WorldWideScience

Sample records for related spectroscopies science

  1. Ninth international conference on hole burning, single molecule and related spectroscopies: science and applications (HBSM 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was organized around 9 sessions: -) single molecule, -) quantum optics, -) hole-burning materials and mechanisms, -) single nano-particle spectroscopy, -) dephasing and spectral diffusion, -) microwave photonics, -) biological systems, -) rare earth doped materials, -) novel laser sources. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  2. Applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on several areas of intense topical interest related to applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials. The eleven chapters in the book cover the following areas of interest relating to applied spectroscopy and nanoscience: ·         Raman spectroscopic characterization, modeling and simulation studies of carbon nanotubes, ·         Characterization of plasma discharges using laser optogalvanic spectroscopy, ·         Fluorescence anisotropy in understanding protein conformational disorder and aggregation, ·         Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nanomedicine, ·         Calculation of Van der Waals interactions at the nanoscale, ·         Theory and simulation associated with adsorption of gases in nanomaterials, ·         Atom-precise metal nanoclusters, ·         Plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures, two-dimensional materials, and their composites, ·         Applications of graphe...

  3. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  4. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  5. Structure-property relations in polymers: Spectroscopy and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, M.W.; Craver, C.D. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The `Structure-Property Relations in Polymers` volume was developed from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering at the 201st National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in April, 1991. Topics discussed are related to: Fundamental Concepts in Spectroscopy Polymers; Crystalline Polymers and Copolymers; Surfaces and Interfaces of Polymers; Spectroscopic Approaches to Polymers in Solutions and Polymer Networks; Spectroscopy and Thermally Induced process in Polymers; and Polymer Analysis and Surface Modification. The volume details new spectroscopic methods of analysis including Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Fluorescence Methods. Several papers cover the effects of radiation on polymers.

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy in biomedical science: bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsjäger, Sonja; Zoehrer, R.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Mendelsohn, R.; Paschalis, E. P.

    2009-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIR) and Raman Microspectroscopy are powerful tools for characterizing the distribution of different chemical moieties in heterogeneous materials. FTIR and Raman measurements have been adapted to assess the maturity of the mineral and the quality of the organic component (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) of the mineralized tissue in bone. Unique to the FTIRI analysis is the capability to provide the spatial distribution of two of the major collagen cross-links (pyridinoline, and dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine) and through the study of normal and diseased bone, relate them to bone strength. These FTIR parameters have been validated based on analysis of model compounds. It is widely accepted that bone strength is determined by bone mass and bone quality. The latter is a multifactorial term encompassing the material and structural properties of bone, and one important aspect of the bone material properties is the organic matrix. The bone material properties can be defined by parameters of mineral and collagen, as determined by FTIR and Raman analysis. Considerably less attention has been directed at collagen, although there are several publications in the literature reporting altered collagen properties associated with fragile bone, in both animals and humans. Since bone is a heterogeneous tissue due to the remodeling process, microscopic areas may be carefully selected based on quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging or histological staining, thus ensuring comparison of areas with similar metabolic activity and mineral content. In conclusion, FTIRI and Raman vibrational spectroscopy are proving to be powerful tools in bone-related medical research.

  7. On the Contribution of Raman Spectroscopy to Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2010-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has only recently sparked interest from forensic laboratories. The Raman technique has demonstrated important advantages such as its nondestructive nature, its fast analysis time, and especially the possibility of performing microscopical in situ analyses. In forensic applications, it is a versatile technique that covers a wide spectrum of substances such as trace evidence, illicit drugs and inks. An overview of the recent developments of Raman spectroscopy in forensic science will be discussed. Also, the requirements for an analytical technique for the examination of physical evidence will be described. Examples of casework will be depicted.

  8. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  9. Advances in Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy for Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Neill, Justin L.

    2017-06-01

    Advances in chemical sensitivity and robust, solid-state designs for microwave/millimeter-wave instrumentation compel the expansion of molecular rotational spectroscopy as research tool into applied science. It is familiar to consider molecular rotational spectroscopy for air analysis. Those techniques for molecular rotational spectroscopy are included in our presentation of a more broad application space for materials analysis using Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometers. There are potentially transformative advantages for direct gas analysis of complex mixtures, determination of unknown evolved gases with parts per trillion detection limits in solid materials, and unambiguous chiral determination. The introduction of FT-MRR as an alternative detection principle for analytical chemistry has created a ripe research space for the development of new analytical methods and sampling equipment to fully enable FT-MRR. We present the current state of purpose-built FT-MRR instrumentation and the latest application measurements that make use of new sampling methods.

  10. Enacting the social relations of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....

  11. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Andrew V; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2017-01-16

    Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications. This spectroscopic imaging approach provides the opportunity to obtain the chemical composition of fingermarks and information about possible contaminants deposited at a crime scene. Research that demonstrates the great potential of these techniques for analysis of fingerprint residues, explosive materials and counterfeit drugs will be reviewed. The implications of this research for the examination of different materials are considered, along with an outlook of possible future research avenues for the application of vibrational spectroscopic methods to the analysis of forensic samples.

  12. Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Elfick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we describe label-free optical spectroscopy techniques which are able to non-invasively measure the (biochemistry in biological systems. Raman spectroscopy uses visible or near-infrared light to measure a spectrum of vibrational bonds in seconds. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS microscopy and stimulated Raman loss (SRL microscopy are orders of magnitude more efficient than Raman spectroscopy, and are able to acquire high quality chemically-specific images in seconds. We discuss the benefits and limitations of all techniques, with particular emphasis on applications in biomedicine—both in vivo (using fiber endoscopes and in vitro (in optical microscopes.

  13. Relating membrane potential to impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gheorghiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive, label-free assessment of membrane potential of living cells is still a challenging task. The theory linking membrane potential to the low frequency α dispersion exhibited by suspensions of spherical shelled particles (presenting a net charge distribution on the inner side of the shell has been pioneered in our previous studies with emphasis on the permittivity spectra. Whereas α dispersion is related to a rather large variation exhibited by the permittivity spectrum, we report that the related decrement presented by the impedance magnitude spectrum is either extremely small, or occurs (for large cells at very small frequencies (~mHz explaining the lack of experimental bioimpedance data on the matter. We stress that appropriate choice of the parameters (as revealed by the microscopic model may enable access to membrane potential as well as to other relevant parameters when investigating living cells and charged lipid vesicles. We analyse the effect on the low frequency of the permittivity and impedance spectra of: I. Parameters pertaining to cell membrane i.e. (i membrane potential (through the amount of the net charge on the inner side of the membrane, (ii size of the cells/vesicles, (iii conductivity of the membrane; II. Parameters of the extra cellular medium (viscosity and conductivity. The applicability of the study has far reaching implications for basic (life sciences (providing non-invasive access to the dynamics of relevant cell parameters as well as for biosensing applications, e.g. assessment of cytotoxicity of a wide range of stimuli. doi:10.5617/jeb.214 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 93-97, 2011

  14. Government Relations: It's Not Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many people in the early childhood education field are afraid of government relations work, intimidated by politicians, and believe the whole process is unseemly. The author asserts that they should not be afraid nor be intimidated because government relations is not rocket science and fundamentally officeholders are no different from the rest of…

  15. Space, Relations, and the Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on the situated and distributed nature of cognition, the coordination of spatial organization and the structure of human practices and relations is accepted as a fact. To date, science educators have yet to build on such research. Drawing on an ethnographic study of high school students during an internship in a scientific…

  16. Applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Fabio; Paci, Maurizio

    2008-10-22

    The principal applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, in the field of food science, are reviewed, after a short general introduction, mainly focusing on the potential of these investigations, which are, today, routine tools for resolving technological problems. Selected examples of the applications in the field of food science of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy both in (13)C and in (1)H NMR particularly illustrative of the results obtainable are reported in some detail.

  17. Space, relations, and the learning of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    In the literature on the situated and distributed nature of cognition, the coordination of spatial organization and the structure of human practices and relations is accepted as a fact. To date, science educators have yet to build on such research. Drawing on an ethnographic study of high school students during an internship in a scientific research laboratory, which we understand as a "perspicuous setting" and a "smart setting," in which otherwise invisible dimensions of human practices become evident, we analyze the relationship between spatial configurations of the setting and the nature and temporal organization of knowing and learning in science. Our analyses show that spatial aspects of the laboratory projectively organize how participants act and can serve as resources to help the novices to participate in difficult and unfamiliar tasks. First, existing spatial relations projectively organize the language involving interns and lab members. In particular, spatial relations projectively organize where and when pedagogical language should happen; and there are specific discursive mechanisms that produce cohesion in language across different places in the laboratory. Second, the spatial arrangements projectively organize the temporal dimensions of action. These findings allow science educators to think explicitly about organizing "smart contexts" that help learners participate in and learn complex scientific laboratory practices.

  18. Vocabulary related to earth sciences through etymology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    and strengthening vocabulary in earth sci- ences through etymology? has appeared in the May 2006 issue of Journal of Earth System Science Education (http://jesse. usra.edu/archive/jesse), a popular on-line journal of NASA, USA, that publishes papers relating... subject and cross-curricular learning. Sarma?s effort is laudable as he has etymologically connected as many as 1600 technical terms through ~300 root words. The etymological approach adopted by the author is simple and effective; learnt from his...

  19. Nanoscale femtosecond spectroscopy for material science and nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Como, Enrico Da; Zamboni, Roberto; Muccini, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a novel facility to perform ultrafast spectroscopy and three-dimensional (3D) fabrication at the nanoscale is reported. Single and multiphoton femtosecond excitation coupled to a laser scanning confocal microscope and a photon counting streak camera system allows to

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  1. Application of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Robert E.; De Grave, Eddy

    Iron being the fourth most abundant element in the earth crust, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has become a suitable additional technique for the characterization of all kind of soil materials and minerals. However, for that purpose a good knowledge of the spectral behavior of the various minerals is indispensable. In this chapter a review of the most important soil materials and rock-forming minerals is presented. It starts with a description of the Mössbauer spectroscopic features of the iron oxides and hydroxides, which are essentially present in soils and sediments. Further, the Mössbauer spectra from sulfides, sulfates and carbonates are briefly considered. Finally, the Mössbauer features of the typical and most common silicate and phosphate minerals are reported. The chapter ends with some typical examples, illustrating the use and power of Mössbauer spectroscopy in the characterization of minerals.

  2. 2D IR Correlation Spectroscopy in Wood Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy is a well-established technique that provides considerable utility and benefit in various spectroscopic studies of polymers. Some of the important features of generalized 2D correlation spectra are simplification of complex spectra consisting of many overlapped peaks, enhancement of spectral resolution by spreading peaks along the second dimension, unambiguous assignments through the correlation of bands selectively coupled by various interaction mechanisms, and determination of the sequence of the spectral peak emergence.

  3. XUV Frequency Comb Development for Precision Spectroscopy and Ultrafast Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Jason Jones, “A phase coherent dual-comb source in the VUV based on intracavity high harmonic generation,” Annual Meeting of the Division of Atomic...existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...overall objective will be the development of a coherent source capable of making a significant impact in precision spectroscopy and ultrafast

  4. [Structure analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of the structure and properties of identified pathogenic proteins are important for elucidating the molecular basis of diseases and in drug discovery research. Vibrational spectroscopy has advantages over other techniques in terms of sensitivity of detection of structural changes. Spectral analysis, however, is complicated because the spectrum involves a substantial amount of information. This article includes examples of structural analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy in combination with additional techniques that facilitate data acquisition and analysis. Residue-specific conformation analysis of an amyloid fibril was conducted using IR absorption spectroscopy in combination with (13)C-isotope labeling, linear dichroism measurement, and analysis of amide I band features. We reveal a pH-dependent property of the interacting segment of an amyloidogenic protein, β2-microglobulin, which causes dialysis-related amyloidosis. We also reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH-dependent sugar-binding activity of human galectin-1, which is involved in cell adhesion, using spectroscopic techniques including UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. The decreased activity at acidic pH was attributed to a conformational change in the sugar-binding pocket caused by protonation of His52 (pKa 6.3) and the cation-π interaction between Trp68 and the protonated His44 (pKa 5.7). In addition, we show that the peak positions of the Raman bands of the C4=C5 stretching mode at approximately 1600 cm(-1) and the Nπ-C2-Nτ bending mode at approximately 1405 cm(-1) serve as markers of the His side-chain structure. The Raman signal was enhanced 12 fold using a vertical flow apparatus.

