; muscle electrical signals will remain the main clinical means for prosthetic control; and chronic electrode implants, first in muscles (control), then in nerves (sensory feedback), will become viable clinical solutions. After decades of suspended clinically relevant progress, it is foreseeable that a new generation of upper limb prostheses will enter the market in the near future based on such advances, thereby offering substantial clinical benefit for patients.
Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.
Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios
For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.
Amiri, Masoud; Casolo, Federico
While the number of people requiring help for the activities of daily living are increasing, several studies have been shown the effectiveness of robot training for upper limb functionality recovery. The robotic system described in this paper is an active end-effector based robot which can be used for assisting and rehabilitating of human upper limb. The robot is able to take into account desire of the patient for the support that patient needs to complete the task.
Full Text Available The main aim is to create a computational three-body segment model of an upper limb of a human body for determination of muscle forces generated to keep a given loaded upper limb position. The model consists of three segments representing arm, forearm, hand and of all major muscles connected to the segments. Muscle origins and insertions determination corresponds to a real anatomy. Muscle behaviour is defined according to the Hill-type muscle model consisting of contractile and viscoelastic element. The upper limb is presented by a system of three rigid bars connected by rotational joints. The whole limb is fixed to the frame in the shoulder joint. A static balance problem is solved by principle of virtual work. The system of equation describing the musculoskeletal system is overdetermined because more muscles than necessary contribute to get the concrete upper limb position. Hence the mathematical problem is solved by an optimization method searching the least energetically-consuming solution. The upper limb computational model is verified by electromyography of the biceps brachii muscle.
Riis Jepsen, Jørgen; Thomsen, Gert
could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve affliction. CONCLUSION: A six month course of stretching seems to reduce upper limb symptoms in computer operators but we could......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks). The identified patterns......, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course...
Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio
We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper limb function did not always strictly follow the overall gross motor function. These findings suggest that even some of the very weak nonambulant children possess upper limb skills that can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.
Delwaide, P J; Figiel, C; Richelle, C
The influence of passive changes in upper limb position on the excitability of three myotatic arc reflexes (soleus, quadriceps, and biceps femoris) of the lower limb has been explored on 42 volunteers. The results indicate that the excitability of the three myotatic arcs can be influenced at a distance by postural modifications of the upper limb. When the ipsilateral upper limb is forwards or the contralateral backwards, a facilitation of both soleus and quadriceps tendon reflexes is observed while the biceps femoris reflexes are reduced. This pattern of facilitation and inhibition is reversed when the ipsilateral upper limb is backwards or the contralateral forwards. The facilitations as well as inhibitions of proximal myotatic arc reflexes are quantitatively more marked than that of the soleus reflex. Facilitation and inhibition are not linearly related to the angle of the arm with the trunk. Effects begin at a considerable angle, become maximal at 45 degrees, and progressively disappear for greater values. It is suggested that the distinct pattern of facilitation and inhibition which is exerted in reciprocal fashion on extensor and flexor motor nuclei might depend on the long propriospinal neurones connecting cervical and lumbar enlargements.
McDonnell, J G
We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.
Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Curt, Armin; Duff, Susan; Jiang, Depeng; Popovic, Milos R; Rudhe, Claudia; Fehlings, Michael G; Verrier, Mary C
Upper limb function plays a significant role in enhancing independence for individuals with tetraplegia. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific input of sensorimotor deficits on upper limb function. Thus the theoretical framework designed to develop the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) was used as a hypothetical model to analyze the impact of impairment on function. To define the association of impairment (sensation, strength, and prehension measured by the GRASSP) to upper limb function as defined by functional measures (Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure). A hypothetical model representing relationships by applying structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effect of the impairment domains in GRASSP on upper limb function. Data collected on 72 chronic individuals with tetraplegia was used to test the hypothetical model. Structural equation modeling confirmed strong associations between sensation, strength, and prehension with upper limb function, and determined 72% of the variance in "sensorimotor upper limb function" was explained by the model. Statistics of fit showed the data did fit the hypothesized model. Sensation and strength influence upper limb function directly and indirectly with prehension as the mediator. The GRASSP is a sensitive diagnostic tool in distinguishing the relative contribution of strength, sensation and prehension to function. Thus, the impact of interventions on specific domains of impairment and related contribution on clinical recovery of the upper limb can be detailed to optimize rehabilitation programs.
Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles
Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754
Macovei, S.; Doroftei, I.
As some studies show, the number of people over 65 years old increases constantly, leading to the need of solution to provide services regarding patient mobility. Diseases, accidents and neurologic problems affect hundreds of people every day, causing pain and lost of motor functions. The ability of using the upper limb is indispensable for a human being in everyday activities, making easy tasks like drinking a glass of water a real challenge. We can agree that physiotherapy promotes recovery, but not at an optimal level, due to limited financial and human resources. Hence, the need of robot-assisted rehabilitation emerges. A robot for upper-limb exercises should have a design that can accurately control interaction forces and progressively adapt assistance to the patients’ abilities and also to record the patient's motion and evolution. In this paper a short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices is presented. Our goal is to find the shortcomings of the current developed devices in terms of utility, ease of use and costs, for future development of a mechatronic system for upper limb rehabilitation.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. METHODS: Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper
ten Kate, J; Smit, G.; Breedveld, P.
Goal: This paper aims to provide an overview with quantitative information of existing 3D-printed upper limb prostheses. We will identify the benefits and drawbacks of 3D-printed devices to enable improvement of current devices based on the demands of prostheses users. Methods: A review was
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and ...
Introduction: Essential hyperhidrosis is an idiopathic condition characterized by markedly excessive sweating especially in the hands. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the functional results of radiofrequency thermocoagulation of T2 ganglion in 10 patients suffered from essential hyperhidrosis of both upper limbs.
Gregory, J J; Stephens, A N; Steele, N A; Groeger, J A
Doctors are frequently asked by patients whether it is safe to drive with an upper limb immobilised in a cast. In the literature there are no objective measurements of the effects of upper-limb immobilisation upon driving performance. Eight healthy volunteers performed four 20-min driving circuits in a driving simulator (STISIM 400W), circuits 1 and 4 without immobilisation and circuits 2 and 3 with immobilisation. Immobilisation involved a lightweight below-elbow cast with the thumb left free. Volunteers were randomised to right or left immobilisation for circuit 2, and the contralateral wrist was immobilised for circuit 3. Circuits included urban and rural environments and specific hazards (pedestrians crossing, vehicles emerging from a concealed entrance, traffic lights changing suddenly, avoidance of an oncoming vehicle in the driver's carriageway). Limb immobilisation led to more cautious rural and urban driving, with less adjustment of speed and lateral road position than when unrestricted. However when responding to hazards immobilisation caused less safe driving, with higher speeds, a greater proximity to the hazard before action was taken and less steering adjustment. The effects of restriction upon performance were more prevalent and severe with right-arm immobilisation. Upper-limb immobilisation appears to have little effect on the ability to drive a car unchallenged, but to adversely affect responses to routine hazards. Advice on ability to drive safely should be cautious, as the impact of immobilisation appears to be more subtle and wide ranging than previously thought.
Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian
To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.
Talakoub, Omid; Popovic, Milos R; Navaro, Jessie; Hamani, Clement; Fonoff, Erich T; Wong, Willy
The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain-machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across the trials. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a non-linear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in average spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment.
Full Text Available The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across each trial. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a nonlinear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in averaged spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment.
Full Text Available Questions: Does constraint-induced movement therapy improve activity and participation in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy? Does it improve activity and participation more than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint? Is the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with any level of motor disability. Intervention: The experimental group received constraint-induced movement therapy (defined as restraint of the less affected upper limb during supervised activity practice of the more affected upper limb. The control group received no intervention, sham intervention, or the same dose of upper limb therapy. Outcome measures: Measures of upper limb activity and participation were used in the analysis. Results: Constraint-induced movement therapy was more effective than no/sham intervention in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.63, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.06 and participation (SMD 1.21, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.02. However, constraint-induced movement therapy was no better than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint either in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.05, 95% CI –0.21 to 0.32 or participation (SMD –0.02, 95% CI –0.34 to 0.31. The effect of constraint-induced movement therapy was not related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children. Conclusions: This review suggests that constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than no intervention, but no more effective than the same dose of upper limb practice without restraint. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015024665. [Chiu H-C, Ada L (2016 Constraint-induced movement therapy improves upper limb activity and participation in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 130–137
Yoneda, Masahiro; Kazuki, Kenichi; Uemura, Takuya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takaoka, Kunio
Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-assisted preoperative simulation of malunited fractures in the upper limb. Ten patients with malunited fractures underwent multislice computed tomography of both upper limbs with reconstruction of three-dimensional bone models using three-dimensional (3D) software. Preoperative simulation was comprised of four main procedures: performance of virtual corrective osteotomy, matching of reposition with a mirror-image model of the unaffected side, creating new data for the bone defect, and machining of an hydroxyapatite block as bone graft. In addition, we used full-sized three-dimensional virtual reality modeling with a rapid prototyping molding device, and performed preoperative rehearsals of osteotomies using plaster models. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. This technique permits the surgeon to recognize and correct three-dimensional deformities of malunited fracture with both accuracy and precision. (author)
Fuller, Louise M; El-Ansary, Doa; Button, Brenda M; Corbett, Monique; Snell, Greg; Marasco, Silvana; Holland, Anne E
To investigate the effect of a supervised upper limb (UL) program (SULP) compared to no supervised UL program (NULP) after lung transplantation (LTx). Randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapy gym. Participants (N=80; mean age, 56±11y; 37 [46%] men) were recruited after LTx. All participants underwent lower limb strength thrice weekly and endurance training. Participants randomized to SULP completed progressive UL strength training program using handheld weights and adjustable pulley equipment. Overall bodily pain was rated on the visual analog scale. Shoulder flexion and abduction muscle strength were measured on a hand held dynamometer. Health related quality of life was measured with Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form health Survey and the Quick Dash. Measurements were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months by blinded assessors. After 6 weeks of training, participants in the SULP (n=41) had less overall bodily pain on the visual analog scale than did participants in the NULP (n=36) (mean VAS bodily pain score, 2.1±1.3cm vs 3.8±1.7cm; P<.001) as well as greater UL strength than did participants in the NULP (mean peak force, 8.4±4.0Nm vs 6.7±2.8Nm; P=.037). At 12 weeks, participants in the SULP better quality of life related to bodily pain (76±17 vs 66±26; P=.05), but at 6 months there were no differences between the groups in any outcome measures. No serious adverse events were reported. UL rehabilitation results in short-term improvements in pain and muscle strength after LTx, but no longer-term effects were evident. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.
Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; van der Sluis, Corry K
The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items related to personal characteristics, type of deficiency and participation in sports. Of the 175 respondents, 57% participated in sports for at least 60 min/week (athletes). Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that the presence of an additional health problem hindering sports participation (β=-1.31, psports participation. For individuals with an acquired ULD, a medium education level (β=0 0.77, p=0.108) and participation in sports before their amputation (β=1.11, p=0.007) had a positive influence on sports participation. The desire to stay healthy and the pleasure derived from sports participation represented the main reasons for participation in sports according to athletes. The presence of an additional medical problem and a lack of motivation were reasons for non-athletes to not participate in sports. The majority of individuals with ULD participate in sports regularly. The presence of an additional medical problem, as well as the level of ULD, educational level and participation in sports before amputation, was related to participation in sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo
After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval balneotherapy and inability to follow commands. Experimental group (Ex) (n=35) was treated with sulphurous baths (31°-33°C) and controlled group (Co) with taped water baths, during 21 days. All patients were additionally treated with kinesitherapy and cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at pbalneotherapy with sulphurous bath on spasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (pbalneotherapy with sulphurous water reduces spasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients.
Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo
Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mailleux, Lisa; Klingels, Katrijn; Fiori, Simona; Simon-Martinez, Cristina; Demaerel, Philippe; Locus, Marlies; Fosseprez, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ortibus, Els; Feys, Hilde
Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups. Seventy-three children with unilateral CP (mean age 10 years 2 months) were classified according to lesion timing: malformations (N = 2), periventricular white matter (PWM, N = 42) and cortical and deep grey matter (CDGM, N = 29) lesions. Neuroanatomical damage was scored using a semi-quantitative MRI scale. UL function was assessed at body function and activity level. CDGM lesions were more pronounced compared to PWM lesions (p = 0.0003). Neuroanatomical scores were correlated with a higher degree to UL function in the CDGM group (r s = -0.39 to r s = -0.84) compared to the PWM group (r rb = -0.42 to r s = -0.61). Regression analysis found lesion location and extent to explain 75% and 65% (p < 0.02) respectively, of the variance in AHA performance in the CDGM group, but only 24% and 12% (p < 0.03) in the PWM group. In the CDGM group, lesion location and extent seems to impact more on UL function compared to the PWM group. In children with PWM lesions, other factors like corticospinal tract (re)organization and structural connectivity may play an additional role. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.
Lynsay R. Whelan
Full Text Available While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008, only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss. Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.
Pollard Henry P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.
Luke, Carolyn; Dodd, Karen J; Brock, Kim
To determine the effectiveness of the Bobath concept at reducing upper limb impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions after stroke. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials published between 1966 and 2003. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for the following inclusion criteria: population of adults with upper limb disability after stroke; stated use of the Bobath concept aimed at improving upper limb disability in isolation from other approaches; outcomes reflecting changes in upper limb impairment, activity limitation or participation restriction. Of the 688 articles initially identified, eight met the inclusion criteria. Five were randomized controlled trials, one used a single-group crossover design and two were single-case design studies. Five studies measured impairments including shoulder pain, tone, muscle strength and motor control. The Bobath concept was found to reduce shoulder pain better than cryotherapy, and to reduce tone compared to no intervention and compared to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). However, no difference was detected for changes in tone between the Bobath concept and a functional approach. Differences did not reach significance for measures of muscle strength and motor control. Six studies measured activity limitations, none of these found the Bobath concept was superior to other therapy approaches. Two studies measured changes in participation restriction and both found equivocal results. Comparisons of the Bobath concept with other approaches do not demonstrate superiority of one approach over the other at improving upper limb impairment, activity or participation. However, study limitations relating to methodological quality, the outcome measures used and contextual factors investigated limit the ability to draw conclusions. Future research should use sensitive upper limb measures, trained Bobath therapists and homogeneous samples to identify the influence of
Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M
Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke. To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation. Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention. Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip. Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fernando Max Lima
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify useful electronic grip dynamometry parameters to track differences between trained (TR and untrained (UT participants, and between dominant (DO and non-dominant (ND limbs as a consequence of upper limbs muscle fatigue following 10 RM tests of the brachial biceps. This experimental study with transversal design involved 18 young adult males, of whom 9 were untrained and 9 were experienced in resistance training.Isometric grip force was evaluated (30 seconds long previous and after 10RM tests by means of a G200 Model grip dynamometer with precision load cell (Biometrics(r. Significant differences between initial and final measurements were found only for trained participants: Peak force for TR-DO (67.1 vs 55.5 kgf, p = .0277; Raw average for TR-DO (46.96 vs 42.22 kgf, p = .0464, and for TR-ND (40.34 vs 36.13 kgf, p = .0277. Electronic grip dynamometry efficiently identified upper limbs fatigue in trained participants, being raw average measurements the best parameter.
Jabeen, Tahira; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; Rehman, Atiq Ur; Ahmed, Sajjad
It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, ptraits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience.
Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.
Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)
Full Text Available Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well.
Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Cancio, Jill
Case series. A salvaged limb is one that has undergone a major traumatic injury, followed by repeated surgical attempts in order to avoid amputation. Psychological recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been examined in a number of studies. However, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage are understudied in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of psychosocial adaptation for 3 trauma cases after UE limb salvage. The Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory was used to assess psychosocial adaptation. Physical function outcomes (pain, range of motion, edema, sensation, and dexterity) are presented. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand measure was used to assess perceived disability. Medical and rehabilitation history are discussed for each case, in order to provide in-depth understanding of the impact of these injuries. Reactions to injury varied across the cases; however, outcomes suggest that psychosocial adaptation may be influenced by the experience of pain, the ability to participate in valued roles and activities, and having a supportive social network. For this population, therapists may consider emphasizing pain management, focusing on client-centered goals and interventions, and facilitating peer support. Providers should closely monitor patients for signs of poor adaptation, such as hand-hiding behaviors. This study is among the first to examine psychological outcomes for the UE limb salvage population. Future research would be beneficial to provide deeper understanding of the psychosocial challenges for these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Central and peripheral neural blockade techniques are popular for lower and upper limb surgeries respectively. Lower limb surgery is amenable to central neural blockade techniques, anatomical and physiological imperatives makes peripheral neural blockade more suited for upper limb surgeries. We looked ...
Waters, J. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Curtis, P. D.; Maddison, B. J.; Harwood, R. S.
The Microwave Limb Sounder was designed to map the concentrations of trace gases from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, to improve understanding of the photochemical reactions which take place in this part of the atmosphere. The instrument will measure the intensity of thermal radiation from molecules in the atmosphere at frequencies corresponding to rotational absorption bands of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and water vapor. Molecular concentration profiles will be determined over a height range of 15 to 80 km (20 to 45 km for C10). The 57 deg inclination orbit proposed for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will allow global coverage.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a survey on the state of the art of elements and parts for the upper limb rehabilitation. As a matter of fact, the use of technological, and specifically of robotic, devices is entering in the habits of clinical approaches, due to their ability to work efficiently and to be able to obtain, at least, the same rehabilitation results of manual therapy. At the same time, the therapists can change his/her role in rehabilitation activity from a physical contribution to an intellectual/motivational one.
MacLellan, M J; Catavitello, G; Ivanenko, Y P; Lacquaniti, F
Habitual quadrupeds have been shown to display a planar covariance of segment elevation angle waveforms in the fore and hind limbs during many forms of locomotion. The purpose of the current study was to determine if humans generate similar patterns in the upper and lower limbs during hand-foot crawling. Nine healthy young adults performed hand-foot crawling on a treadmill at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 km/h. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the segment elevation angle waveforms for the upper (upper arm, lower arm, and hand) and lower (thigh, shank, and foot) limbs separately. The planarity of the elevation angle waveforms was determined using the sum of the variance explained by the first two PCs and the orientation of the covariance plane was quantified using the direction cosines of the eigenvector orthogonal to the plane, projected upon each of the segmental semi-axes. Results showed that planarity of segment elevation angles was maintained in the upper and lower limbs (explained variance >97%), although a slight decrease was present in the upper limb when crawling at 3 km/h. The orientation of the covariance plane was highly limb-specific, consistent with animal studies and possibly related to the functional neural control differences between the upper and lower limbs. These results may suggest that the motor patterns stored in the central nervous system for quadrupedal locomotion may be retained through evolution and may still be exploited when humans perform such tasks.
Full Text Available Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord.
Ahmad Zuhaidi Muhammad Fareez; Abdol Rahman Mohd Nasrull
This paper provides an overview of the various methods that have been developed for the assessment of risk factors for upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. This paper is essential as upper limb disorders have been known as one of the prime cause of work-related disability in various countries. The methods used for the assessment were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART), the Job Strain Index ...
Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart
There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.
Burton, A Kim; Kendall, Nicholas A S; Pearce, Brian G; Birrell, Lisa N; Bainbridge, L Christopher
Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are clinically challenging and responsible for considerable work loss. There is a need to determine effective approaches for their management. To determine evidence-based management strategies for work-relevant ULDs and explore whether a biopsychosocial approach is appropriate. Literature review using a best evidence synthesis. Data from articles identified through systematic searching of electronic databases and citation tracking were extracted into evidence tables. The information was synthesized into high-level evidence statements, which were ordered into themes covering classification/diagnosis, epidemiology, associations/risks and management/treatment, focusing on return to work or work retention and taking account of distinctions between non-specific complaints and specific diagnoses. Neither biomedical treatment nor ergonomic workplace interventions alone offer an optimal solution; rather, multimodal interventions show considerable promise, particularly for occupational outcomes. Early return to work, or work retention, is an important goal for most cases and may be facilitated, where necessary, by transitional work arrangements. The emergent evidence indicates that successful management strategies require all the players to be on side and acting in a coordinated fashion; this requires engaging employers and workers to participate. The biopsychosocial model applies: biological considerations should not be ignored, but psychosocial factors are more influential for occupational outcomes. Implementation of interventions that address the full range of psychosocial issues will require a cultural shift in the way the relationship between upper limb complaints and work is conceived and handled. Dissemination of evidence-based messages can contribute to the needed cultural shift.
Nadas, I.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Pisla, D.; Carbone, G.
The present study highlights the advantages of robotic systems for post-stroke rehabilitation of the upper limb. The latest demographic studies illustrate a continuous increase of the average life span, which leads to a continuous increase of stroke incidents and patients requiring rehabilitation. Some studies estimate that by 2030 the number of physical therapists will be insufficient for the patients requiring physical rehabilitation, imposing a shift in the current methodologies. A viable option is the implementation of robotic systems that assist the patient in performing rehabilitation exercises, the physical therapist role being to establish the therapeutic program for each patient and monitor their individual progress. Using a set of clinical measurements for the upper limb motions, the analysis of rehabilitation robotic systems provides a comparative study between the motions required by clinicians and the ones that robotic systems perform for different therapeutic exercises. A critical analysis of existing robots is performed using several classifications: mechanical design, assistance type, actuation and power transmission, control systems and human robot interaction (HRI) strategies. This classification will determine a set of pre-requirements for the definition of new concepts and efficient solutions for robotic assisted rehabilitation therapy.
Murphy, Frederick; Gunn, Heather
This paper provides an initial debate on the use of eponyms used in trauma imaging. This is followed by a review of common and interesting eponyms associated with upper limb trauma. The origin of these eponyms, which are still used in clinical practice, is often unclear or not actually attributed to the originator of the fracture type. Trauma eponyms are considered within this paper from the distal to the proximal aspect of the upper limb. A brief biography of famous eponymous surgeons gives insight and background to their work and professional achievements. Each fracture is then described briefly, supported by the relevant image and a concise summary of a radiological report. Since accuracy and conciseness are essential elements of any medical communication, the use of terms that are well understood further facilitate clarity. For this reason some knowledge of the originator and a full description of the eponymic fracture, plus its etymology, is still an essential part of clinical and radiographic teaching. This paper also argues that the radiographic report should always describe soft tissue and bony injuries with the concise use of standard anatomic radiographic terminology.
Zhou, Qianxiang; Chen, Yuhong; Ma, Chao; Zheng, Xiaohui
Fatigue is believed to be a major contributory factor to occupational injuries in machine operators. The development of accurate and usable techniques to measure operator fatigue is therefore important. In this study, we used a novel method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) of the biceps brachii and the Borg scale to evaluate local muscle fatigue in the upper limb after isometric muscle action. Thirteen young males performed isometric actions with the upper limb at different force levels. sEMG activities of the biceps brachii were recorded during the actions. Borg scales were used to evaluate the subjective sensation of local fatigue of the biceps brachii after the actions. sEMG activities were analyzed using the one-third band octave method, and an equation to determine the degree of fatigue was derived based on the relationship between the variable and the Borg scale. The results showed that the relationship could be expressed by a conic curve, and could be used to evaluate muscle fatigue during machine operation.
Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro
The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.
Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette
Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivor...
Bravini, Elisabetta; Franchignoni, Franco; Giordano, Andrea; Sartorio, Francesco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano; Foti, Calogero
To perform a comprehensive analysis of the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis (RA). Prospective, single-group observational design. Freestanding rehabilitation center. Convenience sample of Italian-speaking subjects with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (N=174). Not applicable. The Italian version of the ULFI. Data were analyzed using parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and RA for evaluating dimensionality, functioning of rating scale categories, item fit, hierarchy of item difficulties, and reliability indices. Parallel analysis revealed 2 factors explaining 32.5% and 10.7% of the response variance. RA confirmed the failure of the unidimensionality assumption, and 6 items out of the 25 misfitted the Rasch model. When the analysis was rerun excluding the misfitting items, the scale showed acceptable fit values, loading meaningfully to a single factor. Item separation reliability and person separation reliability were .98 and .89, respectively. Cronbach alpha was .92. RA revealed weakness of the scale concerning dimensionality and internal construct validity. However, a set of 19 ULFI items defined through the statistical process demonstrated a unidimensional structure, good psychometric properties, and clinical meaningfulness. These findings represent a useful starting point for further analyses of the tool (based on modern psychometric approaches and confirmatory factor analysis) in larger samples, including different patient populations and nationalities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger
This paper presents the initial evaluation of a Virtual Peg Insertion Test developed to assess sensorimotor functions of arm and hand using an instrumented tool, virtual reality and haptic feedback. Nine performance parameters derived from kinematic and kinetic data were selected and compared between two groups of healthy subjects performing the task with the dominant and non-dominant hand, as well as with a group of chronic stroke subjects suffering from different levels of upper limb impairment. Results showed significantly smaller grasping forces applied by the stroke subjects compared to the healthy subjects. The grasping force profiles suggest a poor coordination between position and grasping for the stroke subjects, and the collision forces with the virtual board were found to be indicative of sensory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that the analyzed parameters could be valid indicators of impairment. © 2011 IEEE
Tokarski, Tomasz; Roman-Liu, Danuta
This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of physical disability (paraplegia) and sensory disability (deafness) on motor skills of the upper limbs. Studies were distinguished by two parameters: the nature of the control curve (sine or random) and the magnitude of the isometric force exerted on the lever (10 N, 20 N, 40 N, 80 N). A comparison of the quality of manual force control in a visual detection task among groups of people with sensory disability (deaf), people with physical disability (paraplegic) and people without disability showed differences among those groups. Values of force above 20 N create conditions of lower quality of control and of direction of force exertion outside the body. At the same time, the study proved that people with some types of disability can perform certain work tasks as effectively as people without disability.
Posteraro, Federico; Crea, Simona; Mazzoleni, Stefano
post stroke patients. METHODS: A new robotic device able to automatically assess upper-limb spasticity during passive and active mobilization has been developed. The elbow spasticity of five post stroke patients has been assessed by using the new device and by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS......). After the first assessment, subjects were treated with botulin toxin injections, and then underwent 10 sessions of robotic treatments. After the treatment, subjects spasticity was assessed by using the robotic device and the MAS score. RESULTS: In four out of five patients, the botulin toxin injection...... and robotic treatment resulted in the improvement of the MAS score; in three patients the robotic measures were able to detect the MAS changes. In one subject botulin toxin was not effective and the robotic device was able to detect the lack of effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: By using the robotic device some...
Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P
Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods.
Ferris Daniel P
motor output up to 32%. Enhancement observed in experimental data exceeded 32%. Enhancement within this symmetrical four-CPG neural architecture was more sensitive to relatively small interlimb coupling gains. Excitatory sensory feedback gains could produce greater output amplitudes, but larger gains were required for entrainment compared to inhibitory sensory feedback gains. Conclusions Based on these simulations, symmetrical interlimb coupling can account for much, but not all of the excitatory neural coupling between upper and lower limbs during rhythmic locomotor-like movements.
The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.
A graphics system displaying both upper limb posture and opening-closing of a prosthetic hand was developed for realtime operation of our biomimetic myoelectric hand simulator, Posture of the upper...
Mazzone, Elena S; Mayhew, Anna; Montes, Jacqueline; Ramsey, Danielle; Fanelli, Lavinia; Young, Sally Dunaway; Salazar, Rachel; De Sanctis, Roberto; Pasternak, Amy; Glanzman, Allan; Coratti, Giorgia; Civitello, Matthew; Forcina, Nicola; Gee, Richard; Duong, Tina; Pane, Marika; Scoto, Mariacristina; Pera, Maria Carmela; Messina, Sonia; Tennekoon, Gihan; Day, John W; Darras, Basil T; De Vivo, Darryl C; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Mercuri, Eugenio
There is a growing need for a robust clinical measure to assess upper limb motor function in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), as the available scales lack sensitivity at the extremes of the clinical spectrum. We report the development of the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM), an assessment specifically designed for upper limb function in SMA patients. An international panel with specific neuromuscular expertise performed a thorough review of scales currently available to assess upper limb function in SMA. This review facilitated a revision of the existing upper limb function scales to make a more robust clinical scale. Multiple revisions of the scale included statistical analysis and captured clinically relevant changes to fulfill requirements by regulators and advocacy groups. The resulting RULM scale shows good reliability and validity, making it a suitable tool to assess upper extremity function in the SMA population for multi-center clinical research. Muscle Nerve 55: 869-874, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jaramillo, Jeffrey P; Johanson, M Elise; Kiratli, B Jenny
Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program. Fourteen individuals with chronic SCI (9 tetraplegia, 5 paraplegia). We measured upper limb muscle activation with surface electromyography (EMG) during Wii Sports video game play. Muscle activation was recorded from the playing arm during 4 selected games and normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Heart rate and upper limb motion were recorded simultaneously with EMG. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze differences in muscle activation between participants with paraplegia versus tetraplegia and compare gaming with traditional arm exercises with light weights. A Friedman 2-way analysis of variance identified key muscle groups active during game play. Overall muscle activation across the games was not different between those with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Heart rate during video game play for tennis and boxing were on average 10 to 20 beats/minute above resting heart rate. The magnitude of EMG was relatively greater for traditional arm exercises with light weights compared with game play. The selected Wii games were able to elicit upper extremity muscle activation and elevated heart rates for individuals with SCI that may be used to target therapeutic outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient’s motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e. phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis.Results: Both event-related brain potentials and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use.
Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.
Ponsen, M.M.; Daffertshofer, A.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Beek, P.J.; Berendse, H.W.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate complex upper limb motor function in newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Four different unimanual upper limb motor tasks were applied to 13 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. In a
Pathak, Yagna; Johnson, Michelle
Robot therapy has emerged in the last few decades as a tool to help patients with neurological injuries relearn motor tasks and improve their quality of life. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple model of the human arm for children affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The Simulink based model presented here shows a comparison for children with and without disabilities (ages 6-15) with normal and reduced range of motion in the upper limb. The model incorporates kinematic and dynamic considerations required for activities of daily living. The simulation was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and will eventually be integrated with a robotic counterpart to develop a physical robot that will provide assistance in activities of daily life (ADLs) to children with CP while also aiming to improve motor recovery.
Thomson, Katie; Pollock, Alex; Bugge, Carol; Brady, Marian
Rehabilitation using commercial gaming devices is a new concept for stroke care. Commercial gaming devices such as Nintendo Wii or Sony PlayStation encourage high repetition of arm movements and are being introduced into some clinical settings. The evidence base for gaming use in rehabilitation is growing rapidly and there is a need to systematically synthesise research. Our review aims to integrate evidence on how gaming is being used, explore patient/therapist experience and synthesise evidence of effectiveness. An integrative systematic review was undertaken searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2013), Medline (2013), Embase (2013) and twelve additional databases. Two review authors independently selected studies based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Nineteen studies including 215 patients met inclusion criteria. Studies were typically small scale feasibility studies using a range of research designs, limiting the ability to reach generalised conclusions. Results have been tabulated (activities of daily living, upper limb function/ movement) and qualitative themes identified. Findings suggest that most patients enjoy using commercial gaming and can tolerate 180 mins per week without significant adverse effects. A trend towards improvement was noted for upper limb function/ movement. Few studies recorded outcomes related to activities of daily living or focused on understanding patients' experiences of this intervention. Commercial gaming can provide high intensity upper limb practice however there is insufficient high quality evidence to reach generalisable conclusions about risks or benefits on activities of daily living or upper limb function/movement. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2014 World Stroke Organization.
Duret, Christophe; Mazzoleni, Stefano
During the last two decades, extensive interaction between clinicians and engineers has led to the development of systems that stimulate neural plasticity to optimize motor recovery after neurological lesions. This has resulted in the expansion of the field of robotics for rehabilitation. Studies in patients with stroke-related upper-limb paresis have shown that robotic rehabilitation can improve motor capacity. However, few other applications have been evaluated (e.g. tremor, peripheral nerve injuries or other neurological diseases). This paper presents an overview of the current use of upper limb robotic systems for neurorehabilitation, and highlights the rationale behind their use for the assessment and treatment of common neurological disorders. Rehabilitation robots are little integrated in clinical practice, except after stroke. Although few studies have been carried out to evaluate their effectiveness, evidence from the neurosciences and indications from pilot studies suggests that upper limb robotic rehabilitation can be applied safely in various other neurological conditions. Rehabilitation robots provide an intensity, quality and dose of treatment that exceeds therapist-mediated rehabilitation. Moreover, the use of force fields, multi-sensory environments, feedback etc. renders such rehabilitation engaging and motivating. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation robots in neurological pathologies other than stroke.
Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Vallero, Fulvia; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa
The aim of this study was to evaluate functional recovery in a subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a simultaneous fracture at the upper limb, taking into account the site of upper limb injury. Of 760 patients admitted consecutively to the authors' rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture, 700 were retrospectively investigated. Functional outcome was assessed using Barthel Index scores. In 49 of the 700 patients, a single fall resulted in both a hip fracture and a fracture of either wrist (n = 34) or proximal humerus (n = 15). The patients with concomitant shoulder fractures had lower median Barthel Index scores after rehabilitation (70 vs. 90, P = 0.003), lower median Barthel Index effectiveness (57.1 vs. 76.9, P = 0.018), and prolonged median length of stay (42 vs. 36 days, P = 0.011) than did the patients with isolated hip fractures. Significant differences persisted after adjustment for six potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio for achieving a Barthel Index score lower than 85 was 6.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-26.81; P = 0.007) for the patients with concomitant shoulder fractures. Conversely, no prognostic disadvantages were associated with concomitant wrist fractures. Data show a worse functional recovery and a prolonged length of stay in the subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a concomitant fracture at the proximal humerus, but not at the wrist.
Garcia-Santibanez, Rocio; Dietz, Alexander R; Bucelli, Robert C; Zaidman, Craig M
Duration of training to reliably measure nerve cross-sectional area with ultrasound is unknown. A retrospective review was performed of ultrasound data, acquired and recorded by 2 examiners-an expert and either a trainee with 2 months (novice) or a trainee with 12 months (experienced) of experience. Data on median, ulnar, and radial nerves were reviewed for 42 patients. Interrater reliability was good and varied most with nerve site but little with experience. Coefficient of variation (CoV) range was 9.33%-22.5%. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was good to excellent (0.65-95) except ulnar nerve-wrist/forearm and radial nerve-humerus (ICC = 0.39-0.59). Interrater differences did not vary with nerve size or body mass index. Expert-novice and expert-experienced interrater differences and CoV were similar. The ulnar nerve-wrist expert-novice interrater difference decreased with time (r s = -0.68, P = 0.001). A trainee with at least 2 months of experience can reliably measure upper limb nerves. Reliability varies by nerve and location and slightly improves with time. Muscle Nerve 57: 189-192, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Jing, Bo
The EMG activity of upper limb muscles during human gait has rarely been studied previously. It was examined in 20 normal volunteers in four conditions: walking on a treadmill (1) with unrestrained natural arm swing (Normal), (2) while volitionally holding the arms still (Held), (3) with the arms immobilized (Bound), and (4) with the arms swinging in phase with the ipsilateral legs, i.e. opposite-to-normal phasing (Anti-Normal). Normal arm swing involved weak rhythmical lengthening and shortening contractions of arm and shoulder muscles. Phasic muscle activity was needed to keep the unrestricted arms still during walking (Held), indicating a passive component of arm swing. An active component, possibly programmed centrally, existed as well, because some EMG signals persisted when the arms were immobilized during walking (Bound). Anti-Normal gait involved stronger EMG activity than Normal walking and was uneconomical. The present results indicate that normal arm swing has both passive and active components. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego
How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot‐assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three‐dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot‐assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patientʹs EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patientʹs motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post‐stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot‐assisted training with motor imagery‐ based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot-assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three-dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patient's EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patient's motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post-stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot-assisted training with motor imagery-based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.
Darling, W G; Hondzinski, J M; Harper, J G
and variable errors for fingertip placement relative to the sternum were not affected by variations in gaze direction or head orientation. Thus, the perceived position of the trunk-fixed median plane is not altered by varying gaze direction. The implications of these results for mechanisms underlying kinesthetic perceptions and their potential roles in programming of upper limb movements to visual targets are discussed.
Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Sieverdes, John C; Gobbo, Stefano; Alberton, Cristine L; Neunhaeuserer, Daniel; Maso, Stefano; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea
The aim of this study was to evaluate a tailored physical activity protocol performed in a work environment with a group of female workers employed in manual precision tasks to reduce upper limb pain. Sixty female subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The IG was administered of a 6-month, twice-a-week, tailored exercise program, whereas the CG received no intervention. The IG showed a reduction on shoulder pain accompanied by increases on the range of motion measures. In addition, reductions in upper limb pain and neck disability were detected with concomitant increases in grip strength. This study indicated positive effects of a tailored workplace exercise protocol in female workers exposed to moderate risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, showing clinically meaningful reductions of pain symptoms and disability on upper limb and neck regions.
Abd Razak Noor Syafiqa
Full Text Available It is important to design ergonomic methods or assessment with a high usability and good ergonomic features, so the method is easily adaptable to the task and the workplace environment. Usability is a measurement on how well the user can use that functionality. The study converged on testing the usability of the new tools for assessing ULDs namely as Upper Limb Risk Assessment (UPLIRA. The UPLIRA method was evaluated by 6 students (3 undergraduate students and 3 postgraduates students from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM who are conducting research in ergonomic. From the feedback survey of UPLIRA method, the observers agree that the prototype of UPLIRA tool was applicable to workplace assessment for the wide range of jobs/task (mean 4.00, SD:0.632 with 83% percentage of agreement . They also indicate that UPLIRA method is quick to use (mean 3.67, SD:1.033 with percentage agreement of 67%. The scoring system and action level was rated as easy to understand (mean 3.67, SD:1.211 and (mean 4.17, SD:0.408. Conclusively, the UPLIRA method was rated as straightforward to use, applicable to wide range of tasks, and time saving as assessment can be completed within 10 minutes. In addition, the UPLIRA assessment covers an extensive range of physical, psychosocial, work organizational, and individual risk factors.
Nicoletti, S; Consonni, D; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Battevi, N; Colombini, Daniela; Ambrosi, L
The epidemiological evidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) due to repetitive strain and movements in the various industries has been collected in the literature mainly through cross-sectional surveys. In particular there are no contributions so far regarding the upholstered furniture industry with a longitudinal design. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence rate of WMSDs such as hand-wrist and shoulder tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and epicondylitis in exposed workers of three large companies of the upholstered furniture industry in a large geographic area of southern Italy. The OCRA method, recommended by international standard ISO 11228-3 and EN 1005-5, was used for risk assessment. The following work tasks were considered:.filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. A total population of 5,278 subjects (exposed n=2927, controls n=2351) was investigated. The person/year at risk parameters were calculated from 1 January 2000, or from the date of engagement if later, until the first diagnosis of WMSD or, in absence of disorders, until the end of the study, i.e. 31 December 2004. Disorders occurring after the first were not considered. A multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate relationships between rates. Incidence rates correlated with risk classes of the OCRA index. An incidence rate of WMSDs higher than 1.2 cases per 100 person/year may be considered as a threshold value to suspect an occupational exposure to repetitive strain and movements warranting further investigation. The analysis of single factors did not show a greater predisposition of the female gender, with the single exception of the carpal tunnel syndrome (RR 2.92; 95% CI 1.57-5.43). Shoulder disorders affected mainly male leather-cutting operators (RR 4.97; 95% CI 2.03-12.16) and among all the factors influencing risk (frequency, force, posture, additional risk factors, pauses) posture seems to
Moshe, S; Izhaki, R; Chodick, G; Segal, N; Yagev, Y; Finestone, A S; Juven, Y
Return to work (RTW) is a key goal in the proper management of upper limb disorders (ULDs). ULDs stem from diverse medical aetiologies and numerous variables can affect RTW. The abundance of factors, their complex interactions and the diversity of human behaviour make it difficult to pinpoint those at risk of not returning to work (NRTW) and to intervene effectively. To weigh various clinical, functional and occupational parameters that influence RTW in ULD sufferers and to identify significant predictors. A retrospective analysis of workers with ULD referred to an occupational health clinic and further examined by an occupational therapist. Functional assessment included objective and subject ive [Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score] parameters. Quantification of work requirements was based on definitions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles web site. RTW status was confirmed by a follow-up telephone questionnaire. Among the 52 subjects, the RTW rate was 42%. The DASH score for the RTW group was 27 compared with 56 in the NRTW group (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, only the DASH score was found to be a significant independent predictor of RTW (P < 0.05). Physicians and rehabilitation staff should regard a high DASH score as a warning sign when assessing RTW prospects in ULD cases. It may be advisable to focus on workers with a large discrepancy between high DASH scores and low objective disability and to concentrate efforts appropriately. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van der Sluis, Corry K.; Hartman, Paul P.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
Objectives: To explore job adjustments, job satisfaction, and health experience among employees with an upper limb amputation and to compare the results with those of lower limb amputees and control subjects. Methods: Amputees were recruited from data files of a large European University Medical
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Nienhuys, K.; Zijp, N.I.; Beek, P.J.; Kwakkel, G.
Background and Purpose - Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy,
Entrapment neuropathies, particularly those affecting upper limbs, are common reasons for referral for nerve conduction studies (NCS). However, concordance between clinical findings and NCS findings, especially in patients being considered for intervention including decompressive surgery, has not been assessed.
Jodoin, Marianne; Rouleau, Dominique M; Charlebois-Plante, Camille; Benoit, Benoit; Leduc, Stéphane; Laflamme, G-Yves; Gosselin, Nadia; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; De Beaumont, Louis
This study compares the incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) detected at follow-up visits (retrospective diagnosis) in patients suffering from an isolated limb trauma, with the incidence rate held by the hospital records (prospective diagnosis) of the sampled cohort. This study also seeks to determine which types of fractures present with the highest incidence of mild TBI. Retrospective assessment of mild TBI among orthopaedic monotrauma patients, randomly selected for participation in an Orthopaedic clinic of a Level I Trauma Hospital. Patients in the remission phase of a limb fracture were recruited between August 2014 and May 2015. No intervention was done (observational study). Standardized semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients to retrospectively assess for mild TBI at the time of the fracture. Emergency room related medical records of all patients were carefully analyzed to determine whether a prospective mild TBI diagnosis was made following the accident. A total of 251 patients were recruited (54% females, Mean age=49). Study interview revealed a 23.5% incidence rate of mild TBI compared to an incidence rate of 8.8% for prospective diagnosis (χ(2)=78.47; plimb monotrauma (29.6%; n=42/142) are significantly more at risk of sustaining a mild TBI compared to lower limb fractures (15.6%; n=17/109) (χ(2)=6.70; p=0.010). More specifically, patients with a proximal upper limb injury were significantly more at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI (40.6%; 26/64) compared to distal upper limb fractures (20.25%; 16/79) (χ(2)=7.07; p=0.008). Results suggest an important concomitance of mild TBI among orthopaedic trauma patients, the majority of which go undetected during acute care. Patients treated for an upper limb fracture are particularly at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
P?rez-M?rmol, Jose Manuel; Garc?a-R?os, M? Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J.; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferr?ndiz, Mar?a Encarnaci?n
Background Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients? independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive trainin...
Tung, James Y; Gage, William H; Poupart, Pascal; McIlroy, William E
While assisting with balance is a primary reason for rollator use, few studies have examined how the upper limbs are used for balance. This study examines upper limb contributions to balance control during rollator-assisted walking. We hypothesized that there would be an increased upper limb contribution, measured by mean vertical loading (Fz) and variation in frontal plane center-of-pressure (COPhigh), when walking balance is challenged/impaired. Experiment 1 compared straight-line and beam-walking in young adults (n = 11). As hypothesized, Fz and COPhighincreased in beam-walking compared to baseline (mean Fz: 13.7 vs. 9.1% body weight (BW), p < 0.001, RMS COPhigh: 1.35 vs. 1.07 cm, p < 0.001). Experiment 2 compared older adults who regularly use rollators (RU, n = 10) to older adult controls (CTL, n = 10). The predicted higher upper limb contribution in the RU group was not supported. However, when individuals were grouped by balance impairment, those with the lowest Berg Balance scores (< 45) demonstrated greater speed-adjusted COPhigh than those with higher scores (p = 0.013). Furthermore, greater COPhigh and Fz were correlated to greater reduction in step width, supporting the role of upper limb contributions to frontal plane balance. This work will guide studies assessing reliance on rollators by providing a basis for measurement of upper limb balance contributions.
Panzone, I; Carra, G; Melosi, A; Rappazzo, G; Innocenti, A
In order to assess the prevalence of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs, a total population of 29 female workers in an industrial vegetable preserving plant were examined. The average age of the workers was 41.3 years (SD = 9.2), and their average length of service was 16.7 years (SD = 7.2). Only 20% of the workers were anamnestically negative, whilst 80% had one or more disorders attributable to repetitive trauma of the upper limbs. The disorders showed no prevalence for the right side, a finding in line with the risk analysis which indicated that both limbs were equally used. The results of the risk analysis and clinical assessment confirm that high-frequency actions, combined with improper posture and a shortage of suitable recovery times, play a causal role in determining the onset of the disorders studied.
Mano, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Sayaka; Haga, Nobuhiko
The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. Cross-sectional survey. The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all. To measure their adaptive behaviour and motor skills, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition was used. They were evaluated on the domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills. We also examined the relationship of the scores with age. There were no statistically significant scores for domains or subdomains. The domain standard score of motor skills was significantly lower than the median scores of the domains and was negatively correlated with age. Children with upper limb deficiencies have individual weaknesses in motor skill behaviours, and these weaknesses increase with age. It may be helpful in considering approaches to rehabilitation and the prescription of prostheses to consider the characteristics and course of children's motor skill behaviours. Clinical relevance Even if children with unilateral upper limb deficiencies seem to compensate well for their affected limb function, they have or will experience individual weaknesses in motor skills. We should take this into consideration to develop better strategies for rehabilitation and prostheses prescriptions.
Sánchez-Herrera, P.; Balaguer, C.; Jardón, A.
Robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a growing field that seeks to incorporate advances in robotics combined with neuroscience and rehabilitation to define new methods for treating problems related with neurological diseases. In this paper, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the contribution of robotics for upper limb neurorehabilitation, highlighting its relation with the rehabilitation cycle, and to clarify the prospective research directions in the development of more autonomous rehabilitation processes. With this aim, first, a study and definition of a general rehabilitation process are made, and then, it is particularized for the case of neurorehabilitation, identifying the components involved in the cycle and their degree of interaction between them. Next, this generic process is compared with the current literature in robotics focused on upper limb treatment, analyzing which components of this rehabilitation cycle are being investigated. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to obtain more autonomous rehabilitation processes are discussed. In addition, based on this study, a series of technical requirements that should be taken into account when designing and implementing autonomous robotic systems for rehabilitation is presented and discussed. PMID:29707189
Oña, E D; Cano-de la Cuerda, R; Sánchez-Herrera, P; Balaguer, C; Jardón, A
Robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a growing field that seeks to incorporate advances in robotics combined with neuroscience and rehabilitation to define new methods for treating problems related with neurological diseases. In this paper, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the contribution of robotics for upper limb neurorehabilitation, highlighting its relation with the rehabilitation cycle, and to clarify the prospective research directions in the development of more autonomous rehabilitation processes. With this aim, first, a study and definition of a general rehabilitation process are made, and then, it is particularized for the case of neurorehabilitation, identifying the components involved in the cycle and their degree of interaction between them. Next, this generic process is compared with the current literature in robotics focused on upper limb treatment, analyzing which components of this rehabilitation cycle are being investigated. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to obtain more autonomous rehabilitation processes are discussed. In addition, based on this study, a series of technical requirements that should be taken into account when designing and implementing autonomous robotic systems for rehabilitation is presented and discussed.
E. D. Oña
Full Text Available Robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a growing field that seeks to incorporate advances in robotics combined with neuroscience and rehabilitation to define new methods for treating problems related with neurological diseases. In this paper, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the contribution of robotics for upper limb neurorehabilitation, highlighting its relation with the rehabilitation cycle, and to clarify the prospective research directions in the development of more autonomous rehabilitation processes. With this aim, first, a study and definition of a general rehabilitation process are made, and then, it is particularized for the case of neurorehabilitation, identifying the components involved in the cycle and their degree of interaction between them. Next, this generic process is compared with the current literature in robotics focused on upper limb treatment, analyzing which components of this rehabilitation cycle are being investigated. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to obtain more autonomous rehabilitation processes are discussed. In addition, based on this study, a series of technical requirements that should be taken into account when designing and implementing autonomous robotic systems for rehabilitation is presented and discussed.
Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine
Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.
upper arm (elbow movement), Upper leg (knee movement) and lower leg ( ankle movement) to provide a physiologically relevant sense of limb movement...Additionally a BOA cable tensioning system is passed through these plates and anchored to the external surface of the socket. When tension is applied the
Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen
The increasing number of people living with poststroke sequelae has stimulated the search for novel ways of providing poststroke rehabilitation without putting additional stress on overburdened health care systems. One of them is the use of commercially available technology and off-the-shelf video games for hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using key word synonyms for stroke, upper limb, and video games. Included studies investigated upper limb stroke rehabilitation using commercially available consoles and video games, reported outcomes that included measures of upper limb functionality, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal written in English. Thirteen studies were identified - 6 published as full articles and 7 as abstracts. Studies were generally small and only 3 were randomized. The gaming systems investigated were the Nintendo Wii (n = 10), EyeToy PlayStation (n = 2), and CyWee Z (n = 1). The Nintendo Wii appears to provide the greatest benefits to patients, with improvements seen in upper extremity function measures such as joint range of motion, hand motor function, grip strength, and dexterity. Three studies indicate that video therapy appears to be safe and that long-term improvements continue at follow-up. At present, the evidence that the use of commercial video games in rehabilitation improves upper limb functionality after stroke is very limited. However, this approach has the potential to provide easily available and affordable stroke rehabilitation therapy in settings where access to therapy is limited by geographical or financial constraints.
Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Biswas, Dwaipayan; Cranny, Andy; Rajan, Amal; Maharatna, Koushik; Achner, Josy; Klemke, Jasmin; Jobges, Michael; Ortmann, Steffen; Langendorfer, Peter
This paper reports an algorithm for the detection of three elementary upper limb movements, i.e., reach and retrieve, bend the arm at the elbow and rotation of the arm about the long axis. We employ two MARG sensors, attached at the elbow and wrist, from which the kinematic properties (joint angles, position) of the upper arm and forearm are calculated through data fusion using a quaternion-based gradient-descent method and a two-link model of the upper limb. By studying the kinematic pattern...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447 we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia and autopod (hand and foot lengths. RESULTS: Highland children (exposed to greater stress had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that
Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.
The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.
Full Text Available This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input–output (TMS I/O curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP, late bereitschafts potential (LBP and also for peak negativity (PN. The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input–output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few research in multiple sclerosis (MS has focused on physical rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction, though the latter strongly influences independent performance of activities of daily living. Upper limb rehabilitation technology could hold promise for complementing traditional MS therapy. Consequently, this pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an 8-week mechanical-assisted training program for improving upper limb muscle strength and functional capacity in MS patients with evident paresis. Methods A case series was applied, with provision of a training program (3×/week, 30 minutes/session, supplementary on the customary maintaining care, by employing a gravity-supporting exoskeleton apparatus (Armeo Spring. Ten high-level disability MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale 7.0-8.5 actively performed task-oriented movements in a virtual real-life-like learning environment with the affected upper limb. Tests were administered before and after training, and at 2-month follow-up. Muscle strength was determined through the Motricity Index and Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT. Results Muscle strength did not change significantly. Significant gains were particularly found in functional capacity tests. After training completion, TEMPA scores improved (p = 0.02, while a trend towards significance was found for the 9HPT (p = 0.05. At follow-up, the TEMPA as well as ARAT showed greater improvement relative to baseline than after the 8-week intervention period (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively. Conclusions The results of present pilot study suggest that upper limb functionality of high-level disability MS patients can be positively influenced by means of a technology-enhanced physical rehabilitation program.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe stroke survivors’ experiences of sensory impairment in the upper limb, the influence of such impairment on daily life, coping strategies used, and sensory training for the affected hand. Design: A qualitative study with a content analysis approach. Subjects: Fifteen post-stroke patients interviewed individually. Results: Five categories emerged from the data: “Changed and varied perception of the sensation”; “Affected movement control”; “Problems using the hand in daily life”; “Various strategies to cope with upper limb disability”; and “Lack of sensory training”. Numbness and tingling, changes in temperature sensitivity, and increased sensitivity to touch and pain were reported. Many subjects had difficulty adjusting their grip force and performing movements with precision. It was problematic and mentally fatiguing managing personal care and carrying out household and leisure activities. Practical adaptations, compensation with vision, increased concentration, and use of the less affected hand were strategies used to overcome difficulties. Despite their problems very few subjects had received any specific sensory training for the hand. Conclusion: Stroke survivors perceive that sensory impairment of the upper limb has a highly negative impact on daily life, but specific rehabilitation for the upper limb is lacking. These findings imply that the clinical management of upper limb sensory impairment after stroke requires more attention.
Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen
Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.
Full Text Available Background: More than 77% of stroke survivors have upper limb dysfunction. The scientific evidence for interventions in upper limb rehabilitation in stroke has shown variable results. To improve health care treatments in this domain it is needed to know what modalities are actually being used by physiotherapists. Methods: A national web-based survey focused in characterizing the profile of Portuguese physiotherapists working in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation was conducted in 237 health institutions (n= 462 physiotherapists. The recruitment was conducted from August to December 2014. Analytic and descriptive analysis were used. Results: A total of 179 physiotherapists from 64 different locations from Portugal answered the survey, with a rate of response of 38.7%. The average age of respondents was 29.25±6.4 years old and predominantly finished the graduation or bachelor degree between 2001 and 2010. More than half hadn´t carried out any specialization in neurologic rehabilitation area. The top 5 modalities most used in the rehabilitation of upper limb in acute stroke are Goal Oriented Tasks (93.4% n=141, Motor Learning (89.4% n=135, Passive Mobilization (88.7% n=134, Task Repetition (87.4% n=132 and Bobath/Neurodevelopmental Therapy (86.9% n=131. Conclusions: The main modalities used for physiotherapists in upper limb rehabilitation in acute stroke have sparse levels of evidence. It is important to alert teachers, formers, physiotherapists and students for interventions with supported scientific results.
Rambaud, Olivier; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Moyen, Bernard; Bourdin, Muriel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of upper-limb inertia on the force-velocity relationship and maximal power during concentric bench press exercise. Reference peak force values (Fpeakp) measured with a force plate positioned below the bench were compared to those measured simultaneously with a kinematic device fixed on the barbell by taking (Fpeakt) or not taking (Fpeakb) upper-limb inertia into account. Thirteen men (27.8 +/- 4.1 years, 184.6 +/- 5.5 cm, 99.5 +/- 18.6 kg) performed all-out concentric bench press exercise against 8 loads ranging between 7 and 74 kg. The results showed that for each load, Fpeakb was significantly less than Fpeakp (P force (F0), maximal velocity (V0), optimal velocity (Vopt), and maximal power (Pmax), extrapolated from the force- and power-velocity relationships determined with the kinematic device, were significantly underestimated when upper-limb inertia was ignored. The results underline the importance of taking account of the total inertia of the moving system to ensure precise evaluation of upper-limb muscular characteristics in all-out concentric bench press exercise with a kinematic device. A major application of this study would be to develop precise upper-limb muscular characteristic evaluation in laboratory and field conditions by using a simple and cheap kinematic device.
Full Text Available New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1 provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2 assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation.
Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.
New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698
Bui, Kevin D; Rai, Roshan; Johnson, Michelle J
In this study, we aim to explore ways to objectively assess cognitive deficits in the stroke and HIV/stroke populations, where cognitive and motor impairments can be hard to separate. Using an upper limb rehabilitation robot called the Haptic TheraDrive, we collect performance error scores and motor learning data on the impaired and unimpaired limb during a trajectory tracking task. We compare these data to clinical cognitive scores. The preliminary results suggest a possible relationship between unimpaired upper limb performance error and visuospatial/executive function cognitive domains, but more work needs to be done to further investigate this. The potential of using robot-assisted technologies to measure unimpaired limb kinematics as a tool to assess cognitive deficits would be useful to inform more effective rehabilitation strategies for HIV, stroke, and HIV/stroke populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Case presentation We present the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.
Mota, Dreyzialle Vila Nova; Meireles, André Luís Ferreira de; Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Almeida, Rita de Cássia de Albuquerque
Abstract Introduction: Individuals with stroke sequelae present changes in the postural alignment and muscle strength associated with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. Mirror therapy is a technique that aims to improve the motor function of the paretic limb. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mirror therapy, associated with conventional physiotherapy, for range of motion (ROM), degree of spasticity of the affected upper limb, and the level of independence in the activ...
Full Text Available User security is an important consideration for robots that interact with humans, especially for upper-limb rehabilitation robots, during the use of which stroke patients are often more susceptible to injury. In this paper, a novel safety supervisory control method incorporating fuzzy logic is proposed so as to guarantee the impaired limb's safety should an emergency situation occur and the robustness of the upper-limb rehabilitation robot control system. Firstly, a safety supervisory fuzzy controller (SSFC was designed based on the impaired-limb's real-time physical state by extracting and recognizing the impaired-limb's tracking movement features. Then, the proposed SSFC was used to automatically regulate the desired force either to account for reasonable disturbance resulting from pose or position changes or to respond in adequate time to an emergency based on an evaluation of the impaired-limb's physical condition. Finally, a position-based impedance controller was implemented to achieve compliance between the robotic end-effector and the impaired limb during the robot-assisted rehabilitation training. The experimental results show the effectiveness and potential of the proposed method for achieving safety and robustness for the rehabilitation robot.
Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Delmas, Vincent; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise
Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)
Full Text Available Purpose: In order to estimate clinical effects of acupotomy and venesection in a patient with peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. Methods: From 17th August, 2009 to 29th August 2009, 1 female patient with peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery was treated with general oriental medicine therapy(acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy with venesection. Results: The patient's chief complaints- Lt hand numbness, Lt arm edema, Lt. wrist flexion limitation - were notably improved. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acupotomy and venesection therapy has significant effect in improving symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery, as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.
Bulboacă, Adriana E; Bolboacă, Sorana D; Bulboacă, Angelo C
The health care system needs to face new and advanced medical technologies that can improve the patients' quality of life by replacing lost or decreased functions. In stroke patients, the disabilities that follow cerebral lesions may impair the mandatory daily activities of an independent life. These activities are dependent mostly on the patient's upper limb function so that they can carry out most of the common activities associated with a normal life. Therefore, an upper limb exoskeleton device for stroke patients can contribute a real improvement of quality of their life. The ethical problems that need to be considered are linked to the correct adjustment of the upper limb skills in order to satisfy the patient's expectations, but within physiological limits. The debate regarding the medical devices dedicated to neurorehabilitation is focused on their ability to be beneficial to the patient's life, keeping away damages, injustice, and risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)
Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)
Venugopalan, L; Taylor, P N; Cobb, J E; Swain, I D
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses electricity to activate the nerves of a muscle that is paralysed due to hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or spinal cord injury (SCI). FES has been widely used to restore upper limb functions in people with hemiplegia and C5-C7 tetraplegia and has improved their ability to perform their activities of daily living (ADL). At the time of writing, a detailed literature review of the existing upper limb FES devices and their man-machine interfaces (MMI) showed that only the NESS H200 was commercially available. However, the rigid arm splint doesn't fit everyone and prevents the use of a tenodesis grip. Hence, a robust and versatile upper limb FES device that can be used by a wider group of people is required.
Stevenson, H L; Peterson, N; Talbot, C; Dalal, S; Watts, A C; Trail, I A
Patients managed with upper limb cast immobilization often seek advice about driving. There is very little published data to assist in decision making, and advice given varies between healthcare professionals. There are no specific guidelines available from the UK Drivers and Vehicles Licensing Agency, police, or insurance companies. Evidence-based guidelines would enable clinicians to standardize the advice given to patients. Six individuals (three male, three female; mean age 36 years, range 27-43 years) were assessed by a mobility occupational therapist and driving standards agency examiner while completing a formal driving test in six different types of upper limb casts (above-elbow, below-elbow neutral, and below-elbow cast incorporating the thumb [Bennett's cast]) on both left and right sides. Of the 36 tests, participants passed 31 tests, suggesting that most people were able to safely drive with upper limb cast immobilization. However, driving in a left above-elbow cast was considered unsafe.
Full Text Available The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parameters of the 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton were determined, and the differences and singularities of the two exoskeletons were analyzed. The workspace, the joint torques and the power consumption of two exoskeletons were analyzed by kinematics and dynamics, and an exoskeleton prototype experiment was performed. The results showed that, compared with a typical anthropomorphic upper-limb exoskeleton, the non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton had the same actual workspace; eliminated singularities within the workspace; improved the elbow joint force situation; and the maximum elbow joint torque, elbow external-flexion/internal-extension and shoulder flexion/extension power consumption were significantly reduced. The proposed non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton can be applied to a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton in industrial settings.
Xin Wang; Qiuzhi Song; Xiaoguang Wang; Pengzhan Liu
The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF) upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parame...
Mussawy, Haider; Schmidt, Tobias; Rolvien, Tim; Rüther, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a major complication after trauma, surgery, and/or immobilization of an extremity. The disease often starts with clinical signs of local inflammation and develops into a prolonged phase that is characterized by trophic changes and local osteoporosis and sometimes results in functional impairment of the affected limb. While the pathophysiology of CRPS remains poorly understood, increased local bone resorption plays an undisputed pivotal role. The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to assess the bone microstructure in patients with CRPS. Patients with CRPS type I of the upper limb whose affected and unaffected distal radii were analyzed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) were identified retrospectively. The osteology laboratory data and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images of the left femoral neck and lumbar spine, which were obtained on the same day as HR-pQCT, were extracted from the medical records. Five patients were identified. The CRPS-affected upper limbs had significantly lower trabecular numbers and higher trabecular thicknesses than the unaffected upper limbs. However, the trabecular bone volume to total bone volume and cortical thickness values of the affected and unaffected sides were similar. Trabecular thickness tended to increase with time since disease diagnosis. CRPS associated with significant alterations in the bone microstructure of the affected upper limb that may amplify as the duration of disease increases.
Garrec , P.; Perrot , Y.; Méasson , Y.; Colledani , F.
International audience; This paper presents a new portable exoskeleton design for superior limbs by the CEA-LIST laboratories. The first model described here (4 axis) is designed to apply forces in 3 directions The first application is foreseen as an assistance device to enable a disabled person to carry an object such as a teapot or water bottle. It is designed as a base for more complete systems. A partial realization of it is presented for the first time. The high potential of the actuator...
Wu, Wen; Fong, Justin; Crocher, Vincent; Lee, Peter V S; Oetomo, Denny; Tan, Ying; Ackland, David C
Robotic-assistive exoskeletons can enable frequent repetitive movements without the presence of a full-time therapist; however, human-machine interaction and the capacity of powered exoskeletons to attenuate shoulder muscle and joint loading is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify shoulder muscle and joint force during assisted activities of daily living using a powered robotic upper limb exoskeleton (ArmeoPower, Hocoma). Six healthy male subjects performed abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, reaching and nose touching activities. These tasks were repeated under two conditions: (i) the exoskeleton compensating only for its own weight, and (ii) the exoskeleton providing full upper limb gravity compensation (i.e., weightlessness). Muscle EMG, joint kinematics and joint torques were simultaneously recorded, and shoulder muscle and joint forces calculated using personalized musculoskeletal models of each subject's upper limb. The exoskeleton reduced peak joint torques, muscle forces and joint loading by up to 74.8% (0.113 Nm/kg), 88.8% (5.8%BW) and 68.4% (75.6%BW), respectively, with the degree of load attenuation strongly task dependent. The peak compressive, anterior and superior glenohumeral joint force during assisted nose touching was 36.4% (24.6%BW), 72.4% (13.1%BW) and 85.0% (17.2%BW) lower than that during unassisted nose touching, respectively. The present study showed that upper limb weight compensation using an assistive exoskeleton may increase glenohumeral joint stability, since deltoid muscle force, which is the primary contributor to superior glenohumeral joint shear, is attenuated; however, prominent exoskeleton interaction moments are required to position and control the upper limb in space, even under full gravity compensation conditions. The modeling framework and results may be useful in planning targeted upper limb robotic rehabilitation tasks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40% regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT and bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC - have shown promising results in the treatment of upper limb paresis in chronic stroke patients. The ULTRA-stroke (acronym for Upper Limb TRaining After stroke program was conceived to assess the effectiveness of these interventions in subacute stroke patients and to examine how the observed changes in sensori-motor functioning relate to changes in stroke recovery mechanisms associated with peripheral stiffness, interlimb interactions, and cortical inter- and intrahemispheric networks. The present paper describes the design of this single-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT, which has recently started and will take several years to complete. Methods/Design Sixty patients with a first ever stroke will be recruited. Patients will be stratified in terms of their remaining motor ability at the distal part of the arm (i.e., wrist and finger movements and randomized over three intervention groups receiving modified CIMT, modified BATRAC, or an equally intensive (i.e., dose-matched conventional treatment program for 6 weeks. Primary outcome variable is the score on the Action Research Arm test (ARAT, which will be assessed before, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. During those test sessions all patients will also undergo measurements aimed at investigating the associated recovery mechanisms using haptic robots and magneto-encephalography (MEG. Discussion ULTRA-stroke is a 3-year translational research program which aims (1 to assess the relative effectiveness of the three interventions, on a group level but also as a function of patient
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel
of slaughterhouse work (all p > 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic upper limb pain was paralleled by reduced neuromuscular function of the shoulder and hand along with impaired work ability, work disability and general health. Future studies on chronic pain management at the workplace should carefully consider....... METHODS: Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with chronic upper limb pain and 33 pain-free controls participated in the study. Maximal muscle strength, RFD, and muscle activity was determined from fast and forceful maximal voluntary contractions for the shoulder and hand. Participants filled out...
RAMBAUD, O; RAHMANI, A; MOYEN, B; BOURDIN, M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of upper-limb inertia on the force-velocity relationship and maximal power during concentric bench press exercise. Reference peak force values (Fpeakp) measured with a force plate positioned below the bench were compared to those measured simultaneously with a kinematic device fixed on the barbell by taking (Fpeakt) or not taking (Fpeakb) upper-limb inertia into account. Thirteen men (27.8 6 4.1 years, 184.6 6 5.5 cm, 99.5 6 18.6 kg) ...
Lo, Ho Shing; Xie, Sheng Quan
Current health services are struggling to provide optimal rehabilitation therapy to victims of stroke. This has motivated researchers to explore the use of robotic devices to provide rehabilitation therapy for strokepatients. This paper reviews the recent progress of upper limb exoskeleton robots for rehabilitation treatment of patients with neuromuscular disorders. Firstly, a brief introduction to rehabilitation robots will be given along with examples of existing commercial devices. The advancements in upper limb exoskeleton technology and the fundamental challenges in developing these devices are described. Potential areas for future research are discussed. Copyright Â© 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kurzynski, Marek; Jaskolska, Anna; Marusiak, Jaroslaw; Wolczowski, Andrzej; Bierut, Przemyslaw; Szumowski, Lukasz; Witkowski, Jerzy; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation. The basis for the concept of computer-aided training system is a virtual hand whose reaching and grasping movements the trained patient can observe on the VR headset screen (visual feedback) and whose contact with virtual objects the patient can feel as a touch (sensory feedback). The computer training system is composed of three main components: (1) the system generating 3D virtual world in which the patient sees the virtual limb from the perspective as if it were his/her own hand; (2) sensory feedback transforming information about the interaction of the virtual hand with the grasped object into mechanical vibration; (3) the therapist's panel for controlling the training course. Results of the case study demonstrate that mental training supported with visual and sensory stimuli generated by the computer system leads to a beneficial change of the brain activity related to motor control of the reaching in the patient with bilateral upper limb congenital transverse deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
John E. Muñoz-Cardona
Full Text Available This paper shows the design of work-station for work-related inclusion people upper-limb disability. The system involves the use of novel brain computer interface used to bridge the user-computer interaction. Our hope objective is elucidating functional, technological, ergonomic and procedural aspects to runaway operation station; with propose to scratch barrier to impossibility access to TIC’s tools and work done for individual disability person. We found access facility ergonomics, adaptability and portable issue of workstation are most important design criteria. Prototype implementations in workplace environment have TIR estimate of 43% for retrieve. Finally we list a typology of services that could be the most appropriate for the process of labor including: telemarketing, telesales, telephone surveys, order taking, social assistance in disasters, general information and inquiries, reservations at tourist sites, technical support, emergency, online support and after-sales services.
The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU) workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual inc...
Full Text Available Background: Even though inertial measurement units (IMU are already being used experimentally for evaluating movements of segment of the axial skeleton, no studies have been found which have used IMUs to measure the behavior of the segments of upper limbs during quiet stance. Objective: The objective is to design a suitable application of IMUs to measure movements of the upper extremities in Romberg's test and analyze spontaneous arm movements. Second aim is to identify possible discrepancies between the dominant and non-dominant arm movements. Methods: The dominant and non-dominant upper limb of each participant was identified. Then, the movements of both upper limbs were measured by the Xsens system equipped with MTx motion trackers during the quiet stance on a firm surface with eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC. The measured data was used to calculate the medians and maximums of the superior-inferior, medio-lateral and anterior-posterior acceleration. Also, tremor intensity was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the measured data. Results: The comparison of values of maximal accelerations of the dominant and non-dominant arms showed significant difference between the arms during EC conditions. The comparison of values of median accelerations of the dominant and non-dominant arms showed significant differences between the acceleration of arms in medio-lateral direction during EO and EC conditions. In all cases, values of maximal and median accelerations and values of tremor intensity of the dominant limb strongly correlated with values on the non-dominant limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest possible usefulness of the designed application of IMUs and evaluation methods for their use in Romberg's test in clinical practice for evaluation of upper limb movements.
Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Krebs, Jörg; Rietman, Johan S; Curt, Armin
To determine which single or combined upper limb muscles as defined by the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI); upper extremity motor score (UEMS) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP), best predict upper limb function and independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and to assess the predictive value of qualitative grasp movements (QlG) on upper limb function in individuals with acute tetraplegia. As part of a Europe-wide, prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study ISNCSCI, GRASSP, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) scores were recorded at 1 and 6 months after SCI. For prediction of upper limb function and ADLs, a logistic regression model and unbiased recursive partitioning conditional inference tree (URP-CTREE) were used. Results: Logistic regression and URP-CTREE revealed that a combination of ISNCSCI and GRASSP muscles (to a maximum of 4) demonstrated the best prediction (specificity and sensitivity ranged from 81.8% to 96.0%) of upper limb function and identified homogenous outcome cohorts at 6 months. The URP-CTREE model with the QlG predictors for upper limb function showed similar results. Prediction of upper limb function can be achieved through a combination of defined, specific upper limb muscles assessed in the ISNCSCI and GRASSP. A combination of a limited number of proximal and distal muscles along with an assessment of grasping movements can be applied for clinical decision making for rehabilitation interventions and clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
Background: Neck and upper limb symptoms are frequently reported by computer workers. Work style interventions are most commonly used to reduce work-related neck and upper limb symptoms but lifestyle physical activity interventions are becoming more popular to enhance workers health and reduce
Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy
This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.
Bawa, P; Hamm, J D; Dhillon, P; Gross, P A
Anatomical and behavioural work on primates has shown bilateral innervation of axial and proximal limb muscles, and contralateral control of distal limb muscles. The following study examined if a clear boundary exists between the distal and proximal upper limb muscles that are controlled contralaterally or bilaterally. The right motor cortical area representing the upper limb was stimulated, while surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from various upper limb muscles during rest and phasic voluntary contractions. Peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured for each muscle on both sides. The ratio R = (ipsilateral MEP: contralateral MEP) was calculated for seven pairs of muscles. For each of the seven pairs, R was less than 1.0, implying that for each muscle and subject, the contralateral control is stronger. The boundary where R changed from almost zero to a clearly measurable magnitude depended on the subject. Ipsilateral MEPs from trapezius and pectoralis could be recorded with a small background contraction from almost all subjects; on the other hand, in deltoid and biceps brachii, ipsilateral MEPs were observed only with bimanual phasic contractions. The forearm and hand muscles, in general, did not show any ipsilateral MEPs. Major differences between subjects lay in the presence or the absence of ipsilateral MEPs in biceps brachii and deltoid, without defining a sharp boundary between proximal and distal muscles.
Gane, Elise M; O'Leary, Shaun P; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; McPhail, Steven M
Objective To measure patient-perceived upper limb and neck function following neck dissection and to investigate potential associations between clinical factors, symptoms, and function. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Subjects and Methods Inclusion criteria: patients treated with neck dissection (2009-2014). aged <18 years, accessory nerve or sternocleidomastoid sacrifice, previous neck dissection, preexisting shoulder/neck injury, and inability to provide informed consent (cognition, insufficient English). Primary outcomes were self-reported function of the upper limb (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and neck (Neck Disability Index). Secondary outcomes included demographics, oncological management, self-efficacy, and pain. Generalized linear models were prepared to examine relationships between explanatory variables and self-reported function. Results Eighty-nine participants (male n = 63, 71%; median age, 62 years; median 3 years since surgery) reported mild upper limb and neck dysfunction (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] scores of 11 [3, 32] and 12 [4, 28], respectively). Significant associations were found between worse upper limb function and longer time since surgery (coefficient, 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-3.51), having disease within the thyroid (17.40; 2.37-32.44), postoperative radiation therapy (vs surgery only) (13.90; 6.67-21.14), and shoulder pain (0.65; 0.44-0.85). Worse neck function was associated with metastatic cervical lymph nodes (coefficient, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.14-12.08), shoulder pain (0.19; 0.04-0.34), neck pain (0.34; 0.21-0.47), and symptoms of neuropathic pain (0.61; 0.25-0.98). Conclusion Patients can experience upper limb and neck dysfunction following nerve-preserving neck dissection. The upper quadrant as a whole should be considered when assessing rehabilitation priorities after neck dissection.
Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini
To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.
Dong, Q.; Jacobson, J.A.; Jamadar, D.A.; Gandikota, G.; Brandon, C.; Morag, Y.; Fessell, D.P.; Kim, S.M.
Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and non compressive, involving the supra scapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb
Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill
Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.
In the present study we examined upper-limb function of the less-affected side in young adolescents with congenital hemiparesis (cerebral palsy: CP). Five participants with hemiparetic CP and five control participants performed a cyclical reach-and-grasp task with the less-affected hand towards
Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P.
Few studies have investigated how well early activity measurements by accelerometers predict recovery after stroke. First, we assessed the predictive value of accelerometer-based measurements of upper-limb activity in patients with acute stroke with a hemiplegic arm. Second, we established the
Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Genevois, Cyril; Klouche, Shahnaz; Rahme, Michel; Hardy, Philippe
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the upper limb anthropometric dimensions and a history of dominant upper limb injury in tennis players. Dominant and non-dominant wrist, forearm, elbow and arm circumferences, along with a history of dominant upper limb injuries, were assessed in 147 male and female players, assigned to four groups based on location of injury: wrist (n = 9), elbow (n = 25), shoulder (n = 14) and healthy players (n = 99). From anthropometric dimensions, bilateral differences in circumferences and in proportions were calculated. The wrist group presented a significant bilateral difference in arm circumference, and asymmetrical bilateral proportions between wrist and forearm, as well as between elbow and arm, compared to the healthy group (6.6 ± 3.1% vs. 4.9 ± 4.0%, P elbow group displayed asymmetrical bilateral proportions between forearm and arm compared to the healthy group (-0.4 ± 4.3% vs. 1.5 ± 4.0%, P elbow circumference, and asymmetrical bilateral proportions between forearm and elbow when compared to the healthy group (5.8 ± 4.7% vs. 3.1 ± 4.8%, P tennis injury and asymmetry in upper limb proportions using high-tech measurements in symptomatic tennis players.
Andres F. Ruiz
Full Text Available One of the approaches to study the human motor system, and specifically the motor strategies implied during postural tasks of the upper limbs, is to manipulate the mechanical conditions of each joint of the upper limbs independently. At the same time, it is essential to pick up biomechanical signals and bio-potentials generated while the human motor system adapts to the new condition. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to describe the design, development and validation of an experimental platform designed to modify or perturb the mechanics of human movement, and simultaneously acquire, process, display and quantify bioelectric and biomechanical signals; second, to characterise the dynamics of the elbow joint during postural control. A main goal of the study was to determine the feasibility of estimating human elbow joint dynamics using EMG-data during maintained posture. In particular, the experimental robotic platform provides data to correlate electromyographic (EMG activity, kinetics and kinematics information from the upper limb motion. The platform aims consists of an upper limb powered exoskeleton, an EMG acquisition module, a control unit and a software system. Important concerns of the platform such as dependability and safety were addressed in the development. The platform was evaluated with 4 subjects to identify, using system identification methods, the human joint dynamics, i.e. visco-elasticity. Results obtained in simulations and experimental phase are introduced.
Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan
Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…
Kochetova, O A; Mal'kova, N Yu
Pain syndrome accompanies various diseases of central and peripheral nervous system--that is one of the most important problems in contemporary neurology. Many scientists are in search for effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The article covers characteristics of the pain syndrome and its mechanisms in patients with upper limbs occupational polyneuropathies.
Baniqued, Paul Dominick E.; Dungao, Jade R.; Manguerra, Michael V.; Baldovino, Renann G.; Abad, Alexander C.; Bugtai, Nilo T.
Current methodologies in designing robotic exoskeletons for upper limb therapy simplify the complex requirements of the human anatomy. As a result, such devices tend to compromise safety and biocompatibility with the intended user. However, a new design methodology uses biological analogues as inspiration to address these technical issues. This approach follows that of biomimetics, a design principle that uses the extraction and transfer of useful information from natural morphologies and processes to solve technical design issues. In this study, a biomimetic approach in the design of a 5-degree-of-freedom robotic exoskeleton for upper limb therapy was performed. A review of biomimetics was first discussed along with its current contribution to the design of rehabilitation robots. With a proposed methodological framework, the design for an upper limb robotic exoskeleton was generated using CATIA software. The design was inspired by the morphology of the bones and the muscle force transmission of the upper limbs. Finally, a full design assembly presented had integrated features extracted from the biological analogue. The successful execution of a biomimetic design methodology made a case in providing safer and more biocompatible robots for rehabilitation.
Su, D; Yao, Q
Sirenomelia sequence is a rare lethal pattern of congenital anomalies characterized by fusion of the legs and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Some cases accompanied with rare malformations have been reported. In this article, the authors report a case of sirenomelia with upper limb malformations and a review of the literature.
Verschuren, J.E.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Enzlin, P.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.; Van Der Sluis, C.K.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether professionals who work with people with an upper limb deficiency (ULD) received questions about sexuality from their patients and whether they addressed sexuality themselves, and to analyze their knowledge and comfort level, approach and attitudes
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Heinrich, J.; Jans, M.P.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.
Background. Little is known of the preventive effects of physical activity in leisure time on neck and upper limb symptoms. Methods. A cohort of 1742 employees was selected from a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 3 years. Independent variables were sporting activities and
Postema, S G; Bongers, R M; Reneman, M F; van der Sluis, C K
Purpose To develop and pilot test a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) for individuals with upper limb absence (ULA) due to reduction deficiency or amputation, and to examine the relationship between FCE results and presence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC). Method Five tests (overhead lifting,
Full Text Available We present a case report where thoracic paravertebral block and brachial plexus block were used in a sick elderly patient with poor cardiopulmonary reserve, to cover a post traumatic raw area of the upper limb by raising flap from lateral abdominal wall. The residual raw area of abdomen was then covered with the split skin graft taken from thigh.
Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Meugnot, Aurore; Beauprez, Sophie-Anne; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette
The present study aimed to investigate whether well-established associations between action and language can be altered by short-term upper limb immobilization. The dominant arm of right-handed participants was immobilized for 24 hours with a rigid splint fixed on the hand and an immobilization vest restraining the shoulder, arm, and forearm. The…
Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.
Objective: To determine which Order of presentation of practice tasks had the highest effect oil using an upper-limb prosthetic simulator. Design: A cohort analytic Study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy, able-bodied participants (N=72) randomly assigned to I Of 8 groups, each
Kir'ianov, V A; Zheglova, A V; Aliev, A F; Krylova, I V; Sukhova, A V
The article presents results of research aimed to diagnosis and treatment of tunnel upper limb neuropathies in mining industry workers subjected to vibration factor. The authors specified diagnostic criteria for early diagnosis of tunnel neuropathies affecting median, ulnar and radial nerves, with the severity evaluation for further adequate treatment.
Delacroix, R; Wallaert, C; Soulier, A; Delepoulle, E; Francois, C; Grignet, J P
The authors report one case of extensive radionecrosis after postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer, with overt pyothorax, deep axillary ulceration, and brachial paralysis. The plastic use of the musculo-aponeutrotic tissues of the paralysed upper limb resulted in spectacular success, complicated only by empyema of the hemithoracic cavity, for which treatment with neomycin is recommended.
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Harlaar, J.; Daffertshofer, A.; Zijp, N.I.; Nienhuys, K.; Koppe, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Beek, P.J.
Background: About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40%) regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced
Eliane Cristina Coelho de Oliveira Correia
Full Text Available To assess the frequency of upper limb injuries in the only emergency medical service inParanaiba, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Methods: Retrospective study with data collection from medical recordsof patients assisted with upper limb injuries in “Santa Casa de Misericordia” Hospital, the only hospital in the cityto provide emergency care, in 2008. Variables of interest such as gender and type of injury were collected basedon the International Code of Diseases (ICD 10. Results: There were 314 cases of upper limb injury in 2008and men were the most affected with 211 cases (67.2%. The wrist was the most affected segment with 64 cases(20.4%, followed by the shoulder with 55 cases (17.5% and the hand with 50 cases (15.9%. Interventions andsurgeries involving bone portion were the most frequent - 225 (71.7%, followed by tendon - 19 (6.1% and neural - 16 (5.1%; 35 patients (11.1% underwent multiple operations. Osteosyntheses - 94 (29.9%, fractures- 48 (15.3%, and reduction - 46 (14.6% were the most frequent interventions, followed by 26 dislocations(8.3% and 14 tenorrhaphies (4.5%. Conclusion: The involvement of the upper limbs, especially bone lesions,is frequent. The segments most affected by injuries are men’s wrists and shoulders.
Full Text Available Stroke imposes significant burdens on health services and society, and as such there is a growing need to assess the cost-effectiveness of stroke treatment to ensure maximum benefit is derived from limited resources. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of treating post-stroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme against the therapy programme alone. Data on resource use and health outcomes were prospectively collected for 333 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity taking part in a randomized trial and combined to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy relative to therapy alone. The base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy was £93,500 per QALY gained. The probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the England and Wales cost-effectiveness threshold value of £20,000 per QALY was 0.36. The point estimates of the ICER remained above £20,000 per QALY for a range of sensitivity analyses, and the probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the threshold value did not exceed 0.39, regardless of the assumptions made.
Demers, Marika; Levin, Mindy F
Movement is described in terms of task-related end point characteristics in external space and movement quality (joint rotations in body space). Assessment of upper-limb (UL) movement quality can assist therapists in designing effective treatment approaches for retraining lost motor elements and provide more detailed measurements of UL motor improvements over time. To determine the extent to which current activity level outcome measures used in neurological practice assess UL movement quality. Outcome measures assessing arm/hand function at the International Classification of Function activity level recommended by neurological clinical practice guidelines were reviewed. Measures assessing the UL as part of a general mobility assessment, those strictly evaluating body function/structure or participation, and paediatric measures were excluded. In all, 15 activity level outcome measures were identified; 9 measures assess how movement is performed by measuring either end point characteristics or movement quality. However, except for the Reaching Performance Scale for Stroke and the Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, these measures only account for deficits indirectly by giving a partial score if movements are slower or if the person experiences difficulties. Six outcome measures neither assess any parameters related to movement quality, nor distinguish between improvements resulting from motor compensation or recovery of desired movement strategies. Current activity measures may not distinguish recovery from compensation and adequately track changes in movement quality over time. Movement quality may be incorporated into clinical assessment using observational kinematics with or without low-cost motion tracking technology.
Madaric, Juraj; Klepanec, Andrej; Mistrik, Martin; Altaner, Cestmir; Vulev, Ivan
Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.
Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery. Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise. Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment. Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema
Full Text Available Introduction: Children with cerebral palsy (CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia experience numerous difficulties concerning an affected upper limb such as reaching for objects, gripping or manipulating them. These limitations affect their everyday activity. Conducting an effective and simultaneously an interesting therapy aimed at meeting the child’s individual needs and improving upper limb function is a challenge for a physiotherapist. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of upper limb therapy carried out within the project titled “The Pirate Group” based on Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and Bimanual Training (BIT conducted in a specially arranged environment. Material and methods: The research included 16 children with CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia. Mean age of the study participants was 4.23 years. The children underwent a two-week Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT combined with Bimanual Training (BIT. In order to evaluate the effects of the therapy, each child underwent the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA prior to the therapy and after its completion. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05 between the results of AHA prior to and after the therapy (t(14=9.12, p<0.0001. An improvement in the affected upper limb function was noted in all the children participating in the research. Conclusions: The project titled “The Pirate Group”, based on CIMT and BIT is an effective therapeutic intervention which improves spontaneous activity of the affected upper limb in children with hemiplegia.
Full Text Available Acquired brain injuries (ABIs can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.
Beretta, Elena; Cesareo, Ambra; Biffi, Emilia; Schafer, Carolyn; Galbiati, Sara; Strazzer, Sandra
Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT) and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.
Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine
The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.
Poltawski, Leon; Allison, Rhoda; Briscoe, Simon; Freeman, Jennifer; Kilbride, Cherry; Neal, Debbie; Turton, Ailie J; Dean, Sarah
Upper limb disability following stroke may have multiple effects on the individual. Existing assessment instruments tend to focus on impairment and function and may miss other changes that are personally important. This study aimed to identify personally significant impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Accounts by stroke survivors, in the form of web-based diaries (blogs) and stories, were sought using a blog search engine and in stroke-related web-sites. Thematic analysis using the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used to identify personal impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Ninety-nine sources from at least four countries were analysed. Many impacts were classifiable using the ICF, but a number of additional themes emerged, including emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Blogs and other web-based accounts were easily accessible and rich sources of data, although using them raised several methodological issues, including potential sample bias. A range of impacts was identified, some of which (such as use of information technology and alienation from the upper limb) are not addressed in current assessment instruments. They should be considered in post-stroke assessments. Blogs may help in the development of more comprehensive assessments. A comprehensive assessment of the upper limb following stroke should include the impact of upper limb problems on social participation, as well as associated emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Using personalised assessment instruments alongside standardised measures may help ensure that these broader domains are considered in discussions between clinicians and patients. Rehabilitation researchers should investigate whether and how these domains could be addressed and operationalised in standard upper limb assessment instruments.
Poltawski, Leon; Allison, Rhoda; Briscoe, Simon; Freeman, Jennifer; Kilbride, Cherry; Neal, Debbie; Turton, Ailie J.; Dean, Sarah
Abstract Purpose: Upper limb disability following stroke may have multiple effects on the individual. Existing assessment instruments tend to focus on impairment and function and may miss other changes that are personally important. This study aimed to identify personally significant impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Methods: Accounts by stroke survivors, in the form of web-based diaries (blogs) and stories, were sought using a blog search engine and in stroke-related web-sites. Thematic analysis using the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used to identify personal impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Results: Ninety-nine sources from at least four countries were analysed. Many impacts were classifiable using the ICF, but a number of additional themes emerged, including emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Blogs and other web-based accounts were easily accessible and rich sources of data, although using them raised several methodological issues, including potential sample bias. Conclusions: A range of impacts was identified, some of which (such as use of information technology and alienation from the upper limb) are not addressed in current assessment instruments. They should be considered in post-stroke assessments. Blogs may help in the development of more comprehensive assessments.Implications for RehabilitationA comprehensive assessment of the upper limb following stroke should include the impact of upper limb problems on social participation, as well as associated emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes.Using personalised assessment instruments alongside standardised measures may help ensure that these broader domains are considered in discussions between clinicians and patients.Rehabilitation researchers should investigate whether and how these domains could be addressed and operationalised in standard upper limb assessment instruments. PMID
Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks. The identified patterns were in accordance with neural afflictions at three specific locations (brachial plexus at chord level, posterior interosseous and median nerve on elbow level. We have introduced an intervention program aiming to mobilize nerves at these locations and tested its efficacy. Methods 125 and 59, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course at least three times during workdays in a six month period. Subjects from the other division served as controls. At the end of the intervention both groups were invited to a second identical evaluation by questionnaire and physical examination. Symptoms and findings were studied in the right upper limb. Perceived changes of pain were recorded and individual and patterns of physical findings assessed for both groups at baseline and at follow-up. In subjects with no or minimal preceding pain we additionally studied the relation of incident pain to the summarized findings for parameters contained in the definition of nerve affliction at the three locations. Results Summarized pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group but unchanged in controls. After the intervention, fewer neurological abnormalities in accordance with nerve affliction were recorded for the whole material but no conclusion could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve
Ahmad Zuhaidi Muhammad Fareez
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the various methods that have been developed for the assessment of risk factors for upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. This paper is essential as upper limb disorders have been known as one of the prime cause of work-related disability in various countries. The methods used for the assessment were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire, the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART, the Job Strain Index (JSI and the Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA Checklist. DASH questionnaire is a structured interview in determining the prevalence of the upper limb disorders, while ART, the JSI and OCRA Checklist act as a direct observation in examining the involvement of risk factors. Basically, these tools dealt with the measurements of symptoms, posture observation, and workplace risk assessment, as they are the most relevant tools for assessing the risk factors faced by the workers in grocery industries. The use of these tools assessed the risk factors and consequently reduces the risk of injuries among the workers.
Aung, Yee Mon; Al-Jumaily, Adel; Anam, Khairul
This paper proposes a novel upper extremity rehabilitation system with virtual arm illusion. It aims for fast recovery from lost functions of the upper limb as a result of stroke to provide a novel rehabilitation system for paralyzed patients. The system is integrated with a number of technologies that include Augmented Reality (AR) technology to develop game like exercise, computer vision technology to create the illusion scene, 3D modeling and model simulation, and signal processing to detect user intention via EMG signal. The effectiveness of the developed system has evaluated via usability study and questionnaires which is represented by graphical and analytical methods. The evaluation provides with positive results and this indicates the developed system has potential as an effective rehabilitation system for upper limb impairment.
Eduardo Foschini Miranda
unsupported upper limbs and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this fact: neuromechanical dysfunction of respiratory muscles; and changes in lung volume during such activities. The neuromechanical dysfunction seen in COPD patients during this type of exercise is related to changes in the breathing pattern, as well as to the simultaneity of afferent and efferent muscle stimuli, resulting in respiratory muscle asynchrony. In addition, the increased ventilation during upper limb exercise in patients with COPD leads to dynamic hyperinflation at different workloads. During lower limb exercises, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle is lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects. This could by explained by abnormal muscle metabolism (decreased aerobic capacity, dependence on glycolytic metabolism, and rapid accumulation of lactate during exercise. In comparison with lower limb exercises, upper limb exercises result in higher metabolic and ventilatory demands, as well as in a more intense sensation of dyspnea and greater fatigue. Because there are differences between the upper and lower limb muscles in terms of the morphological and functional adaptations in COPD patients, specific protocols for strength training and endurance should be developed and tested for the corresponding muscle groups
Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals
Newman, Christopher J; Bruchez, Roselyn; Roches, Sylvie; Jequier Gygax, Marine; Duc, Cyntia; Dadashi, Farzin; Massé, Fabien; Aminian, Kamiar
Upper limb assessments in children with hemiparesis rely on clinical measurements, which despite standardization are prone to error. Recently, 3D movement analysis using optoelectronic setups has been used to measure upper limb movement, but generalization is hindered by time and cost. Body worn inertial sensors may provide a simple, cost-effective alternative. We instrumented a subset of 30 participants in a mirror therapy clinical trial at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up clinical assessments, with wireless inertial sensors positioned on the arms and trunk to monitor motion during reaching tasks. Inertial sensor measurements distinguished paretic and non-paretic limbs with significant differences (P < 0.01) in movement duration, power, range of angular velocity, elevation, and smoothness (normalized jerk index and spectral arc length). Inertial sensor measurements correlated with functional clinical tests (Melbourne Assessment 2); movement duration and complexity (Higuchi fractal dimension) showed moderate to strong negative correlations with clinical measures of amplitude, accuracy, and fluency. Inertial sensor measurements reliably identify paresis and correlate with clinical measurements; they can therefore provide a complementary dimension of assessment in clinical practice and during clinical trials aimed at improving upper limb function.
Tey, Inn Kuang; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lim, Kevin Boon Leong; Lee, Eng Hin; Nathan, Saminathan Suresh
To elucidate the natural history of unicameral bone cyst (UBC) and risk factors for pathological fracture. 14 males and 8 females (mean age, 9 years) diagnosed with UBC were reviewed. Cyst location, symptoms, and whether there was any fracture or surgery were recorded. Cyst parameters were measured on radiographs, and included (1) the cyst index, (2) the ratio of the widest cyst diameter to the growth plate diameter, and (3) the adjusted distance of the cyst border from the growth plate. There were 11 upper- and 11 lower-limb cysts. 13 patients had pathological fractures and 9 did not. 20 patients were treated conservatively with limb immobilisation; 2 underwent curettage and bone grafting (one resolved and one did not). Seven cysts resolved (5 had fractures and 2 did not). The risk of fracture was higher in the upper than lower limbs (100% vs 18%, pFractured cysts were larger than unfractured cysts (mean cyst index, 4.5 vs. 2.2, p=0.07). Active cysts were more likely to fracture. Conservative management had a 30% resolution rate. Surgery should be considered for large active cysts in the upper limbs in order to minimise the fracture risk.
Riani, Akram; Madani, Tarek; Hadri, Abdelhafid El; Benallegue, Abdelaziz
This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for an upper-limb exoskeleton based on an on-line dynamic parameter estimator. The objective is to improve the control performance of this system that plays a critical role in assisting patients for shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements. In general, the dynamic parameters of the human limb are unknown and differ from a person to another, which degrade the performances of the exoskeleton-human control system. For this reason, the proposed control scheme contains a supplementary loop based on a new efficient on-line estimator of the dynamic parameters. Indeed, the latter is acting upon the parameter adaptation of the controller to ensure the performances of the system in the presence of parameter uncertainties and perturbations. The exoskeleton used in this work is presented and a physical model of the exoskeleton interacting with a 7 Degree of Freedom (DoF) upper limb model is generated using the SimMechanics library of MatLab/Simulink. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an example of passive rehabilitation movements is performed using multi-body dynamic simulation. The aims is to maneuver the exoskeleton that drive the upper limb to track desired trajectories in the case of the passive arm movements.
Levine, Adrian B; Parrent, Andrew G; MacDougall, Keith W
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in the lower limbs. Upper limb pain comprises a significant proportion of neuropathic pain patients, but is often difficult to target specifically and consistently with paresthesias. We hypothesized that the use of dorsal nerve root stimulation (DNRS), as an option along with SCS, would help us better relieve pain in these patients. All 35 patients trialed with spinal stimulation for upper limb pain between July 1, 2011, and October 31, 2013, were included. We performed permanent implantation in 23/35 patients based on a visual analogue scale pain score decrease of ≥50% during trial stimulation. Both the SCS and DNRS groups had significant improvements in average visual analogue scale pain scores at 12 months compared with baseline, and the majority of patients in both groups obtained ≥50% pain relief. The majority of patients in both groups were able to reduce their opioid use, and on average had improvements in Short Form-36 quality of life scores. Complication rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment with SCS or DNRS provides meaningful long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain in the upper limbs.
Ruggiero, Marissa; Cless, Daniel; Infantolino, Benjamin
Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age.
Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad
Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.
Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación
Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients' independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive training and learn compensatory strategies for enhancing daily living activities. This study will use a two-arm, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial design, involving 40 patients who present a left- or right-sided unilateral vascular lesion poststroke and a clinical diagnosis of upper limb apraxia. Participants will be randomized to either a combined functional rehabilitation or a traditional health education group. The experimental group will receive an 8-week combined functional program at home, including physical and occupational therapy focused on restorative and compensatory techniques for upper limb apraxia, 3 days per week in 30-min intervention periods. The control group will receive a conventional health education program once a month over 8 weeks, based on improving awareness of physical and functional limitations and facilitating the adaptation of patients to the home. Study outcomes will be assessed immediately postintervention and at the 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be basic activities of daily living skills as assessed with the Barthel Index. Secondary outcome measures will include the following: 1) the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, 2) the Observation and Scoring of ADL-Activities, 3) the De Renzi Test for Ideational Apraxia, 4) the De Renzi Test for Ideomotor Apraxia, 5) Recognition of Gestures, 6) the Test of Upper Limb Apraxia (TULIA), and 7) the Quality of Life Scale For Stroke (ECVI-38). This trial is
Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lee, Myung-Koo; Kim, Yong-Dae; Nan, Hong-Mei; Lee, Chul-Ho
The use of PCs can cause health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limbs. This study was performed to investigate whether using PCs in PC game rooms may induce MSDs of the upper limbs. 284 young male Koreans were included. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to gather information about game room use, perceived subjective stress, and the symptoms related to MSDs. Urinary concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were measured in spot urine. The symptom prevalence of MSDs of the upper limbs increased according to the increase of the duration of game room use. The intensity of perceived subjective stress showed a significant dose-response relationship with the frequency of MSDs symptoms in neck and shoulder areas. However, the urinary level of catecholamines was not significantly correlated with the symptom prevalence of MSDs in the upper limbs. These findings suggest that using PCs in game rooms produce physical stress on the upper limbs, strong enough to induce MSDs.
Abdullah, B J J; Mohammad, N; Sangkar, J V; Abd Aziz, Y F; Gan, G G; Goh, K Y; Benedict, I
The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion was the inability to perform a venogram (allergies, previous contrast medium reaction and inability of gaining venous access). Both valved and non-valved catheters were evaluated. Prior to removal of the PICC, an upper limb venogram was performed. The number of segments involved with VT were determined. The duration of central venous catheterization was classified as; less than 6 days, between 6 days and 14 days and more than 14 days. VT was confirmed in 38.5% (10/26) of the patients. The majority 85.7% (12/14) were complete occlusive thrombi and the majority of VT only involved one segment. There was no statistical correlation between the site of insertion of the PICC and the location of VT. Neither was there any observed correlation between the occurrence of VT with the patient's history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac insufficiency, smoking or cancer. There was also no statistical correlation with the size of the catheter. In conclusion, PICCs are associated with a significant risk of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEVT).
Leurcharusmee, Prangmalee; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Tiyaprasertkul, Worakamol; Sotthisopha, Thitipan; Samerchua, Artid; Gordon, Aida; Aliste, Julian; Finlayson, Roderick J; Tran, De Q H
This two-centre randomized trial compared costoclavicular and paracoracoid ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block in patients undergoing upper limb surgery. We hypothesized that both techniques would result in similar onset times and designed the study as an equivalence trial. Ninety patients undergoing upper limb surgery at or distal to the elbow were randomly allocated to receive a costoclavicular (n = 45) or paracoracoid (n = 45) ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Both groups received a 35-mL mixture of 1% lidocaine-0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 5 µg·mL -1 . In the costoclavicular group, local anesthetic was injected into the costoclavicular space in the middle of the three cords of the brachial plexus. In the paracoracoid group, local anesthetic was deposited dorsal to the axillary artery in the lateral infraclavicular fossa. A blinded observer recorded the block onset time (primary endpoint), success rate (i.e., surgical anesthesia), block-related pain scores, as well as the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Performance time and the number of needle passes were also recorded during the performance of the block. The total anesthesia-related time was defined as the sum of the performance and onset times. The mean (SD) onset times were comparable between the costoclavicular and paracoracoid groups [16.0 (7.5) min vs 16.8 (6.2) min, respectively; mean difference, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, -2.3 to 3.8; P = 0.61]. Furthermore, no intergroup differences were found in terms of performance time (P = 0.09), total anesthesia-related time (P = 0.90), surgical anesthesia (P > 0.99), and hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (P > 0.99). The paracoracoid technique required marginally fewer median [interquartile range] needle passes than the costoclavicular technique (2 [1-4] vs 2 [1-6], respectively; P = 0.048); however, procedural pain was comparable between the two study groups. Costoclavicular and paracoracoid ultrasound
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one’s physical body, and alters the stroke survivors’ sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement, and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I, to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with one-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-minute intervention twice a week for six weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale. Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test, activity limitation (Modified Rankin scale, well-being (WHO well-being index, and participation (Stroke Impact Scale. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and one-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation, and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to one-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more
Van der Walt, A; Buzzard, K; Sung, S; Spelman, T; Kolbe, S C; Marriott, M; Butzkueven, H; Evans, A
The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) tremor is uncertain with limited phenotypical studies available. To investigate whether dystonia contributes to MS tremor and its severity. MS patients (n = 54) with and without disabling uni- or bilateral upper limb tremor were recruited (39 limbs per group). We rated tremor severity, writing and Archimedes spiral drawing; cerebellar dysfunction (SARA score); the Global Dystonia Scale (GDS) for proximal and distal upper limbs, dystonic posturing, mirror movements, geste antagoniste, and writer's cramp. Geste antagoniste, mirror dystonia, and dystonic posturing were more frequent and severe (p tremor severity in tremor compared to non-tremor patients. A 1-unit increase in distal dystonia predicted a 0.52-Bain unit (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.97), p = 0.022) increase in tremor severity and a 1-unit (95% CI 0.48-1.6, p = 0.001) increase in drawing scores. A 1-unit increase in proximal dystonia predicted 0.93-Bain unit increase (95% CI 0.45-1.41, p tremor severity and 1.5-units (95% CI 0.62-2.41, p = 0.002) increase in the drawing score. Cerebellar function in the tremor limb and tremor severity was correlated (p tremor suggesting that MS tremor pathophysiology involves cerebello-pallido-thalamo-cortical network dysfunction. © The Author(s), 2015.
Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Rothhardt, Sandra; Verheyden, Geert; Nowak, Dennis Alexander
Changes in neural processing after stroke have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Transcranial direct current stimulation has the potential to alter cortico-spinal excitability and thereby might be beneficial in stroke recovery. We review the pertinent literature prior to 30/09/2013 on transcranial direct current stimulation in promoting motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke. We found overall 23 trials (they included 523 participants). All stimulation protocols pride on interhemispheric imbalance model. In a comparative approach, methodology and effectiveness of (a) facilitation of the affected hemisphere, (b) inhibition of the unaffected hemisphere and (c) combined application of transcranial direct current stimulation over the affected and unaffected hemispheres to treat impaired hand function after stroke are presented. Transcranial direct current stimulation is associated with improvement of the affected upper limb after stroke, but current evidence does not support its routine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Scapulo-thoracic dissociation is an infrequent injury resulting from high energy trauma which is often associated with severe neurological and vascular injuries which may be unrecognised at the time of presentation. A 24 year-old female presented with bilateral rib fractures, pneumothorax, liver and kidney injuries following a road traffic accident. She also sustained fractures of her right scapula, odontoid, right transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and a closed fracture of her right femur. Her right upper limb was later noted to be flail and pulseless, due to complete right brachial plexus injury, scapula-thoracic dissociation and subclavian artery avulsion. We managed the upper limb injuries non-operatively, and focused on resuscitation of the patient. Early exploration of the complete brachial plexus injury was not undertaken in spite of the possible associated poor functional outcome as there was no life-threatening indication.
Full Text Available Movement disorders are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with movement disorders and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using task intrinsic or augmented feedback. This perspective article reviews the available evidences on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with movement disorders and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception.
Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping
The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.
Full Text Available Motion control is complicated for people having traumas or neurological diseases. An underlying assumption in our work is that the motion of healthy people is optimal with respect to positioning accuracy, movement response, and energy expenditure. In this paper, a new approach for determination of the human upper limb mass-inertial characteristics is presented by using the 3D geometrical mathematical modeling analysis approach. Two examples will be given to illustrate the main features and advantages of the proposed design concepts. The objective of the work presented in this paper is a determination of the mass properties of a two joints human upper limb manipulator. Results are aimed to have application in an exoskeleton design, the design of manipulation system and external manipulation system, serving people with some motion difficulties, as well as in sport and rehabilitation.
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and the clinical validation of an upper-limb force-feedback exoskeleton, the L-EXOS, for robotic-assisted rehabilitation in virtual reality (VR. The L-EXOS is a five degrees of freedom exoskeleton with a wearable structure and anthropomorphic workspace that can cover the full range of motion of human arm. A specific VR application focused on the reaching task was developed and evaluated on a group of eight post-stroke patients, to assess the efficacy of the system for the rehabilitation of upper limb. The evaluation showed a significant reduction of the performance error in the reaching task (paired t-test, p < 0.02
Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.
Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng
Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.
Pallesen, Hanne; Andersen, Mette Brændstrup; Hansen, Gunhild Mo
Background. In recent years, virtual reality (VR) therapy systems for upper limb training after stroke have been increasingly used in clinical practice.Therapy systems employing VR technology can enhance the intensity of training and can also boost patients’ motivation by adding a playful element...... to therapy. However, reports on user experiences are still scarce. Methods. A qualitative investigation of patients’ and therapists’ perspectives on VR upper limb training. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with six patients in the final week of the VR intervention.Therapists participated......) engagement, (iii) perceived improvements, (iv) individualization, and (v) device malfunction. The health professionals described the same themes as the patients but less positively, emphasizing negative technical challenges. Conclusion. Patients and therapists mainly valued the intensive and motivational...
Full Text Available This paper proposed a bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation device (BULReD with two degrees of freedom (DOFs. The BULReD is portable for both hospital and home environment, easy to use for therapists and patients, and safer with respect to upper-limb robotic exoskeletons. It was implemented to be able to conduct both passive and interactive training, based on system kinematics and dynamics, as well as the identification of real-time movement intention of human users. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of the BULReD for clinical applications, with satisfactory position and interaction force tracking performance. Future work will focus on the clinical evaluation of the BULReD on a large sample of poststroke patients.
Thais Botossi Scalha
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the somatosensory function of the affected upper limb of hemiparetic stroke patients and investigate the correlations between measurements of motor and sensory functions in tasks with and without visual deprivation. METHOD: We applied the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA, and several motor and sensory tests: Paper manipulation (PM, Motor Sequences (MS, Reaching and grasping (RG Tests Functional (TF, Tactile Discrimination (TD, Weight Discrimination (WD and Tactile Recognition of Objects (RO. RESULTS: We found moderate correlations between the FMA motor subscale and the tactile sensation score of the NSA. Additionally, the FMA sensitivity was correlated with the NSA total; and performance on the WD test items correlated with the NSA. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the sensory and motor functions of the upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. Additionally, there was a greater reliance on visual information to compensate for lost sensory-motor skills.
Diane E. Adamo
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetries in upper limb sensorimotor function are dependent on the source of sensory and motor information, hand preference and differences in hand strength. Further, the utilization of sensory and motor information and the mode of control of force may differ between the right hand/left hemisphere and left hand/right hemisphere systems. To more clearly understand the unique contribution of hand strength and intrinsic differences to the control of grasp force, we investigated hand/hemisphere differences when the source of force information was encoded at two different force levels corresponding to a 20 and 70% maximum voluntary contraction or the right and left hand of each participant. Eleven, adult males who demonstrated a stronger right than left maximum grasp force were requested to match a right or left hand 20 or 70% maximal voluntary contraction reference force with the opposite hand. During the matching task, visual feedback corresponding to the production of the reference force was available and then removed when the contralateral hand performed the match. The matching relative force error was significantly different between hands for the 70% MVC reference force but not for the 20% MVC reference force. Directional asymmetries, quantified as the matching force constant error, showed right hand overshoots and left undershoots were force dependent and primarily due to greater undershoots when matching with the left hand the right hand reference force. Findings further suggest that the interaction between internal sources of information, such as efferent copy and proprioception, as well as hand strength differences appear to be hand/hemisphere system dependent. Investigations of force matching tasks under conditions whereby force level is varied and visual feedback of the reference force is available provides critical baseline information for building effective interventions for asymmetric (stroke-related
Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha
Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.
Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M
Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from -100% (only the left arm moves) to +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.70, p < 0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.
Full Text Available Following a week after a jellyfish sting, a young man presented with regional cyanosis and threat of distal gangrene secondary to vascular spasm in the forearm. The patient also suffered from transient paresis and numbness of the affected upper limb. Contrasted imaging revealed unopacified vessels in the distal forearm and worsening swelling warranted emergency surgical fasciotomy for impending compartment syndrome. This case highlights the occurrence of jellyfish envenomation and the need for early treatment.
Dunn, Jennifer A; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Whitehead, Lisa C; Keeling, Sally
To explore, from the perspective of the person with tetraplegia, the issues that influenced decision making about upper limb surgery and develop a conceptual framework describing the decision making process. Purposive and theoretical sampling of 22 people with tetraplegia, followed by interviews. Ten people had upper limb surgery and 12 had not. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed with constructivist grounded theory. Participants responded to the offer of surgery in one of three ways: yes, let me have it; no thanks; or possibly. Many influences on the decision about surgery had a temporal element, such as hope for the cure or recovery from SCI, inadequate physical or social supports while rehabilitating, life roles and goals, and the avoidance of re-hospitalization. The conceptual framework illustrated that many participants entered a liminal state within which they required a stimulus to review their decision about upper limb surgery. Decision making is a temporal process, and for some the process was a prolonged and liminal one. Therefore, multiple offers for surgery are required to allow for changing thoughts and circumstances throughout an individual's lifetime. Flexibility with regard to timing for surgery and type of rehabilitation may increase the uptake, especially for women. • Multiple offers for upper limb surgery are required throughout an individual's lifetime to account for changing thoughts and priorities. • Identification of the type of support required (informational, emotional) may assist in decreasing the time taken to make the decision about surgery. • Flexibility in surgical and rehabilitation options, especially for women, may increase the uptake of surgery.
Dehbandi, Behdad; Barachant, Alexandre; Harary, David; Long, John Davis; Tsagaris, K Zoe; Bumanlag, Silverio Joseph; He, Victor; Putrino, David
The objective of this study was to assess whether the novel application of a machine learning approach to data collected from the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2) could be used to classify differing levels of upper limb impairment. Twenty-four healthy subjects completed items of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), which is a clinically validated metric of upper limb function for stroke survivors. Subjects completed the WMFT three times: 1) as a healthy individual; 2) emulating mild impairment; and 3) emulating moderate impairment. A MK2 was positioned in front of participants, and collected kinematic data as they completed the WMFT. A classification framework, based on Riemannian geometry and the use of covariance matrices as feature representation of the MK2 data, was developed for these data, and its ability to successfully classify subjects as either "healthy," "mildly impaired," or "moderately impaired" was assessed. Mean accuracy for our classifier was 91.7%, with a specific accuracy breakdown of 100%, 83.3%, and 91.7% for the "healthy," "mildly impaired," and "moderately impaired" conditions, respectively. We conclude that data from the MK2 is of sufficient quality to perform objective motor behavior classification in individuals with upper limb impairment. The data collection and analysis framework that we have developed has the potential to disrupt the field of clinical assessment. Future studies will focus on validating this protocol on large populations of individuals with actual upper limb impairments in order to create a toolkit that is clinically validated and available to the clinical community.
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR rehabilitation technology is a kind of integrated technology which simulates the real world via computer. It has three characteristics: immersion, interaction and imagination. It is widely used in the field of stroke rehabilitation. This review briefly describes the application of virtual reality rehabilitation technology in upper limb dysfunction after stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.002
Greenisen, Michael C.
The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.
Full Text Available Standard upper-limb motor function impairment assessments, such as the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, are a critical aspect of rehabilitation after neurological disorders. These assessments typically take a long time (about 30 min for the FMA for a clinician to perform on a patient, which is a severe burden in a clinical environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for automating upper-limb motor assessments that uses low-cost sensors to collect movement data. The sensor data is then processed through a machine learning algorithm to determine a score for a patient’s upper-limb functionality. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we implemented a system based on the proposed framework that can automate most of the FMA. Our experiment shows that the system provides similar FMA scores to clinician scores, and reduces the time spent evaluating each patient by 82%. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to implement customized tests or tests specified in other existing standard assessment methods.
Antonio Vinicius Soares
Full Text Available Introduction The Stroke is a neurologic disturbs that leads to a serious impact to the functionality and the quality of life of the survivors. It is necessary to develop new tools with rehabilitation objectives, where the Virtual Reality (VR is introduced as a useful therapeutic resource to the motor recovery, in an attractive and efficient way, restoring functions through adapted games. Objective Analyzing the therapeutic effects of the Virtual Reality (Serious Game in the recovery of the upper limb in hemiparetic Stroke patients. Methods Quasi-experimental research type time series, there are three pre and three post-tests already accomplished around 20 VR sessions. In the assessments the following measurement instruments were used: Fugl-Meyer Scale – session of the upper limb (FMS - UL; Range of Motion (ROM for flexion and abduction shoulder; Box and Block Test (BBT; Nine Holes and Peg Test (9HPT; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP; and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Results Significant gains were observed in the FMS-UL tests, with increase of 25.6%; increase ROM of shoulder with 34.0% for abduction and 19% for flexion; BBT 25.0%; also reported improvement in quality of life by NHP; it did not occurred significant alterations for 9HPT nor in MAS. Conclusion Although the results found in this research are preliminary, they are indicative that the VR can contribute for the recovery of the upper limb in hemiparetic Stroke patients.
Tsai, Chung-Ying; Boninger, Michael L; Bass, Sarah R; Koontz, Alicia M
Using proper technique is important for minimizing upper limb kinetics during wheelchair transfers. The objective of the study was to 1) evaluate the transfer techniques used during toilet transfers and 2) determine the impact of technique on upper limb joint loading for two different toilet configurations. Twenty-six manual wheelchair users (23 men and 3 women) performed transfers in a side and front wheelchair-toilet orientation while their habitual transfer techniques were evaluated using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. A motion analysis system and force sensors were used to record biomechanical data during the transfers. More than 20% of the participants failed to complete five transfer skills in the side setup compared to three skills in the front setup. Higher quality skills overall were associated with lower peak forces and moments in both toilet configurations (-0.68 perform these skills correctly (p ≤ 0.04). In the front setup, positioning the wheelchair within three inches of the transfer target was associated with reduced peak trailing forces and moments across all three upper limb joints (p = 0.02). Transfer skills training, making toilet seats level with the wheelchair seat, positioning the wheelchair closer to the toilet and mounting grab bars in a more ideal location for persons who do sitting pivot transfers may facilitate better quality toilet transfers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Meadmore, Katie L; Cai, Zhonglun; Tong, Daisy; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Chris T; Rogers, Eric; Burridge, Jane H
A novel system has been developed which combines robotic therapy with electrical stimulation (ES) for upper limb stroke rehabilitation. This technology, termed SAIL: Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning, employs advanced model-based iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms to precisely assist participant's completion of 3D tracking tasks with their impaired arm. Data is reported from a preliminary study with unimpaired participants, and also from a single hemiparetic stroke participant with reduced upper limb function who has used the system in a clinical trial. All participants completed tasks which involved moving their (impaired) arm to follow an image of a slowing moving sphere along a trajectory. The participants' arm was supported by a robot and ES was applied to the triceps brachii and anterior deltoid muscles. During each task, the same tracking trajectory was repeated 6 times and ILC was used to compute the stimulation signals to be applied on the next iteration. Unimpaired participants took part in a single, one hour training session and the stroke participant undertook 18, 1 hour treatment sessions composed of tracking tasks varying in length, orientation and speed. The results reported describe changes in tracking ability and demonstrate feasibility of the SAIL system for upper limb rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE
Full Text Available Motor deficit, especially in the upper limb, is the primary contributor in post-stroke disability. Recovery of motor function relies on neural plasticity – cortical plastic reorganization – a spontaneous process, which could be enhanced from early phases by rehabilitative strategies. The subacute stage after stroke is the critical period during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation strategies. Based on the recent results of 2 trials in stroke rehabilitation using pharmacological intervention with Cerebrolysin in combination with standardized kinesitherapy, we conducted a pilot study of 4 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with Cerebrolysin for 28 days after stroke, and with intensive task-specific kinesitherapy from day 7 to day 28 after stroke. We assessed stroke severity with NIHSS score, upper limb function with ARAT (Action Research Arm Test score, disability with modified Rankin scale and patient’s autonomy with Barthel Index, at day 0 and day 30 after stroke. After 28 days of combined therapy all 4 patients improved, most significant improvement was seen in upper limb function, measured by ARAT score and in autonomy measured by Barthel Index.
Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O'Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell
Among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI), occupational therapy interventions include education to facilitate ergonomic practices in housework. From a client-centred perspective, an understanding of women's decision-making about housework is needed to design effective occupational therapy programmes. This study addresses a gap in research in this area by exploring women's views about changing housework habits. The aim was to construct a conceptual representation to explain decision-making in housework by drawing on experiences of a sample of Singapore Chinese women with upper limb RSI from one hand therapy clinic. Based on a constructivist grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 15 women. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analysed with line by line coding, focussed coding and axial coding with constant comparison throughout data collection. Decision-making in housework among these women involved three main themes: (i) emotional attachment to housework; (ii) cognitively informed decision; and (iii) emotionally influenced decision. Women with upper limb RSI had to make cognitive decisions for or against a change in housework to manage their condition. However, the women's cognitively informed decisions were shaped by their emotional attachment to housework. As such, they experienced strong emotional barriers to changing their housework practices even when they had cognitively accepted the necessity and possibility of making a change. Therapists need to be aware that counselling to address the emotional barriers experienced by women is important during ergonomic education. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Full Text Available The rich variety of human upper limb movements requires an extraordinary coordination of different joints according to specific spatio-temporal patterns. However, unvealing these motor schemes is a challenging task. Principal components have been often used for analogous purposes, but such an approach relies on hypothesis of temporal uncorrelation of upper limb poses in time. To overcome these limitations, in this work, we leverage on functional principal component analysis (fPCA. We carried out experiments with 7 subjects performing a set of most significant human actions, selected considering state-of-the-art grasp taxonomies and human kinematic workspace. fPCA results show that human upper limb trajectories can be reconstructed by a linear combination of few principal time-dependent functions, with a first component alone explaining around 60/70% of the observed behaviors. This allows to infer that in daily living activities humans reduce the complexity of movement by modulating their motions through a reduced set of few principal patterns. Finally, we discuss how this approach could be profitably applied in robotics and bioengineering, opening fascinating perspectives to advance the state of the art of artificial systems, as it was the case of hand synergies.
Gjorup, Caroline A; Groenvold, Mogens; Hendel, Helle W; Dahlstroem, Karin; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Klausen, Tobias W; Hölmich, Lisbet R
To explore health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in recurrence-free melanoma patients, with a focus on the association between melanoma-related limb lymphoedema and HRQoL. HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BR23) subscales body image and future perspective, the Functional Assessment for Cancer Therapy-General subscale social/family well-being and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analysed using linear and ordinal logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. A total of 431 melanoma patients who had undergone wide local excision and axillary or inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or complete lymph node dissection (CLND) participated. No patients had had recurrence of the disease or had received adjuvant radiotherapy. The HRQoL scores improved with time after surgery. Melanoma-related limb lymphoedema was present in 109 patients (25%). Patients with lymphoedema had significantly worse HRQoL scores in the EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales global health status/quality of life, role and social functioning, fatigue, pain and financial difficulties, as well as in the QLQ-BR23 body image subscale. No associations were found between the limb affected (upper or lower limb), clinical stage of lymphoedema, duration of lymphoedema or type of surgery (SLNB or CLND) and HRQoL. We found an interaction with age and gender in the associations between lymphoedema and HRQoL: younger patients and women with lymphoedema had worse social functioning and women had significantly more impaired body image. The negative impact of melanoma-related limb lymphoedema on HRQoL emphasises the importance of developing strategies for increasing awareness and improving prevention and treatment of lymphoedema. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jayakumar, P; Overbeek, C; Vranceanu, A-M; Williams, M; Lamb, S; Ring, D; Gwilym, S
Aims Outcome measures quantifying aspects of health in a precise, efficient, and user-friendly manner are in demand. Computer adaptive tests (CATs) may overcome the limitations of established fixed scales and be more adept at measuring outcomes in trauma. The primary objective of this review was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the psychometric properties of CATs compared with fixed-length scales in the assessment of outcome in patients who have suffered trauma of the upper limb. Study designs, outcome measures and methodological quality are defined, along with trends in investigation. Materials and Methods A search of multiple electronic databases was undertaken on 1 January 2017 with terms related to "CATs", "orthopaedics", "trauma", and "anatomical regions". Studies involving adults suffering trauma to the upper limb, and undergoing any intervention, were eligible. Those involving the measurement of outcome with any CATs were included. Identification, screening, and eligibility were undertaken, followed by the extraction of data and quality assessment using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) criteria. The review is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria and reg istered (PROSPERO: CRD42016053886). Results A total of 31 studies reported trauma conditions alone, or in combination with non-traumatic conditions using CATs. Most were cross-sectional with varying level of evidence, number of patients, type of study, range of conditions and methodological quality. CATs correlated well with fixed scales and had minimal or no floor-ceiling effects. They required significantly fewer questions and/or less time for completion. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) CATs were the most frequently used, and the use of CATs is increasing. Conclusion Early studies show valid and reliable outcome measurement with CATs
Gjorup, Caroline A; Hendel, Helle W; Zerahn, Bo
Abstracts Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the volume, fat mass, and lean mass in both upper and lower limbs measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in melanoma patients with melanoma-related limb lymphedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred thirty...... lymphedema was diagnosed on the basis of history and characteristic physical findings on the clinical examination. The inter-limb differences in volume, fat mass, and lean mass measured with DXA were categorized as none/mild, moderate, or severe according to reference values (taking handedness into account......, and the majority of lymphedemas were categorized as mild. The increase in the volume of limbs with lymphedema was primarily due to an increase in fat mass. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of melanoma-related limb lymphedema. The increase in volume in the limb with lymphedema is primarily due to an increase...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensively and in a task-oriented way within this particular time window. EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke (acronym EXPLICIT-stroke aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of post stroke upper limb recovery. Two randomized single blinded trials form the core of the programme, investigating the effects of early modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (modified CIMT and EMG-triggered Neuro-Muscular Stimulation (EMG-NMS in patients with respectively a favourable or poor probability for recovery of dexterity. Methods/design 180 participants suffering from an acute, first-ever ischemic stroke will be recruited. Functional prognosis at the end of the first week post stroke is used to stratify patient into a poor prognosis group for upper limb recovery (N = 120, A2 project and a group with a favourable prognosis (N = 60, A1 project. Both groups will be randomized to an experimental arm receiving respectively modified CIMT (favourable prognosis or EMG-NMS (poor prognosis for 3 weeks or to a control arm receiving usual care. Primary outcome variable will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, assessed at 1,2,3,4,5, 8, 12 and 26 weeks post stroke. To study the impact of modified CIMT or EMG-NMS on stroke recovery mechanisms i.e. neuroplasticity, compensatory movements and upper limb neuromechanics, 60 patients randomly selected from projects A1 and A2 will undergo TMS, kinematical and haptic robotic measurements within a repeated measurement design. Additionally, 30 patients from the A1 project will undergo fMRI at baseline, 5 and 26 weeks post stroke. Conclusion EXPLICIT stroke is a 5 year translational research programme which main aim is to investigate the effects of early applied intensive intervention for regaining dexterity
Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E
The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.
Full Text Available IKerlan’s Orthosis (IKO is an upper limb exoskeleton oriented to increasing human force during routine activity at the workplace. Therefore, it can be considered as a force-amplification device conceived to work in collaboration with the human arm and implementing biomimetic principles. The aim of the proposed design is to find the best compromise between maximum reachable workspace and minimum moving mass, which are the key factors for obtaining an ergonomic, wearable exoskeleton. It consists of five actuated degree of freedom (DoF to move the human arm and three non-actuated DoF between the back and shoulder to allow relative displacement of the sterno-clavicular joint. Conventional electrical motors are used for most of the DoF and pneumatic muscles for one of them (forearm rotation. Power transmission is based on Bowden cables. This paper presents the IKO design, the mechanical structure of a first prototype and the redesign process from an aesthetic point of view. Controller set-up and control strategies are also shown, together with dynamic performance from experimental results.
Full Text Available Magneto-Inertial Measurement Unit sensors (MIMU display high potential for the quantitative evaluation of upper limb kinematics, as they allow monitoring ambulatory measurements. The sensor-to-segment calibration step, consisting of establishing the relation between MIMU sensors and human segments, plays an important role in the global accuracy of joint angles. The aim of this study was to compare sensor-to-segment calibrations for the MIMU-based estimation of wrist, elbow, and shoulder joint angles, by examining trueness (“close to the reference” and precision (reproducibility validity criteria. Ten subjects performed five sessions with three different operators. Three classes of calibrations were studied: segment axes equal to technical MIMU axes (TECH, segment axes generated during a static pose (STATIC, and those generated during functional movements (FUNCT. The calibrations were compared during the maximal uniaxial movements of each joint, plus an extra multi-joint movement. Generally, joint angles presented good trueness and very good precision in the range 5°–10°. Only small discrepancy between calibrations was highlighted, with the exception of a few cases. The very good overall accuracy (trueness and precision of MIMU-based joint angle data seems to be more dependent on the level of rigor of the experimental procedure (operator training than on the choice of calibration itself.
Lauretti, Clemente; Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Trigili, Emilio; Catalan, Jose Maria; Badesa, Francisco Javier; Crea, Simona; Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sterzi, Silvia; Vitiello, Nicola; Garcia Aracil, Nicolas; Zollo, Loredana
The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs) of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i) compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii) assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured. PMID:29527161
Full Text Available The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured.
Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used
Bakheit, Abdel Magid
To document the current practice in relation with the treatment of patients with upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A to inform future research in this area. We designed an international, cross-sectional, noninterventional survey of current practice. Nine hundred and seventy-four patients from 122 investigational centres in 31…
Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.
Guignard, Brice; Rouard, Annie; Chollet, Didier; Ayad, Omar; Bonifazi, Marco; Dalla Vedova, Dario; Seifert, Ludovic
This study assessed perception-action coupling in expert swimmers by focusing on their upper limb inter-segmental coordination in front crawl. To characterize this coupling, we manipulated the fluid flow and compared trials performed in a swimming pool and a swimming flume, both at a speed of 1.35ms -1 . The temporal structure of the stroke cycle and the spatial coordination and its variability for both hand/lower arm and lower arm/upper arm couplings of the right body side were analyzed as a function of fluid flow using inertial sensors positioned on the corresponding segments. Swimmers' perceptions in both environments were assessed using the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale. Results showed that manipulating the swimming environment impacts low-order (e.g., temporal, position, velocity or acceleration parameters) and high-order (i.e., spatial-temporal coordination) variables. The average stroke cycle duration and the relative duration of the catch and glide phases were reduced in the flume trial, which was perceived as very intense, whereas the pull and push phases were longer. Of the four coordination patterns (in-phase, anti-phase, proximal and distal: when the appropriate segment is leading the coordination of the other), flume swimming demonstrated more in-phase coordination for the catch and glide (between hand and lower arm) and recovery (hand/lower arm and lower arm/upper arm couplings). Conversely, the variability of the spatial coordination was not significantly different between the two environments, implying that expert swimmers maintain consistent and stable coordination despite constraints and whatever the swimming resistances. Investigations over a wider range of velocities are needed to better understand coordination dynamics when the aquatic environment is modified by a swimming flume. Since the design of flumes impacts significantly the hydrodynamics and turbulences of the fluid flow, previous results are mainly related to the
Maria F. Canizares
Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are prevalent in Nicaragua, and disability is estimated to be 10% in the general population. We studied children with congenital upper limb differences, as they are vulnerable to disability. This case study documents a collaborative effort between American and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons to determine unmet health needs of children with congenital upper limb differences at Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera (“La Mascota” Hospital in Nicaragua, with the goal of developing programs that successfully address these needs within the context of the priorities of the community. Participants were recruited during one of the biannual pediatric hand specialty clinics held by a partnership of pediatric hand surgeons and occupational therapists under the auspices of Health Volunteers Overseas (La Brigada de las Manos, or “La Brigada” and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons. Structured interviews were performed with 34 parents or caregivers of patients with the diagnosis of a congenital upper limb difference. Parents were asked to rank the social, economic, environmental, and biological factors that determine health according to priority. Using the Hanlon Method for prioritizing health problems, in consultation with local providers and the program director of La Brigada, five needs were identified: (1 improvements in access to specialized care from hand surgeons and (2 rehabilitation specialists; (3 improvements in upper extremity function; (4 access to transportation; and (5 improvement in physical activity and sports participation. Based on the results of this needs assessment, we learned that some of the needs were already part of the ongoing work of the partnership, but in addition, more needs became evident; for that reason, local health care providers and members of La Brigada identified potential solutions to these needs and are currently working to translate these in future interventions.
Full Text Available Background: In children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP virtually nothing is known on the relation between structural brain damage and upper limb (UL kinematics quantified with three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA. This explorative study aimed to (1 investigate differences in UL kinematics between children with different lesion timings, i.e., periventricular white matter (PWM vs. cortical and deep gray matter (CDGM lesions and (2 to explore the relation between UL kinematics and lesion location and extent within each lesion timing group.Methods: Forty-eight children (age 10.4 ± 2.7 year; 29 boys; 21 right-sided; 33 PWM; 15 CDGM underwent an UL 3DMA during a reach-to-grasp task. Spatiotemporal parameters [movement duration, (timing of maximum velocity, trajectory straightness], the Arm Profile Score (APS and Arm Variable Scores (AVS were extracted. The APS and AVS refer to the total amount of movement pathology and movement deviations of the wrist, elbow, shoulder, scapula and trunk respectively. Brain lesion location and extent were scored based on FLAIR-images using a semi-quantitative MRI-scale.Results: Children with CDGM lesions showed more aberrant spatiotemporal parameters (p < 0.03 and more movement pathology (APS, p = 0.003 compared to the PWM group, mostly characterized by increased wrist flexion (p = 0.01. In the CDGM group, moderate to high correlations were found between lesion location and extent and duration, timing of maximum velocity and trajectory straightness (r = 0.53–0.90. Lesion location and extent were further moderately correlated with distal UL movement pathology (wrist flexion/extension, elbow pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension; r = 0.50–0.65 and with the APS (r = 0.51–0.63. In the PWM group, only a few and low correlations were observed, mostly between damage to the PLIC and higher AVS of elbow flexion/extension, shoulder elevation and trunk rotation (r = 0.35–0.42. Regression analysis
Abo, Masahiro; Kakuda, Wataru; Momosaki, Ryo; Harashima, Hiroaki; Kojima, Miki; Watanabe, Shigeto; Sato, Toshihiro; Yokoi, Aki; Umemori, Takuma; Sasanuma, Jinichi
Many poststroke patients suffer functional motor limitation of the affected upper limb, which is associated with diminished health-related quality of life. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomized, multicenter, comparative study of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy, NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) versus constraint-induced movement therapy in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. In this randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, 66 poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were randomly assigned at 2:1 ratio to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation plus occupational therapy (NEURO group) or constraint-induced movement therapy (constraint-induced movement therapy group) for 15 days. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were used for assessment. No differences in patients' characteristics were found between the two groups at baseline. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment score was significantly higher in both groups after the 15-day treatment compared with the baseline. Changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were significantly higher in the NEURO group than in the constraint-induced movement therapy group, whereas the decrease in the Wolf Motor Function Test log performance time was comparable between the two groups (changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, NEURO: 5·39 ± 4·28, constraint-induced movement therapy: 3·09 ± 4·50 points; mean ± standard error of the mean; P < 0·05) (changes in Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test, NEURO: 3·98 ± 2·99, constraint-induced movement therapy: 2·09 ± 2·96 points; P < 0·05). The results of the 15-day rehabilitative protocol showed the superiority of NEURO
Ohnishi, Akihiro; Takanokura, Masato; Sugama, Atsushi
This study examined the relationship between interhandle distances and upper limb exertion during simply pushing and pulling of a cart with four swivel wheels, defined by a roll box pallet (RBP) in a Japanese industrial standard. Six healthy young male participants were asked to push and pull an RBP at a distance of 5.2 m under six conditions corresponding to different interhandle distances (40 cm, 60 cm, and 80 cm) and weights (130 kg and 250 kg). The upper limb exertion was studied by shoulder abduction and flexion, and elbow flexion, as well as surface electromyogram (EMG) in shoulder extensor, and elbow flexor and extensor. Participants were required to provide subjective evaluations on operability after each trial. Subjective operability indicated that a narrower interhandle distance had a better operability for pushing. Interhandle distance was also related to upper limb exertion especially for pushing. A narrow interhandle distance caused smaller shoulder adduction but larger elbow flexion. The normalized EMG data revealed that muscular activity became smaller with a narrow interhandle distance in shoulder extensor. During the pulling task, elbow flexion was smaller at a narrow interhandle distance, although subjective operability and normalized EMG were not significantly varied. A wider interhandle distance, such as 80 cm, was not suitable in the forwardbackward movement of the RBP. Therefore, this study concluded that an interhandle distance of 40 cm would be suitable for pushing and pulling an RBP to protect the workers' hands against the risk of injury by installing inner handles.
Moosa, Shahida; Lambie, Lindsay Ann; Krause, Amanda
Sirenomelia, also known as the 'mermaid malformation/syndrome', is a rare, serious congenital anomaly characterized by variable degrees of fusion of the lower limbs and associated severe malformations of the lower vertebral and genitourinary systems. In this report, we describe a series of African patients with sirenomelia. We present the clinical and radiological features of four black South African patients and illustrate some of the rarer associated abnormalities, which include asymmetrical upper limb defects, not confined to the radial ray. The clinical phenotypic overlap between caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association and sirenomelia in our patients is highlighted, lending support to the theory that these entities may be different manifestations of a single pathogenic process.
Weedon, Benjamin David; Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen
Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13-14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13-14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=-2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.253 to -0.011). Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. NCT02517333.
Liu, Francesca; Mahmoud, Wala; Metz, Renske; Beunder, Kyle; Delextrat, Anne; Morris, Martyn G; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny; Meaney, Andy; Howells, Ken; Dawes, Helen
Introduction Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. Aims This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13–14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. Methods A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13–14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys). Assessments consisted of body mass index, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and upper limb and lower limb MC. The distribution of MC and the strength of the relationships between MC and health/fitness measures were explored. Results Girls performed lower for MC and health/fitness measures compared with boys. Both measures of MC showed a normal distribution and a significant linear relationship of MC to all health and fitness measures for boys, girls and combined genders. A stronger relationship was reported for upper limb MC and aerobic capacity when compared with lower limb MC and aerobic capacity in boys (t=−2.21, degrees of freedom=307, P=0.03, 95% CI −0.253 to –0.011). Conclusion Normally distributed measures of upper and lower limb MC are linearly related to health and fitness measures in adolescents in a UK sample. Trial registration number NCT02517333. PMID:29629179
Gilliaux, Maxime; Renders, Anne; Dispa, Delphine; Holvoet, Dominique; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan
Several pilot studies have evoked interest in robot-assisted therapy (RAT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). To assess the effectiveness of RAT in children with CP through a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Sixteen children with CP were randomized into 2 groups. Eight children performed 5 conventional therapy sessions per week over 8 weeks (control group). Eight children completed 3 conventional therapy sessions and 2 robot-assisted sessions per week over 8 weeks (robotic group). For both groups, each therapy session lasted 45 minutes. Throughout each RAT session, the patient attempted to reach several targets consecutively with the REAPlan. The REAPlan is a distal effector robot that allows for displacements of the upper limb in the horizontal plane. A blinded assessment was performed before and after the intervention with respect to the International Classification of Functioning framework: body structure and function (upper limb kinematics, Box and Block test, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, strength, and spasticity), activities (Abilhand-Kids, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), and participation (Life Habits). During each RAT session, patients performed 744 movements on average with the REAPlan. Among the variables assessed, the smoothness of movement (P robotic group than in the control group. This single-blind randomized controlled trial provides the first evidence that RAT is effective in children with CP. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of this therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5 d/wk for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P=0.001 and greater sensory deficits (P=0.003. Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P<0.0001. Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho=0.49, P=0.03. Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r=-0.755, P=0.003, premotor (r=−0.565, P=0.04, primary sensory (r=−0.614, P=0.03, and associative sensory (r=−0.597, P=0.03 regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke.
Sanson, H; Gautier, V; Stansal, A; Sfeir, D; Franceschi, C; Priollet, P
Exercise-induced thrombosis is a rare cause of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper limb and usually affects young subjects without comorbid conditions. The diagnosis may be challenging. A 23-year-old female right-handed French teacher and amateur violin player presented with edema of the root of the right arm associated with erythrocyanosis of the extremity and collateral circulation of the shoulder. History taking revealed oral contraception and recent change in violin playing habits. D-dimers were negative. A second duplex-Doppler was required before visualization of a DVT in the right subclavian vein. The patient was given low-molecular-weight heparin alone, followed by rivaroxaban. The outcome was very favorable at 48h. The patient was seen at 4 months and had not had a recurrent episode. The diagnosis of DVT of the upper limb is basically clinical. There is a clinical probability score for the introduction of anticoagulation even if the duplex-Doppler fails to visualize DVT, a situation that can occur due to the clavicular superposition in this region. Exercise-induced DVT should be suspected in patients with minimally intense but repeated exercise (hyper-abduction), e.g. as here playing the violin. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice. The role for surgery and pharmacomechanical strategies remains to be defined. Exercise-induced thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome) should be suspected in young patients free of any comorbidity who develop a thrombosis of the upper limb. Studies comparing different therapeutic options would be useful to achieve more homogeneous management practices despite the heterogeneous clinical presentations. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Close interaction can be observed between an exoskeleton robot and its wearer. Therefore, appropriate physical human-robot interaction (pHRI should be considered when designing an exoskeleton robot to provide safe and comfortable motion assistance. Different features have been used in recent studies to enhance the pHRI in upper-limb exoskeleton robots. However, less attention has been given to integrating kinematic redundancy into upper-limb exoskeleton robots to improve the pHRI. In this context, this paper proposes a six-degrees-of-freedom (DoF upper-limb exoskeleton robot (6-REXOS for the motion assistance of physically weak individuals. The 6-REXOS uses a kinematically different structure to that of the human lower arm, where the exoskeleton robot is worn. The 6-REXOS has four active DoFs to generate the motion of the human lower arm. Furthermore, two flexible bellow couplings are attached to the wrist and elbow joints to generate two passive DoFs. These couplings not only allow translational motion in wrist and elbow joints but also a redundancy in the robot. Furthermore, the compliance of the flexible coupling contributes to avoiding misalignments between human and robot joint axes. The redundancy in the 6-REXOS is verified based on manipulability index, minimum singular value, condition number and manipulability ellipsoids. The 6-REXOS and a four-DoF exoskeleton robot are compared to verify the manipulation advantage due to the redundancy. The four-DoF exoskeleton robot is designed by excluding the two passive DoFs of the 6-REXOS. In addition, a kinematic model is proposed for the human lower arm to validate the performance of the 6-REXOS. Kinematic analysis and simulations are carried out to validate the 6-REXOS and human-lower-arm model.
Sucar, Luis Enrique; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Velazquez, Roger Luis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Leder, Ronald; Hernández-Franco, Jorge
Virtual reality platforms capable of assisting rehabilitation must provide support for rehabilitation principles: promote repetition, task oriented training, appropriate feedback, and a motivating environment. As such, development of these platforms is a complex process which has not yet reached maturity. This paper presents our efforts to contribute to this field, presenting Gesture Therapy, a virtual reality-based platform for rehabilitation of the upper limb. We describe the system architecture and main features of the platform and provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility of the platform in its current status.