  5. Hyper-Raman spectroscopy of Earth related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, H.

    2004-12-01

    conventional Raman and hyper-Raman are complimentary. In many cases the combined information of both techniques can reveal all the vibrational information of a material. This information can be used to calculate thermodynamic properties, to identify mineral phases ('finger-printing'), or to investigate the dynamics related to phase transitions ('soft-modes'). First results on planetary materials will be presented, including MgO and stichovite. Corundum as another possible high pressure transmitting material is characterized as well. Further measurements are underway, including MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 perovskite. [1] A. M. Hofmeister, in: Infrared Spectroscopy in Geochemistry, Exploration Geochemistry, and Remote Sensing, Vol. 33 (ed. P. K. King, M. S. Ramsey, and G. A. Swayze), Mineralogical Society of Canada (2004) [2] P. F. McMillan, R. J. Hemley, and P. Gillet, in : Mineral Spectroscopy: A Tribute to Roger G. Burns, Vol. 5 (ed. D. Dyar, C. McCammon, and M. W. Schaefer), The Geochemical Society Special Publication (1996). [3] H. Vogt, in: Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 50, Light scattering in solids II (ed. M. Cardonna and G. Guentherodt), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York (1982).

  6. Bridging the gap to mesoscale radiation materials science with transient grating spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Cody A.; Cao, Penghui; Ferry, Sara E.; Vega-Flick, Alejandro; Maznev, Alexei A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Every, Arthur G.; Short, Michael P.

    2016-12-01

    Direct mesoscale measurements of radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of bulk materials remain difficult to perform. Most widely used characterization techniques are either macro- or microscale in nature, focusing on overall properties or overly small areas for analysis. Linking the atomic structure of irradiated materials directly with their radiation-affected properties remains one of the largest unmet challenges in radiation materials science. By measuring the change in surface acoustic wave speed as a function of relative orientation on metallic single crystals, we demonstrate that transient grating (TG) spectroscopy experiments have the sensitivity necessary to detect radiation-induced material property changes. We also show that classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to accurately simulate orientation-based changes in surface acoustic wave speed in TG experiments, by comparing with experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. The agreement between theory, simulation, and experiment gives confidence in classical MD as a predictive tool to simulate defect-based changes in elastic properties, which cannot yet be fully treated by theory. This ability is of critical importance for the informed use of TG spectroscopy to measure material property changes induced by radiation damage, which may vary by amounts formerly too small for reliable in situ detection. Finally, our MD simulation framework is used to study the effect of an imposed vacancy population on the acoustic response of several materials. The results of these studies indicate that TG experiments are well suited to the ex situ and in situ study of radiation-induced material property changes.

  7. Applications of Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectroscopy in forensic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, Albert N.

    2000-02-01

    First in the world literature comprehensive digital complementary vibrational spectra collection of polymer materials and search system was developed. Non-destructive combined analysis using complementary FT-Raman and FTIR spectra followed by cross-parallel searching on digital spectral libraries, was applied in different fields of forensic sciences. Some unique possibilities of Raman spectroscopy has been shown in the fields of examination of questioned documents, paper, paints, polymer materials, gemstones and other physical evidences.

  8. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way inter-

  9. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  10. Public relations as a tool of science communication with society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H. Jasinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of science, Central and East European countries (CEECs have inherited various relics from the past, among them: -bad communication between science and society, -low level of public understanding of science (PUS, -weak co-operation between the science sphere and the production sphere, -small scale of science commercialisation, -practically non-existent infrastructure of scientific and technological knowledge flows in society. At present, the market reforms in CEECs are far advanced. So now, the main direction in their developments is to build the knowledge-based economy/society. Moreover, the science sector has been divided into three separate sub-sectors: (1 Higher Education, (2 Academies of Sciences and (3 Industrial R&D. Higher education institutions together with academy of sciences¿ research institutes constitute so-called academic science. In reforming our countries towards modern market economies, academic science faces numerous challenges. Among them, there is a challenge: How to communicate better with society? There are various tools of such communication. One of them is public relations (PR. The main aim of this paper is to prove a big potential role of public relations as a communication tool between academic science and society, with a special reference to CEECs. Poland will here be a case-study. The following issues will be analyzed in the paper: 1. The role of science communication: A brief survey of literature 2. Public relations as an element of science communication 3. Polish experiences: A short evaluation 4. A desired role of public relations 5. Conclusion.

  11. Public Relations as Scientific Branch of Information and Communication Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the field of information and communication sciences is a young field in the social sciences, it is important to consider how technology impacts the development of this field. This is especially relevant when looking at the area of public relations. Amid changing technological developments public relations is constantly being redefined in this complex environment. This work focuses on the development of public relations as a branch of study in the field of information and communication sciences. I review the scientific methods used to evaluate the influence and effects of public relations, while discussing the different methodological approaches.

  12. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  13. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  14. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Biochars and Related Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepodise, L. M.; Horvat, J.; Lewis, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A recent application of terahertz spectroscopy is to biochar, the agricultural charcoal produced by pyrolysis of various organic materials. Biochars simultaneously improve soil fertility and assist in carbon sequestration. Terahertz spectroscopy allows different biochars to be distinguished. However, the origin of the absorption features observed has not been clear. Given that biochar-based fertilizers are rich in aromatic compounds, we have investigated simple aromatic compounds as an approach to unravelling the complex biochar spectrum.

  15. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Biochars and Related Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepodise, L. M.; Horvat, J.; Lewis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    A recent application of terahertz spectroscopy is to biochar, the agricultural charcoal produced by pyrolysis of various organic materials. Biochars simultaneously improve soil fertility and assist in carbon sequestration. Terahertz spectroscopy allows different biochars to be distinguished. However, the origin of the absorption features observed has not been clear. Given that biochar-based fertilizers are rich in aromatic compounds, we have investigated simple aromatic compounds as an approach to unravelling the complex biochar spectrum.

  16. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  17. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  18. Elementary School Students' Attitude toward Science and Related Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X-Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the…

  19. Relational Reasoning in Science, Medicine, and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    This review brings together the literature that pertains to the role of relational reasoning, or the ability to discern meaningful patterns within any stream of information, in the mental work of scientists, medical doctors, and engineers. Existing studies that measure four forms of relational reasoning--analogy, anomaly, antinomy, and…

  20. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: An Odyssey in Measurement Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert

    Perhaps the speeds of sound, or, equivalently, the elastic moduli are some of the most fundamental attributes of a solid, connecting to fundamental physics, metallurgy, non-destructive testing, and more. Unlike most of the quantities used to characterize condensed matter, the elastic moduli are fourth-rank tensors containing a wealth of detail, directional information, and consistency constraints that provide some of the most revealing probes of solids. We describe here the current state of the art in one method, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, where the mechanical resonances of a specimen of regular shape (easy to measure) are analyzed (difficult computational problem) to obtain the full elastic tensor. With modern advances in electronics and analysis, fractions of a part per million changes in elastic moduli are detectable providing new and important insight into grand challenges in condensed matter physics. This work was supported as part of the Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # DE-SC0001089.

  1. Relativity foundations & philosophy of science & technology

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger B

    1980-01-01

    Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio

  2. Science and Technology Related Global Problems: An International Survey of Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    1986-01-01

    Reviews findings from a survey which focused on the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. Includes a ranking of 12 global problems and a listing of the survey's results. Presents six specific policy recommendations for programs and practices which support a Science-Technology-Society theme. (ML)

  3. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  4. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  5. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  6. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  7. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein science, a summary for past 20years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping; Jung, Young Mee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2018-01-15

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) has been widely used to Infrared, Raman, Near IR, Optical Activity (ROA), Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) and Fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, several new developments, such as 2D hetero-correlation analysis, moving-window two-dimensional (MW2D) correlation, model based correlation (βν and kν correlation analyses) have also well incorporated into protein research. They have been used to investigate secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein, and have contributed greatly to the field of protein science. This review provides an overview of the applications of 2DCOS in the field of protein science for the past 20 year, especially to memory our old friend, Dr. Boguslawa Czarnik-Matusewicz, for her great contribution in this research field. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies is summarized. The noteworthy developments and perspective of 2DCOS in this field are highlighted finally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Kürşat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this integration. Although these distinct models, methods and techniques are employed in the integration efforts, the results are the same. The integration...

  9. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  10. The ERA2 facility: towards application of a fiber-based astronomical spectrograph for imaging spectroscopy in life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Martin M; Tarcea, Nicolae; Popp, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Silvia; Stolz, Marvin; Kelz, Andreas; Sandin, Christer; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Fechner, Thomas; Jahn, Thomas; Popow, Emil; Roth, Bernhard; Singh, Paul; Srivastava, Mudit; Wolter, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical instrumentation is most of the time faced with challenging requirements in terms of sensitivity, stability, complexity, etc., and therefore leads to high performance developments that at first sight appear to be suitable only for the specific design application at the telescope. However, their usefulness in other disciplines and for other applications is not excluded. The ERA2 facility is a lab demonstrator, based on a high-performance astronomical spectrograph, which is intended to explore the innovation potential of fiber-coupled multi-channel spectroscopy for spatially resolved spectroscopy in life science, material sciences, and other areas of research.

  11. [Application progress of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for surface analysis in materials science field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-Hai; Chen, Ji-Wen; Liu, Ying; Shen, Xue-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Shu-Ming; Yu, Hong; Han, Peng-Cheng; Qu, Hua-Yang; Liu, Shao-Zun

    2012-06-01

    As a truly surface analytical tool, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed in recent ten years, and in this paper, fundamental theory, instrumentation and it's applications in material science are reviewed in detail. Application progress of elemental distribution and depth profile analysis are mainly discussed in the field of metallurgy, semiconductor and electronical materials at home and abroad. It is pointed out that the pulse energy, ambient gas and it's pressure, and energy distribution of laser beam strongly influence spatial and depth resolution, and meanwhile a approach to improving resolution considering analytical sensitivity is provided. Compared with traditional surface analytical methods, the advantage of LIBS is very large scanning area, high analytical speed, and that conducting materials or non-conducting materials both can be analyzed. It becomes a powerful complement of traditional surface analytical tool.

  12. Relating transition-state spectroscopy to standard chemical spectroscopic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Hush, Noel S.

    2017-09-01

    Transition-state spectra are mapped out using generalized adiabatic electron-transfer theory. This simple model depicts diverse chemical properties, from aromaticity, through bound reactions such as isomerizations and atom-transfer processes with classic transition states, to processes often described as being ;non-adiabatic;, to those in the ;inverted; region that become slower as they are made more exothermic. Predictably, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is found inadequate for modelling transition-state spectra in the weak-coupling limit. In this limit, the adiabatic Born-Huang approximation is found to perform much better than non-adiabatic surface-hopping approaches. Transition-state spectroscopy is shown to involve significant quantum entanglement between electronic and nuclear motion.

  13. Meaningful meaning : Changing relations between science and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the relation between science and religion from the perspective of embodied cognition. Embodied cognition stresses the need to integrate knowledge with the motives and perceived relevance of organisms. Building on Kim Sterelny’s idea of evolving preference structures (new behavioral possibi

  14. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  15. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  16. Remote Instrumentation for eScience and Related Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lawenda, Marcin; Meyer, Norbert; Pugliese, Roberto; Węglarz, Jan; Zappatore, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Making scientific instruments a manageable resource over distributed computing infrastructures such as the grid has been a key focal point of e-science research in recent years. It is now known by the generic term ‘remote instrumentation’, and is the subject of this useful volume that covers a range of perspectives on the topic reflected by the contributions to the 2010 workshop on remote instrumentation held in Poznań, Poland. E-science itself is a complex set of disciplines requiring computationally intensive distributed operations, high-speed networking, and collaborative working tools. As such, it is most often (and correctly) associated with grid- and cloud-computing infrastructures and middleware. The contributions to this publication consider broader aspects of the theme of remote instrumentation applied to e-science, as well as exploring related technologies that enable the implementation of truly distributed and coordinated laboratories. Among the topics discussed are remote instrumentation and ...

  17. Identification of Military-related Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Kostoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A proof-of-principle demonstration for extracting military-related technologies from a country's total technology publications has been performed, and applied to the Indian science and technology literature#. The method is general and can be applied to the extraction of any meta-category (e.g., intelligence-relevanttechnologies, infrastructure-relevant technologies, etc which is not easily obtained from document clustering or factor analysis. The methodology for identifying relevant literature on military science appears to provide credible results. The volume of literature retrieved will vary depending on how strongly relevant is the desired literature. For the same definitions of 'military relevant', the volume of India's literature in the Ei Compendex database was an order of magnitude less than that of the USA or China.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(3, pp.259-270, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.352

  18. Computer Related Mathematics and Science Curriculum Materials - A National Science Foundation Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chuan C.

    Reported is the Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education which was conducted by the University of Colorado Department of Civil Engineering in the summer of 1967. The program consisted of two five-week terms. The course work was composed of two formal lecture courses in Computer Related Mathematics and Computer…

  19. Relative Positions of Countries in the World of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Jenab, Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    A novel picture of the relative positions of countries in the world of science is offered through application of a two-dimensional mapping method which is based on quantity and quality indicators of the scientific production as peer-reviewed articles. To obtain such indicators, different influential effects such as the background global trends, temporal fluctuations, disciplinary characteristics, and mainly, the effect of countries resources have been taken into account. Fifty countries with the highest scientific production are studied in twelve years (1996-2007). A common clustering algorithm is used to detect groups of co-evolving countries in the two-dimensional map, and thereby countries are classified into four major clusters based on their relative positions in the two-dimensional map. The final results are in contrast with common views on relative positions of countries in the world of science, as demonstrated by considering some examples like USA, China or New Zealand. The proposed method and results...

  20. Results of Needs Assessments Related to Citizen Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Bracey, Georgia; Glushko, Anna; Bakerman, Maya; Gay, Pamela L.; CosmoQuest Team

    2017-01-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility invites the public and classrooms to participate in NASA Science Mission Directorate related research that leads to publishable results and data catalogues. One of the main goals of the project is to support professional scientists in doing science and the general public--including parents, children, teachers, and students--in learning and doing science. Through the effort, the CosmoQuest team is developing a variety of supports and opportunities to support the doing and teaching of science. To inform our efforts, we have implemented a set of needs surveys to assess the needs of our different audiences. These surveys are being used to understand the interests, motivations, resources, challenges and demographics of our growing CosmoQuest community and others interested in engaging in citizen science projects. The surveys include those for teachers, parents, adult learners, planetarium professionals, subject matter experts (SMEs), and the general public. We will share the results of these surveys and discuss the implications of the results for broader education and outreach programs.

  1. In Defense of Engineering Sciences: On the Epistemological Relations Between Science and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of discussions in the philosophy of technology on epistemological relations between science and technology, illustrating that often several mutually entangled issues are at stake. The focus is on conceptual and ideological issues concerning the relationship between

  2. Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paula Denise

    This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

  3. Theology as ontic science and its relation with Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lopes Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present theology as ontic science and its relation with Philosophy or “hermeneutic philosophy”, according the contributions of the philosopher Martin Heidegger. Such proposal justified in view of two aspects. The first one is to explain the scientific dimension of theology in the set of ontic sciences. The second is to break with that view that philosophy is subservient to theology and to present it as partner in the condition of a "hermeneutic phenomenology". To achieve this goal, we will take a set   of works of Martin Heidegger that supports his philosophy or "hermeneutic phenomenology" which is present in his text Phänomenologie und Theologie. Then we will introduce Theology as ontic science and its relation to philosophy. The result will be the conception of science,   the onticity of theology and its historical, systematic, and practical nature. In this sense, the function of philosophy will appear as "ontological corrective” and the theological language ash a sort of some thinking and talking open to ontological existence of the Christian faith.

  4. Out-of-School Activities Related to Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial and natural environments constitute an extensive educational resource in whose framework the basic experiences that contribute to the development process of human beings occur. These experiences are the source of previous knowledge that students bring to school and that are key for building scientific school learning. This article reports the results of a study that addresses out-of-school experiences related to science and technology, through the application of an inventory list to a sample of students who were in their last year of compulsory education. The results show a relatively low overall frequency of experiences, characterized by some qualitative and quantitative differences according to a few grouping variables such as gender, the choice of an elective science subject, and different scientific topics and disciplines. In spite of its importance for learning, the school curriculum often ignores students’ previous experiences. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for developing a more equitable science and technology curriculum, from a perspective of a universal, humanistic science education.

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy on doped organic semiconductors and related interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthof, Selina Sandra

    2010-06-08

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we show measurements of energy level alignment of organic semiconducting layers. The main focus is on the properties and the influence of doped layers. The investigations on the p-doping process in organic semiconductors show typical charge carrier concentrations up to 2.10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. By a variation of the doping concentration, an over proportional influence on the position of the Fermi energy is observed. Comparing the number of charge carriers with the amount of dopants present in the layer, it is found that only 5% of the dopants undergo a full charge transfer. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of the density of states beyond the HOMO onset reveals that an exponentially decaying density of states reaches further into the band gap than commonly assumed. For an increasing amount of doping, the Fermi energy gets pinned on these states which suggests that a significant amount of charge carriers is present there. The investigation of metal top and bottom contacts aims at understanding the asymmetric current-voltage characteristics found for some symmetrically built device stacks. It can be shown that a reaction between the atoms from the top contact with the molecules of the layer leads to a change in energy level alignment that produces a 1.16 eV lower electron injection barrier from the top. Further detailed investigations on such contacts show that the formation of a silver top contact is dominated by diffusion processes, leading to a broadened interface. However, upon insertion of a thin aluminum interlayer this diffusion can be stopped and an abrupt interface is achieved. Furthermore, in the case of a thick silver top contact, a monolayer of molecules is found to oat on top of the metal layer, almost independent on the metal layer thickness. Finally, several device stacks are investigated, regarding interface dipoles, formation of depletion regions, energy alignment in mixed layers, and the influence of the built

  6. Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  7. Black Hole Spectroscopy: Testing General Relativity through Gravitational Wave Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Krishnan, B; Finn, L S; Garrison, D; López-Aleman, R; Dreyer, Olaf; Kelly, Bernard; Krishnan, Badri; Finn, Lee Samuel; Garrison, David; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity in the strong field limit, can gravitational wave observations distinguish between black hole and other compact object sources? Alternatively, can gravitational wave observations provide a test of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity? Here we describe a definitive test of the hypothesis that observations of damped, sinusoidal gravitational waves originated from a black hole or, alternatively, that nature respects the general relativistic no-hair theorem. For astrophysical black holes, which have a negligible charge-to-mass ratio, the black hole quasi-normal mode spectrum is characterized entirely by the black hole mass and angular momentum and is unique to black holes. In a different theory of gravity, or if the observed radiation arises from a different source (e.g., a neutron star, strange matter or boson star), the spectrum will be inconsistent with that predicted for general relativistic black holes. We give a statistica...

  8. Addressing Decadal Survey Science through Community Access to Highly Multiplexed Spectroscopy with BigBOSS on the KPNO Mayall Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pilachowski, Caty; Bailey, Stephen; Barth, Aaron; Beaton, Rachel; Bell, Eric; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bian, Fuyan; Blanton, Michael; Blum, Robert; Bolton, Adam; Bond, Howard; Brodwin, Mark; Bullock, James; Carlin, Jeff; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cinabro, David; Cooper, Michael; Cota, Jorge L C; Davis, Marc; Dawson, Kyle; Dey, Arjun; Donahue, Megan; Drake, Jeremy; Ellingson, Erica; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Fan, Xiaohui; Ferguson, Harry; Gawiser, Eric; Geha, Marla; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gonzalez, Anthony; Griest, Kim; Grossan, Bruce; Guhathakurta, Raja; Harding, Paul; Heap, Sara R; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; Jannuzi, Buell; Kalirai, Jason; Keeney, Brian; Kewley, Lisa; Kong, Xu; Lampton, Michael; Lin, Wei-Peng; de la Macorra, Axel; Macri, Lucas; Majewski, Steve; Martini, Paul; Massey, Phil; McSwain, Virginia; Miller, Adam A; Minniti, Dante; Modjaz, Maryam; Morrison, Heather; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam; Najita, Joan; Newman, Jeffrey; Norman, Dara; Olsen, Knut; Pierce, Michael; Pope, Alexandra; Prescott, Moire; Reddy, Naveen; Reil, Kevin; Rest, Armin; Rhode, Katherine; Rockosi, Connie; Rudnick, Greg; Saha, Abhijit; Salzer, John; Sanders, David; Schlegel, David; Sesar, Branimir; Shields, Joseph; Silverman, Jeffrey; Simon, Josh; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Surace, Jason; Szalay, Alex; Ulmer, Melville; Weiner, Ben; Willman, Beth; Windhorst, Rogier; Wood-Vasey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a community-based discussion of the potential science impact of the Mayall+BigBOSS highly multiplexed multi-object spectroscopic capability. The KPNO Mayall 4m telescope equipped with the DOE- and internationally-funded BigBOSS spectrograph offers one of the most cost-efficient ways of accomplishing many of the pressing scientific goals identified for this decade by the "New Worlds, New Horizons" report. The BigBOSS Key Project will place unprecedented constraints on cosmological parameters related to the expansion history of the universe. With the addition of an open (publicly funded) community access component, the scientific impact of BigBOSS can be extended to many important astrophysical questions related to the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and the IGM. Massive spectroscopy is the critical missing ingredient in numerous ongoing and planned ground- and space-based surveys, and BigBOSS is unique in its ability to provide this to the US community. BigBOSS ...

  9. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-12-18

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems.

  10. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  11. New Frontiers in Optical Science: Terahertz Spectroscopy ot Two Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Shik

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose frequency lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. Naturally occurring THz radiation fills up the space of everyday life providing warmth, yet this part of the spectrum remains the least explored region mainly due to the technical difficulties. The technological gap, however, has been rapidly diminishing for the last two decades. The new and exciting frontier of the THz science and technology has encroached on many different disciplines producing a broad range of applications such as medical imaging, sensing of biochemical agents, and ultra-high speed communication. Furthermore, the unique and advanced techniques of the THz spectroscopy have been proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the material properties inaccessible until recently. For example, THz waves strongly interact with electrons and holes in two dimensional systems, in which their dynamics are governed mainly by many-body Coulomb interactions. I will present our experimental studies demonstrating remarkable quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures and exotic charge carrier dynamics in graphene.

  12. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  13. Reflection mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy: new applications in surface science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Institut fuer Materialwissenschaften, Fachbereich C-Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: dirklh@uni-wuppertal.de; Frahm, Ronald [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Institut fuer Materialwissenschaften, Fachbereich C-Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2005-02-28

    Reflection mode grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAFS) was applied for the in situ investigation of solid/liquid interfaces. Results obtained during the active dissolution of metals are presented. In the case of silver in neutral or weakly acidic Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions (pH 6.5), the formation of an Ag-O species at the surface of the Ag-electrode can be proven, i.e. the active dissolution proceeds via a non-protecting surface layer, the thickness of which was estimated to be about 5 nm. The atomic short-range order of this surface layer is different from polycrystalline silver oxides (Ag{sub 2}O and AgO) and relates to a more disordered or amorphous Ag{sup 1+} oxide.

  14. Students’ Ideas Regarding Science and Pseudo-science in Relation to the Human Body and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundström

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pseudo-scientific and superstitious ideas Swedish upper-secondary students articulate and if there is a relationship between their ideas and their knowledge of the human body and health. The study is based on a questionnaire among 300 students in which the students were asked to consider statements related to different treatments that may influence the human body and health, and questions about physiology, health and nutrition. The analysis reveals that a relatively large group of students give credance to statements such as that some people can transfer thoughts or that the phases of the moon can affect a person’s health. The analysis also shows that there is no apparent relationship between the students’ pseudo-scientific beliefs and their scientific knowledge about the human body. Furthermore, although the results do not indicate a gender difference with regards to the power of faith in pseudo-scientific ideas, they do indicate that male and females consider these questions differently. The results imply a need for discussion and critical investigation in school science concerning the relationship between science and pseudo-scientific ideas in order to enhance critical thinking and development of the understanding of the nature of science.

  15. [Science, technique, and culture: relations between risk and health practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeresnia, Dina

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.

  16. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  17. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  18. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  19. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Analysis of Explosive-Related Materials and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    common thin-film materials . Table B-1. Compatibility of Support Films for Wavelength Dispersive XRF Samples Sample Component Etnom...X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR ANALYSIS OF EXPLOSIVE-RELATED MATERIALS AND UNKNOWNS ECBC-TR-1455...of Explosive-Related Materials and Unknowns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Valdes, Erica R

  20. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  1. Science Teachers' Interpretations of Islamic Culture Related to Science Education versus the Islamic Epistemology and Ontology of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and…

  2. Science Teachers' Interpretations of Islamic Culture Related to Science Education versus the Islamic Epistemology and Ontology of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first…

  3. Auger- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in materials science a user-oriented guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    To anyone who is interested in surface chemical analysis of materials on the nanometer scale, this book is prepared to give appropriate information. Based on typical application examples in materials science, a concise approach to all aspects of quantitative analysis of surfaces and thin films with AES and XPS is provided. Starting from basic principles which are step by step developed into practically useful equations, extensive guidance is given to graduate students as well as to experienced researchers. Key chapters are those on quantitative surface analysis and on quantitative depth profiling, including recent developments in topics such as surface excitation parameter and backscattering correction factor. Basic relations are derived for emission and excitation angle dependencies in the analysis of bulk material and of fractional nano-layer structures, and for both smooth and rough surfaces. It is shown how to optimize the analytical strategy, signal-to-noise ratio, certainty and detection limit. Worked e...

  4. Exploration on Relativity of Modern Economic Science: Viewpoint Based on Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xuemin

    2008-01-01

    Modern economics is a market economic theory and a necessary knowledge for people to understand market economy. However, when modern economic science puts in a "great economic system", modern economic science seems to be little convincing and even deviates from the science of sustainable development. This shows that modern economic science has relativity, and must be transformed by the idea of sustainable development.

  5. The relationship of mentoring on middle school girls' science-related attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynette M.

    This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.