Nickel, Renato; Lange, Marcos; Stoffel, Diane Priscila; Navarro, Elaine Janeczko; Zetola, Viviane F
ABSTRACT Objective To examine the frequency of shoulder pain following stroke. Methods Stroke patient function was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Scale for Upper Limb Function in Stroke (SULFS). Function scores were examined and compared between the shoulder pain group (SPG) and the no shoulder pain group (No-SPG). Results A total of 58 patients, 22 women (37.9%), were included in this study. The mean patient age was 49.2±10.8 years and study evaluations w...
Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, M.; Krebs, J.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, A.
Objective: To determine which single or combined upper limb muscles as defined by the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI); upper extremity motor score (UEMS) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP),
Basteris, A.; Nijenhuis, S.M.; Stienen, Arno; Buurke, Jaap; Prange, Grada Berendina; Amirabdollahian, F
Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not
Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Kubsik, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta
Rehabilitation of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke is a major challenge for modern neurorehabilitation. Function of upper limb of patients after ischemic stroke returns on the end of the rehabilitation comparing with another parts of the body. Below presents two groups of patients after ischemic stroke who were rehabilitated with use of the following methods: kinesiotherapy combined with NDT- Bobath method and kinesiotherapy only. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of kinesiotherapy only and NDT- Bobath method combined with kinesiotherapy on the functional state and muscle tone of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke. The study involved a group of 40 patients after ischemic stroke with motor control and muscle tone problems of upper limb. Patients were divided into two groups, each of them included 20 people. Upper limb in group I was rehabilitated with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise however group II with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise combined with NDT- Bobath method (Neurodevelopmental Treatment Bobath). To evaluate the patients before and after rehabilitation muscle tone Asworth scale was used and to assess functional status Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMAIII) scale was used. After 5 weeks of rehabilitation in group II in majority patients were observed decrease of muscle tone and improvement in upper limb functional status. In group I the muscle tone were also decreased and functional status were better but in smaller impact than in II group. Classical kinesiotherapy combined with the NDT-Bobath method gives better results in neurorehabilitation of upper limb than the use of kinesiotherapy exercises only in patients after ischemic stroke.
Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area’s topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.
Swan, P D; Spitler, D L; Todd, M K; Maupin, J L; Lewis, C L; Darragh, P M
The purpose of this study was to determine postural effects on upper and lower limb peripheral resistance (PR) after submaximal exercise. Twelve subjects (six men and six women) completed submaximal cycle ergometer tests (60% age-predicted maximum heart rate) in the supine and upright seated positions. Each test included 20 minutes of rest, 20 minutes of cycling, and 15 minutes of recovery. Stroke volume and heart rate were determined by impedance cardiography, and blood pressure was measured by auscultation during rest, immediately after exercise, and at minutes 1-5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 of recovery. Peripheral resistance was calculated from values of mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. No significant (p less than 0.05) postural differences in PR were noted during rest for either limb. Immediately after exercise, PR decreased (55% to 61%) from resting levels in both limbs, independent of posture. Recovery ankle PR values were significantly different between postures. Upright ankle PR returned to 92% of the resting level within four minutes of recovery, compared to 76% of the resting level after 15 minutes in the supine posture. Peripheral resistance values in the supine and upright arm were not affected by posture and demonstrated a gradual pattern of recovery similar to the supine ankle recovery response (85% to 88% of rest within 15 minutes). The accelerated recovery rate of PR after upright exercise may result from local vasoconstriction mediated by a central regulatory response to stimulation from gravitational pressure on lower body circulation.
Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo
Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .
Full Text Available To recognize the user’s motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME or motor imagery (MI. The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton. The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications.
Tang, Zhichuan; Sun, Shouqian; Zhang, Sanyuan; Chen, Yumiao; Li, Chao; Chen, Shi
To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI). The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton). The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications.
Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Jungsuk
This study analyzes a practical scheme for controlling an exoskeleton robot with seven degrees of freedom (DOFs) that supports natural movements of the human arm. A redundant upper limb exoskeleton robot with seven DOFs is mechanically coupled to the human body such that it becomes a natural extension of the body. If the exoskeleton robot follows the movement of the human body synchronously, the energy exchange between the human and the robot will be reduced significantly. In order to achieve this, the redundancy of the human arm, which is represented by the swivel angle, should be resolved using appropriate constraints and applied to the robot. In a redundant 7-DOF upper limb exoskeleton, the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian with secondary objective functions is widely used to resolve the redundancy that defines the desired joint angles. A secondary objective function requires the desired joint angles for the movement of the human arm, and the angles are estimated by maximizing the projection of the longest principle axis of the manipulability ellipsoid for the human arm onto the virtual destination toward the head region. Then, they are fed into the muscle model with a relative damping to achieve more realistic robot-arm movements. Various natural arm movements are recorded using a motion capture system, and the actual swivel-angle is compared to that estimated using the proposed swivel angle estimation algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides a precise reference for estimating the desired joint angle with an error less than 5°.
Ana B. Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height (waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. RESULTS: Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.
Full Text Available This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR. As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1 before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR.
Yao, Jun; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius
This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1) before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2) 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR.
Resquín, Francisco; Cuesta Gómez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Brunetti, Fernando; Torricelli, Diego; Molina Rueda, Francisco; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra, Juan Carlos; Pons, José Luis
In recent years the combined use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic devices, called hybrid robotic rehabilitation systems, has emerged as a promising approach for rehabilitation of lower and upper limb motor functions. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of current hybrid robotic solutions for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. For this aim, studies have been selected through a search using web databases: IEEE-Xplore, Scopus and PubMed. A total of 10 different hybrid robotic systems were identified, and they are presented in this paper. Selected systems are critically compared considering their technological components and aspects that form part of the hybrid robotic solution, the proposed control strategies that have been implemented, as well as the current technological challenges in this topic. Additionally, we will present and discuss the corresponding evidences on the effectiveness of these hybrid robotic therapies. The review also discusses the future trends in this field. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Francisco, Gerard E; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Émilie
To assess functional status and robot-based kinematic measures four years after subacute robot-assisted rehabilitation in hemiparesis. Twenty-two patients with stroke-induced hemiparesis underwent a ≥3-month upper limb combined program of robot-assisted and occupational therapy from two months post-stroke, and received community-based therapy after discharge. Four years later, 19 (86%) participated in this follow-up study. Assessments 2, 5 and 54 months post-stroke included Fugl-Meyer (FM), Modified Frenchay Scale (MFS, at Month 54) and robot-based kinematic measures of targeting tasks in three directions, north, paretic and non-paretic: distance covered, velocity, accuracy (root mean square (RMS) error from straight line) and smoothness (number of velocity peaks; upward changes in accuracy and smoothness represent worsening). Analysis was stratified by FM score at two months: ≥17 (Group 1) or Kinematic changes (three directions pooled) were: distance -1[-17;2]% (ns); velocity, -8[-32;28]% (ns); accuracy, +6[-13;98]% (ns); smoothness, +44[-6;126]% (p robot-assisted upper limb training during subacute post-stroke phase, movement kinematics deteriorated despite community-based therapy, especially in more severely impaired patients. EudraCT 2016-005121-36. Registration: 2016-12-20. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 2009-11-24.
Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul
Assessment of the incidence of upper limb oedema in an acute care setting by means of clinical and volumetric evaluation. Patients with acute hemiparetic stroke were recruited from 2006 until 2009 (n = 125). Baseline measurements consisted of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Arm Section and demographic characteristics. Oedema assessment was performed at 7 days after inclusion and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. A standardised water displacement method (objective measurement) was used to define oedema and was compared to data from visual inspection and palpation (subjective measurement). In literature, the incidence of upper limb oedema ranges from 16-83%, defined by a variety of definitions. Oedema incidence in this study was defined by strict criteria using water displacement and ranged from 9-13.9%, while the incidence of oedema defined by visual inspection and palpation ranged from 6-18.5% during the different stages of follow-up. The agreement (Kappa) between both measurements ranged from 0.23-0.38, which is not more than 'moderate' but comparable to the agreement of 0.34 found in literature. An objective and subjective assessment of oedema was used; the agreement between both methods was only moderate. The incidence of oedema found in this study is lower than the incidences found in literature.
Juan C Fraile
Full Text Available The use of robotic platforms for neuro-rehabilitation may boost the neural plasticity process and improve motor recovery in patients with upper limb mobility impairment as a consequence of an acquired brain injury. A robotic platform for this aim must provide ergonomic and friendly design, human safety, intensive task-oriented therapy, and assistive forces. Its implementation is a complex process that involves new developments in the mechanical, electronics, and control fields. This article presents the end-effector rehabilitation robot, a 2-degree-of-freedom planar robotic platform for upper limb rehabilitation in patients with neuromotor disability after a stroke. We describe the ergonomic mechanical design, the system control architecture, and the rehabilitation therapies that can be performed. The impedance-based haptic controller implemented in end-effector rehabilitation robot uses the information provided by a JR3 force sensor to achieve an efficient and friendly patient–robot interaction. Two task-oriented therapy modes have been implemented based on the “assist as needed” paradigm. As a result, the amount of support provided by the robot adapts to the patient’s requirements, maintaining the therapy as intensive as possible without compromising the patient’s health and safety and promoting engagement.
Zeiaee, Amin; Soltani-Zarrin, Rana; Langari, Reza; Tafreshi, Reza
This paper details the design process and features of a novel upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton named CLEVER (Compact, Low-weight, Ergonomic, Virtual/Augmented Reality Enhanced Rehabilitation) ARM. The research effort is focused on designing a lightweight and ergonomic upper-limb rehabilitation exoskeleton capable of producing diverse and perceptually rich training scenarios. To this end, the knowledge available in the literature of rehabilitation robotics is used along with formal conceptual design techniques. This paper briefly reviews the systematic approach used for design of the exoskeleton, and elaborates on the specific details of the proposed design concept and its advantages over other design possibilities. The kinematic structure of CLEVER ARM has eight degrees of freedom supporting the motion of shoulder girdle, glenohumeral joint, elbow and wrist. Six degrees of freedom of the exoskeleton are active, and the two degrees of freedom supporting the wrist motion are passive. Kinematics of the proposed design is studied analytically and experimentally with the aid of a 3D printed prototype. The paper is concluded by some remarks on the optimization of the design, motorization of device, and the fabrication challenges.
Laiq, N.; Khan, M.N.; Khan, S.
To compare the onset, duration and postoperative pain scores of supraclavicular block with bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-midazolam combination. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 ASA-I or II adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 each. Patients in group A were administered 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with midazolam 50 micro g kg/sup -1/. Hemodynamic variables (heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation), pain scores, rescue analgesic requirements and sedation score were recorded for 24 hours postoperatively, and compared using ANOVA with significance at p <0.05. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block was significantly faster and longer in group B compared to group A (p < 0.001). Pain scores were significantly lower in group B for 24 hours postoperatively (p < 0.001). Demand for rescue analgesic were significantly less in group B. Hemodynamics and sedation scores did not differ between the groups in the studied period. Bupivacaine (0.5%) in combination with Midazolam (50 micro g kg/sup -1/) quickened the onset as well as prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade of the brachial plexus for upper limb surgery. It improved postoperative analgesia without producing any adverse events compared to plain bupivacaine (0.5%) in equal volume. (author)
Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta
Broca's aphasia is the most challenging communication deficit in stroke. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a key region of the mirror-neuron system, gets lesioned in Broca's aphasia. Mirror therapy (MT), a form of action-observation, may trigger the mirror neurons. The aim of this study was to report a case of poststroke subject with Broca's aphasia, who exhibited an inadvertent and significant improvement in speech after MT for the paretic upper limb. The 20-month old stroke patient underwent MT through goal-directed tasks. He received a total absence of spontaneous speech, writing, and naming. After 45 sessions of task-based MT for the upper limb, he showed tremendous recovery in expressive communication. He had fluent and comprehensive communication; however, with a low pitch and minor pronunciation errors. He showed a substantial change (from 18/100 to 79/100) on the Communicative Effective Index, particularly, on items such as expressing emotions, one-to-one conversation, naming, and spontaneous conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tognetti, Alessandro; Lorussi, Federico; Bartalesi, Raphael; Quaglini, Silvana; Tesconi, Mario; Zupone, Giuseppe; De Rossi, Danilo
BACKGROUND: Monitoring body kinematics has fundamental relevance in several biological and technical disciplines. In particular the possibility to exactly know the posture may furnish a main aid in rehabilitation topics. In the present work an innovative and unobtrusive garment able to detect the posture and the movement of the upper limb has been introduced, with particular care to its application in post stroke rehabilitation field by describing the integration of the prototype in a healthcare service. METHODS: This paper deals with the design, the development and implementation of a sensing garment, from the characterization of innovative comfortable and diffuse sensors we used to the methodologies employed to gather information on the posture and movement which derive from the entire garments. Several new algorithms devoted to the signal acquisition, the treatment and posture and gesture reconstruction are introduced and tested. RESULTS: Data obtained by means of the sensing garment are analyzed and compared with the ones recorded using a traditional movement tracking system. CONCLUSION: The main results treated in this work are summarized and remarked. The system was compared with a commercial movement tracking system (a set of electrogoniometers) and it performed the same accuracy in detecting upper limb postures and movements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring body kinematics has fundamental relevance in several biological and technical disciplines. In particular the possibility to exactly know the posture may furnish a main aid in rehabilitation topics. In the present work an innovative and unobtrusive garment able to detect the posture and the movement of the upper limb has been introduced, with particular care to its application in post stroke rehabilitation field by describing the integration of the prototype in a healthcare service. Methods This paper deals with the design, the development and implementation of a sensing garment, from the characterization of innovative comfortable and diffuse sensors we used to the methodologies employed to gather information on the posture and movement which derive from the entire garments. Several new algorithms devoted to the signal acquisition, the treatment and posture and gesture reconstruction are introduced and tested. Results Data obtained by means of the sensing garment are analyzed and compared with the ones recorded using a traditional movement tracking system. Conclusion The main results treated in this work are summarized and remarked. The system was compared with a commercial movement tracking system (a set of electrogoniometers and it performed the same accuracy in detecting upper limb postures and movements.
Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun
All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.
Butler, Erin E; Ladd, Amy L; Lamont, Lauren E; Rose, Jessica
The objective of this study was to characterize normal temporal-spatial patterns during the Reach & Grasp Cycle and to identify upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Reach & Grasp Cycle encompasses six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to self (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. Three-dimensional motion data were recorded from 25 typically developing children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 12 children with hemiplegic CP (2 males, 10 females; ages 5-17 years). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for the control group ranged from 0 to 0.19, indicating good repeatability of all parameters. The mean duration of the Cycle for children with CP was nearly twice as long as controls, 9.5±4.3s versus 5.1±1.2s (U=37.0, P=.002), partly due to prolonged grasp and release durations. Peak hand velocity occurred at approximately 40% of each phase and was greater during the transport (T(1), T(2)) than non-transport phases (reach, return) in controls (PGrasp Cycle (rho=.957, PGrasp Cycle for quantitative evaluation of upper limb motor deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Esperon Percovich, A.; Lopez Chapuis, D.; Velverdu, M.; Curi, J.; Sciuto, F.; Velverdu, M.; Curi, J.
When clinical evaluation is not enough,the evaluation of the venous condition of the upper limbs for the realization of angio access for hemodialysis is classically based on phlebography,an invasive,risky method.the appear rance of non invasive techniques such as eco Doppler(duplex) makes it necessary to do research in order to determine the utility of the method and define its indications.The authors analyse 35 venous mappings of the upper limbs by phlebography and duplex and compare its results for the different venous regions.They come to the conclusion that duplex presented the best performance for the hum ero axillary subclavian region,detecting thrombosis with a sensitivity of 100% a specificity of 97% positive predictive value of 50% and negative predictive value of 100%.For superficial axis (radial and superficial ulnar,basilic and cephalic)there is low sensitivity for the determination of presence and permeability of the axis but 100% specificity.Duplex was not useful for the description of veins in order to determine utility for Avf.Finally,the authors make recommendations as regards indications of these para clinical tests [es
Hellman, Randall B.; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I.; Santos, Veronica J.
Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation “phantom limb pain” and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual fe...
Randall B. Hellman; Randall B. Hellman; Eric eChang; Justin eTanner; Stephen I. Helms Tillery; Veronica J. Santos
Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feed...
Feng, Shi-Ting; Wang, Meng; Gao, Zhenhua; Tan, Guosheng; Cai, Huasong; Hu, Xiaoshu; Yang, Jianyong; Li, Zi-Ping
Purpose: To compare the influence of two different upper limb positions on contrast agent effects in chest CT enhancement. Materials and methods: In 142 patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT chest scanning, an indwelling venous catheter was placed in the right hand and iodinated contrast agent was injected through a high-pressure single syringe pump. The patients were divided into three age groups (<40 years; 40–60 years; and >60 years) and randomly assigned to one of two upper limb position groups: (1) supine position, both upper limbs extended and raised above head in the same horizontal plane as the body; and (2) supine position, both upper limbs raised and crossed on the forehead, with the right arm on top. Differences in mean CT values on the two sides of the thoracic inlet along the right subclavian vein were used to evaluate the effects of the contrast agent. Results: Although contrast agent effects were not significantly different among the three age groups with either limb position, there was a significant difference between patients adopting the second limb positions (Chi-square value was 5.936, P < 0.05). An excellent or good contrast agent effect was observed in 63.08% of patients assuming the first limb position, as compared with 81.69% assuming the second position. Conclusion: For contrast-enhanced CT chest scans, use of the second limb position can reduce retention of the contrast agent in the right axillary vein and the right subclavian vein outside the thorax, increase contrast agent utilization, and decrease artifacts caused by high-density, local retention of the contrast agent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of upper limb movements in subjects recovering from stroke is an essential keystone in rehabilitative practices. Rehabilitation of arm movements, in fact, is usually a far more difficult one as compared to that of lower extremities. For these reasons, researchers are developing new methods and technologies so that the rehabilitative process could be more accurate, rapid and easily accepted by the patient. This paper introduces the proof of concept for a new non-invasive FES-assisted rehabilitation system for the upper limb, called smartFES (sFES, where the electrical stimulation is controlled by a biologically inspired neural inverse dynamics model, fed by the kinematic information associated with the execution of a planar goal-oriented movement. More specifically, this work details two steps of the proposed system: an ad hoc markerless motion analysis algorithm for the estimation of kinematics, and a neural controller that drives a synthetic arm. The vision of the entire system is to acquire kinematics from the analysis of video sequences during planar arm movements and to use it together with a neural inverse dynamics model able to provide the patient with the electrical stimulation patterns needed to perform the movement with the assisted limb. Methods The markerless motion tracking system aims at localizing and monitoring the arm movement by tracking its silhouette. It uses a specifically designed motion estimation method, that we named Neural Snakes, which predicts the arm contour deformation as a first step for a silhouette extraction algorithm. The starting and ending points of the arm movement feed an Artificial Neural Controller, enclosing the muscular Hill's model, which solves the inverse dynamics to obtain the FES patterns needed to move a simulated arm from the starting point to the desired point. Both position error with respect to the requested arm trajectory and comparison between curvature factors
Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin
To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.
Full Text Available A 47-yrs-female patient presented with carcinoma right breast, swelling and allodynia of right upper limb. radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and skin grafting was done under cervical epidural anaesthesia through 18G epidural catheter placed at C6/C7 level. Postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation of affected right upper limb was managed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 2.5 µg/ml -1 clonidine solution through epidu-ral catheter for 5 days and physiotherapy. This case report highlights the usefulness of cervical epidural analgesia in managing a complex situation of carcinoma breast with associated periarthitis of shoulder joint and chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS of right upper limb.
Zhang, Di; Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Cosentino, Sarah; Magistro, Daniele; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Zecca, Massimiliano; Takanishi, Atsuo
Current training for laparoscopy focuses only on the enhancement of manual skill and does not give advice on improving trainees' posture. However, a poor posture can result in increased static muscle loading, faster fatigue, and impaired psychomotor task performance. In this paper, the authors propose a method, named subliminal persuasion, which gives the trainee real-time advice for correcting the upper limb posture during laparoscopic training like the expert but leads to a lower increment in the workload. A 9-axis inertial measurement unit was used to compute the upper limb posture, and a Detection Reaction Time device was developed and used to measure the workload. A monitor displayed not only images from laparoscope, but also a visual stimulus, a transparent red cross superimposed to the laparoscopic images, when the trainee had incorrect upper limb posture. One group was exposed, when their posture was not correct during training, to a short (about 33 ms) subliminal visual stimulus. The control group instead was exposed to longer (about 660 ms) supraliminal visual stimuli. We found that subliminal visual stimulation is a valid method to improve trainees' upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Moreover, the additional workload required for subconscious processing of subliminal visual stimuli is less than the one required for supraliminal visual stimuli, which is processed instead at the conscious level. We propose subliminal persuasion as a method to give subconscious real-time stimuli to improve upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Its effectiveness and efficiency were confirmed against supraliminal stimuli transmitted at the conscious level: Subliminal persuasion improved upper limb posture of trainees, with a smaller increase on the overall workload.
Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R
Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high
Full Text Available Ana LLinares, Francisco Javier Badesa, Ricardo Morales, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, JM Sabater, Eduardo Fernandez Biomedical Neuroengineering, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, Spain Purpose: This paper examines the influence of age on several attributes of sensorimotor performance while performing a reaching task. Our hypothesis, based on previous studies, is that aged persons will show differences in one or more of the attributes of sensorimotor performance. Patients and methods: Fifty-one subjects (aged 20–80 years with no known neuromotor disorders of the upper limbs participated in the study. Subjects were asked to grasp the end-effector of a pneumatic robotic device with two degrees of freedom in order to reach peripheral targets (1.0 cm radius, "quickly and accurately", from a centrally located target (1.0 cm radius. Subjects began each trial by holding the hand within the central target for 2000 milliseconds. Afterwards, a peripheral target was illuminated. Then participants were given 3000 milliseconds to complete the movement. When a target was reached, the participant had to return to the central target in order to start a new trial. A total of 64 trials were completed and each peripheral target was illuminated in a random block design. Results: Subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1 (age 20–40 years, group 2 (age 41–60 years, and group 3 (age 61–80 years. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences (P < 0.05 between groups, except for the variables postural speed in the dominant arm, and postural speed and initial deviation in the non-dominant arm (P > 0.05. These results suggest that age introduces significant differences in upper-limb motor function. Conclusion: Our findings show that there are objective differences in sensorimotor function due to age, and that these differences are greater for the dominant arm. Therefore for the assessment of upper-limb function, we should
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4%. A poor physical work environment and placement of the keyboard were work-related factors increasing the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. The randomized intervention study included questionnaire survey, a diary of discomfort, and ergonomic rating of the workstations. The subjects (n=124 were allocated into three groups. The intensive and the education groups had less musculoskeletal discomfort than the control group at the 2-month follow-up. After the intervention, the level of ergonomics was distinctly higher in the intensive ergonomic group than in the education or control group. Two experts in ergonomics analyzed and rated the ergonomics of workstations before and after intervention. The validity of the assessment method was rated against the technical measurements, assessment of tidiness and space, and work chair ergonomics. The intraclass correlation coefficient between ratings of the two experts was 0.74. Changes in the location of the input devises and the screen, as well as the values of tidiness and space and work chair ergonomics showed a significant association with the ratings of both experts. The method to assess the loads imposed on the upper limbs was validated against the expert observations from the video, continuous recordings of myoelectric activity of forearm muscles, and wrist posture, measured with goniometers. Inter-observer repeatability and validity were
Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Anastasio, Fabio; Sanesi, Leandro; Gavish, Benjamin; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Schillaci, Giuseppe
Local blood pressure (BP) changes induced by arm tilting may influence pressure wave transmission and reflection. We investigated the effects of upper-limb tilting on radial augmentation index (rAIx) and related central measures [aortic augmentation index (aAIx)]. In 45 volunteers (age 49 ± 19 years), supine brachial BP and radial artery waveforms were obtained by applanation tonometry with the dominant arm stretched and gently supported in three different positions: at the heart level, with the BP cuff 15 cm above heart level (approximately +30°), and 15 cm below heart level (-30°). Brachial SBP/DBP was 120/68 ± 17/8 mmHg. Mean arterial pressure changed predictably with arm tilting (99 ± 12 mmHg at -30°, 88 ± 10 mmHg at 0°, 77 ± 11 mmHg at +30°, all P < 0.001). rAIx decreased at -30° (69 ± 22%), and increased at +30° (93 ± 20%) compared with 0° (82 ± 20%, all P less than 0.001). Changes in rAIx (value at +30° minus value at -30°) showed an inverse relationship with age (r = -0.32, P = 0.03). Heart rate, BP and rAIx did not change in the contralateral arm, which was held at the heart level during the examination. aAIx followed the same pattern as rAIx (123 ± 27% at -30°, 144 ± 33% at +30°, 136 ± 31% at 0°, all P less than 0.001); changes in rAIx and aAIx were strongly related each other (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). Acute gravitational upper-limb BP changes generate opposite, profound changes in rAIx, and major artifactual changes in aAIx. These findings provide a rationale for recommending to keep the upper limb at the heart level during radial waveform assessment.
Tonev, I.; Zechirov, B.; Stanoev, D.; Velikov, C.; Smilkova, D.
Full text: Diseases of the upper limb arteries are significantly rarer than those of the lower limbs but they are not causes and due to the lack of diagnostic algorithms are often missed. the symptoms are not typical except for those in acute thrombosis. The complaints in acute thrombosis is strong, sudden pain in the limb or part of it, bruising or paleness of the ischemic area and a lack of pulsation. Diagnosis is fairly easy – clinical events, difference in blood pressure or a lack of blood pressure in the affected limb, a total lack of blood pressure or a difference in the pressure in the left and right arm. Then complaints in stenosis and chronic occlusions is significantly less pronounced and is expressed as weakness in the affected limb, heaviness, bluish or paleness. If the proximal segments are affected Still’s syndrome is often observed. The complaints is not decisive for diagnosis. A difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mm Hg and an echodoppler examination of the arteries are the main criteria for directing the patients for angiography. Contrast CT and MRT are not used often. treatment is vascular surgery and endovascular. In acute thrombosis priority takes vascular surgery through extraction of the thrombi with Fogerty catheters, and in chronical stenosis and occlusions – dilation and stenting. Clinical cases: Case 1 – Revascularization of artery brachialis, radialis and ulnaris after acute occlusion L.Y., 77 years old. Complains of sharp pain and bruising of right forearm since two hours before hospitalization. A lack of blood flow was identified using palpation and echodoppler. After a diagnostic angiography , thrombaspiration was undertaken, through a leading catheter, recovering blood flow in both arteries and stenting of the proximal segment of artery radialis. Case 2: Revascularization of Trunkus brachiocefalicus K.P., 65 years old. Suffering from bradypsychia for several months. Bradypsychia becomes worse after manual labor
Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (Pelbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (Pelbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887
Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.
Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: email@example.com
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.
This book presents a comprehensive framework for model-based electrical stimulation (ES) controller design, covering the whole process needed to develop a system for helping people with physical impairments perform functional upper limb tasks such as eating, grasping and manipulating objects. The book first demonstrates procedures for modelling and identifying biomechanical models of the response of ES, covering a wide variety of aspects including mechanical support structures, kinematics, electrode placement, tasks, and sensor locations. It then goes on to demonstrate how complex functional activities of daily living can be captured in the form of optimisation problems, and extends ES control design to address this case. It then lays out a design methodology, stability conditions, and robust performance criteria that enable control schemes to be developed systematically and transparently, ensuring that they can operate effectively in the presence of realistic modelling uncertainty, physiological variation an...
Roberto Luiz Souza Monteiro
Full Text Available The practice in the use of electrostimulators: inappropriately, can lead to physical damage to the subject beyond the use of inappropriately. The use of computer simulation can help with the technical training of those who will operate this type of equipment. This paper presents a conceptual model applied to human upper limb muscle groups modeled in 3D, connected to an electronic device that sends signals to simulate the operation of electrostimulation practices, with the aim of proposing this model as a tool for teaching and learning in the area of electrotherapy. The conceptual model is presented as a proposal for the practice of electrotherapy area, with the qualitative aspects: security, configurability and a model of reading at the time of your execution.
Xiao, Feiyun; Gao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie
Many countries, including Japan, Italy, and China are experiencing demographic shifts as their populations age. Some basic activities of daily living (ADLs) are difficult for elderly people to complete independently due to declines in motor function. In this paper, a 6-DOF wearable cable-driven upper limb exoskeleton (CABexo) based on epicyclic gear trains structure is proposed. The main structure of the exoskeleton system is composed of three epicyclic gear train sections. This new exoskeleton has a parallel mechanical structure to the traditional serial structure, but is stiffer and has a stronger carrying capacity. The traditional gear transmission structure is replaced with a cable transmission system, which is quieter, and has higher accuracy and smoother transmission. The static workspace of the exoskeleton is large enough to meet the demand of assisting aged and disabled individuals in completing most of their activities of daily living (ADLs).
Yu, Wen; Rosen, Jacob
In order to minimize steady-state error with respect to uncertainties in robot control, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control needs a big integral gain, or a neural compensator is added to the classical proportional-derivative (PD) control with a large derivative gain. Both of them deteriorate transient performances of the robot control. In this paper, we extend the popular neural PD control into neural PID control. This novel control is a natural combination of industrial linear PID control and neural compensation. The main contributions of this paper are semiglobal asymptotic stability of the neural PID control and local asymptotic stability of the neural PID control with a velocity observer which are proved with standard weight training algorithms. These conditions give explicit selection methods for the gains of the linear PID control. An experimental study on an upper limb exoskeleton with this neural PID control is addressed.
Chakarov, Dimitar; Veneva, Ivanka; Tsveov, Mihail; Venev, Pavel
The actuation system of a powered upper limb orthosis is studied in the work. To create natural safety in the mutual "man-robot" interaction, an actuation system based on pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) is selected. Experimentally obtained force/contraction diagrams for bundles, consisting of different number of muscles are shown in the paper. The pooling force and the stiffness of the pneumatic actuators is assessed as a function of the number of muscles in the bundle and the supply pressure. Joint motion and torque is achieved by antagonistic actions through pulleys, driven by bundles of pneumatic muscles. Joint stiffness and joint torques are determined on condition of a power balance, as a function of the joint position, pressure, number of muscles and muscles
Nycz, Christopher J; Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Gregory S
Robotic technology has recently been explored as a means to rehabilitate and assist individuals suffering from hemiparesis of their upper limbs. Robotic approaches allow for targeted rehabilitation routines which are more personalized and adaptable while providing quantitative measurements of patient outcomes. Development of these technologies into inherently safe and portable devices has the potential to extend the therapy outside of the clinical setting and into the patient's home with benefits to the cost and accessibility of care. To this end, a soft, cable actuated robotic glove and sleeve was designed, modeled, and constructed to provide assistance of finger and elbow movements in a way that mimics the biological function of the tendons. The resulting design increases safety through greater compliance as well as greater tolerance for misalignment with the user's skeletal frame over traditional rigid exoskeletons. Overall this design provides a platform to expand and study the concepts around soft robotic rehabilitation.
Kang, Hao-Bo; Wang, Jian-Hui
This paper studies an adaptive control strategy for a class of 5 DOF upper-limb exoskeleton robot with a special safety consideration. The safety requirement plays a critical role in the clinical treatment when assisting patients with shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements. With the objective of assuring the tracking performance of the pre-specified operations, the proposed adaptive controller is firstly designed to be robust to the model uncertainties. To further improve the safety and fault-tolerance in the presence of unknown large parameter variances or even actuator faults, the adaptive controller is on-line updated according to the information provided by an adaptive observer without additional sensors. An output tracking performance is well achieved with a tunable error bound. The experimental example also verifies the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.
Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Hsin; Meng, Ling Fu; Liu, Chun Kai
This study used a novel device to make video games accessible to children with developmental disabilities (DD) by modifying the training software and interfaces to enhance motor training. In the pretest-posttest design, 20 children (13 boys, 7 girls; mean age=5.2 yr) with DD received adaptive upper-limb motor rehabilitation consisting of fifteen 30-min individual sessions 3 times per week for 5 wk. Improvement in Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition, scores for children with DD indicated significant differences between pretest and posttest. The rehabilitation device modified for the needs of children with DD is effective in improving visual-motor performance of children with DD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel
leg (p work ability index score and general health along with higher work disability and fear avoidance compared with controls (all p job position and duration......BACKGROUND: Knowledge of factors associated with chronic pain is necessary for preventive strategies. The present study investigates biopsychosocial differences, with specific focus on rate of force development (RFD) and work ability, between workers with and without chronic upper limb pain...... a questionnaire on work ability (work ability index), work disability (Work module of DASH questionnaire), fear avoidance, and self-rated health. Additionally, pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder and lower leg. RESULTS: Muscle strength and RFD (determined within time...
Obregon Baez, Luis Rafael
A guideline to follow is offered to radiologists and residents of radiology service of medical imaging, when evaluating by ultrasound the shoulder joints, elbow, wrist. The importance to performing of musculoskeletal ultrasound by its pathology variable is established. The use of appropriate equipment and effective application of the techniques exposed of echography exploration have made enable the valuation of many pathologies with high sensitivity and specificity. The echography has been the musculoskeletal imaging technique that more rapidly has evolved. Currently, this technique has been replaced by magnetic resonance imaging in various clinical fields and also serves as a complement to other techniques. Exposed techniques have been of great benefit for radiologists medical and residents, obtaining with its use a quick guide for the realization of upper limb musculoskeletal ultrasounds. The appropriate and easy techniques are better known for the evaluation of these structures, and so document both sports injuries, as joint and rheumatic diseases [es
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand severely affect labor market participation. Ergonomic training and education is the default strategy to reduce physical exposure and thereby prevent aggravation of pain. An alternative strategy could be to increase physical...... capacity of the worker by physical conditioning. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of 2 contrasting interventions, conventional ergonomic training (usual care) versus resistance training, on pain and disability in individuals with upper limb chronic pain exposed to highly repetitive and forceful manual...... interval -2.0 to -0.9) following resistance training compared with usual care, corresponding to an effect size of 0.91 (Cohen's d). LIMITATIONS: Blinding of participants is not possible in behavioral interventions. However, at baseline outcome expectations of the 2 interventions were similar. CONCLUSION...
dos Santos, Christian Mariani Lucas; da Cunha, Fransergio Leite; Dynnikov, Vladimir Ivanovitch
In recent years, single crystal Cu-Al-Ni alloys with shape memory behavior (SMB) became generally commercialized. They achieved the level of extended application, including upper limb human prosthesis with anthropomorphic characteristics. An actuator based in single crystal Cu-Al-Ni alloy was tested as a prototype for prosthetic actuators. Their thermal cycle times remarkably define the actuator dynamics and the idea of preheating to reduce its response time was tested. To elaborate the heating conditions, the chemical composition of martensitic and austenitic single crystals, Cu-Al-Ni alloy samples were examined. The dynamic response of a martensitic actuator made with SMB and the power consumed with preheating was analyzed. It demonstrates that the presence of more elements in alloys may be fundamental to displace the heating diagram and to reduce the power consumed.
Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.
Villepinte, Claire; Catella, Emilie; Martin, Magali; Hidalgo, Sylvie; Téchené, Sabrina; Lebely, Claire; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; de Boissezon, Xavier; Chih, HuiJun; Gasq, David
Somatosensory impairment of the upper limb (UL) occurs in approximately 50% of adults post-stroke, associated with loss of hand motor function, activity and participation. Measurement of UL sensory impairment is a component of rehabilitation contributing to the selection of sensorimotor techniques optimizing recovery and providing a prognostic estimate of UL function. To date, no standardized official French version of a measure of somatosensory impairment has been established. To develop and validate a French version of the Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment somatosensory (EmNSA-SS) and stereognosis (EmNSA-ST) component for evaluating the UL among adults with stroke. This study is a single-center observational cross-sectional study. A French version of the EmNSA for UL was developed by forward-backward translation and cross-cultural adaptation. Fifty stroke patients were recruited to establish concurrent-criterion-related validity, internal consistency, intra- and inter-rater reproducibility with intracorrelation coefficients (ICCs) for reliability and the minimal detectable change with 95% confidence interval (MDC95) for agreement, as well as ceiling and floor effects. Criterion validity was assessed against the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Sensory (FMA-S) for the UL. The median (range) EmNSA-SS score was 41.5 (1-44). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between EmNSA-SS and FMA-S total scores was moderate (rho=0.74, P<0.001). The EmNSA-SS/ST internal consistency was adequate across subscales; with Cronbach α ranging from 0.82-0.96. For the EmNSA-SS total score, intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent (ICC=0.92 in both cases), with MDC95 of 12.3 and 14.6, respectively. EmNSA-SS/ST total scores demonstrated no ceiling or floor effects. The French EmNSA is a valid and reproducible scale that can be used for comprehensive and accurate assessment of somatosensory modalities in adults post-stroke. Taking less than 30min to administer, the
Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang
In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.
Crenna, P; Carpinella, I; Lopiano, L; Marzegan, A; Rabuffetti, M; Rizzone, M; Lanotte, M; Ferrarin, M
Clinical evidence of impaired arm swing while walking in patients with Parkinson's disease suggests that basal ganglia and related systems play an important part in the control of upper limb locomotor automatism. To gain more information on this supraspinal influence, we measured arm and thigh kinematics during walking in 10 Parkinson's disease patients, under four conditions: (i) baseline (no treatment), (ii) therapeutic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), (iii)L-DOPA medication and (iv) combined STN stimulation and L-DOPA. Ten age-matched controls provided reference data. Under baseline conditions the range of patients' arm motion was severely restricted, with no correlation with the excursion of the thigh. In addition, the arm swing was abnormally coupled in time with oscillation of the ipsilateral thigh. STN stimulation significantly increased the gait speed and improved the spatio-temporal parameters of arm and thigh motion. The kinematic changes as a function of gait speed changes, however, were significantly smaller for the upper than the lower limb, in contrast to healthy controls. Arm motion was also less responsive after L-DOPA. Simultaneous deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA had additive effects on thigh motion, but not on arm motion and arm-thigh coupling. The evidence that locomotor automatisms of the upper and lower limbs display uncorrelated impairment upon dysfunction of the basal ganglia, as well as different susceptibility to electrophysiological and pharmacological interventions, points to the presence of heterogeneously distributed, possibly partially independent, supraspinal control channels, whereby STN and dopaminergic systems have relatively weaker influence on the executive structures involved in the arm swing and preferential action on those for lower limb movements. These findings might be considered in the light of phylogenetic changes in supraspinal control of limb motion related to primate bipedalism.
Janssen, Mariska M H P; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M
Duchenne muscular dystrophy can lead to upper extremity limitations, pain and stiffness. In a previous study, these domains have been investigated using extensive questionnaires, which are too time-consuming for clinical practice. This study aimed at gaining insight into the underlying dimensions of these questionnaires, and to construct a short questionnaire that can be used for clinical assessment. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the responses of 213 participants to a web-based survey to find the underlying dimensions in the Capabilities of Upper Extremity questionnaire, the ABILHAND questionnaire, and questionnaires regarding pain and stiffness. Based on these underlying dimensions, a stepwise approach was formulated. In addition, construct validity of the factors was investigated. In total, 14 factors were identified. All had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.89) and explained 80-88% of the variance of the original questionnaires. Construct validity was supported, because participants in the early ambulatory stage performed significantly better (pDuchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on the factor commonalities, the Upper Limb Short Questionnaire was formulated. Implications for Rehabilitation New insights into the underlying dimensions of upper extremity function, pain and stiffness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy are gained. Fourteen factors, with good internal consistency and construct validity, are identified regarding upper extremity function, pain and stiffness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on these factors, the Upper Limb Short Questionnaire is presented. The Upper Limb Short Questionnaire can be used as an identifier of arm-hand limitations and the start of more thorough clinical investigation.
Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J
Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Rogerio Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available As lesões esportivas do membro superior são muito comuns da prática de atividades físicas e, por isso, devem ser estudadas detalhadamente, levando-se em consideração aspectos específicos da modalidades esportiva praticada. Especial atenção deve ser dada à dinâmica da articulação do ombro e toda cintura escapular, pois somente assim poderemos tratar de forma mais adequada os atletas, atuando também na prevenção das recidivas, que podem ocorrer em alguns casos devido ao fato de o atleta procurar sempre o retorno ao mesmo nível esportivo anterior à lesão. Este artigo vai focar principalmente o manejo das lesões tendíneas do membro superior, da fisiopatologia até os novos métodos de tratamento das lesões de maior prevalência na prática esportiva em nosso país.Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities, and need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and scapular belt, as this will enable us to treat athletes more adequately, also helping prevent recurrences that can occur in some cases, due to the fact that the athlete always attempts to return to their pre-injury level of sport. This review focuses primarily on the management of upper limb tendon sports injuries, from the physiopathology through to the more common new methods of treatment in sports practice in our country.
Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus
To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation.
This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of
Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)
There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.
Full Text Available Abstract This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points, Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space. These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jay, Kenneth; Persson, Roger; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
Chronic pain and disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand severely affect labor market participation. Ergonomic training and education is the default strategy to reduce physical exposure and thereby prevent aggravation of pain. An alternative strategy could be to increase physical capacity of the worker by physical conditioning. To investigate the effect of 2 contrasting interventions, conventional ergonomic training (usual care) versus resistance training, on pain and disability in individuals with upper limb chronic pain exposed to highly repetitive and forceful manual work. Examiner-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. Slaughterhouses located in Denmark, Europe. Sixty-six adults with chronic pain in the shoulder, elbow/forearm, or hand/wrist and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of specific resistance training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles for 3 x 10 minutes per week, or ergonomic training and education (usual care control group). Pain intensity (average of shoulder, arm, and hand, scale 0 - 10) was the primary outcome, and disability (Work module of DASH questionnaire) as well as isometric shoulder and wrist muscle strength were secondary outcomes. Pain intensity, disability, and muscle strength improved more following resistance training than usual care (P effect size of 0.91 (Cohen's d). Blinding of participants is not possible in behavioral interventions. However, at baseline outcome expectations of the 2 interventions were similar. Resistance training at the workplace results in clinical relevant improvements in pain, disability, and muscle strength in adults with upper limb chronic pain exposed to highly repetitive and forceful manual work. NCT01671267.
Paulo H. Marchetti
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.
Kim, Hyeong Gyun; Yoon, Jae Ho; Choi, Seong Dae
There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination
Redgrave, Jessica N; Moore, Lucy; Oyekunle, Tosin; Ebrahim, Maryam; Falidas, Konstantinos; Snowdon, Nicola; Ali, Ali; Majid, Arshad
Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has the potential to enhance the effects of physiotherapy for upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Noninvasive, transcutaneous auricular branch VNS (taVNS) may have similar benefits, but this has not been evaluated in stroke recovery. We sought to determine the feasibility of taVNS delivered alongside upper limb repetitive task-specific practice after stroke and its effects on a range of outcome measures evaluating limb function. Thirteen participants at more than 3 months postischemic stroke with residual upper limb dysfunction were recruited from the community of Sheffield, United Kingdom (October-December 2016). Participants underwent 18 × 1-hour sessions over 6 weeks in which they made 30-50 repetitions of 8-10 arm movements concurrently with taVNS (NEMOS; Cerbomed, Erlangen, Germany, 25 Hz, .1-millisecond pulse width) at maximum tolerated intensity (mA). An electrocardiogram and rehabilitation outcome scores were obtained at each visit. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of taVNS to participants. Median time after stroke was 1.16 years, and baseline median/interquartile range upper limb Fugl-Meyer (UFM) score was 63 (54.5-99.5). Participants attended 92% of the planned treatment sessions. Three participants reported side effects, mainly fatigue, but all performed mean of more than 300 arm repetitions per session with no serious adverse events. There was a significant change in the UFM score with a mean increase per participant of 17.1 points (standard deviation 7.8). taVNS is feasible and well-tolerated alongside upper limb repetitive movements in poststroke rehabilitation. The motor improvements observed justify a phase 2 trial in patients with residual arm weakness. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Yoon-Hee; Ku, Jeonghun; Lim, Hyunmi; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Paik, Nam-Jong
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to provide intensive, repetitive, and task-oriented training, and game-based therapy can enhance patients' motivation and enjoyment. The objective of the present study was to develop a mobile game-based upper extremity VR program for patients who have experienced stroke, and to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the program. This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial included 24 patients with ischemic stroke. The intervention group (n = 12) received 30 min of conventional occupational therapy (OT) and 30 min of the mobile upper extremity rehabilitation program using a smartphone and a tablet PC (MoU-Rehab). The controls (n = 12) received conventional OT alone for 1 h per day. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 sessions of therapy, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks. The outcome measures (Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity [FMA-UE], Brunnström stage [B-stage] for the arm and the hand, manual muscle testing [MMT], modified Barthel index [MBI], EuroQol-5 Dimension [EQ-5D], and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) were assessed at the beginning and end of treatment, and at 1 month. User satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire. A greater improvement in the FMA-UE, B-stage, and MMT was found after treatment with the MoU-Rehab than with conventional therapy. The extent of improvements in the MBI, EQ-5D, and BDI was not significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group completed the 2-weeks treatment without adverse effects, and they were generally satisfied with MoU-Rehab. This mobile game-based VR rehabilitation program appears to be feasible and effective for promoting upper limb recovery after ischemic stroke.
Full Text Available Interpersonal violence seems to be on the increase worldwide. This is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate limb injuries that are related to assault seen in ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu, Nigeria. The limbs are very important in economic survival and its loss or dysfunction could create serious disability and jeopardize survival. This was a prospective study carried out between March 2012 and February 2013 in the Forensic Clinic of ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the victims off assault visiting the Forensic Clinic of the Hospital. Data was analyzed using simple statistical methods. A total of 1928 individuals visited the Forensic Clinic during the study period. 233 of them sustained one form of injury or the other. Limb injuries occurred in 88 (37.7% of injured victims. Upper limb and lower limb injuries occurred in 71.6% (n = 63 and 18.2% (n = 16 respectively and 10.2% (n = 9 had injuries involving both upper and lower limbs. Male to female ration is 1.6:1. The commonest weapon of assault was knife 22.7% followed by wood 18.1% and teeth 16.0%. Workman\\'s tools and bottle accounted for 13.6% and 11.4% respectively. The youngest victim was 15 years and the oldest 65 years. The modal age range of victims was 21 and ndash; 30 years 43.1% (n and ndash; 38 and mean age is 34.1 years. Laceration 44.3% (n and ndash; 39 was the commonest soft tissue injury seen and bone fracture was seen in 3.4% (n and ndash; 3 of cases. Most of the injuries occurred in business or work place 37.5% (N and ndash; 33, closely followed by attacks in the living quarters 36.4% (n and ndash; 32. The upper limb is a common site of injury during assault probably because most individuals would attempt to protect themselves using their hands. Weapons used in assault are those commonly found at the point of assault and active
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most frequent chronic complications after breast cancer treatment with a significant impact on the upper extremity function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to estimate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with breast-cancer-related lymphedema and its correlation with upper limb function and the size of edema. Methods. The cross-sectional study included 54 breast-cancer-related lymphedema patients. The quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36. Upper limb function was assessed by the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (Quick DASH. The size of lymphedema was determined by the arm circumference. Results. The higher HRQoL score was assessed for mental health (47.0 ± 12.2 than for physical one (42.2 ± 7.5. The highest values of SF-36 were found in the domains of Mental Health (67.7 ± 22.9 and Social Function (70.1 ± 23.1. The lowest scores were registered in the domains of Role Physical (46.9 ± 39.1 and General Health (49.3 ± 20.1. Upper extremity function statistically significantly correlated with the domains Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Composite Summary and also, with the domain Role Emotional (p 0.05. Conclusions. Physical disability in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema influences quality of life more than mental health. Upper limb function has a significant impact on quality of life, not only on the physical, but also on the mental component. The presence of breast-cancer-related lymphedema certainly affects upper limb function and quality of life, but in this study no significant correlation between the size of edema and quality of life was found.
Edgar, Dale; Zorzi, Lisa M; Wand, Ben M; Brockman, Nathalie; Griggs, Carolyn; Clifford, Matthew; Wood, Fiona
Acute burn patients suffer pain and secondary hyperalgesia. This alters movement patterns and impairs function. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are limited and lack rigorous testing and evidence for use. The treatment in this case series was designed to direct conscious attention to, and normalise sensation of, the injured limb in pain free way. The aim of the study was to describe a cortical training programme (CTP) in acute upper limb burn patients and to investigate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of the protocol. The study is a descriptive case series (n=6). Study tasks engaged sensory and motor nerves to influence the perception of the injured area. Visual and tactile inputs to maintain and, or normalise the homuncular map were central to the intervention. One patient, who commenced the study without resting pain, responded negatively. The remaining five patients had reduced pain and fear avoidance behaviours with associated improvement in arm function. The CTP approach is safe and feasible for use with acute burn patients where pain is reported at rest. Comparative studies are required to determine the relative efficacy of the program to usual interventions and the patients who may benefit from the technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.
Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chu-Hsu; Chang, Wen-Ming; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Hsieh, Wei-Chi
Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40) and Yanglingquan (GB34) points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side) versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side) in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM) upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P = 0.03) in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P = 0.036). Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle. PMID:23710218
Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke, is one of the major causes of disability in adults. So, the patient may prefer to use the non-involved limb to perfom selfcare & named this phenomen learned non used. Constraint induced therapy is one of the rehabilitative interventions that can be effective in restoration of the function of the involved limb in some hemiparetic post stroke patients. purpose of this study was to investigate effect of time constraind induced therapy on function, coordination and movements of upper limb on hemiplegic adults. Methods: In an interventional design, 15 hemiplegic patients attended in stracture exrcises for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks in during while for 5 hours a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks, the sound limb was restricted within an arm sling for movement & dextrity assessment were used Fugl-Meyer & Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test. Results: the results of Fugl-Meyer & Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test were significantly improved in patients, after the intervention (P<0.05. Discussion: Our study shows that using CIT in involved limb encouraged the patients to use their involved limb and improved function by conquering learned non-use of the limb. more research is necessary to define baselines or golden times for rehabilitation of the patients using CIT method.
Lankhorst, Ilse M F; Baars, Erwin C T; Wijk, Iris van; Janssen, Wim G M; Poelma, Margriet J; van der Sluis, Corry K
During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in various domains of participation during transition to adulthood and how they dealt with these limitations. Fifteen participants (mean age 21.4 years) with tULRD. A qualitative study was performed using a semi-structured interview based on the Rotterdam Transition Profile to identify the limitations experienced in participation domains. Almost all the participants reported difficulties in finding a suitable study or job. Most young adults were convinced they were suitable for almost any study or job, but their teachers and potential employers were more reserved. Few difficulties were reported on the domains leisure activities, intimate relationships/sexuality, housing/housekeeping and transportation. Participants preferred to develop their own strategies for dealing with limitations. Various aids, adaptations and prostheses were used to overcome limitations. Rehabilitation teams were infrequently consulted for advice in solving transitional problems. Young adults with tULRD experience limitations mainly in choosing and finding a suitable study or job. Rehabilitation teams may play a more extensive role in supporting individuals with transitional problems. Implications for rehabilitation Most young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) experience limitations in study and job selection during transition to adulthood, but they do not consult the rehabilitation team. Assessment of abilities in relation to job interests and practicing job specific bimanual activities may be helpful for young adults with a tULRD. How the rehabilitation teams can meet the needs of young adults with tULRD during transitional phases, when autonomy is of growing importance, should be investigated
Full Text Available The surface electromyography (sEMG technique is proposed for muscle activation detection and intuitive control of prostheses or robot arms. Motion recognition is widely used to map sEMG signals to the target motions. One of the main factors preventing the implementation of this kind of method for real-time applications is the unsatisfactory motion recognition rate and time consumption. The purpose of this paper is to compare eight combinations of four feature extraction methods (Root Mean Square (RMS, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, Weight Peaks (WP, and Muscular Model (MM and two classifiers (Neural Networks (NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM, for the task of mapping sEMG signals to eight upper-limb motions, to find out the relation between these methods and propose a proper combination to solve this issue. Seven subjects participated in the experiment and six muscles of the upper-limb were selected to record sEMG signals. The experimental results showed that NN classifier obtained the highest recognition accuracy rate (88.7% during the training process while SVM performed better in real-time experiments (85.9%. For time consumption, SVM took less time than NN during the training process but needed more time for real-time computation. Among the four feature extraction methods, WP had the highest recognition rate for the training process (97.7% while MM performed the best during real-time tests (94.3%. The combination of MM and NN is recommended for strict real-time applications while a combination of MM and SVM will be more suitable when time consumption is not a key requirement.
Hale, Leigh A.; Satherley, Jessica A.; McMillan, Nicole J.; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Hijmans, Juha M.; King, Marcus J.
This article reports on the perceptions of 14 adults with chronic stroke who participated in a pilot study to determine the utility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of using an adapted CyWee Z handheld game controller to play a variety of computer games aimed at improving upper-limb function.
Li, C.; Rusak, Z.; Horvath, I.; Ji, L.; Hou, Y.
In the last two decades, robotics-assisted stroke reha-bilitation has been wide-spread, in particular for movement rehabilitation of upper limbs. Several studies have reported on the clinical effectiveness of this kind of therapy. The results of these studies show that robot assisted therapy can be
Molier, B.I.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Stienen, Arno; van der Kooij, Herman; Buurke, Jaap; Jannink, M.J.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Feedback is an important element in motor learning during rehabilitation therapy following stroke. The objective of this pilot study was to better understand the effect of position feedback during task-oriented reach training of the upper limb in people with chronic stroke. Five subjects
Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between classical sport massage of the hand and the forearm and the surface temperature of upper limb muscles, and between hand grip strength and the range of motion in the radiocarpal joint.
Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.
The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522
The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H. B.
Background: Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published
Lankhorst, Ilse M. F.; Baars, Erwin C. T.; van Wijk, Iris; Janssen, Wim G. M.; Poelma, Margriet J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Introduction: During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. Purpose: To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in
Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
This study assessed the effectiveness of a single intervention targeting work style and a combined intervention targeting work style and physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms. Computer workers with frequent or long-term neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into
Stein, Joel; Narendran, Kailas; McBean, John; Krebs, Kathryn; Hughes, Richard
Robot-assisted exercise shows promise as a means of providing exercise therapy for weakness that results from stroke or other neurological conditions. Exoskeletal or "wearable" robots can, in principle, provide therapeutic exercise and/or function as powered orthoses to help compensate for chronic weakness. We describe a novel electromyography (EMG)-controlled exoskeletal robotic brace for the elbow (the active joint brace) and the results of a pilot study conducted using this brace for exercise training in individuals with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Eight stroke survivors with severe chronic hemiparesis were enrolled in this pilot study. One subject withdrew from the study because of scheduling conflicts. A second subject was unable to participate in the training protocol because of insufficient surface EMG activity to control the active joint brace. The six remaining subjects each underwent 18 hrs of exercise training using the device for a period of 6 wks. Outcome measures included the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale and the modified Ashworth scale of muscle hypertonicity. Analysis revealed that the mean upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale increased from 15.5 (SD 3.88) to 19 (SD 3.95) (P = 0.04) at the conclusion of training for the six subjects who completed training. Combined (summated) modified Ashworth scale for the elbow flexors and extensors improved from 4.67 (+/-1.2 SD) to 2.33 (+/-0.653 SD) (P = 0.009) and improved for the entire upper limb as well. All subjects tolerated the device, and no complications occurred. EMG-controlled powered elbow orthoses can be successfully controlled by severely impaired hemiparetic stroke survivors. This technique shows promise as a new modality for assisted exercise training after stroke.
Kong, Keng-He; Loh, Yong-Joo; Thia, Ernest; Chai, Audrey; Ng, Chwee-Yin; Soh, Yan-Ming; Toh, Shirlene; Tjan, Soon-Yin
To compare the efficacy of a virtual reality commercial gaming device, Nintendo wii (NW) with conventional therapy and customary care in facilitating upper limb recovery after stroke. Randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Tertiary rehabilitation center. 105 subjects admitted to in inpatient rehabilitation program within 6 weeks of stroke onset. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups of upper limb exercises: (1) NW gaming; (2) conventional therapy; (3) control. NW gaming and conventional therapy were provided fourtimes a week for 3 weeks. The main outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) of upper limb function. Secondary outcome measures included Action Research Arm Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Stroke Impact Scale. These measures were assessed at baseline, completion of intervention (week 3) and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. The primary outcome measure was the change in FMA scores at completion of intervention. The mean age was 57.5±9.8 years, and subjects were enrolled at a mean of 13.7±8.9 days after stroke. The mean baseline FMA score was 16.4±14.2. There was no difference in FMA scores between all 3 groups at the end of intervention, and at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. Similar findings were also noted for the secondary outcome measures. Twelve sessions of augmented upper limb exercises via NW gaming or conventional therapy over a 3-week period was not effective in enhancing upper limb motor recovery compared to control.
Wall, Lindley B; Shen, Tony; Roberts, Summer; Goldfarb, Charles A
To determine the range of the Pediatric Outcomes Collection Instrument (PODCI) scores for children with a wide variety of congenital upper limb differences and to examine the scoring effect of the patient's surgical history, family history, severity of involvement, and syndromic associations. We reviewed the PODCI scores for 109 patients, aged 2-18 years, treated for nontraumatic upper extremity conditions. Charts were reviewed for sex, age, extent of limb involvement, laterality, family history, surgical history, and syndrome association. All patients were classified based on the Oberg, Manske, Tonkin classification with general categories of malformation, deformation, or dysplasia. Of 109 patients, 80 (73%) had a malformation, 12 (11%) had a deformation, and 17 (16%) had a dysplasia. The cohort as a whole had a happiness PODCI score that was similar to the normal population, yet a lower (worse) PODCI score for upper extremity and global function. Patients with a dysplasia had a higher upper extremity function scores than those with malformations or deformations, but they had similar happiness and global function scores. Complete upper limb involvement and lower extremity involvement statistically lowered the PODCI score within our study cohort, whereas a positive family history and syndromic association increased PODCI scores. This study showed that there was a similar level of perceived happiness between children/adolescents with congenital upper extremity conditions compared with the normal pediatric population based on PODCI scores. In contrast, the perceived upper extremity and global function was significantly decreased in patients with congenital differences compared with normal individuals. This investigation also revealed that the extent of upper extremity involvement, lower extremity involvement, family history, and syndromic association may affect PODCI scores as independent variables and should be taken into consideration in studies of upper extremity
Tieri, Gaetano; Gioia, Annamaria; Scandola, Michele; Pavone, Enea F; Aglioti, Salvatore M
To explore the link between Sense of Embodiment (SoE) over a virtual hand and physiological regulation of skin temperature, 24 healthy participants were immersed in virtual reality through a Head Mounted Display and had their real limb temperature recorded by means of a high-sensitivity infrared camera. Participants observed a virtual right upper limb (appearing either normally, or with the hand detached from the forearm) or limb-shaped non-corporeal control objects (continuous or discontinuous wooden blocks) from a first-person perspective. Subjective ratings of SoE were collected in each observation condition, as well as temperatures of the right and left hand, wrist and forearm. The observation of these complex, body and body-related virtual scenes resulted in increased real hand temperature when compared to a baseline condition in which a 3d virtual ball was presented. Crucially, observation of non-natural appearances of the virtual limb (discontinuous limb) and limb-shaped non-corporeal objects elicited high increase in real hand temperature and low SoE. In contrast, observation of the full virtual limb caused high SoE and low temperature changes in the real hand with respect to the other conditions. Interestingly, the temperature difference across the different conditions occurred according to a topographic rule that included both hands. Our study sheds new light on the role of an external hand's visual appearance and suggests a tight link between higher-order bodily self-representations and topographic regulation of skin temperature. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro
Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.
Lathers, Steven M.
Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a thermoplastic osseointegrated upper limb prosthesis for average adult trans-humeral amputation with mechanical properties greater than upper limb skeletal bone. The prosthetic designed has: a one-step surgical process, large cavities for bone tissue ingrowth, uses a material that has an elastic modulus less than skeletal bone, and can be fabricated on one system. FFF osseointegration screw is an improvement upon the current two-part osseointegrated prosthetics that are composed of a fixture and abutment. The current prosthetic design requires two invasive surgeries for implantation and are made of titanium, which has an elastic modulus greater than bone. An elastic modulus greater than bone causes stress shielding and overtime can cause loosening of the prosthetic. The tactile sensor is a thermoplastic piezo-resistive sensor for daily activities for a prosthetic's feedback system. The tactile sensor is manufactured from a low elastic modulus composite comprising of a compressible thermoplastic elastomer and conductive carbon. Carbon is in graphite form and added in high filler ratios. The printed sensors were compared to sensors that were fabricated in a gravity mold to highlight the difference in FFF sensors to molded sensors. The 3D printed tactile sensor has a thickness and feel similar to human skin, has a simple fabrication technique, can detect forces needed for daily activities, and can be manufactured in to user specific geometries. Lastly, a biomimicking skeletal muscle actuator for prosthetics was developed. The actuator developed is manufactured with Fuse Filament Fabrication using a shape memory polymer composite that has non-linear contractile and passive forces, contractile forces and strains comparable to mammalian skeletal muscle, reaction
Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Gonzalez, David; Nouredanesh, Mina; Tung, James
Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position. The main goal of this study was to assess the concurrent reliability and validity of the LMC as compared to the Optotrak, a criterion-standard motion capture system, for measures of temporal accuracy and peak velocity during the performance of upper limb, visually-guided movements. In experiment 1, 14 participants executed aiming movements to visual targets presented on a computer monitor. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess the validity and limits of agreement for measures of temporal accuracy (movement time, duration of deceleration interval), peak velocity, and spatial accuracy (endpoint accuracy). In addition, a one-sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that the error difference between measures obtained from Optotrak and LMC is zero. In experiment 2, 15 participants performed a Fitts' type aiming task in order to assess whether the LMC is capable of assessing a well-known speed-accuracy trade-off relationship. Experiment 3 assessed the temporal coordination pattern during the performance of a sequence consisting of a reaching, grasping, and placement task in 15 participants. Results from the t-test showed that the error difference in temporal measures was significantly different from zero. Based on the results from the 3 experiments, the average temporal error in movement time was 40±44 ms, and the error in peak velocity was 0.024±0.103 m/s. The limits of agreement between the LMC and Optotrak for spatial accuracy measures ranged between
Full Text Available Introduction. Since delay in recognition and effective treatment of necrotizing fasciitis (NF caused by invasive group A streptococcus increases the mortality and disability, the early diagnosis and management of this disease are essential for a better outcome. We presented a patient with a severe form of streptococcal NF of the left upper limb in whom amputation was performed as a life saving procedure. Case report. A 65-year-old man, previously healthy, suffered an injury to his left hand by sting on a fish bone. Two days after that the patient got fever, redness, swelling and pain in his left hand. Clinical examination of the patient after admission indicated NF that spread quickly to the entire left upper limb, left armpit, and the left side of the chest and abdomen. Despite the use of aggressive antibiotic and surgical therapy severe destruction of the skin and subcutaneous tissues developed with the development of gangrene of the left upper limb. In this situation, the team of specialists decided that the patient must be operated on submited to amputation of the left arm, at the shoulder. After amputation and aggressive debridement of soft tissue on the left side of the trunk, the patient completely recovered. β-hemolytic streptococcus group A was isolated from the skin and tissue obtained during the surgery. Conclusion. In the most severe forms of streptococcal NF of the extremities, adequate multidisciplinary treatment, including limb amputation, can save the life of a patient.
Full Text Available Seye Abogunrin,1 Linda Hortobagyi,2 Edit Remak,3 Jerome Dinet,4 Sylvie Gabriel,5 Abdel Magid O Bakheit6 1Meta Research, 2Health Economics, Evidera, London, UK; 3Health Economics, Evidera, Budapest, Hungary; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research (Global, 5Global Market Access and Pricing, Ipsen Pharma, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 6Neurological Rehabilitation, Moseley Hall Hospital, Birmingham, UK Background: Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A is an effective treatment for patients with upper limb spasticity (ULS, which is a debilitating feature of upper motor neuron lesions. BoNT-A preparations available in the UK are associated with different costs. Methods: We developed a budget impact model to assess the effect of changing market shares of different BoNT-A formulations – abobotulinumtoxinA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA – and best supportive care, from the UK payer perspective, over a 5-year time horizon. Epidemiological and resource use data were derived from published literature and clinical expert opinion. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to determine parameters most influential on budget impact. Results: Base-case assumptions showed that an increased uptake of abobotulinumtoxinA resulted in a 5-year savings of £6,283,829. Treatment with BoNT-A costs less than best supportive care per patient per year, although treating a patient with onabotulinumtoxinA (£20,861 and incobotulinumtoxinA (£20,717 cost more per patient annually than with abobotulinumtoxinA (£19,800. Sensitivity analyses showed that the most influential parameters on budget were percentage of cerebral palsy and stroke patients developing ULS, and the prevalence of stroke. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that increased use of abobotulinumtoxinA for ULS in the UK could potentially reduce total ULS cost for the health system and society. Keywords: stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury
Luis Manuel Vaca Benitez
Full Text Available The rehabilitation of patients should not only be limited to the first phases during intense hospital care but also support and therapy should be guaranteed in later stages, especially during daily life activities if the patient’s state requires this. However, aid should only be given to the patient if needed and as much as it is required. To allow this, automatic self-initiated movement support and patient-cooperative control strategies have to be developed and integrated into assistive systems. In this work, we first give an overview of different kinds of neuromuscular diseases, review different forms of therapy, and explain possible fields of rehabilitation and benefits of robotic aided rehabilitation. Next, the mechanical design and control scheme of an upper limb orthosis for rehabilitation are presented. Two control models for the orthosis are explained which compute the triggering function and the level of assistance provided by the device. As input to the model fused sensor data from the orthosis and physiology data in terms of electromyography (EMG signals are used.
Grabherr, Luzia; Jola, Corinne; Berra, Gilberto; Theiler, Robert; Mast, Fred W
In healthy participants, beneficial effects of motor imagery training on movement execution have been shown for precision, strength, and speed. In the clinical context, it is still debated whether motor imagery provides an effective rehabilitation technique in patients with motor deficits. To compare the effectiveness of two different types of movement training: motor imagery vs. motor execution. Twenty-five patients with hemiparesis were assigned to one of two training groups: the imagery or the execution-training group. Both groups completed a baseline test before they received six training sessions, each of which was followed by a test session. Using a novel and precisely quantifiable test, we assessed how accurately patients performed an upper limb movement. Both training groups improved performance over the six test sessions but the improvement was significantly larger in the imagery group. That is, the imagery group was able to perform more precise movements than the execution group after the sixth training session while there was no difference at the beginning of the training. The results provide evidence for the benefit of motor imagery training in patients with hemiparesis and thus suggest the integration of cognitive training in conventional physiotherapy practice.
Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang
We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501
Born in Edinburgh in 1774 Sir Charles Bell, as a young man, studied anatomy and surgery in his hometown. There followed a distinguished career that culminated in his becoming the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the College of Surgeons in London. Renowned as a brilliant neuroanatomist he was invited, on the advice of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, to contribute one of eight volumes of a work on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation - known as the Bridgewater Treatises. 'The Hand its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design' was published in 1833 and it is an account of his considering the hand as a machine that has been engineered to exacting standards to interact with the environment in which we live. In it he expressed a deep understanding of the similarity of the structure of the upper limbs of the higher orders of animals. The similarity of the paddle of a turtle and a human hand with acrosymbrachydactyly is unmistakable. This congenital abnormality, given the eponymous title of Apert's syndrome, is one of a number of congenital abnormalities that have parallels in the animal kingdom. Others who have had similar syndromes named after them include Poland, Marfan, Streeter and a number of others. The life and times of these men and their contributions to medicine will be presented in this paper. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Bertoni, Rita; Ferrarin, Maurizio
In this pilot study, we compared two protocols for robot-based rehabilitation of upper limb in multiple sclerosis (MS): a protocol involving reaching tasks (RT) requiring arm transport only and a protocol requiring both objects' reaching and manipulation (RMT). Twenty-two MS subjects were assigned to RT or RMT group. Both protocols consisted of eight sessions. During RT training, subjects moved the handle of a planar robotic manipulandum toward circular targets displayed on a screen. RMT protocol required patients to reach and manipulate real objects, by moving the robotic arm equipped with a handle which left the hand free for distal tasks. In both trainings, the robot generated resistive and perturbing forces. Subjects were evaluated with clinical and instrumental tests. The results confirmed that MS patients maintained the ability to adapt to the robot-generated forces and that the rate of motor learning increased across sessions. Robot-therapy significantly reduced arm tremor and improved arm kinematics and functional ability. Compared to RT, RMT protocol induced a significantly larger improvement in movements involving grasp (improvement in Grasp ARAT sub-score: RMT 77.4%, RT 29.5%, p=0.035) but not precision grip. Future studies are needed to evaluate if longer trainings and the use of robotic handles would significantly improve also fine manipulation.
Mancisidor, Aitziber; Zubizarreta, Asier; Cabanes, Itziar; Bengoa, Pablo; Jung, Je Hyung
In order to enhance the performance of rehabilitation robots, it is imperative to know both force and motion caused by the interaction between user and robot. However, common direct measurement of both signals through force and motion sensors not only increases the complexity of the system but also impedes affordability of the system. As an alternative of the direct measurement, in this work, we present new force and motion estimators for the proper control of the upper-limb rehabilitation Universal Haptic Pantograph (UHP) robot. The estimators are based on the kinematic and dynamic model of the UHP and the use of signals measured by means of common low-cost sensors. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators, several experimental tests were carried out. The force and impedance control of the UHP was implemented first by directly measuring the interaction force using accurate extra sensors and the robot performance was compared to the case where the proposed estimators replace the direct measured values. The experimental results reveal that the controller based on the estimators has similar performance to that using direct measurement (less than 1 N difference in root mean square error between two cases), indicating that the proposed force and motion estimators can facilitate implementation of interactive controller for the UHP in robotmediated rehabilitation trainings.