  6. ESO and Euro3D Workshop on Science Perspectives for 3D Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kissler-Patig, Markus; Roth, Martin M; ESO Workshop

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the last conference ever on integral-field spectroscopy. A daring statement, indicating that integral-field spectroscopy has evolved into a mature technique - a common user utility for astronomical research. Nowadays many integral-field spectrographs are installed on 4m to 8-10m class telescopes around the world. While many of those instruments are referred to in this volume, the book is explicitly not dedicated to technical issues, but is focusing on the scientific questions that can be answered with integral-field spectroscopy. These range from solar system studies all the way to high redshift surveys.

  7. DUSEL-related Science at LBNL -- Program and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Christian; Detweiler, Jason; Freedman, Stuart; Gilchriese, Murdock; Kadel, Richard; Koch, Volker; Kolomensky, Yury; Lesko, Kevin; von der Lippe, Henrik; Marks, Steve; Nomura, Yasunori; Plate, David; Roe, Natalie; Sichtermann, Ernst; Ligeti, Zoltan

    2009-08-01

    importance of dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan strongly endorses DUSEL and the associated nuclear physics programs. It mentions, in particular, neutrinoless double beta decay, and accelerator-based nuclear astrophysics measurements as key elements of the DUSEL nuclear physics experimental program. There are numerous fundamental scientific questions that experiments which can naturally be sited at DUSEL can address. LBNL has a long tradition and track record of successful experiments in all of these areas: neutrino physics, dark matter searches, and nuclear astrophysics. Clearly, DUSEL presents many scientific opportunities, and the committee was charged to present a roadmap for LBNL participation, the impact that LBNL is likely to have on experiments at the present level of effort, the value of additional manpower, and opportunities for synergistic Detector R&D activities. The Berkeley community is already deeply involved in a number of experiments and/or proposals, shown in Table 1, that will be relevant to science at DUSEL. The approximate time lines for all projects considered in this report are shown in Table 2. For the DUSEL-related experiments the depth at which they would be located is also shown. Section 2 of this report deals with nuclear astrophysics. Section 3 discusses neutrinoless double beta decays. Section 4 focuses on neutrino oscillations, including the search for CP violation and proton decay. Section 5 deals with dark matter searches. In each section we give a brief overview of that field, review the present Berkeley efforts, and discuss the opportunities going into the future. Section 6 contains our recommendations.

  8. "I Have Chosen Another Way of Thinking": Students' Relations to Science with a Focus on Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Lindahl, Britt

    2010-01-01

    The article builds upon a study where students' relations to science are related to their worldviews and the kind of worldviews they associate with science. The aim of the study is to deepen our knowledge of how worldview and students' ways to handle conflicts between their own worldview and the worldview they associate with science, can add to…

  9. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Won

    2016-01-01

    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  10. NOTES. A Course Relating Agronomy and Science to Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Marla S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a course designed to teach the relationship between science, agronomy, and society. Includes course and class description, course content, and evaluation of the course. (11 references) (MCO)

  11. TRENDS IN THE INFORMATION SCIENCES RELATIVE TO NAVAL INTELLIGENCE NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report defines the information sciences by listing the interdisciplinary scientific and technological areas involved. It discusses state of-the...art trends and research activities in a number of areas of the information sciences which have direct application to intelligence, information, and

  12. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  13. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of individual interest in that subject. Importantly, this should also result in an increase in behaviours related to that domain. For example, a student who develops an individual interest in science would be expected to spend more time on science-related activities such as reading about science, talking with other people about science, or watching science shows on TV. However, the extent to which this does happen has not yet been established. The purposes of this study were to find out whether regular experiences of situational interest in science classes can enhance individual interest in science and whether there is an associated increase in science-related activities. The participants were primary teacher education students who were enrolled in a semester-length science course. Data were collected using a survey, an interest inventory, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. It was found that regular experiences of situational interest during the course were associated with positive changes in individual interest in science and increased participation in science-related activities. These changes remained relatively stable over a delay period of 10 months after the end of the course.

  14. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of individual interest in that subject. Importantly, this should also result in an increase in behaviours related to that domain. For example, a student who develops an individual interest in science would be expected to spend more time on science-related activities such as reading about science, talking with other people about science, or watching science shows on TV. However, the extent to which this does happen has not yet been established. The purposes of this study were to find out whether regular experiences of situational interest in science classes can enhance individual interest in science and whether there is an associated increase in science-related activities. The participants were primary teacher education students who were enrolled in a semester-length science course. Data were collected using a survey, an interest inventory, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. It was found that regular experiences of situational interest during the course were associated with positive changes in individual interest in science and increased participation in science-related activities. These changes remained relatively stable over a delay period of 10 months after the end of the course.

  15. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  16. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  17. The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takafumi Hamaoka; Kevin K. McCully; Masatsugu Niwayama; Britton Chance

    2011-01-01

    .... This review paper highlights the progress, specifically in this decade, that has been made for evaluating skeletal muscle oxygenation and oxidative energy metabolism in sport, health and clinical sciences...

  18. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    OpenAIRE

    Strumwasser, F.

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances...

  19. The Advantages of the Use of Ion- Selective Potentiometry in Relation to UV/VIS Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Bratovčić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro analytical methods have a long history of development. Ion-selective potentiometry is one of the electro analytical methods. There are some advantages of the use of Ion selective potentiometry (ISP which is accurate, fast, economic and sensitive in relation to the standard method, UV/VIS spectroscopy. The development of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes is a very interesting field because it has a wide range of applications in determining ions in water and other mediums. The use of ion-selective electrodes enables the determination of ion species in a trace. Ion-selective electrodes are suitable for analysis in industry, for control processes, for physiological measurements and environmental monitoring. In recent years it was used for the determination of many ions in the food industry such as determination of calcium in milk products, fruit juice and different kinds of vegetables. In our experiment measurement of bottled water using ISP showed lower level of fluoride compared to measurement by UV/ VIS spectroscopy. This results confirmed higher sensitivity of ISE in reference to UV/VIS spectroscopy. By our experimental data we can conclude that the concentration in examined sample was within the allowed concentration according to World Health Organisation

  20. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-01-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits,…

  1. PREFACE: Pierre Jacquinot—pioneer in high-resolution spectroscopy and science statesman

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, F. J.; Linnartz, H.; Stroke, H. H.

    2007-10-01

    On several occasions this journal has documented the lives and contributions of prominent physicists who have made seminal contributions to atomic, molecular and optical physics. The occasion of the symposium `De l'atome au nano-objet' held in his honour provided an opportunity to gather personal recollections of Pierre Jacquinot and to present scientific papers in atomic and molecular physics, of which a selection is included here. The bibliography shows that Jacquinot's contributions were largely in atomic spectroscopy, experimental and theoretical, accompanied throughout his career by important developments in optical instrumentation designed for the improvement of resolution and sensitivity. Fourier spectroscopy was thus developed at the Laboratoire Aimé Cotton. Pierre Jacquinot's impact was certainly multiplied by the many-facetted avenues of modern atomic physics explored under his direction. He, and his successors, made the Laboratoire Aimé Cotton one of the world's great atomic physics centres. As will be apparent from several of the papers in this issue, Jacquinot has left his mark not only in the purely scientific arena, but also on the structure of the French scientific organization. While previously laboratories tended to obey some form of exclusion principle, Jacquinot was instrumental in initiating fruitful interactions between them, and, on a larger scale, between the university laboratories and the national research centres. One of us (HHS) had the privilege of having known Pierre Jacquinot since his visit to our MIT Spectroscopy Laboratory some fifty years ago. A subsequent sabbatical at the Laboratoire Aimé Cotton led to a collaboration over a period of many years in laser spectroscopy, starting with Jean-Louis Picqué, and work with radioactive beams at CERN, primarily with H T Duong and Jacques Pinard—an activity which continues to this day. HHS expresses here his personal homage to Pierre Jacquinot and his memory. We are grateful to Pierre

  2. The study of middle school mathematics and science teachers' practices, perceptions, and attitudes related to mathematics and science integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Eliza

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the nature of mathematics and science connections made by sixth and seventh grade mathematics and science teachers in their classrooms. This study also examined the extent to which these connections represented mathematics and science integration and described the teachers' perceptions of and attitudes about mathematics and science integration. The primary data sources included classroom observations and teacher interviews. Findings suggested that teacher practices in making mathematics and science connections in the classroom incorporated many of the characteristics of integrated instruction presented in the literature. Teacher attitudes toward integration were found to be generally positive and supportive of integrated instruction. Mathematics teachers shared a common perception of integration being two separate lessons taught together in one lesson. In contrast, science teachers perceived integration to be a seamless blend of the two disciplines. The researcher related these perceptions and attitudes to the teachers' past experiences with mathematics and science connections and integration, and also to their practices of mathematics and science connections in the study.

  3. Study of broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy at different relative humidity levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiajen Lin; Ichen Ho; X. C. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Two detection techniques of broadband terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy-THz air-biased coherent detection (THz-ABCD; from 0.3 to 14 THz) and electro-optical (EO) detection (from 0.3 to 7 THz) - are both performed at several different relative humidity levels.The THz power exponentially decays with the increase in relative humidity.The dynamic range of the main pulse in the time domain linearly decreases as the relative humidity increases from 0% to 40%,and linear fittings show that the slopes are -0.017 and -0.019 for THz-ABCD and EO detection,respectively.Because of the multiple reflections caused by the crystal in the common EO detection,THz-ABCD has better spectral resolution (17 GHz) than that of EO detection (170 GHz).The spectrum of water vapor absorption measured by THz-ABCD is also compared with that measured by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  4. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers.......The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...

  5. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  6. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  7. Perceived Teacher Factors in Relation to Students' Achievement-Related Outcomes in Science Classrooms in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the roles that perceived teacher affective support (PTAS), perceived teacher mastery goal orientation (PTMGO), academic emotions, self-efficacy and behavioural engagement play on students' science achievement in elementary school science classrooms. The potential relations of different levels of…

  8. The development of in-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge related to interdisciplinary science inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica L.

    This study was situated in a NSF-funded multi-year teacher professional development project, STIS, between the university and a school district in the North Eastern United States. The STIS project affords an opportunity to understand the processes and conditions in which science teachers develop interdisciplinary science inquiry knowledge and how that is translated into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). As part of that study and within the framework of PCK in science, this study explored (1) the extent to which the involvement of in-service science teachers in authentic research experiences impacts their PCK of interdisciplinary science inquiry, and (2) the factors that contribute to or constrain the development of interdisciplinary science inquiry PCK. This research study utilized a mixed method, explanatory research design. Cross-case analysis of 10 teachers and the development of 3 case studies were done to examine the development of in-service science teachers PCK over the course of the first 3 years of the STIS project. Results showed that teachers participating in the STIS project demonstrated various levels of change in regards to their PCK, understanding of ISI, and implementation of ISI in classroom practices. The core features of STIS identified as impacting this change included (1) the summer research connection, (2) collaboration with STEM students, (3) an active learning environment, and (4) duration. The core features and the major contextual factors that were identified were utilized to revise the STIS' conceptual framework and create a theory of action. The findings of this study have implications for planning and conducting effective in-service for science educators.

  9. Changing Governance and Authority Relations in the Public Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Major changes in the governance of higher education and the public sciences have taken place over the past 40 or so years in many OECD countries. These have affected the nature of authority relationships governing research priorities and the evaluation of results. In particular, the increasing exogeneity, formalisation and substantive nature of…

  10. Productive Learning: Science, Art, and Einstein's Relativity in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Sarason, Seymour B.

    2006-01-01

    Why do people, college-bound or even in college, stay away in droves from courses in science, especially physics? Why do people know so little about the significance of Einstein's contributions which require dramatic changes in how we understand ourselves, our world, and the entire universe? Why have educational reforms failed? In this book, two…

  11. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  12. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of hydrogen-related defects in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, E.V

    2003-12-31

    Most of the ZnO growth techniques result in n-type conductivity of the crystal, which hinders the progress of ZnO applications for electronic devices. Hydrogen incorporated during the process of crystal growth is now considered as a likely source of the n-type conductivity of ZnO. Infrared absorption spectroscopy provides detailed insights into the physical properties of the light impurities in semiconductor matrix and is, therefore, an excellent tool to explore the structure of the hydrogen-related defects embedded in ZnO. We report on a number of hydrogen-related defects observed in hydrothermal grown ZnO and ZnO grown from the vapor phase studied by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Three IR absorption lines at 3611.3, 3349.6 and 3312.2 cm{sup -1} at 10 K are observed after hydrogenation of the vapor phase grown ZnO. The line at 3611.3 cm{sup -1} is tentatively assigned to a bond-centered H, whereas the other two are identified as a Zn vacancy decorated with two H atoms. A Ni-H complex with a H atom primarily bound to oxygen is suggested to be responsible for the 3577.3 cm{sup -1} line observed at 10 K in as-grown hydrothermal ZnO.