Kikuchi, T; Jin, Y; Fukushima, K; Akai, H; Furusho, J
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named 'Hybrid-PLEMO' in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.
Full Text Available Objective: Mental Practice (MP can be defined as the symbolic, covert, mental rehearsal of a task in the absence, overt physical rehearsal. Elements such as similar time between actual execution and mental performance of a task, the increase of regional cerebral blood flow, vegetative activation, and enhancement in muscle electromyographic (EMG activity during mental practice suggests that mental practice imitates physical performance of a task. Since physical practice (PP can, to some extent, improve movement coordination in stroke patients, it is assumed that the application of MP would be beneficial to enhance movement coordination in such patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MP on coordination of upper limb movements in hemiplegic patients. Materials & Methods: Fifteen hemiplegic patients (age range 20-70 yrs were participated in this study. All patients were selected of the following criteria: absence of aphasic, apraxia and cognitive problem. The patients were randomly assigned to three groups, MP, PP, and PP+MP. Results: l. PP and MP Significantly improved movement coordination. 2. PP did not give different results when compared to MP. 3. PP Combined with MP Produced Significantly higher scores than each one alone. Conclusion: In spite of the small size in this study, the efficacy of MP shown here. Therefore MP Similar to PP should he used in physiotherapy.
Kikuchi, T; Jin, Y; Fukushima, K; Akai, H; Furusho, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named 'Hybrid-PLEMO' in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.
Lopez Celani, Natalia M; Soria, Carlos M; Orosco, Eugenio C; Di Sciascio, Fernando A; Valentinuzzi, Max E
Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry
Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic characterization and control of an upper-limb rehabilitation machine aimed at improving robot performance in the interaction with the patient. An integrated approach between mechanics and control is the key issue of the paper for the development of a robotic machine with desirable dynamic properties. Robot inertial and acceleration properties are studied in the workspace via a graphical representation based on ellipses. Robot friction is experimentally retrieved by means of a parametric identification procedure. A current-based impedance control is developed in order to compensate for friction and enhance control performance in the interaction with the patient by means of force feedback, without increasing system inertia. To this end, servo-amplifier motor currents are monitored to provide force feedback in the interaction, thus avoiding the need for force sensors mounted at the robot end-effector. Current-based impedance control is implemented on the robot; experimental results in free space as well as in constrained space are provided.
Liu, Sicong; Eklund, Robert C; Tenenbaum, Gershon
Following ironic process theory (IPT), the authors aimed at investigating how attentional allocation affects participants' upper limb motion steadiness under low and high levels of mental load. A secondary purpose was to examine the validity of skin conductance level in measuring perception of pressure. The study consisted of 1 within-participant factor (i.e., phase: baseline, test) and 4 between-participant factors (i.e., gender: male, female; mental load: fake time constraints, no time constraints; attention: positive, suppressive; order: baseline → → → test, test → → baseline). Eighty college students (40 men and 40 women, Mage = 20.20 years, SD(age) = 1.52 years) participated in the study. Gender-stratified random assignment was employed in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed experimental design. The findings generally support IPT but its predictions on motor performance under mental load may not be entirely accurate. Unlike men, women's performance was not susceptible to manipulations of mental load and attention allocation. The validity of skin conductance readings as an index of pressure perception was called into question.
Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang
We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.
Nee, Robert J; Jull, Gwendolen A; Vicenzino, Bill; Coppieters, Michel W
The validity of upper-limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs) for detecting peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) was assessed by reviewing the evidence on plausibility, the definition of a positive test, reliability, and concurrent validity. Evidence was identified by a structured search for peer-reviewed articles published in English before May 2011. The quality of concurrent validity studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool, where appropriate. Biomechanical and experimental pain data support the plausibility of ULNTs. Evidence suggests that a positive ULNT should at least partially reproduce the patient's symptoms and that structural differentiation should change these symptoms. Data indicate that this definition of a positive ULNT is reliable when used clinically. Limited evidence suggests that the median nerve test, but not the radial nerve test, helps determine whether a patient has cervical radiculopathy. The median nerve test does not help diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. These findings should be interpreted cautiously, because diagnostic accuracy might have been distorted by the investigators' definitions of a positive ULNT. Furthermore, patients with PNP who presented with increased nerve mechanosensitivity rather than conduction loss might have been incorrectly classified by electrophysiological reference standards as not having PNP. The only evidence for concurrent validity of the ulnar nerve test was a case study on cubital tunnel syndrome. We recommend that researchers develop more comprehensive reference standards for PNP to accurately assess the concurrent validity of ULNTs and continue investigating the predictive validity of ULNTs for prognosis or treatment response.
Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok
The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.
Full Text Available The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.
Cristóbal Ochoa Luna
Full Text Available This paper presents two rehabilitation schemes for patients with upper limb impairments. The first is an active-assistive scheme based on the trajectory tracking of predefined paths in Cartesian space. In it, the system allows for an adjustable degree of variation with respect to ideal tracking. The amount of variation is determined through an admittance function that depends on the opposition forces exerted on the system by the user, due to possible impairments. The coefficients of the function allow the adjustment of the degree of assistance the robot will provide in order to complete the target trajectory. The second scheme corresponds to active movements in a constrained space. Here, the same admittance function is applied; however, in this case, it is unattached to a predefined trajectory and instead connected to one generated in real time, according to the user's intended movements. This allows the user to move freely with the robot in order to track a given path. The free movement is bounded through the use of virtual walls that do not allow users to exceed certain limits. A human-machine interface was developed to guide the robot's user.
Gandolla, Marta; Costa, Andrea; Aquilante, Lorenzo; Gfoehler, Margit; Puchinger, Markus; Braghin, Francesco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra
People with neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy experience a distributed and evolutive weakness in the whole body. Recent technological developments have changed the daily life of disabled people strongly improving the perceived quality of life, mostly concentrating on powered wheelchairs, so to assure autonomous mobility and respiratory assistance, essential for survival. The key concept of the BRIDGE project is to contrast the everyday experience of losing functions by providing them of a system able to exploit the best their own residual capabilities in arm movements so to keep them functional and autonomous as much as possible. BRIDGE is composed by a light, wearable and powered five degrees of freedom upper limb exoskeleton under the direct control of the user through a joystick or gaze control. An inverse kinematic model allows to determine joints position so to track patient desired hand position. BRIDGE prototype has been successfully tested in simulation environment, and by a small group of healthy volunteers. Preliminary results show a good tracking performance of the implemented control scheme. The interaction procedure was easy to understand, and the interaction with the system was successful.
Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian
The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.
Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.
Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Morel, Baptiste
To analyze the reliability and validity of a field computation method based on easy-to-measure data to assess the mean force ([Formula: see text]) and velocity ([Formula: see text]) produced during a ballistic bench-press movement and to verify that the force-velocity profile (F-v) obtained with multiple loaded trials is accurately described. Twelve participants performed ballistic bench presses against various lifted mass from 30% to 70% of their body mass. For each trial, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were determined from an accelerometer (sampling rate 500 Hz; reference method) and a simple computation method based on upper-limb mass, barbell flight height, and push-off distance. These [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] data were used to establish the F-v relationship for each individual and method. A strong to almost perfect reliability was observed between the 2 trials (ICC > .90 for [Formula: see text] and .80 for [Formula: see text], CV% .80, P push-off distance).
Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per
To estimate the rates of primary and secondary prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees (ULAs), to describe the most frequently reported reasons for rejection and to estimate the influence of background factors on the risk of rejection. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224). Effects were analysed by logistic regression analyses and Cox regression analyses. Primary prosthesis rejection was found in 4.5% whereas 13.4% had discontinued prosthesis use. The main reasons reported for primary non-wear were a perceived lack of need and discrepancies between perceived need and the prostheses available. The main reasons reported for secondary prosthesis rejection were dissatisfaction with prosthetic comfort, function and control. Primary prosthesis rejection was more likely in ULAs amputated at high age and in ULAs with proximal amputations. Secondary prosthesis rejection was more likely in proximal ULAs and in women. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of rejection in proximal ULAs, elderly ULAs and in women. Emphasising individual needs will probably facilitate successful prosthetic fitting. Improved prosthesis quality and individualised prosthetic training may increase long-term prosthesis use. Further studies of the effect of prosthetic training and of the reasons for rejection of different prosthetic types are suggested.
Patel, Gauravkumar K.; Hahne, Janne M.; Castellini, Claudio; Farina, Dario; Dosen, Strahinja
Objective. Dexterous upper-limb prostheses are available today to restore grasping, but an effective and reliable feed-forward control is still missing. The aim of this work was to improve the robustness and reliability of myoelectric control by using context information from sensors embedded within the prosthesis. Approach. We developed a context-driven myoelectric control scheme (cxMYO) that incorporates the inference of context information from proprioception (inertial measurement unit) and exteroception (force and grip aperture) sensors to modulate the outputs of myoelectric control. Further, a realistic evaluation of the cxMYO was performed online in able-bodied subjects using three functional tasks, during which the cxMYO was compared to a purely machine-learning-based myoelectric control (MYO). Main results. The results demonstrated that utilizing context information decreased the number of unwanted commands, improving the performance (success rate and dropped objects) in all three functional tasks. Specifically, the median number of objects dropped per round with cxMYO was zero in all three tasks and a significant increase in the number of successful transfers was seen in two out of three functional tasks. Additionally, the subjects reported better user experience. Significance. This is the first online evaluation of a method integrating information from multiple on-board prosthesis sensors to modulate the output of a machine-learning-based myoelectric controller. The proposed scheme is general and presents a simple, non-invasive and cost-effective approach for improving the robustness of myoelectric control.
Dahan, Emmanuel; Chaves, Camilo; Bachy, Manon; Fitoussi, Frank
Congenital muscle hypertrophy of the upper limb is a very rare condition with unknown aetiology. This descriptive observational and retrospective series included eight children followed by a multidisciplinary team from 2005 to 2017. The diagnosis was based on a cluster of clinical and radiological characteristics after elimination of differential diagnoses. Patients were categorized according to: anomalies of the wrist, anomalies of long fingers of intrinsic or extrinsic origin; and anomalies of the thumb with or without first web space contracture. Treatment begins in young children with hand orthoses to limit muscle contraction and joint malposition. The purpose of surgical treatment was to release contractures and to restore muscle balance through, in the main, finger intrinsic releases and first web releases. At the 2-year follow-up, we found that limited surgical procedures improved finger, thumb and wrist positions. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the main cause of deformity and that selective releases of contracted musculo-tendinous units and skin lengthening are effective. IV.
Forcella, Laura; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Cutilli, Piero; Siciliano, Eugenio; Di Donato, Angela; Di Nicola, Marta; Antonucci, Andrea; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Boscolo, Paolo; Violante, Francesco Saverio
To study job stress and upper limb biomechanical overload due to repetitive and forceful manual activities in a factory producing high fashion clothing. A total of 518 workers (433 women and 85 men) were investigated to determine anxiety, occupational stress (using the Italian version of the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire) and perception of symptoms (using the Italian version of the Somatization scale of Symptom Checklist SCL-90). Biomechanical overload was analyzed using the OCRA Check list. Biomechanical assessment did not reveal high-risk jobs, except for cutting. Although the perception of anxiety and job insecurity was within the normal range, all the workers showed a high level of job strain (correlated with the perception of symptoms) due to very low decision latitude. Occupational stress resulted partially in line with biomechanical risk factors; however, the perception of low decision latitude seems to play a major role in determining job strain. Interactions between physical and psychological factors cannot be demonstrated. Anyway, simultaneous long-term monitoring of occupational stress features and biomechanical overload could guide workplace interventions aimed at reducing the risk of adverse health effects.
López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.
Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.
Vu, Dinh-Son; Allard, Ulysse Cote; Gosselin, Clement; Routhier, Francois; Gosselin, Benoit; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre
Robotic assistive devices enhance the autonomy of individuals living with physical disabilities in their day-to-day life. Although the first priority for such devices is safety, they must also be intuitive and efficient from an engineering point of view in order to be adopted by a broad range of users. This is especially true for assistive robotic arms, as they are used for the complex control tasks of daily living. One challenge in the control of such assistive robots is the management of the end-effector orientation which is not always intuitive for the human operator, especially for neophytes. This paper presents a novel orientation control algorithm designed for robotic arms in the context of human-robot interaction. This work aims at making the control of the robot's orientation easier and more intuitive for the user, in particular, individuals living with upper limb disabilities. The performance and intuitiveness of the proposed orientation control algorithm is assessed through two experiments with 25 able-bodied subjects and shown to significantly improve on both aspects.
Joan De Boeck
Full Text Available Force feedback has proven to be beneficial in the domain of robot-assisted rehabilitation. According to the patients' personal needs, the generated forces may either be used to assist, support, or oppose their movements. In our current research project, we focus onto the upper limb training for MS (multiple sclerosis and CVA (cerebrovascular accident patients, in which a basic building block to implement many rehabilitation exercises was found. This building block is a haptic linear path: a second-order continuous path, defined by a list of points in space. Earlier, different attempts have been investigated to realize haptic linear paths. In order to have a good training quality, it is important that the haptic simulation is continuous up to the second derivative while the patient is enforced to follow the path tightly, even when low or no guiding forces are provided. In this paper, we describe our best solution to these haptic linear paths, discuss the weaknesses found in practice, and propose and validate an improvement.
Do, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae Yean
Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is a neurological symptom appearing on the unilateral arm and leg of the body that causes affected upper/lower limb muscle weakening and dysesthesia and accompanies tetany and difficulties in postural control due to abnormal muscle tone, and difficulties in body coordination. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on the motor skills of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, in terms of their upper limb motor skills on the affected side, as well as their bilateral coordination ability. The research subjects were three children who were diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The research followed an ABA design, which was a single-subject experimental design. The procedure consisted of a total of 20 sessions, including four during the baseline period (A1), 12 during the intervention period (B), and four during the baseline regression period (A2), For the independent variable bilateral arm training based on virtual reality, Nintendo Wii game was played for 30 minutes in each of the 12 sessions. For the dependent variables of upper limb motor skills on the affected side and bilateral coordination ability, a Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) was carried out for each session and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) was measured before and after the intervention, as well as after the baseline regression period. To test bilateral coordination ability, shooting baskets in basketball with both hands and moving large light boxes were carried out under operational definitions, with the number of shots and time needed to move boxes measured. The results were presented using visual graphs and bar graphs. The study's results indicated that after virtual reality-based bilateral arm training, improvement occurred in upper limb motor skills on the affected sides, and in bilateral coordination ability, for all of the research subjects. Measurements of the effects of sustained therapy after
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
to abnormalities in the nervous system or muscles. The general opinion gradually changed and a dysfunction of the central nervous system, a “neurosis” was assumed, because no underlying lesion of the nervous system could be identified and many patients appeared to be mentally ill. This narrative review discusses...... the symptoms and findings in the physical examination reported in the first historical descriptions and interpretations at that time. There is evidence for an involvement of the peripheral nerves in the pathogenesis of these syndromes although this was not demonstrated by systematical neurological examinations...
Cheng, Sulin; Xu, Leiting; Nicholson, Patrick H F; Tylavsky, Frances; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wang, Qingju; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M; Kröger, Heikki; Alen, Markku
The aetiology of increased incidence of fracture during puberty is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether low volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the distal radius is associated with upper-limb fractures in growing girls, and whether any such vBMD deficit persists into adulthood. Fracture history from birth to 20 years was obtained and verified by medical records in 1034 Finnish girls aged 10-13 years. Bone density and geometry at distal radius, biomarkers and lifestyle/behavioural factors were assessed in a subset of 396 girls with a 7.5-year follow-up. We found that fracture incidence peaked during puberty (relative risk 3.1 at age of 8-14 years compared to outside this age window), and 38% of fractures were in the upper-limb. Compared to the non-fracture cohort, girls who sustained upper-limb fracture at ages 8-14 years had lower distal radial vBMD at baseline (258.9+/-37.5 vs. 287.5+/-34.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 1-year (252.0+/-29.3 vs. 282.6+/-33.5 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 2-year (258.9+/-32.2 vs. 289.9+/-40.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.003), and 7-year follow-ups (early adulthood, 307.6+/-35.9 vs. 343.6+/-40.9 mg/cm(3), p=0.002). There was a consistent trend towards larger bone cross-sectional area in the fracture cohort compared to non-fracture. In a logistic regression model, lower vBMD (p=0.001) was the only significant predictor of upper-limb fracture during the period of 8-14 years. Our results indicate that low BMD is an important factor underlying elevated upper-limb fracture risk during puberty, and that low BMD in pubertal girls with fracture persists into adulthood. Hence low vBMD during childhood is not a transient deficit. Methods to monitor vBMD and to maximise bone mineral accrual and reduce risks of falling in childhood should be developed.
Ferri, Stefania; Rizzolatti, Giacomo
Abstract The present fMRI study examined whether upper‐limb action classes differing in their motor goal are encoded by different PPC sectors. Action observation was used as a proxy for action execution. Subjects viewed actors performing object‐related (e.g., grasping), skin‐displacing (e.g., rubbing the skin), and interpersonal upper limb actions (e.g., pushing someone). Observation of the three action classes activated a three‐level network including occipito‐temporal, parietal, and premotor cortex. The parietal region common to observing all three action classes was located dorsally to the left intraparietal sulcus (DIPSM/DIPSA border). Regions specific for observing an action class were obtained by combining the interaction between observing action classes and stimulus types with exclusive masking for observing the other classes, while for regions considered preferentially active for a class the interaction was exclusively masked with the regions common to all observed actions. Left putative human anterior intraparietal was specific for observing manipulative actions, and left parietal operculum including putative human SII region, specific for observing skin‐displacing actions. Control experiments demonstrated that this latter activation depended on seeing the skin being moved and not simply on seeing touch. Psychophysiological interactions showed that the two specific parietal regions had similar connectivities. Finally, observing interpersonal actions preferentially activated a dorsal sector of left DIPSA, possibly the homologue of ventral intraparietal coding the impingement of the target person's body into the peripersonal space of the actor. These results support the importance of segregation according to the action class as principle of posterior parietal cortex organization for action observation and by implication for action execution. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3845–3866, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley
Singh, D K A; Rahman, N N A; Seffiyah, R; Chang, S Y; Zainura, A K; Aida, S R; Rajwinder, K H S
There is limited information regarding the effects of interactive virtual reality (VR) games on psychological and physical well-being among adults with physical disabilities. We aimed to examine the impact of VR games on psychological well-being, upper limb motor function and reaction time in adults with physical disabilities. Fifteen participants completed the intervention using Wii VR games in this pilot study. Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) and Capabilities of Upper Extremity (CUE) questionnaires were used to measure psychological well-being and upper limb motor function respectively. Upper limb reaction time was measured using reaction time test. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in DASS questionnaire and average reaction time score after intervention. There is a potential for using interactive VR games as an exercise tool to improve psychological wellbeing and upper limb reaction time among adults with disabilities.
Honeyman, Calum Sinclair; Wilson, Paul
A 57-year-old woman was referred to our regional sarcoma unit following a 2-year history of a progressively enlarging mass on her right forearm. At 14 × 7 × 12 cm, this mass turned out to be one of the largest upper limb cutaneous malignant melanomas ever described, and, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented in the UK. Remarkably, despite having a T4 malignant tumour with a Breslow thickness of 70 mm, this patient is still alive over 4 years later with no locoregional or distant metastatic spread. We present our experience in the management of this giant malignant melanoma of the upper limb and consider important differentials. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.
Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning
PURPOSE: To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A double......-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). RESULTS: Both groups improved...... with the sham group, from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.158). CONCLUSIONS: Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor...
Full Text Available Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.
Dawson, Jesse; Pierce, David; Dixit, Anand; Kimberley, Teresa J; Robertson, Michele; Tarver, Brent; Hilmi, Omar; McLean, John; Forbes, Kirsten; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Cramer, Steven C; Walters, Matthew; Engineer, Navzer
Recent animal studies demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with movement induces movement-specific plasticity in motor cortex and improves forelimb function after stroke. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical pilot study of VNS paired with rehabilitation on upper-limb function after ischemic stroke. Twenty-one participants with ischemic stroke >6 months before and moderate to severe upper-limb impairment were randomized to VNS plus rehabilitation or rehabilitation alone. Rehabilitation consisted of three 2-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks, each involving >400 movement trials. In the VNS group, movements were paired with 0.5-second VNS. The primary objective was to assess safety and feasibility. Secondary end points included change in upper-limb measures (including the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity). Nine participants were randomized to VNS plus rehabilitation and 11 to rehabilitation alone. There were no serious adverse device effects. One patient had transient vocal cord palsy and dysphagia after implantation. Five had minor adverse device effects including nausea and taste disturbance on the evening of therapy. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the change in Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity scores was not significantly different (between-group difference, 5.7 points; 95% confidence interval, -0.4 to 11.8). In the per-protocol analysis, there was a significant difference in change in Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity score (between-group difference, 6.5 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 12.6). This study suggests that VNS paired with rehabilitation is feasible and has not raised safety concerns. Additional studies of VNS in adults with chronic stroke will now be performed. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01669161. © 2015 The Authors.
Rozanov, A.; Weigel, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Dhomse, S.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Kivi, R.; Rozanov, V.; Vömel, H.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J. P.
This study describes the retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) altitude range from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light made in limb viewing geometry. First results using measurements from SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) aboard ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) are presented here. In previous publications, the retrieval of water vapor vertical ...
Medeiros, Candice Simões Pimenta de; Fernandes, Sabrina Gabrielle Gomes; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta de Oliveira
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy through functional activities and motor standards in upper limb function of chronic stroke subjects. Six patients with paresis of the arm within at least six months after stroke were randomly to a group of functional activities (GAF - n=3) and group of motor standards (GPM - n=3). Both groups performed 15 sessions of mirror therapy for 30 minutes, but the first one (GAF) were instructed to do the bilateral and symmetrical movements bas...
Lv, Jiang-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Tian, Shao-Qi; Sun, Kang
To assess the serum of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels in postmenopausal women from northern China with hip and upper limb fractures. Case-control. Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. Postmenopausal women diagnosed with hip fracture (n = 335) and matched controls without fracture (n = 335). Between 2011 and 2013, fasting venous samples were analyzed for 25(OH)D, iPTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, and phosphorus. All women completed a standardized questionnaire designed to document putative risk factors for fractures. Eight percent of participants had vitamin D deficiency, and 66.0% had secondary hyperparathyroidism. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly (P lower in women with hip fracture than in controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that serum 25(OH)D of 20 ng/mL or less was an independent indicator of hip fracture (odds ratio (OR) = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-4.20) and concomitant upper limb fracture in those with existing hip fractures (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.60-10.12). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 25(OH)D was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.68-0.84) for hip fracture and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.72-0.89) for hip and upper limb fractures. Vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism were a common problem in postmenopausal women who presented with concomitant hip and upper limb fractures, suggesting that they might contribute to the pathophysiology of fractures in postmenopausal women. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Nunes, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Avelar, Ademar; Trindade, Michele Cc; Nabuco, Hellen Cg; Cavalcante, Edilaine F; Junior, Paulo Sugihara; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; Cyrino, Edilson S
Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 43 resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.0 years, 72.9 ± 8.7 kg, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm, 23.0 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) received either creatine (Cr, n = 22) or placebo (PLA, n = 21) over an 8-week study period. The supplementation protocol included a loading phase (7 days, four doses of 0.3 g/kg per day) and a maintenance phase (7 weeks, single dose of 0.03 g/kg per day). During the same period, subjects performed resistance training four times per week using the following two-way split routine: Monday and Thursday = pectoral, shoulders, triceps, and abdomen, Tuesday and Friday = back, biceps, thighs, and calves. Lean soft tissue of the upper limbs (ULLST), lower limbs (LLLST), and trunk (TLST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Both groups showed significant ( p hypertrophy (ULLST = 1.6 ± 3.0%; LLLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%; TLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%). Our results suggest that Cr supplementation can positively augment muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained young adult men, particularly in the upper limbs.
Sun, Runjie; Tian, Liang; Fang, Xiaoli; Du, Xiaozheng; Zhu, Bowen; Song, Zhongyang; Xu, Xuan; Qin, Xiaoguang
To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on post-stroke upper limb spasmodic hemiplegia between the combined therapy of jingou diaoyu needling technique and Bobath technology and simple Bobath technology. Sixty patients were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. The usual medication of neurological internal medicine was used in the two groups. In the control group, Bobath facilitation technology was applied to the rehabilitation training. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, jingou diaoyu needling technique was used to stimulate Zhongfu (LU 1), Tianfu (LU 3), Chize (LU 5), Quchi (LI 11), Jianshi (PC 5) and Daling (PC 7). The treatment was given once a day; 5 treatments made one session and totally 4-week treatment was required in the two groups. The modified Ashworth scale, the modified Fugle-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the Barthel index (BI) were adopted to evaluate the muscular tension, the upper limb motor function and the activities of daily living (ADL) before and after treatment in the two groups. The clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups. Compared with those before treatment, the modified Ashworth scale, Fugl-Meyer score and BI score were all improved after treatment in the two groups (all P Bobath therapy achieve the superior efficacy on post-stroke upper limb spasmodic hemiplegia as compared with the simple application Bobath therapy. This combined treatment effectively relieve spasmodic state and improve the upper limb motor function and the activities of daily living.
Li, Jingwen; Ye, Qing; Ding, Li; Liao, Qianfang
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions. Therefore, focusing on upper limb models of the body and space suit is valuable to this effort. In previous modeling studies, some multi-rigid-body systems were developed to simplify the human musculoskeletal system, and the space suit was mostly considered as a part of the astronaut body. With the aim to improve the reality of the models, we developed an astronauts' upper limb model, including a torque model and a muscle-force model, with the counter torques from the space suit being considered as a boundary condition. Inverse kinematics and the Maggi-Kane's method was applied to calculate the joint angles, joint torques and muscle force given that the terminal trajectory of upper limb motion was known. Also, we validated the muscle-force model using electromyogram (EMG) data collected in a validation experiment. Muscle force calculated from our model presented a similar trend with the EMG data, supporting the effectiveness and feasibility of the muscle-force model we established, and also, partially validating the joint model in kinematics aspect.
Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q
Reaching-to-eat (skilled reaching) is a natural behaviour that involves reaching for, grasping and withdrawing a target to be placed into the mouth for eating. It is an action performed daily by adults and is among the first complex behaviours to develop in infants. During development, visually guided reaching becomes increasingly refined to the point that grasping of small objects with precision grips of the digits occurs at about one year of age. Integration of the hand, upper-limbs, and whole body are required for successful reaching, but the ontogeny of this integration has not been described. The present longitudinal study used Laban Movement Analysis, a behavioural descriptive method, to investigate the developmental progression of the use and integration of axial, proximal, and distal movements performed during visually guided reaching. Four infants (from 7 to 40 weeks age) were presented with graspable objects (toys or food items). The first prereaching stage was associated with activation of mouth, limb, and hand movements to a visually presented target. Next, reaching attempts consisted of first, the advancement of the head with an opening mouth and then with the head, trunk and opening mouth. Eventually, the axial movements gave way to the refined action of one upper-limb supported by axial adjustments. These findings are discussed in relation to the biological objective of reaching, the evolutionary origins of reaching, and the decomposition of reaching after neurological injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Sageshima, Masashi; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p hemiparesis after stroke.
Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne Gaelle
Kinematic assessments are increasingly used as motor outcome measures during upper limb robot-assisted training, in addition to clinical scales. However, their relevance has not been evaluated much. Thirty-eight patients with severe sub-acute stroke (age 56 ± 17 [19-87] years; time since stroke, 55 ± 22 days) carried out 16 sessions (average 3/week, 35 ± 15 days) of upper limb robot-assisted training combined with standard therapy. Pre/post motor performance was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Motor Status Scale (MSS) and kinematic measures. Motor outcomes were compared and relationships between clinical and kinematic outcomes were analyzed. All clinical and kinematic outcomes improved after training (p kinematic measures were strongly correlated with clinical scores. Correlations between clinical and kinematic changes were moderate (r = -0.65 for change in FM Proximal score and change in accuracy measure). However, smoothness and accuracy indicators were shown to be responsive measures. This study demonstrated that baseline kinematic measures and their pre/post training changes were significantly correlated with clinical motor outcome measures. However, even if kinematic measures are valid for the evaluation of motor impairment we cannot propose to substitute common clinical measures of motor function which also evaluate functional abilities of the upper limb.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affect different systems in human. Wide range of musculoskeletal syndromes have been described in association with diabetes. To determine the prevalence of upper limb soft tissue rheumatism in diabetes patients. In a cross sectional study 300 diabetic patients was examined by COPCORD questionnaire. The examination was performed by internist and rheumatologist . Data was analyzed by logistic regression. 73.3% of patients were female. Average age of cases was 51.2±13.7 years and mean of duration of disease was 7±6.4 years. 152 cases (50.7% had soft tissue rheumatism in upper limbs. 66 cases had carpal tannel syndrome, 23 cases with Dupuytren’s disease, 23 cases with Flexortenosynovitis, 91 cases with shoulder periarthritis, 4 cases had limited joint mobility and 12 had Elbow Epicandititis. Logestic regression analysis showed that type 2 diabetes, weak control of blood sugur and duration of disease>5years were risk factors for incidence of soft tissue rheumatism in upper limbs. Results have showed the high prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism in diabetic patients.
Hale, Leigh A; Satherley, Jessica A; McMillan, Nicole J; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Hijmans, Juha M; King, Marcus J
This article reports on the perceptions of 14 adults with chronic stroke who participated in a pilot study to determine the utility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of using an adapted CyWee Z handheld game controller to play a variety of computer games aimed at improving upper-limb function. Four qualitative in-depth interviews and two focus groups explored participant perceptions. Data were thematically analyzed with the general inductive approach. Participants enjoyed playing the computer games with the technology. The perceived benefits included improved upper-limb function, concentration, and balance; however, six participants reported shoulder and/or arm pain or discomfort, which presented while they were engaged in play but appeared to ease during rest. Participants suggested changes to the games and provided opinions on the use of computer games in rehabilitation. Using an adapted CyWee Z controller and computer games in upper-limb rehabilitation for people with chronic stroke is an acceptable and potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation. The development of shoulder pain was a negative side effect for some participants and requires further investigation.
Raouafi, Sana; Achiche, Sofiane; Begon, Mickael; Sarcher, Aurélie; Raison, Maxime
Treatment for cerebral palsy depends upon the severity of the child's condition and requires knowledge about upper limb disability. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic quantitative classification method of the upper limb disability levels for children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy based on upper limb movements and muscle activation. Thirteen children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy and six typically developing children participated in this study. Patients were matched on age and manual ability classification system levels I to III. Twenty-three kinematic and electromyographic variables were collected from two tasks. Discriminative analysis and K-means clustering algorithm were applied using 23 kinematic and EMG variables of each participant. Among the 23 kinematic and electromyographic variables, only two variables containing the most relevant information for the prediction of the four levels of severity of spastic unilateral cerebral palsy, which are fixed by manual ability classification system, were identified by discriminant analysis: (1) the Falconer index (CAI E ) which represents the ratio of biceps to triceps brachii activity during extension and (2) the maximal angle extension (θ Extension,max ). A good correlation (Kendall Rank correlation coefficient = -0.53, p = 0.01) was found between levels fixed by manual ability classification system and the obtained classes. These findings suggest that the cost and effort needed to assess and characterize the disability level of a child can be further reduced.
Yoon, Byung-Nam; Choi, Seong Hye; Rha, Joung-Ho; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Sung, Jung-Joon
Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences.
Joel C. Perry
Full Text Available The integration of human and robot into a single system offers remarkable opportunities for a new generation of assistive technology. Despite the recent prominence of upper limb exoskeletons in assistive applications, the human arm kinematics and dynamics are usually described in single or multiple arm movements that are not associated with any concrete activity of daily living (ADL. Moreover, the design of an exoskeleton, which is physically linked to the human body, must have a workspace that matches as close as possible with the workspace of the human body, while at the same time avoid singular configurations of the exoskeleton within the human workspace. The aims of the research reported in this manuscript are (1 to study the kinematics and the dynamics of the human arm during daily activities in a free and unconstrained environment, (2 to study the manipulability (isotropy of a 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF-powered exoskeleton arm given the kinematics and the dynamics of the human arm in ADLs. Kinematic data of the upper limb were acquired with a motion capture system while performing 24 daily activities from six subjects. Utilising a 7-DOF model of the human arm, the equations of motion were used to calculate joint torques from measured kinematics. In addition, the exoskeleton isotropy was calculated and mapped with respect to the spacial distribution of the human arm configurations during the 24 daily activities. The results indicate that the kinematic joint distributions representing all 24 actions appear normally distributed except for elbow flexion–extension with the emergence of three modal centres. Velocity and acceleration components of joint torque distributions were normally distributed about 0 Nm, whereas gravitational component distributions varied with joint. Additionally, velocity effects were found to contribute only 1/100th of the total joint torque, whereas acceleration components contribute 1/10th of the total torque at the
Full Text Available Cássia da Luz Goulart,1 Ramona Cabiddu,2 Paloma de Borba Schneiders,1 Elisabete Antunes San Martin,1 Renata Trimer,3 Audrey Borghi-Silva,2 Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves da Silva4,5 1Course of Physiotherapy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Nucleus of Research in Physical Exercise, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil; 3Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil; 4Course of Physiotherapy, Department of Health and Physical Education, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 5Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, Santa Cruz Hospital, Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Purpose: To evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV indices and heart rate (HR responses during isometric contraction (IC and Valsalva maneuver (VM in COPD patients. Methods: Twenty-two stable moderate to severe COPD patients were evaluated. R-R intervals were recorded (monitor Polar® S810i during dominant upper limb IC (2 minutes. Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios HRV® software. Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain (mean HR; square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals [RMSSD] and HRV triangular index [RR tri index] and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF] and LF/HF ratio. The HR responses were evaluated at rest, at the peak and at the nadir of the VM (15 seconds. The Valsalva index was also calculated. Results: During IC: time domain indices (mean HR increased [P=0.001], RMSSD, and RR tri index decreased [P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively]; frequency domain indices (LF increased [P=0.033] and HF decreased [P=0.002]; associations were found between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 vs RMSSD (P=0.04; r=–0.55, FEV1 vs HR (P=0.04; r=–0.48, forced vital capacity (FVC vs RMSSD (P=0.05; r=–0.62, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP vs HF (P=0.02; r=0.68. FEV1
Juliana Molinari Tecchio
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aging leads to sarcopenia and functional capacity decline, compromising upper (UL and lower limb (LL performance of activities. Body mass index (BMI is an important parameter for the assessment of health conditions in older adults, especially with regard to obesity, since it leads to functional limitations in terms of mobility and task performance. Objective: To investigate the potential association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults; and to characterize this population with regard to BMI and UL and LL functionality. Methods: The data were collected between August 2013 and April 2014. The sample comprised 371 physically active older adults. This study used secondary data from the program “PET Saúde IPA/SMS”. The program interviewed older adults living in areas comprised by the Third Family Health Unit of a neighborhood in Porto Alegre/RS. This paper used questions from the “Instrumento de Avaliação Multidimensional Rápida da Pessoa Idosa” (Instrument for Rapid Multidimensional Assessment of Elderly People, in English that had to do with UL and LL functionality, weight, height and BMI. Results and Conclusion: There was no association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults. More than half of the sample was overweight. Most participants had functional UL and LL. While occupation, self-perception of health as “good” and “very good”, and physical activity were found to be associated with LL functionality; regular physical exercise was found to be associated with UL and LL functionality.