  13. Wide-field time-resolved luminescence imaging and spectroscopy to decipher obliterated documents in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mototsugu; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akao, Yoshinori; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We applied a wide-field time-resolved luminescence (TRL) method with a pulsed laser and a gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) for deciphering obliterated documents for use in forensic science. The TRL method can nondestructively measure the dynamics of luminescence, including fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes, which prove to be useful parameters for image detection. First, we measured the TRL spectra of four brands of black porous-tip pen inks on paper to estimate their luminescence lifetimes. Next, we acquired the TRL images of 12 obliterated documents at various delay times and gate times of the ICCD. The obliterated contents were revealed in the TRL images because of the difference in the luminescence lifetimes of the inks. This method requires no pretreatment, is nondestructive, and has the advantage of wide-field imaging, which makes it is easy to control the gate timing. This demonstration proves that TRL imaging and spectroscopy are powerful tools for forensic document examination.

  14. Exoplanet Science with the European Extremely Large Telescope. The Case for Visible and Near-IR Spectroscopy at High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Udry, S; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Henning, T; Mayor, M; Pepe, F; Piskunov, N; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Rauer, H; Rebolo, R; Santos, N C; Snellen, I; Zerbi, F

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet science is booming. In 20 years our knowledge has expanded considerably, from the first discovery of a Hot Jupiter, to the detection of a large population of Neptunes and super-Earths, to the first steps toward the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Between today and 2025, the field will evolve at an even faster pace with the advent of several space-based transit search missions, ground-based spectrographs, high-contrast imaging facilities, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Especially the ESA M-class PLATO mission will be a game changer in the field. From 2024 onwards, PLATO will find transiting terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of nearby, bright stars. These objects will require the power of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) to be characterized further. The technique of ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is establishing itself as a crucial pathway to measure chemical composition, atmospheric structure and atmospheric circulation in transiting exoplanets. A hig...

  15. Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Working Life Skills in Science-Related Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula

    2017-01-01

    School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were…

  16. International coauthorship relations in the Social Sciences Citation Index: is internationalization leading the network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Park, H.W.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    International coauthorship relations have increasingly shaped another dynamic in the natural and life sciences during recent decades. However, much less is known about such internationalization in the social sciences. In this study, we analyze international and domestic coauthorship relations of all

  17. ``I have chosen another way of thinking''. Students' Relations to Science with a Focus on Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Lindahl, Britt

    2010-09-01

    The article builds upon a study where students’ relations to science are related to their worldviews and the kind of worldviews they associate with science. The aim of the study is to deepen our knowledge of how worldview and students’ ways to handle conflicts between their own worldview and the worldview they associate with science, can add to our understanding of students’ relations to science. Data consists of students’ responses to a questionnaire ( N = 47) and to interviews ( N = 26). The study shows that for students who have a high ability in science, those who have taken science-intense programmes in upper secondary school to a higher extent than others have worldviews in accordance with the worldviews they associate with science. This indicates that students who embrace a worldview different from the one they associate with science tend to exclude themselves from science/technology programmes in Swedish upper secondary school. In the article the results are presented through case studies of single individuals. Those students’ reasoning is related to the results for the whole student group. Implications for science teaching and for further research are discussed.

  18. Recent applications and current trends in Cultural Heritage Science using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  19. [Progress in application of microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in forensic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Fang; Liu, Chao; Hu, Sun-Lin; Wang, Song-Cai; Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ting; Li, Shuang-Lin

    2013-02-01

    Microbeam X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometry has been raised as an analytical technique of microbeam during the recent years. With its advantages of high sensitivity, small sample requirement, high testing accuracy and non-destruction, the technique is widely utilized in forensic science. This review bases on recent researches at home and abroad, describes its applications including identification of gunshot residue, visualization of fingerprints, discrimination of drug source, production process, and other material evidences of analysis in crime scene. Thanks to the advances in technology, intelligent and portable micro-XRF equipment has appeared to be applied. It is believed that it may be more popular and frequent in administration of forensic science in the near future.

  20. AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärtner, F.X., E-mail: franz.kaertner@cfel.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahr, F. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Calendron, A.-L. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Çankaya, H. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Carbajo, S. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Chang, G.; Cirmi, G. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Dörner, K. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Dorda, U. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Fallahi, A. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hartin, A. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hemmer, M. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-01

    X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods to determine atomic-resolution 3D images of the whole spectrum of molecules ranging from small inorganic clusters to large protein complexes consisting of hundred-thousands of atoms that constitute the macromolecular machinery of life. Life is not static, and unravelling the structure and dynamics of the most important reactions in chemistry and biology is essential to uncover their mechanism. Many of these reactions, including photosynthesis which drives our biosphere, are light induced and occur on ultrafast timescales. These have been studied with high time resolution primarily by optical spectroscopy, enabled by ultrafast laser technology, but they reduce the vast complexity of the process to a few reaction coordinates. In the AXSIS project at CFEL in Hamburg, funded by the European Research Council, we develop the new method of attosecond serial X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy, to give a full description of ultrafast processes atomically resolved in real space and on the electronic energy landscape, from co-measurement of X-ray and optical spectra, and X-ray diffraction. This technique will revolutionize our understanding of structure and function at the atomic and molecular level and thereby unravel fundamental processes in chemistry and biology like energy conversion processes. For that purpose, we develop a compact, fully coherent, THz-driven attosecond X-ray source based on coherent inverse Compton scattering off a free-electron crystal, to outrun radiation damage effects due to the necessary high X-ray irradiance required to acquire diffraction signals. This highly synergistic project starts from a completely clean slate rather than conforming to the specifications of a large free-electron laser (FEL) user facility, to optimize the entire instrumentation towards fundamental measurements of the mechanism of light absorption and excitation energy transfer. A multidisciplinary team formed by laser

  1. AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, F. X.; Ahr, F.; Calendron, A.-L.; Çankaya, H.; Carbajo, S.; Chang, G.; Cirmi, G.; Dörner, K.; Dorda, U.; Fallahi, A.; Hartin, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hobbs, R.; Hua, Y.; Huang, W. R.; Letrun, R.; Matlis, N.; Mazalova, V.; Mücke, O. D.; Nanni, E.; Putnam, W.; Ravi, K.; Reichert, F.; Sarrou, I.; Wu, X.; Yahaghi, A.; Ye, H.; Zapata, L.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Miller, R. J. D.; Berggren, K. K.; Graafsma, H.; Meents, A.; Assmann, R. W.; Chapman, H. N.; Fromme, P.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods to determine atomic-resolution 3D images of the whole spectrum of molecules ranging from small inorganic clusters to large protein complexes consisting of hundred-thousands of atoms that constitute the macromolecular machinery of life. Life is not static, and unravelling the structure and dynamics of the most important reactions in chemistry and biology is essential to uncover their mechanism. Many of these reactions, including photosynthesis which drives our biosphere, are light induced and occur on ultrafast timescales. These have been studied with high time resolution primarily by optical spectroscopy, enabled by ultrafast laser technology, but they reduce the vast complexity of the process to a few reaction coordinates. In the AXSIS project at CFEL in Hamburg, funded by the European Research Council, we develop the new method of attosecond serial X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy, to give a full description of ultrafast processes atomically resolved in real space and on the electronic energy landscape, from co-measurement of X-ray and optical spectra, and X-ray diffraction. This technique will revolutionize our understanding of structure and function at the atomic and molecular level and thereby unravel fundamental processes in chemistry and biology like energy conversion processes. For that purpose, we develop a compact, fully coherent, THz-driven attosecond X-ray source based on coherent inverse Compton scattering off a free-electron crystal, to outrun radiation damage effects due to the necessary high X-ray irradiance required to acquire diffraction signals. This highly synergistic project starts from a completely clean slate rather than conforming to the specifications of a large free-electron laser (FEL) user facility, to optimize the entire instrumentation towards fundamental measurements of the mechanism of light absorption and excitation energy transfer. A multidisciplinary team formed by laser

  2. Attitudes toward Science: Measurement and Psychometric Properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for Its Use in Spanish-Speaking Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the "Test of Science-Related Attitudes" (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its…

  3. Computational Amide I Spectroscopy for Refinement of Disordered Peptide Ensembles: Maximum Entropy and Related Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Michael; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    The structural characterization of intrinsically disordered peptides (IDPs) presents a challenging biophysical problem. Extreme heterogeneity and rapid conformational interconversion make traditional methods difficult to interpret. Due to its ultrafast (ps) shutter speed, Amide I vibrational spectroscopy has received considerable interest as a novel technique to probe IDP structure and dynamics. Historically, Amide I spectroscopy has been limited to delivering global secondary structural information. More recently, however, the method has been adapted to study structure at the local level through incorporation of isotope labels into the protein backbone at specific amide bonds. Thanks to the acute sensitivity of Amide I frequencies to local electrostatic interactions-particularly hydrogen bonds-spectroscopic data on isotope labeled residues directly reports on local peptide conformation. Quantitative information can be extracted using electrostatic frequency maps which translate molecular dynamics trajectories into Amide I spectra for comparison with experiment. Here we present our recent efforts in the development of a rigorous approach to incorporating Amide I spectroscopic restraints into refined molecular dynamics structural ensembles using maximum entropy and related approaches. By combining force field predictions with experimental spectroscopic data, we construct refined structural ensembles for a family of short, strongly disordered, elastin-like peptides in aqueous solution.

  4. Experiments in Planetary and Related Sciences and the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald (Editor); Williams, Richard J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Numerous workshops were held to provide a forum for discussing the full range of possible experiments, their science rationale, and the requirements on the Space Station, should such experiments eventually be flown. During the workshops, subgroups met to discuss areas of common interest. Summaries of each group and abstracts of contributed papers as they developed from a workshop on September 15 to 16, 1986, are included. Topics addressed include: planetary impact experimentation; physics of windblown particles; particle formation and interaction; experimental cosmochemistry in the space station; and an overview of the program to place advanced automation and robotics on the space station.

  5. The origin of relative intensity fluctuations in single-molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Matthew D; Chulhai, Dhabih; Seideman, Tamar; Jensen, Lasse; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2013-11-13

    An explanation of the relative intensity fluctuations observed in single-molecule Raman experiments is described utilizing both single-molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory calculations. No correlation is observed in mode to mode intensity fluctuations indicating that the changes in mode intensities are completely independent. Theoretical calculations provide convincing evidence that the fluctuations are not the result of diffusion, orientation, or local electromagnetic field gradients but rather are the result of subtle variations of the excited-state lifetime, energy, and geometry of the molecule. These variations in the excited-state properties will provide information on adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions and may allow for inversion of experimental results to obtain these excited-state properties.

  6. Reflections on the relation between conservation and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving in Conservation is made more complex by the difficulty of grounding on scientifically reliable data, and this issue is fundamental for the profession. The specific characteristics of thinking used in Conservation are compared to those of medicine and architecture. The evolution of Conservation and that of Conservation Science, sharing, exchange and production of information and knowledge are discussed. An outlook on Italian specificity is given, with the aim of favoring discussion on these vital subjects.La résolution des problèmes en conservation-restauration est rendue complexe, en de nombreux cas, par la difficulté de tabler sur des données scientifiquement fiables. Les caractéristiques spécifiques de la pensée scientifique appliquée à cette discipline particulière sont comparées à son utilisation en médecine et en architecture. L’évolution de la conservation et celle de la science de la conservation, le partage, l’échange et la production d’informations et de connaissances sont tour à tour abordés. L’auteur jette par ailleurs un regard sur la spécificité italienne en la matière.

  7. Using spectroscopy and interactive games to teach Solar System science: A decade of NASA's Project SPECTRA!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Project SPECTRA! has been in existance for nearly a decade. It highlights mission data and uses interactive games to engage students in middle and high school grades. Students learn about the electromagnetic spectrum and how we use this information to glean information about Solar System objects, and their atmospheres and climates. The program uses data from Cassini, Mars orbiters and rovers (most recently MAVEN), Venus Express, and several Earth orbiters to bring concepts of planetary comparison into focus. Using both traditional paper and pencil lessons and Flash and app based games, students are asked to conduct open ended research, make sense of the data they are presented with, and make scientific observations and hypothesis based upon their explorations. This talk will demonstrate how games are used to engage students in this process. Project SPECTRA! is a NASA product available through NASAWavelength.org, and is aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

  8. [Chronic stress and epigenetics. Relation between academic sciences and theology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kornél

    2012-04-08

    The author gives a short account on the principles of Selye's stress theory, and discusses similarities and dissimilarities of acute and chronic stress. Both the external, and the internal environment, as well as the psycho-mental status are involved in the notion of the environment. Basic principles of epigenetics are reviewed: interaction between environment and genes, neuroendocrine and enzymatic mechanisms involved in silencing and activation of genes, notions of phenotypic plasticity, and epigenetic reprogramming are discussed. Epigenetic mechanisms of interrelation between pathological clinical states (diseases) and the characteristic phenotypes, causative role of psycho-mental status in evoking pathological somatic alterations, and the potential therapeutic consequences are briefly discussed. The etiological role of chronic, civilization stress in producing the worldwide increment of cardiovascular morbidity is cited, argumentation and criticism of the current therapeutical practice is discussed. The author concludes that recent advances in epigenetic knowledge seem to solve the controversy between the academic and theological sciences.

  9. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  10. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  11. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  12. Relations between aliphatics and silicate components in 12 stratospheric particles deduced from vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d' Hendecourt, L., E-mail: sihane.merouane@ias.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR-8617, Université Paris Sud, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-10

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine extraterrestrial samples available in the laboratory for analyses with moderate to high spatial- and spectral-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Their composition can provide precious information on the early stages of the solar nebula as well as on the processes on the surfaces of different small bodies in the solar system from which IDPs originate. In this work, we have analyzed six anhydrous IDPs and six stratospheric particles possibly of cosmic origin through infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy to study and investigate their silicate and organic components. We find that the length/ramification of the aliphatic organics given by the CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios in the IDPs is closely linked to the silicate family (pyroxene or olivine) present in the samples. Both IR and Raman data suggest that this relation is not correlated with either aqueous (as evidenced by the absence of aqueous related minerals) or thermal processes (as deduced from Raman measurements). Therefore, this observation might be related to the initial path of formation of the organics on the silicate surfaces, thus tracing a possible catalytic role that silicates would play in the formation and/or ramification of organic matter in the primitive nebula.

  13. Defining Public Relations: Toward a Theory of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Slyke, Judy Kulstad

    Noting the lack of a widely accepted definition of public relations, this paper discusses several definitions that have been formulated and dismisses them as inadequate and fraught with understatement. It then suggests that a more appropriate and satisfactory approach to the problem might be to think of public relations as an immature and…

  14. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  15. The principle of relativity with applications to physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Alfred North

    2012-01-01

    The distinguished English mathematician, philosopher presents an alternative rendering of the theory of relativity, conceived long after Einstein's original groundbreaking papers; appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. 1922 edition.

  16. Impact of WWI on Relativity and Other Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    Custom calls WWII the physicists' war (radar, nuclear bombs, rockets) and WWI the chemists' war (nitrogen fixation and synthetic fuels as well as poison gases). In fact both wars affected all of science profoundly. For us, hostilities began with the capture of Erwin Freundlich's German eclipse expedition to the Crrimea in August 1914. Curioiusly they had gone there to measure deflection of starlight be the sun at the half-of-GR level predicted earlier by Einstein. The end came in 1919 with the founding of the IAU (Central Powers strictly excluded; indeed Germany did not join until after WWII) and the Eddington-Dyson-Crommelin eclipse expedition that did record the deflection. In between were many deaths (Moseley and Karl Schwarzschild perhaps best know), turning of observatory optical shops to making binoculars, periscopes, etc, and twisting of careers (including probably the origin of the Hubble-Shapley enmity, when the former volunteered and the latter went directly to a job at Mt. Wilson; Lemaitre is another interesting case). There will be a small prize for the first person to identify the gentleman who refereed my second thesis paper, who served the full four years, partly in the trenches, on the German side.

  17. Dewey’s echoes: about the relation among education, science and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier B. Seoane C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay exposes the John Dewey’s conception of the education for sciences and its relation with the democratic formation. This exposition promotes a criticism of the tra- ditional pedagogical paradigm and a reconsideration of Dewey’s position in a world of many information technological possibilities. This paper has six parts: 1. the promise of modern science as the promise of democratic emancipation. 2. The connection of the promise of modern science with the education. 3. The democracy as ethos. 4. The justification of education in the school after of the information revolution. 5. The justification of education for sciences today and its relation with democracy as ethos. 6. Considerations for to open the door to other edu- cation of the sciences.

  18. Sports-related concussions — media, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk–benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports. PMID:27364748

  19. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.

  20. Special Theory of Relativity, Conceptual Change and History of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Alberto; Arruda, Sergio M.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the problem students have in learning the Theory of Relativity. Points out that the results of the study are ambiguous and intriguing. Describes the publication of Lorentz's Transformation Equations, the presentation of two postulates by Einstein, and the rejection of the Electron Theory and the final acceptance of the Theory of…

  1. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  2. Meeting the relational challenge of ecological engineering within ecological sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sébastien; Lata, J. C.; Lacroix, G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current environmental problems human societies have to face and the lack of sustainability of most of their activities, the time of Ecological Engineering (EE) has surely come. To assess the development of EE within the academic world we conducted a literature survey based on an exhaustive count of all articles mentioning EE and related terms since the 1980s, and a classification of all articles published in 2008 and 2009 in the journal Ecological Engineering. This survey reveals t...

  3. Starguides plus a world-wide directory of organizations in astronomy and related space sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2004-01-01

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, en...

  4. Electrode placement in bioimpedance spectroscopy: evaluation of alternative positioning of electrodes when measuring relative dehydration in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkemose, M; Møller, A J; Madsen, M L; Brantlov, S; Sørensen, H; Overgaard, K; Johansen, P

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain a homeostatic environment in human cells, the balance between absorption and separation of water must be retained. Imbalance will have consequences on both the cellular and organ levels. Studies performed on athletes have shown coherence between their hydration status and ability to perform. A dehydration of 2-7% of total body weight resulted in a marked decrease in performance. Measurement and monitoring of hydration status may be used to optimize athlete performance. Therefore, in this current study bioimpedance spectroscopy is used to determine the hydration status of athletes. Trials were made to investigate alternative ways of electrode placement when performing bioimpedance spectroscopy in order to measure relative dehydration. A total of 14 test subjects underwent measurements before, during, and after a cycle test of 3×25min. Electrodes where placed to measure body impedance in three different ways: wrist-ankle (recommended method), wrist-wrist, and transthoracic. Furthermore, the relative loss in weight of the subjects during the trial was registered. The study showed no relation between relative weight loss and the wrist-wrist and transthoracic placement method, using bioimpedance spectroscopy to measure relative dehydration. The inability of the method to detect such relative changes in hydration may be due to the bioimpedance spectroscopy technology being extremely sensitive to changes in skin temperature, movement artifacts, thoroughness in placing the electrodes, and the physiological impact on the human body when performing exercise. Therefore, further research into the area of bioimpedance spectroscopy is needed before this methodology can be applied in monitoring active athletes. Hence, a simple weight measurement still seems a more useful way of determining a relative change of hydration in an active setting.

  5. Citizen science participation in research in the environmental sciences: key factors related to projects' success and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi G F; Marques, Jonatas F; Resende, Juliana C DE; Falco, Patrícia B DE; Souza, Chrislaine M DE; Loiselle, Steven A

    2017-06-29

    The potential impacts of citizen science initiatives are increasing across the globe, albeit in an imbalanced manner. In general, there is a strong element of trial and error in most projects, and the comparison of best practices and project structure between different initiatives remains difficult. In Brazil, the participation of volunteers in environmental research is limited. Identifying the factors related to citizen science projects' success and longevity within a global perspective can contribute for consolidating such practices in the country. In this study, we explore past and present projects, including a case study in Brazil, to identify the spatial and temporal trends of citizen science programs as well as their best practices and challenges. We performed a bibliographic search using Google Scholar and considered results from 2005-2014. Although these results are subjective due to the Google Scholar's algorithm and ranking criteria, we highlighted factors to compare projects across geographical and disciplinary areas and identified key matches between project proponents and participants, project goals and local priorities, participant profiles and engagement, scientific methods and funding. This approach is a useful starting point for future citizen science projects, allowing for a systematic analysis of potential inconsistencies and shortcomings in this emerging field.

  6. Regional age-related effects in the monkey brain measured with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Itamar; Fan, Xiaoying; Schettler, Steve; Jain, Sahil; Murray, Donna; Kim, Dae-Shik; Killiany, Ronald; Rosene, Douglas

    2011-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is a useful model for examining age-related effects on the brain, because of the extensive neuroanatomical homology between the monkey and the human brain, the tight control for neurological diseases as well as the possibility of obtaining relevant behavioral data and post-mortem tissue for histological analyses. Here, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was used together with high-resolution anatomical MRI images to carefully assess regional concentrations of brain metabolites in a group of 20 rhesus monkeys. In an anterior volume of interest (VOI) that covered frontal and prefrontal areas, significant positive correlations of myo-inositol and of total creatine concentrations with age were detected, whereas N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and choline compounds (Cho) were not significantly correlated with age. In an occipito-parietal VOI, all metabolites showed no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Strong correlations were found between NAA concentration and gray matter fraction in the VOIs as well as between choline compounds and white matter fraction.

  7. Gender-related asymmetric brain vasomotor response to color stimulation: a functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njemanze Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose The present study was designed to examine the effects of color stimulation on cerebral blood mean flow velocity (MFV in men and women. Methods The study included 16 (8 men and 8 women right-handed healthy subjects. The MFV was recorded simultaneously in both right and left middle cerebral arteries in Dark and white Light conditions, and during color (Blue, Yellow and Red stimulations, and was analyzed using functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS technique. Results Color processing occurred within cortico-subcortical circuits. In men, wavelength-differencing of Yellow/Blue pairs occurred within the right hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term depression (CLTD and subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP. Conversely, in women, frequency-differencing of Blue/Yellow pairs occurred within the left hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP and subcortical long-term depression (SLTD. In both genders, there was luminance effect in the left hemisphere, while in men it was along an axis opposite (orthogonal to that of chromatic effect, in women, it was parallel. Conclusion Gender-related differences in color processing demonstrated a right hemisphere cognitive style for wavelength-differencing in men, and a left hemisphere cognitive style for frequency-differencing in women. There are potential applications of fTCDS technique, for stroke rehabilitation and monitoring of drug effects.

  8. Nature of Science and Science Content Learning - The Relation Between Students' Nature of Science Understanding and Their Learning About the Concept of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Hanno; Neumann, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Besides viewing knowledge about the nature of science (NOS) as important for its own value with respect to scientific literacy, an adequate understanding of NOS is expected to improve science content learning by fostering the ability to interrelate scientific concepts and, thus, coherently acquire scientific content knowledge. However, there is a lack of systematic investigations, which clarify the relations between NOS and science content learning. In this paper, we present the results of a study, conducted to investigate how NOS understanding relates to students' acquisition of a proper understanding of the concept of energy. A total of 82 sixth and seventh grade students received an instructional unit on energy, with 41 of them receiving generic NOS instruction beforehand. This NOS instruction, however, did not result in students having higher scores on the NOS instrument. Thus, correlational analyses were performed to investigate how students' NOS understanding prior to the energy unit related to their learning about science content. Results show that a more adequate understanding of NOS might relate to students' perspective on the concept of energy and might support them in understanding the nature of energy as a theoretical concept. Students with higher NOS understanding, for example, seemed to be more capable of learning how to relate the different energy forms to each other and to justify why they can be subsumed under the term of energy. Further, we found that NOS understanding may also be related to students' approach toward energy degradation—a concept that can be difficult for students to master—while it does not seem to have a substantive impact on students' learning gain regarding energy forms, transformation, or conservation.

  9. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of the Er-related donor state in Si/Si : Er3+ nanolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeddin, I.; Klik, M. A. J.; Vinh, N. Q.; Bresler, M. S.; T. Gregorkiewicz,

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental evidence on the donor level related to optical properties of the Er3+ ion in crystalline silicon. Using two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser we provide a direct link between the identified level in the bandgap and the optical properties of EP,. The investigation

  10. Emission spectroscopy of laser-ablated Si plasma related to nanoparticle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V.; Thareja, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the laser ablation of Si in vacuum, and in the presence of helium ambient at 1 and 10 Torr, respectively. The silicon nanoparticles were deposited on silicon substrate at room temperature by ablating silicon wafer in ambient atmosphere of helium at 1 Torr. The mean cluster size ranging from 1.8 to 4.4 nm is observed depending on the laser intensity. Optical emission spectroscopy and images of the plume are used to study the spatial and temporal variation of the silicon plasma. The electron density, measured by the Stark-broadening of Si I transition 3 p2 1S-4 s 1P0 at 390.55 nm and temperature, assuming thermal equilibrium, were found to be 1.2×10 18 cm -3 and 2 eV, respectively. The temporal variation of Si I transition 3 p2 1S-4 s 1P0 at 390.55 nm showed a shift in peak position attributed to collisions at an early stage of plasma formation. The relative concentration of Si II/Si I estimated by using the Saha-Boltzmann relation showed abundance of Si I. Time resolved images of the plume were used to investigate the dynamics of the expanding plasma plume, estimating the vapor pressure, vapor temperature, velocity, and stopping distance of the plume. The photoluminescent spectra of the Si thin films showed three distinct emission bands at 2.7, 2.2 and 1.69 eV, the origin of these bands is attributed to defects and quantum confinement.