Tatla, Sandy K; Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians' perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. The objective of our study was to explore therapists' perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that clinicians will adopt innovative technologies.
Full Text Available We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user’s motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network, an electromyogram (EMG-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods; (2 holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme’s reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user’s motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.
Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians’ perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists’ perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. Methods We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Results Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. Conclusions This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that
Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions. To describe the development of a scale to evaluate upper limb function (UL) in patients with DMD and SMA, and describe its validation process, which includes self-training for evaluators. The development of the scale included a review of published scales, an exploratory application of a pilot scale in healthy children and those with DMD, self-training of evaluators in applying the scale using a handbook and video tutorial, and assessment of a group of children with DMD and SMA using the final scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach and Kendall concordance and with intra and inter-rater test-retest, and validity with concordance and factorial analysis. A high level of reliability was observed, with high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.97), and inter-rater (Kendall W=0.96) and intra-rater concordance (r=0.97 to 0.99). The validity was demonstrated by the absence of significant differences between results by different evaluators with an expert evaluator (F=0.023, P>.5), and by the factor analysis that showed that four factors account for 85.44% of total variance. This scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing UL functionality in children with DMD and SMA. It is also easily implementable due to the possibility of self-training and the use of simple and inexpensive materials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of heart rate (HR and HR variability (HRV during different loads of resistance exercise (incline bench press in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and healthy sedentary controls. Ten healthy men (65 ± 1.2 years, control group, CG and 10 men with clinically stable CAD (66 ± 2.4 years, CADG were recruited. A discontinuous progressive protocol was applied with an initial load of 10% of the maximum load achieved in the 1RM (1 repetition maximum with increases of 10% until 30% 1RM was reached, which was followed by subsequent increases of 5% 1RM until exhaustion. HRV was analyzed by linear and non-linear methods. There was a significant reduction in rMSSD (CG: 20 ± 2 to 11 ± 3 ms; CADG: 19 ± 3 to 9 ± 1 ms and SD1 indexes (CG: 14 ± 2 to 8 ± 1 ms; CADG: 14 ± 2 to 7 ± 1 ms. An increase in HR (CG: 69 ± 5 to 90 ± 5 bpm; CADG: 62 ± 4 to 75 ± 4 bpm and in systolic blood pressure (CG: 124 ± 3 to 138 ± 3 mmHg; CADG: 122 ± 6 to 126 ± 9 bpm were observed (P < 0.05 when comparing pre-effort rest and 40% 1RM in both groups. Furthermore, an increase in RMSM index was also observed (CG: 28 ± 3 to 45 ± 9 ms; CADG: 22 ± 2 to 79 ± 33 ms, with higher values in CADG. We conclude that loads up to 30% 1RM during incline bench press result in depressed vagal modulation in both groups, although only stable CAD patients presented sympathetic overactivity at 20% 1RM upper limb exercise.
Noyce, Alastair J; Nagy, Anna; Acharya, Shami; Hadavi, Shahrzad; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Fearnley, Julian; Lees, Andrew J; Giovannoni, Gavin
The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN) test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting. Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds), akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds), incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses) and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses) were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001). Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = -0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively) and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing. The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts.
Alastair J Noyce
Full Text Available The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD. An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting.Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds, akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds, incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS.Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001. Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = -0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing.The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts.
Wang, Jun; Pei, Jian; Cui, Xiao; Sun, Kexing; Ni, Huanhuan; Zhou, Cuixia; Wu, Ji; Huang, Mei; Ji, Li
To compare the clinical efficacy on upper limb motor impairment in stroke between the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture therapy and the traditional scalp acupuncture therapy. The randomized controlled trial and MINIMIZE layering randomization software were adopted. Seventy patients of upper limb with III to V grade in Brunnstrom scale after stroke were randomized into an interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group and a traditional scalp acupuncture group, 35 cases in each one. In the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group, the middle 2/5 of Dingnieqianxiexian (anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal), the middle 2/5 of Dingniehouxiexian (posterior oblique line of vertex-temporal) and Dingpangerxian (lateral line 2 of vertex) on the affected side were selected as the stimulation areas. Additionally, the rehabilitation training was applied during scalp acupuncture treatment. In the traditional scalp acupuncture group, the scalp stimulation areas were same as the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group. But the rehabilitation training was applied separately. The rehabilitation training was applied in the morning and the scalp acupuncture was done in the afternoon. The results in Fugl-Meyer for the upper limb motor function (U-FMA), the Wolf motor function measure scale (WM- FT) and the modified Barthel index in the two groups were compared between the two groups before treatment and in 1 and 2 months of treatment, respectively. After treatment, the U-FMA score, WMFT score and the score of the modified Barthel index were all apparently improved as compared with those before treatment (all P acupuncture group was better than that in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were improved apparently as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were not different significantly as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (both P > 0.05). For the patients of IV to V grade in
Vrushali C Ponde
Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.
Michelle L. Harris-Love
Full Text Available Motor practice is an essential part of upper limb motor recovery following stroke. To be effective, it must be intensive with a high number of repetitions. Despite the time and effort required, gains made from practice alone are often relatively limited, and substantial residual impairment remains. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability prior to practice could enhance the effects of practice and provide greater returns on the investment of time and effort. However, determining which cortical area to target is not trivial. The implications of relevant conceptual frameworks such as Interhemispheric Competition and Bimodal Balance Recovery are discussed. In addition, we introduce the STAC (Structural reserve, Task Attributes, Connectivity framework, which incorporates patient-, site-, and task-specific factors. An example is provided of how this framework can assist in selecting a cortical region to target for priming prior to reaching practice poststroke. We suggest that this expanded patient-, site-, and task-specific approach provides a useful model for guiding the development of more successful approaches to neuromodulation for enhancing motor recovery after stroke.
Barham, Guy; Clarke, Nicholas M. P.
Over the last 15 years, great improvements in genetic engineering and genetic manipulation strategies have led to significant advances in the understanding of the genetics governing embryological limb development. This field of science continues to develop, and the complex genetic interactions and signalling pathways are still not fully understood. In this review we will discuss the roles of the principle genes involved in the three-dimensional patterning of the developing limb and will discu...
Rong, Wei; Li, Waiming; Pang, Mankit; Hu, Junyan; Wei, Xijun; Yang, Bibo; Wai, Honwah; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xiaoling
It is a challenge to reduce the muscular discoordination in the paretic upper limb after stroke in the traditional rehabilitation programs. In this study, a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system was developed for multi-joint coordinated upper limb physical training. The system could assist the elbow, wrist and fingers to conduct arm reaching out, hand opening/grasping and arm withdrawing by tracking an indicative moving cursor on the screen of a computer, with the support from the joint motors and electrical stimulations on target muscles, under the voluntary intention control by electromyography (EMG). Subjects with chronic stroke (n = 11) were recruited for the investigation on the assistive capability of the NMES-robot and the evaluation of the rehabilitation effectiveness through a 20-session device assisted upper limb training. In the evaluation, the movement accuracy measured by the root mean squared error (RMSE) during the tracking was significantly improved with the support from both the robot and NMES, in comparison with those without the assistance from the system (P joint and inter-joint muscular co-contractions measured by EMG were significantly released when the NMES was applied to the agonist muscles in the different phases of the limb motion (P < 0.05). After the physical training, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were captured by the clinical scores, i.e., Modified Ashworth Score (MAS, the elbow and the wrist), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). The EMG-driven NMES-robotic system could improve the muscular coordination at the elbow, wrist and fingers. ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02117089 ; date of registration: April 10, 2014.
Andrea M Bruder
Registration: CRD42016041818. [Bruder AM, Shields N, Dodd KJ, Taylor NF (2017 Prescribed exercise programs may not be effective in reducing impairments and improving activity during upper limb fracture rehabilitation: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 205–220
Full Text Available This report describes the modification of hemiplegic shoulder pain and walking velocity through injections of Xeomin®, a new botulinum neurotoxin type A formulation, in a 67-year-old woman with chronic residual left hemiparesis and hemiparetic gait attributable to stroke. Clinical evaluation included upper and lower limb spasticity, upper and lower limb pain, trunk control, upper and lower limb motricity index, visual gait analysis, and gait velocity. Assessments were performed before, 1 week after, and 1 month after treatment. Improvement was observed in all clinical parameters assessed. Amelioration of spasticity of the upper and lower limbs and shoulder pain was observed after 1 month. Trunk postural attitude and paraxial muscle recruitment recovered. No adverse events were observed and the patient shows significant improvement of functional impairment derived from chronic spasticity after treatment with Xeomin®. We also provide a simple and useful protocol for clinical evaluation of the treatment.
Dabaghi-Richerand, A; Haces-García, F; Capdevila-Leonori, R
The purpose of this study is to determine the prognostic factors of a satisfactory functional outcome in patients using upper extremity prosthetics with a proximal third forearm stump, and above, level of amputation. All patients with longitudinal deficiencies and traumatic amputations of upper extremity with a level of amputation of proximal third forearm and above were included. A total of 49 patients with unilateral upper extremity amputations that had used the prosthetic for a minimum of 2 years were included in the protocol. The Disability arm shoulder hand (DASH) scale was used to determine a good result with a cut-off of less than 40%. The independent variables were the level of amputation, the etiology for its use, initial age of use and number of hours/day using the prosthesis. It was found that patients with a congenital etiology and those that started using the prosthetic before 6 years of age had better functional results. It was found that when adapting a patient with an upper extremity prosthetic, which has a high rejection rate of up to 49%, better functional outcomes are found in those who started using it before 6 years of age, and preferably because of a congenital etiology. It was also found that the number of hours/day strongly correlates with a favorable functional outcome. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is one of the methods for imaging entrapment neuropathies, post-trau‑ matic changes to nerves, nerve tumors and postoperative complications to nerves. This type of examination is becoming more and more popular, not only for economic reasons, but also due to its value in making accurate diagnosis. It provides a very precise assess‑ ment of peripheral nerve trunk pathology – both in terms of morphology and localization. During examination there are several options available to the specialist: the making of a dynamic assessment, observation of pain radiation through the application of precise palpation and the comparison of resultant images with the contra lateral limb. Entrap‑ ment neuropathies of the upper limb are discussed in this study, with the omission of median nerve neuropathy at the level of the carpal canal, as extensive literature on this subject exists. The following pathologies are presented: pronator teres muscle syndrome, anterior interosseus nerve neuropathy, ulnar nerve groove syndrome and cubital tun‑ nel syndrome, Guyon’s canal syndrome, radial nerve neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve neuropathy, Wartenberg’s disease, suprascapular nerve neuropathy and thoracic outlet syndrome. Peripheral nerve examination technique has been presented in previous articles presenting information about peripheral nerve anatomy [Journal of Ultrasonog‑ raphy 2012; 12 (49: 120–163 – Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the exam‑ ple of the median nerve; Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb; Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb]. In this article potential compression sites of particular nerves are discussed, taking into account pathomechanisms of damage, including predisposing anatomical variants (accessory muscles. The parameters of ultrasound assessment have been established – echogenicity and
Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi
The purpose of this study was to examine the output properties of muscle power by the dominant upper limb using SSC, and the relationships between the power output by SSC and a one-repetition maximum bench press (1 RM BP) used as a strength indicator of the upper body. Sixteen male athletes (21.4+/-0.9 yr) participated in this study. They pulled a load of 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a stretch by elbow flexion of the dominant upper limb in the following three preliminary conditions: static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), isometric muscle contraction state (ISO condition), and using SSC (SSC condition). The velocity with a wire load via a pulley during elbow flexion was measured accurately using a power instrument with a rotary encoder, and the muscle power curve was drawn from the product of the velocity and load. Significant differences were found among all evaluation parameters of muscle power exerted from the above three conditions and the parameters regarding early power output during concentric contraction were larger in the SSC condition than the SR and ISO conditions. The parameters on initial muscle contraction velocity when only using SSC significantly correlated with 1 RM BP (r=0.60-0.62). The use of SSC before powerful elbow flexion may contribute largely to early explosive power output during concentric contraction. Bench press capacity relates to a development of the above early power output when using SSC.
O. A. Klochkova
Full Text Available Botulinum toxin therapy is an effective and safe method of treatment of local spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. Calculation of botulinum toxin A (BTA dosage based on the spasticity patterns and functional capabilities of the patient proved effective for the hypertonic lower limb muscle spasm treatment and is being applied to BTA injections in hand muscles more often. The article presents contemporary scientific data and results of the original study of BTA injections efficacy for pathologic tension reduction in hand muscles of 52 patients with CP. The authors give detailed description of the upper limb spasticity patterns, their frequency and role in the pathological movement pattern formation. The authors propose BTA dosage calculation for the functional segments of upper limbs, which allows minimizing the total amount of the administered drug and avoiding excessive weakness. The authors have also conducted a follow-up analysis of changes in hand muscle tone for the period of 6 months after the first BTA injection, compared results of botulinum toxin therapy at various clinical forms of CP and given recommendations on the optimum duration of the follow-up period.
Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza
and antigravity assistance augments upper limb function and brain activity during rehabilitation exercises and may thus provide a novel restorative framework for severely affected stroke patients.
Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza
and antigravity assistance augments upper limb function and brain activity during rehabilitation exercises and may thus provide a novel restorative framework for severely affected stroke patients. PMID:27555805
Agashe, H A; Paek, A Y; Contreras-Vidal, J L
Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration. In this study we tested if transradial amputees (A1 and A2) could control grasp preshaping in a prosthetic device using a noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG)-based closed-loop BMI system. Participants attempted to grasp presented objects by controlling two grasping synergies, in 12 sessions performed over 5 weeks. Prior to closed-loop control, the first six sessions included a decoder calibration phase using action observation by the participants; thereafter, the decoder was fixed to examine neuroprosthetic performance in the absence of decoder recalibration. Ability of participants to control the prosthetic was measured by the success rate of grasping; ie, the percentage of trials within a session in which presented objects were successfully grasped. Participant A1 maintained a steady success rate (63±3%) across sessions (significantly above chance [41±5%] for 11 sessions). Participant A2, who was under the influence of pharmacological treatment for depression, hormone imbalance, pain management (for phantom pain as well as shoulder joint inflammation), and drug dependence, achieved a success rate of 32±2% across sessions (significantly above chance [27±5%] in only two sessions). EEG signal quality was stable across sessions, but the decoders created during the first six sessions showed variation, indicating EEG features relevant to decoding at a smaller timescale (100ms) may not be stable. Overall, our results show that (a) an EEG
Background Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP) as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. Methods The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist. A single patient participant was paired up with a therapist participant for the duration of the study, for a total of six sessions. Each session was an hour long and occurred three times a week for two weeks. During each session, three steps were followed: (A) after the system made a decision, the therapist either agreed or disagreed with the decision made; (B) the researcher had the device execute the decision made by the therapist; (C) the patient then performed the reaching exercise. These parts were repeated in the order of A-B-C until the end of the session. Qualitative and quantitative question were asked at the end of each session and at the completion of the study for both participants. Results Overall, the therapist agreed with the system decisions approximately 65% of the time. In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. The patient was satisfied with the system and would use this system as his/her primary method of rehabilitation. Conclusions The data collected in this study can only be used to provide insight into
Gerber, Corinna N; Kunz, Bettina; van Hedel, Hubertus J A
Home-based, computer-enhanced therapy of hand and arm function can complement conventional interventions and increase the amount and intensity of training, without interfering too much with family routines. The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of the new portable version of the YouGrabber® system (YouRehab AG, Zurich, Switzerland) in the home setting. Fifteen families of children (7 girls, mean age: 11.3y) with neuromotor disorders and affected upper limbs participated. They received instructions and took the system home to train for 2 weeks. After returning it, they answered questions about usability, motivation, and their general opinion of the system (Visual Analogue Scale; 0 indicating worst score, 100 indicating best score; ≤30 not satisfied, 31-69 average, ≥70 satisfied). Furthermore, total pure playtime and number of training sessions were quantified. To prove the usability of the system, number and sort of support requests were logged. The usability of the system was considered average to satisfying (mean 60.1-93.1). The lowest score was given for the occurrence of technical errors. Parents had to motivate their children to start (mean 66.5) and continue (mean 68.5) with the training. But in general, parents estimated the therapeutic benefit as high (mean 73.1) and the whole system as very good (mean 87.4). Children played on average 7 times during the 2 weeks; total pure playtime was 185 ± 45 min. Especially at the beginning of the trial, systems were very error-prone. Fortunately, we, or the company, solved most problems before the patients took the systems home. Nevertheless, 10 of 15 families contacted us at least once because of technical problems. Despite that the YouGrabber® is a promising and highly accepted training tool for home-use, currently, it is still error-prone, and the requested support exceeds the support that can be provided by clinical therapists. A technically more robust
Prakash, Sanjay; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Makwana, Prayag; Rathod, Mitali
Transient neurologic dysfunction is a characteristic feature of migraine. About 20% of migraineurs may experience various symptoms in the absence of any headache at one time or another. Visual auras are the most common auras of migraine, and migraine is considered as the most common cause of transient vision loss in young patients. Sensory auras are the second most common migrainous auras. However, the literature is silent for isolated sensory aura as a migraine equivalent. Herein we report 14 patients with recurrent episodic paresthesia in the limbs and other body parts. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of "typical aura without headache" of ICHD-3β. All patients were subjected to various investigations to rule out secondary causes. Ten patients received antimigraine drugs and all showed a positive response to therapy. Recurrent spontaneous paresthesia is quite common in the general population and many patients remain undiagnosed. We speculate that a subset of patients might be related to migrainous sensory auras. © 2015 American Headache Society.
Reza Khani Jazani
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to predict the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in potters of Meybod city by performing CTD risk index method.Materials and Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Target society was all workers in pottery workshops which were located in the Meybod. Information related to musculoskeletal disorders was obtained by the Nordic questionnaire and we used CTD risk index method to predict the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders.Results: We observed in this study that 59.3% of the potters had symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in at least in one of their upper extremities. Also significant differences between mean CTD risk index on potters with and without symptoms of the upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, respectively (p=0.038.Conclusion: CTD risk index method can be as a suitable method for predicting the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders used in the potters
Full Text Available We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly. Stimulation for each of the movement phases (e.g., extending and retrieving the arm was triggered when the power in the 18 Hz–28 Hz range (beta frequency range of the participant’s EEG activity, recorded with a single electrode, decreased below a predefined threshold. The function of the participant’s arm showed a clinically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE subscore (6 points as well as moderate improvement in Functional Independence Measure Self-Care subscore (7 points. The changes in arm’s function suggest that the combination of BCI technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary motor function in individuals with chronic hemiplegia which results in severe upper limb deficit (FMA-UE ≤ 15, a population that does not benefit from current best-practice rehabilitation interventions.
Kang, Jeong-Il; Moon, Young-Jun; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Park, Jun-Su
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect on activities, shoulder muscle fatigue, upper limb disability of two exercise types performed by patients in the post- immobilization period of rotator cuff repair. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention program was performed by 20 patients from 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair. Ten subjects each were randomly allocated to a group performing open kinetic chain exercise and a group preforming closed kinetic chain exercise. Muscle activity and median frequency were measured by using sEMG and the Upper Extremity Function Assessment before and after conducting the intervention and changes in the results were compared. [Results] There was a significant within group increases in the activities of the shoulder muscles, except for the posterior deltoid. The median power frequencies (MFD) of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and anterior deltoid significantly increased in the open kinetic chain exercise group, but that of the posterior deltoid decreased. There were significant differences in the changes in the upper limb disability scores of the two groups, in the shoulder muscle activities, except for that of the posterior deltoid, in the comparison of the change in the muscle activities of the two groups, and in the MDFs of all shoulder muscles. [Conclusion] The Median power frequencies of all these muscles after closed kinetic chain exercise increased indicating that muscle fatigue decreased. Therefore, research into exercise programs using closed kinetic chain exercises will be needed to establish exercise methods for reducing muscle fatigue.
Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2. An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.
Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël
This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.
Ostlie, Kristin; Franklin, Rosemary J; Skjeldal, Ola H; Skrondal, Anders; Magnus, Per
) was associated with increased DASH scores. Upper-limb loss clearly affects physical function. DASH score limitation profiles may be useful in individual clinical assessments. Targeted clinical examination may indicate patients with extra rehabilitational needs. Such examinations may be of special importance in relation to prosthesis function. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Colin W; Rice, Charles L
Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb. To our knowledge, the muscular variants identified here are considered rare, and their co-occurrence in a single upper limb has not been described previously. Also, a four-headed biceps brachii consisting of both the infero-medial and infero-lateral humeral heads has not been described previously to our knowledge. We postulate that the simultaneous appearance of several muscular variations may indicate a signaling disruption in embryogenesis during muscle patterning of the ventral limb bud. Knowledge of variant musculature in the arm is important for surgeons and clinicians as these muscles and their aberrant innervation patterns can complicate surgical procedures and may compress arteries and nerves producing upper limb pain and paresthesia. The clinical, functional and embryological implications of the upper limb variants are discussed.
Honeyman, Calum Sinclair; Wilson, Paul
A 57-year-old woman was referred to our regional sarcoma unit following a 2-year history of a progressively enlarging mass on her right forearm. At 14×7×12 cm, this mass turned out to be one of the largest upper limb cutaneous malignant melanomas ever described, and, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented in the UK. Remarkably, despite having a T4 malignant tumour with a Breslow thickness of 70 mm, this patient is still alive over 4 years later with no locoregional or distant meta...
Kuz'mina, E.G.; Degtyareva, A.A.; Doroshenko, L.N.; Rogova, N.M.; Zorina, L.N.
The efficacy of therapy of upper limb secondary edemas after 4 programs was compared among 83 patients. The methods were as follows: traditional method (TM) including routine conservative therapy, acupuncture (AP), He-Ne laser OKG-13 and semiconductor laser against a background of traditional therapy. A study was made of the time course of the extent of edema, total protein, IG, G, A and M and circulating immune complexes (CIC) during therapy of such patients. Blood serum and interstitial fluid indices were compared. It was shown that the application of both lasers led to increasing efficacy of TM and AP
Full Text Available Stroke rehabilitation plays an important role in recovering the lifestyle of stroke survivors. Although existing research proved the effectiveness and engagement of nonimmersive virtual reality- (VR- based rehabilitation systems, limited research is available on the applicability of fully immersive VR-based rehabilitation systems. In this paper, we present the elicited requirements of a fully immersive VR-based rehabilitation system that will be designed for domestic upper limb stroke patients; we will also provide an initial conceptual prototype of the proposed system.
Nocchi, Federico; Gazzellini, Simone; Grisolia, Carmela; Petrarca, Maurizio; Cannatà, Vittorio; Cappa, Paolo; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Castelli, Enrico
The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb) and non-biological (abstract object) movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes). Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain's ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions, activations were elicited in cerebral areas involved in visual
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb and non-biological (abstract object movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain’s ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions
Lubińska, Agnieszka; Mosiejczuk, Hanna; Rotter, Iwona
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of lymphatic kinesiotaping in patients after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Complex decongestive therapy in patients after right-side breast-conserving surgery was done once a week for 2 months (from November to December 2014). It involved manual lymph drainage and lymphatic application of kinesiotaping. An original kinesiology tape (Nitto Denko, Japan) was used for the treatment. Lymphoedema was measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment in centimetres in specific places: metatarsal, wrist, at the mid-length of the forearm, in the elbow and at the mid-length of the upper arm. The volume of oedema was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. The reduction of lymphoedema in different places. Kinesiotaping may be an alternative method in relation to the use of materials in complex decongestive therapy. However, this technique requires further research.
Kooijman, CM; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Elzinga, A; van der Schans, CP
Phantom pain in subjects with an amputated limb is a well-known problem. However, estimates of the prevalence of phantom pain differ considerably in the literature. Various factors associated with phantom pain have been described including pain before the amputation, gender, dominance, and time
Salwa A. Mohammed
Full Text Available Background. Limb amputation is a life-changing event that can cause significant disruptions in many important areas of existence. Aim of this study. To evaluate the quality of life (QOL of patients with limb amputation and identify the factors affecting the quality of life of patients with limb amputation among Egyptian patients. Research Design. It was a descriptive exploratory design. Setting. The study was conducted in Orthopedics and Surgical Department in Emergency Hospital at Mansoura University Hospitals. Sample. A sample of convenience of 100 adult male and female patients who met the inclusion criteria was included. Tools. (a Structured interview questionnaire (SIQ was used to collect personal data, (b short form (36 health status questionnaires: this part was utilized to assess the quality of life among Egyptian patients with amputation. Results. The result of this study indicates that most participants experienced a change in the quality of life. There is a statistically significant difference between total QOL aspects and each of the following: age, gender, educational level, and type of work. Conclusion. Limb amputation tends to cause increased disability for those amputated patients. The age, gender, place of amputation, and marital status are found as statistically significant factors with physical component and psychological component.
Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva; Carvalho Filho, Idinei Francisco Pires de; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; Medola, Fausto Orsi
Wheelchair configuration is an important factor influencing the ergonomics of the user-device interface and, from a biomechanical point of view, small changes in chair setup may have a positive influence on the demand on the upper limbs during manual propulsion. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the position of the rear wheels' axle and the use of accessories on the activity of upper limb muscles during manual wheelchair propulsion. Electromyography signals of the biceps, triceps, anterior deltoids and pectoralis major were collected for 11 able-bodied subjects in a wheelchair propulsion protocol with four different wheelchair configurations (differing in axle position and the use of accessories) on a straightforward sprint and a slalom course. With accessories, moving the axle forward led to a decrease in the activity of all muscles in both the straightforward sprint (significant differences in triceps, anterior deltoids and biceps) and the slalom course (significant difference in anterior deltoids and biceps). However, when propelling the chair without accessories, no difference was found related to axle position. Changes in wheelchair configuration can influence the ergonomics of manual wheelchair propulsion. Reducing the biomechanical loads may benefit users' mobility, independence and social participation.
Davidson, J H; Jones, L E; Cornet, J; Cittarelli, T
Multiple limb amputations involving at least one upper extremity are very uncommon. The amputation of both an upper and lower limb is even more uncommon. Due to the rarity of these amputations therapists are uncertain regarding the most appropriate treatment methods. While the majority of the protocols used for single limb amputations are appropriate for these multiple limb amputees, there are differences. Loss of multiple limbs creates a problem of overheating for the individual. Loss of an arm and leg results in difficulty donning the prostheses and difficulty using crutches and parallel bars during mobilization. A review is given of 16 multiple limb amputees seen in our rehabilitation centre in the last 15 years. Return to work was seen in one third and was not related to the number of the amputations. A higher proportion of these multiple limb amputations occur through alcoholism or attempted suicide behaviour than occurs with either single upper limb amputations or lower limb amputations. This existing behaviour can create a management problem for the rehabilitation team during rehabilitation. Guidelines as to appropriate prosthetic and preprosthetic care are provided to assist the practitioner who has the acute and long term care of these patients. All multiple limb amputees should be referred to a specialized rehabilitation centre to discuss prosthetic options and long term rehabilitation requirements. This paper does not discuss bilateral lower limb amputations when not combined with an upper limb amputation.
Tran, Vi Do; Dario, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano
This review classifies the kinematic measures used to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment following upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation and investigates their correlations with clinical outcome measures. An online literature search was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus and IEEE-Xplore databases. Kinematic parameters mentioned in the studies included were categorized into the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains. The correlations between these parameters and the clinical scales were summarized. Forty-nine kinematic parameters were identified from 67 articles involving 1750 patients. The most frequently used parameters were: movement speed, movement accuracy, peak speed, number of speed peaks, and movement distance and duration. According to the ICF domains, 44 kinematic parameters were categorized into Body Functions and Structure, 5 into Activities and no parameters were categorized into Participation and Personal and Environmental Factors. Thirteen articles investigated the correlations between kinematic parameters and clinical outcome measures. Some kinematic measures showed a significant correlation coefficient with clinical scores, but most were weak or moderate. The proposed classification of kinematic measures into ICF domains and their correlations with clinical scales could contribute to identifying the most relevant ones for an integrated assessment of upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation treatments following stroke. Increasing the assessment frequency by means of kinematic parameters could optimize clinical assessment procedures and enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galvin, Jane; McDonald, Rachael; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki
Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging area of paediatric clinical and research practice, however the majority of research to date has focused on outcomes for adults following stroke. This paper appraises and describes current evidence for use of virtual reality interventions to improve upper limb function of children with neurological impairment. A comprehensive database search was undertaken to explore literature on the use of VR systems for rehabilitation of upper limb skills of children with neurological impairment. Studies investigating the use of robotics or other mechanical devices were excluded. Five studies were found and were critiqued using the Downs and Black scale for measuring study quality. One randomized control trial and four case studies were found. No study scored over 50% on the Downs and Black scale, indicating methodological limitations that limit generalizability. Current evidence for the use of VR to improve hand and arm skills is at an emerging stage. Small sample sizes and inconsistencies in outcome measurement limit the ability to generalize findings. Further studies are required to investigate the ability to maintain gains made in VR over time and to determine whether gains transfer from the VR to real life tasks and activities.
Pallesen, Hanne; Andersen, Mette Brændstrup; Hansen, Gunhild Mo; Lundquist, Camilla Biering; Brunner, Iris
In recent years, virtual reality (VR) therapy systems for upper limb training after stroke have been increasingly used in clinical practice. Therapy systems employing VR technology can enhance the intensity of training and can also boost patients' motivation by adding a playful element to therapy. However, reports on user experiences are still scarce. A qualitative investigation of patients' and therapists' perspectives on VR upper limb training. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with six patients in the final week of the VR intervention. Therapists participated in two focus group interviews after the completion of the intervention. The interviews were analyzed from a phenomenological perspective emphasizing the participants' perceptions and interpretations. Five key themes were identified from the patients' perspectives: (i) motivational factors, (ii) engagement, (iii) perceived improvements, (iv) individualization, and (v) device malfunction. The health professionals described the same themes as the patients but less positively, emphasizing negative technical challenges. Patients and therapists mainly valued the intensive and motivational character of VR training. The playful nature of the training appeared to have a significant influence on the patients' moods and engagement and seemed to promote a "gung-ho" spirit, so they felt that they could perform more repetitions.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients’ satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra® virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η2 = 0,22 in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35.
Alreni, Ahmad Salah Eldin; Harrop, Deborah; Lowe, Anna; Tanzila Potia; Kilner, Karen; McLean, Sionnadh Mairi
There is a strong relationship between neck pain (NP) and upper limb disability (ULD). Optimal management of NP should incorporate upper limb rehabilitation and therefore include the use of an ULD measure in the assessment and management process. Clear guidance regarding the suitability of available measures does not exist. The aim of this study was to identify all available measures of ULD for populations with NP, critically evaluate their measurement properties and finally recommend a list of suitable measures. This two-phase systematic review is reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Phase one identified clearly reproducible measures of ULD for patients with NP. Phase two identified evidence of their measurement properties. In total, 11 papers evaluating the measurement properties of five instruments were included in this review. The instruments identified were the DASH questionnaire, the QuickDASH questionnaire, the NULI questionnaire, the SFA and the SAMP test. There was limited positive evidence of validity of the DASH, QuickDASH, NULI, SFA and SAMP. There was limited positive evidence of reliability of the NULI, SFA and SAMP. There was unknown evidence of responsiveness of the DASH and QuickDASH. Although all measures are supported by a limited amount of low quality evidence, the DASH, QuickDASH, NULI questionnaires, and the SAMP test are promising measures, but they require further robust evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B
Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published previously. Such an overview will allow specialists to choose appropriate prostheses based on available scientific evidence rather than on personal experience or preference. To provide an overview of the sport prostheses as they are described by the papers published in peer reviewed literature. Literature review. Four electronic databases were searched using free text and Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms. Papers were included if they concerned a prosthesis or a prosthetic adaptation used in sports. Papers were excluded if they did not originate from peer reviewed sources, if they concerned prostheses for body parts other than the upper or lower limbs, if they concerned amputations distal to the wrist or ankle, or if they were written in a language other than English. Twenty-four papers were included in this study. The vast majority contained descriptive data and consisted of expert opinions and technical notes. Data concerning the energy efficiency, technical characteristics and special mechanical properties of prostheses or prosthetic adaptations for sports, other than running, are scarce.
Full Text Available Background. In recent years, virtual reality (VR therapy systems for upper limb training after stroke have been increasingly used in clinical practice. Therapy systems employing VR technology can enhance the intensity of training and can also boost patients’ motivation by adding a playful element to therapy. However, reports on user experiences are still scarce. Methods. A qualitative investigation of patients’ and therapists’ perspectives on VR upper limb training. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with six patients in the final week of the VR intervention. Therapists participated in two focus group interviews after the completion of the intervention. The interviews were analyzed from a phenomenological perspective emphasizing the participants’ perceptions and interpretations. Results. Five key themes were identified from the patients’ perspectives: (i motivational factors, (ii engagement, (iii perceived improvements, (iv individualization, and (v device malfunction. The health professionals described the same themes as the patients but less positively, emphasizing negative technical challenges. Conclusion. Patients and therapists mainly valued the intensive and motivational character of VR training. The playful nature of the training appeared to have a significant influence on the patients’ moods and engagement and seemed to promote a “gung-ho” spirit, so they felt that they could perform more repetitions.
Bianca Pinto Cunha
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stroke individuals have sensorimotor repercussions on their ipsilesional upper limb. Therefore, it is important to use tests that allow an adequate assessment and follow-up of such deficits. Physical and occupational therapists commonly use maximal grip strength tests to assess the functional condition of stroke individuals. However, one could ask whether a single test is able to characterize the hand function in this population. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among outcomes of different tests frequently used to describe the function of the hand in the ipsilesional upper limb of stroke individuals. Methods: Twenty-two stroke individuals performed four hand function tests: maximal handgrip strength (HGSMax, maximal pinch grip strength (PGSMax, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT and Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HPT. All tests were performed with the ipsilesional hand. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed. Results: the results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between HGSMax and JTHFT (r = 0.50 and between JTHFT and 9-HPT (r = 0.55. Conclusion: We conclude that the existence of only moderate relationships between test outcomes demonstrates the need to use at least two instruments to better describe the ipsilesional hand function of stroke individuals.
Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I; Gil-Agudo, A; Segura-Fragoso, A; de los Reyes-Guzmán, A; Trincado-Alonso, F; Piazza, S; Polonio-López, B
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients' satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra(®) virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η (2) = 0,22) in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35.
Dore, F.; Casu, A.R.; Arru, A.; Vargiu, P.; Azzena, M.D.; Madeddu, G.; Melis, G.C.; Fumu, E.; Piga, M.
In 24 patients affected with post-traumatic reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) with upper limb involvement following humeral frac