  11. Frequency and Efficacy of Talk-Related Tasks in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Leigh, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    Pupil talk and discussion are seen as having important social and cognitive outcomes. In science classes, pupils' collaborative talk supports the construction of meaning and helps examine the status of evidence, theory and knowledge. However, pupil interactive talk in groups is rare in science lessons. The research reported is part of a project to increase the amount of pupil-pupil talk in primary schools through a programme of teaching and professional development. Pupils' self-reports of the frequency and learning efficacies of talk related activities in science lessons were collected before and after a programme of teaching in 24 schools in one of the most socially and educationally deprived areas of England. Findings showed pupils valued talking about their ideas over listening to those of other pupils. Science talk frequency (STF) was closely correlated with science talk efficacy (STE) and both were positively correlated with pupils' attitudes to school science. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the correlation of STF with STE showed values were independent of gender and ability but that school experience was a significant factor. After the teaching programme and, contrary to expectations, the frequency of talk activities in science lessons appeared to have decreased but varied according to class grades. The degree of correlation between STF and STE was stronger after the teaching in over half of the schools. Schools where STF/STE strengthened most as a result of teaching were those involved in an additional initiative to use modelled talk related to industrial contexts.

  12. Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2001-11-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked "junk science" to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke-among other environmental toxins-causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a "sound science" program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European "sound science" plans included a version of "good epidemiological practices" that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke-and thus other environmental toxins-caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the "sound science" movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients.

  13. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  14. Investigate the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of students of communication science and information science and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Esmaeil Pounaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is called Information Age, in which information and communication technologies have been developed. The transfer from industrial society to information society has changed the form and level of education and information from those of the past times. In the past, literacy meant the ability of reading and writing, but today the meaning of literacy has been changed through the time and such a type of literacy is not enough to meet people’s needs in the industrial society of the 21st century. Today’s life requires media and information literacy especially for the students, whose duty is to research and who have a significant role in the development of their country from any perspective. This research aims to study the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of the students of the fields of communication science and information science and knowledge. This is an applied research in terms of its objective and uses a survey-correlation method. The statistical population of this research consists of the postgraduate students studying in the fields of study of information science and knowledge and communication science at Tehran University and Allameh Tabatabai University. The data required for this research were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire has been evaluated by Cronbach’s Alpha, which was equal to 0.936. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic methods. The results showed that the level of media literacy and information literacy of students is desirable. There is a significant relationship between the economic status of students and their media literacy. However, the social status of students was directly related to their "ability to communicate" variable of media literacy. Also the Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between the variables of media literacy and information literacy.

  15. Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) Spectroscopy of Altered Basalts with Application to the ChemCam Library for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadnott, B.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of Fe, Mg, and Al clays on Mars using VNIR spectroscopy from orbit indicates past low temperature/pressure hydrothermal and weathering environments. Laboratory analysis of Mars-analog rocks from these settings on Earth was used to build the ChemCam sample library for Mars Science Laboratory, permitting for more accurate compositional analysis of Martian samples, improved linkages between VNIR's mineralogic and ChemCam's elemental data, and improved recognition of different environmental settings for aqueous alteration. VNIR spectroscopy was used to analyze 4 suites of altered basaltic rocks—one from San Carlos, AZ and three from various locations in Iceland. Continuum shape and absorption features were found to vary, depending on the environment and extent of alteration. Relatively unaltered rocks had electronic absorptions related to ferrous iron. The strength of the 1.9- μm (μm = microns) H2O absorption correlated with the degree of aqueous alteration. Samples with strong 1.9- μm absorptions often exhibited absorption bands at 1.4, 2.2, and 2.3 μm indicating the presence of clay minerals and/or features at 0.5-0.8 μm indicative of ferric iron oxides. Diagnostic absorption features and continuum slopes have been used to identify a representative subset of rocks from each suite for further analysis for the ChemCam library. Noteworthy spectral features for all suites included variation of absorption bands from 2.0-2.5 μm. Most samples contained an absorption band near 2.21 μm, indicating the presence of Si-OH or Al-OH; a 2.3 μm band is also present in some samples, indicating the presence of Mg-OH and Fe-OH, with subtle shifts between 2.29 and 2.35 μm indicating the major cation and constituent phase (e.g. amorphous phase, smectite or chlorite). Overall continuum slope correlated with the degree of alteration. Flat slopes contained weak 1.9 μm bands (little alteration) and sometimes ferrous iron absorptions of primary minerals. Negative

  16. How Do Differences in Relating Mathematics to Science Affect Eighth Graders' Learning?(Applied Field Research)

    OpenAIRE

    湯澤, 正通; 山本, 泰昌

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined whether instructions emphasizing the relations between science and mathematics would improve students' learning of science. Students in 2 public junior high school classes received 1 of 2 types of instruction concerning the physical law predicting that the weight of oxidized metal is proportionate to the weight of the metal before oxidation. Students in the experimental class first deduced the physical law from an atomic model, and then, in order to obtain the propo...

  17. A Teaching Research of the Science related Careers in the Elementary School Science, based by the American Textbooks Discover the Wonder

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 賢二

    2001-01-01

    This document reports on lesson-activities about a teaching research of the science related careers. The first part deals with a brief review of the american elementary school science textbooks Discover the Wonder. The content of the science related careers was identified, and categorized in the second part. The third part deals with discussions and lesson-plan making. The study findings part concludes with analyses of this lesson-activities.

  18. Coincidence Auger spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penent, F. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France) and DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France)]. E-mail: penent@ccr.jussieu.fr; Lablanquie, P. [LURE, Universite Paris Sud, 91898 Orsay (France); Hall, R.I. [DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France); Palaudoux, J. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France); Ito, K. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); IMS, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Aoto, T. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Eland, J.H.D. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-15

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) are (with X-ray emission spectroscopy, XES) powerful analytical tools for material science and gas phase studies. However, the interpretation of Auger spectra can be very difficult due to the number and complexity of the involved processes. A deeper analysis, that allows a better understanding of relaxation processes following inner shell ionization, is possible with coincidence Auger spectroscopy. This method gives a new insight into electron correlation and allows disentangling of complex Auger electron spectra. In this paper, we present some examples related to gas phase coincidence Auger electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The detection in coincidence of an Auger electron with a threshold photoelectron presents two main advantages which are good energy resolution and high coincidence count rates. This technique has also provided new results on double Auger decay processes. A further qualitative breakthrough has been made with the development of a new experimental set-up based on a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. This opens up the field of multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy and allows a most detailed analysis with characterization of all possible decay pathways following inner shell ionization.

  19. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  20. Experimental validation of the use of Kramers-Kronig relations to eliminate the phase sheet ambiguity in broadband phase spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, R L; Waters, K R; Miller, J G

    2001-05-01

    The technique of broadband phase spectroscopy proposed in 1978 by Sachse and Pao [J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4320-4327 (1978)] determines the phase velocity as a function of frequency from the Fourier transforms of a received reference and through-sample signal. Although quite successful, this approach can be influenced by an ambiguity in the phase velocity calculation which stems from the boundedness of the inverse tangent operation used to calculate phase. Several empirical approaches to resolve the phase ambiguity have been reported. An alternative approach that has not previously been considered appeals to the causal nature of the measurements. This article experimentally validates a method which uses the causally consistent Kramers-Kronig relations to eliminate the ambiguity in phase spectroscopy-derived phase velocity calculations. Broadband pulse and narrow-band tone burst measurements were performed on three gelatin-based phantoms containing different concentrations of graphite particles (0%, 10%, and 20% by volume). The phantoms were constructed to have attenuation coefficients which vary approximately linear-with-frequency, a dependence exhibited by many soft tissues. The narrow-band phase velocity measurements do not suffer from a phase ambiguity, and thus they serve as a "gold standard" against which the broadband phase velocity measurements are compared. The experimental results illustrate that using the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations in conjunction with phase spectroscopy-derived phase velocity measurements is an effective means by which to resolve the phase sheet ambiguity in broadband phase spectroscopy.

  1. Communication of Science Shop Mediation: A Kaleidoscope of University-Society Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The Science Shop model was initiated in the Netherlands in the 1970s. Part of the model is the modest scale of the operation. The crucial idea behind the Science Shops involves a working relationship between knowledge-producing institutions like universities and citizen groups that need relevant questions answered. In providing this link, the relations between science and the public can be stimulated by providing such groups with access to the university and by offering active mediation of these questions. This research addresses the question of the external visibility of Science Shop work in terms of communications which reach beyond the local context of the participants. In addition to the question of the effects of this specific type of communication in terms of publications, institutional development, and curriculum development, we study the communication of the results in the press, the popular and grey literature, and other means of communication insofar as retrievable on distance through the Internet.

  2. Revisiting the "American Social Science" – Mapping the Geography of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    International Relations (IR) knows itself as an American social science. The paper first traces how the self-image as a uniquely dividing and American social science was established in the postwar period and is reproduced to this day. Second, it employs bibliometric methods to challenge this image....... It confirms the dominance of Americans in a comprehensive sample of IR journals, but in contrast to previous studies, the paper also compares IR to other disciplines only to find that it is actually one of the least American social sciences. It further studies the geography of IR over time and finds that IR......, it is even possible to identify a core-periphery structure within the American discipline. Finally, the paper uses the sociology of science to argue that IR is dominated by elite institutions, rather than Americans per se, and that further research on stratification in IR can provide a more nuanced approach...

  3. CURRENT RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA IN THE DOMAIN OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia R. Kasimova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Russian-Chinese relations in Science and Education from the 90th years of XX century. Their development is investigated in relation to the political and socio-economic situations in both countries. The author focuses on a number of aspects in the scientific and educational ties requiring in-depth analysis and priority interests of Russia, as well as the huge potential of Russian-Chinese relations in this sphere.

  4. Adolescent girls' experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-03-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse sample of 579 girls ages 13-18 years (M = 15) in the U.S. completed questionnaires measuring their academic achievement, ability beliefs, values, and experiences. Social and personal factors were hypothesized to predict motivation (expectancy-value) differently in math/science (M/S) and English. Social factors included perceived M/S and English support from parents and peers. Personal factors included facets of gender identity (felt conformity pressure, gender typicality, gender-role contentedness), gender-related attitudes, and exposure to feminism. In addition, grades, age, parents' education, and ethnicity were controlled. Girls' M/S motivation was positively associated with mother M/S support, peer M/S support, gender-egalitarian beliefs, and exposure to feminism; it was negatively related to peer English support. Girls' English motivation was positively associated with peer English support as well as felt pressure from parents; it was negatively related to peer M/S support and felt peer pressure. The findings suggest that social and personal factors may influence girls' motivation in domain-specific ways.

  5. Science Policies as principal-agent games; Institutionalization and path dependency in the relation between government and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    1998-01-01

    National science policies seem to converge in policing the double-edged problem of how to get policy and industry interested in the conduct of science and how to get science interested in the problems of policy and industry. However, similarity in the labels of institutes and instruments for science

  6. CARS and Raman spectroscopy of function-related conformational changes of chymotrypsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, N.N.; Chikishev, A.Yu.; Chikishev, A.Y.; Greve, Jan; Koroteev, N.I.; Otto, Cornelis; Sakodinskaya, I.K.; Sakodynskaya, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the comparative analysis of the conformation-sensitive bands of free enzyme (chymotrypsin), liganded enzyme (chymotrypsin anthranilate) and enzyme complex with 18-crown-6. The studies were carried out by Raman scattering spectroscopy and polarization-sensitive coherent anti-Stokes Raman

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy and modeling of interface properties related to organic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahlman, Mats; Sehati, Parisa; Osikowicz, Wojciech; Braun, Slawomir; Jong, de Michel P.; Brocks, Geert

    2013-01-01

    In this short review, we will give examples on how photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) assisted by models on interface energetics can be used to study properties important to bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic devices focusing on the well-known bulk heterojunction blend of poly(3-hexylthioph

  8. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Speech Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieler, A. C.; Tupak, S. V.; Fallgatter, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has substantially contributed to the understanding of language and its neural correlates. In contrast to other imaging techniques, fNIRS is well suited to study language function in healthy and psychiatric populations due to its cheap and easy application in a quiet and natural…

  9. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Speech Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieler, A. C.; Tupak, S. V.; Fallgatter, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has substantially contributed to the understanding of language and its neural correlates. In contrast to other imaging techniques, fNIRS is well suited to study language function in healthy and psychiatric populations due to its cheap and easy application in a quiet and natural…

  10. Detection of Spectral Features of Anomalous Vegetation From Reflectance Spectroscopy Related to Pipeline Leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H. M.; Kooistra, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Underground pipeline leakage inspection is an open problem with large economical and environmental impact. Traditional methods for investigating leakage and pollution, like drilling, are time consuming, destructive and expensive. A non-destructive and more economic exploration method would be a valuable complement to sub-surface investigative methods. Reflectance spectroscopy (or hyperspectral remote sensing) proved to be a tool that offers a non-destructive investigative method to identify anomalous spectral features in vegetation. One of the major environmental problems related to pipelines is the leakage of hydrocarbons into the environment. Hydrocarbons can establish locally anomalous zones that favor the development of a diverse array of chemical and mineralogical changes. Any vegetation present in these zones is likely to be influenced by the hostile and polluted environment. Geobotanical anomalies occur as a result of the effect of hydrocarbons on the growth of vegetation. The most likely changes in the vegetation are expected to occur in the chlorophyll concentrations which are an indicator of the health state. This is the main conclusion after an extensive field campaign in May 2004 in Holland investigating a 1 km trajectory of a 21 km long pipeline. The pipeline is `sweating' benzene condensates at approximately 50% of the connection points between the 9 meter segments of the pipeline. Spectral measurements were conducted at four different test locations in the 1 km trajectory. The test locations were covered by long grass, one of the fields was recently mown. Using different survey designs we can confirm the presence of geobotanical anomalies in different locations using various spectral interpretation techniques like linear red edge shifts, Carter stress indices, normalized difference vegetation index en yellowness index. After the interpretation of the geobotanical anomalies, derived from hyperspectral measurements, we compared the findings with

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy of cluster anions of naphthalene and related aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoto; Mitsui, Masaaki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2008-04-01

    The electronic structures and structural morphologies of naphthalene cluster anions, (naphthalene)n- (n=3-150), and its related aromatic cluster anions, (acenaphthene)n- (n=4-100) and (azulene)n- (n=1-100), are studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy. For (naphthalene)n- clusters, two isomers coexist over a wide size range: isomers I and II-1 (28⩽n⩽60) or isomers I and II-2 (n⩾˜60). Their contributions to the photoelectron spectra can be separated using an anion beam hole-burning technique. In contrast, such an isomer coexistence is not observed for (acenaphthene)n- and (azulene)n- clusters, where isomer I is exclusively formed throughout the whole size range. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of isomer I (7⩽n⩽100) in all the anionic clusters depend linearly on n-1/3 and their size-dependent energetics are quite similar to one another. On the other hand, the VDEs of isomers II-1 and II-2 produced in (naphthalene)n- clusters with n ⩾˜30 remain constant at 0.84 and 0.99eV, respectively, 0.4-0.6eV lower than those of isomer I. Based upon the ion source condition dependence and the hole-burning photoelectron spectra experiments for each isomer, the energetics and characteristics of isomers I, II-1, and II-2 are discussed: isomer I is an internalized anion state accompanied by a large change in its cluster geometry after electron attachment, while isomers II-1 and II-2 are crystal-like states with little structural relaxation. The nonappearance of isomers II-1 and II-2 for (acenaphthene)n- and (azulene)n- and a comparison with other aromatic cluster anions indicate that a highly anisotropic and symmetric π-conjugated molecular framework, such as found in the linear oligoacenes, is an essential factor for the formation of the crystal-like ordered forms (isomers II-1 and II-2). On the other hand, lowering the molecular symmetry makes their production unfavorable.

  12. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  13. Anti-positivism, theoretical sciences and relativity in the Argentina of the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Observing the early years of the 1920's, it is possible to detect a fracture in the perception of relativity theory in Argentina, characterized by the publication of a series of strictly scientific studies on this theory, in parallel with presentations aimed at the general culture. In this work, we attempt to relate this fracture with the advances made by Anti-Positivist ideas in the higher echelons of Argentine culture. The new philosophical approach configured a new vision of science that questioned the traditional methodology of the experimental sciences and attributed to the theoretical sciences a more prominent role than they had in the past. In this work, we present a detailed account of a 1923 paper by Jos\\'e B. Collo and Te\\'ofilo Isnardi, two young Argentine physicists trained in Germany, which is a representative contribution to this new trend.

  14. VERITAS (Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topo-graphy And Spectroscopy): A Proposed Discovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne; Dyar, Melinda; Hensley, Scott; Helbert, Joern; VERITAS Science Team

    2016-10-01

    VERITAS addresses one of the most fundamental questions in planetary evolution: How Earth-like is Venus? These twin planets diverged down different evolutionary paths, yet Venus may hold lessons for past and future Earth, as well as for Earth-sized exoplanets. VERITAS will search for the mineralogical fingerprints of past water, follow up on the discoveries of recent volcanism and the possible young surface age, and reveal the conditions that have prevented plate tectonics from developing. Collectively these questions address how Venus ended up a sulfurous inferno while Earth became habitable.VERITAS carries the Venus Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (VISAR) and the Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM), plus a gravity science investigation.The VISAR X-band radar produces: 1) a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 250 m postings, 5 m height accuracy, 2) Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) global imaging with 30 m pixels, 3) SAR imaging at 15 m for targeted areas, and 4) surface deformation from repeat pass interferometry (RPI) at 2 mm height precision for targeted, potentially active areas. VEM [see Helbert abstract] will measure surface emissivity, look for active volcanic flows and outgassing of water over ~78% of the surface using 6 NIR surface bands within 5 atmospheric windows and 8 bands for calibration of clouds, stray light, and water vapor.VERITAS uses Ka-band uplink and downlink to create a global gravity field with 3 mgal accuracy and 145 km resolution (130 spherical harmonic degree and order or d&o) and providing a significantly higher resolution field with much more uniform resolution than that available from Magellan.VERITAS will create a rich data set of high resolution topography, imaging, spectroscopy, and gravity. These co-registered data sets will be on par with those acquired for Mercury, Mars and the Moon that have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies. VERITAS would be a valuable asset for future lander or probe missions, collecting

  15. Chinese students' science-related experiences: Comparison of the ROSE study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-05-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite many recent studies done in various Western countries. Purpose: This paper aims to report and compare the science-related experiences of ninth-graders from two places (in Urumqi City of Xinjiang province and Shanghai) in China through a large-scale survey of their junior secondary three students. Sample: The sample consists of 4115 students in Urumqi City (from 28 schools) and Shanghai (from 25 schools). Design and methods: This study adopted a Likert scale questionnaire instrument, as translated from the international Relevance Of Science Education (ROSE) Project. From a confirmatory factor analysis of the data, we identify and focus on six factors which are directly correlated with students' science-related experiences outside school environment in Xinjiang and Shanghai and employ relevant factor scores to compare the gender, regional, and socioeconomic effects. Results: As revealed by the t-test, gender and regional differences were statistically significant in affecting (1) students' outdoor living experience, (2) hands-on experience of transportation, and (3) their daily-life experience with do-it-yourself tools and models. In all three aspects, boys and Xinjiang students possessed richer experiences than girls and Shanghai students, respectively. Conclusions: Based on ANOVA tests, Shanghai students' out-of-school science-related experiences were more often significantly affected by various socioeconomic variables (including their parents' education and occupation and their family income) than Xinjiang students. From cross-regional comparison, Chinese students had much fewer science-related experiences than those of

  16. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-08-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  17. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-10-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  18. Relations among Grade 4 Students' Perceptions of Autonomy, Engagement in Science, and Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada Barber, Ana; Buehl, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend previous work on students' perceptions of teachers' autonomy-enhancing and autonomy-suppressing behaviors in relation to students' engagement to a more situated context (i.e., two Grade 4 science instructional conditions instead of school in general) and a linguistically diverse population (i.e., Hispanic students). They also…

  19. Youth Motivation to Participate in Animal Science-Related Career Development Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kendra; Knobloch, Neil; Jones, Amy; Brady, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The explorative study reported here describes youth participants in three animal science-related career development events from 2010. Variables included students' self-efficacy, task value motivation, career interests, and to what extent they utilized resources in preparation. It was concluded that all three groups were self-efficacious,…

  20. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, A.C.; Dekker, C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Van Der Zant, H.S.J.; et. al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphen

  1. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Falko, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap (STR) for graphene, related twodimensional (2d) crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. The roadmap was developed within the framework of the Euro...

  2. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Boggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, Jose A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhaenen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Gregory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hong, Byung Hee; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Loefwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari

    2015-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European

  3. Youth Related Family and Consumer Science References for Consumer and Family Living Agents and Teachers, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jan, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 307 references to magazine articles that relate to the subject areas covered by family and consumer sciences courses. The references are grouped into five categories: (1) clothing and textiles; (2) foods and nutrition; (3) home improvement; (4) child development and fun things to do with children; and (5) camp crafts.…

  4. Youth Motivation to Participate in Animal Science-Related Career Development Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kendra; Knobloch, Neil; Jones, Amy; Brady, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The explorative study reported here describes youth participants in three animal science-related career development events from 2010. Variables included students' self-efficacy, task value motivation, career interests, and to what extent they utilized resources in preparation. It was concluded that all three groups were self-efficacious,…

  5. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  6. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods.

  7. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-02-23

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  8. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive…

  9. Exploring Learners' Beliefs about Science Reading and Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, and Their Relations with Science Text Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects…

  10. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive…

  11. High-School Students' Epistemic Knowledge of Science and Its Relation to Learner Factors in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Liu, Shiang-Yao; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Chiou, Guo-Li; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Ying-Tien; Chen, Sufen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Lee, Silvia W.-Y.; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Che-Li; Chu, Regina Juchun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an online contextualized test for assessing students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science. In addition, how students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science interacts with learner factors, including time spent on science learning, interest, self-efficacy, and gender, was also explored. The participants were 489 senior high school students (244 males and 245 females) from eight different schools in Taiwan. Based on the result of an extensive literature review, we first identified six factors of epistemic knowledge of science, such as status of scientific knowledge, the nature of scientific enterprise, measurement in science, and so on. An online test was then created for assessing students' understanding of the epistemic knowledge of science. Also, a learner-factor survey was developed by adopting previous PISA survey items to measure the abovementioned learner factors. The results of this study show that; (1) by factor analysis, the six factors of epistemic knowledge of science could be grouped into two dimensions which reflect the nature of scientific knowledge and knowing in science, respectively; (2) there was a gender difference in the participants' understanding of the epistemic knowledge of science; and (3) students' interest in science learning and the time spent on science learning were positively correlated to their understanding of the epistemic knowledge of science.

  12. Social Relations of Science and Technology: perceptions of teachers of technical training, PARFOR course participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Candéo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study on the perceptions of teachers of technical training, course participants (PARFOR National Plan for Training Teachers of Basic Education , offered by the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Campus Ponta Grossa (PG - UTFPR on the social relations of science and technology. The study conducted with 15 teachers from various disciplines. The methodological approach was quantitative research , the instrument of data collection was based questionnaire with open questions . The main results show that the vast majority of teachers had a very narrow view about science and technology , consider that the scientific and technological development always bring benefits to its own population of traditional / classic , positivist view. The need to promote reflection on social issues of science and technology in education technology in order to train professionals aware of their responsibilities as citizens in a highly technological age was observed. It is emphasized that these are recorded in the master's thesis entitled Scientific and Technological Literacy (ACT by Focus Science, Technology and Society (STS from commercial films of the University Program Graduate School of Science and Technology Tecnológica Federal do Paraná ( UTFPR Campus Ponta Grossa, Brazil.

  13. Phosphorous and proton spectroscopy in relation to near incarceration and incarceration of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death.......We report 3 cases of 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31P-spectra were obtained...

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  15. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  16. The influence of relational formative discourse on students' positional identities in a middle school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    Formative assessment is the process of eliciting students' understanding during instruction in order to make sensitive instructional decisions and provide feedback to enhance students' learning. Research indicates that when used properly, formative assessment can lead to significant learning gains and enhance students' self-efficacy. Drawing on previous research and a framework of relational pedagogy, I studied the positional identities claimed, assigned and negotiated by a middle school science teacher and her students during formative assessment interactions. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze classroom interactions, teacher debriefings and student interviews. Findings from this study indicated that the teacher normatively positioned herself as authority during formative assessment interactions, yet students were not completely powerless. Through assertions of content knowledge and re-directions of topical focus, students positioned themselves actively and had the capacity to influence the direction and focus of formative assessment. Outside of classroom instruction, the teacher simultaneously positioned herself as both hindered by institutional structures yet actively subverted those structures in both covert and overt ways in the service of meaningful science learning. As indicated from interviews and SPAQ questionnaire responses, many students in this classroom positioned themselves positively in relation to science, the teacher and her methods of assessment, while some felt marginalized. This research has implications for the ways in which formative assessment is used to support teaching and learning in science classrooms. Findings from this study indicate that formative assessment is not simply an instrumental act carried out by teachers, but rather is a relational process that necessarily involves students. As a result, formative assessment should balance authoritative and dialogic discourse as a means for supporting and engaging students as

  17. An investigation of Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy in relation to their conceptions of learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a multi-dimensional instrument to assess Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy and investigate the relationships with their conceptions of learning science. Sample: A total of 488 Taiwanese high school students (265 male and 223 female) were invited to participate in this survey. Design and method: All the participants responded to the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire regarding 'Memorizing', 'Testing', 'Calculating and practicing', 'Increase of knowledge', 'Applying' and 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' and the Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) instrument, including 'Conceptual understanding', 'Higher-Order cognitive skills', 'Practical work', 'Everyday application' and 'Science communication'. Results: The path analysis results derived from the structural equation modeling method indicated that, of all five SLSE dimensions, the 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' COLS displayed as a positive predictor, while the 'Testing' COLS was a significant negative predictor. The 'Applying' COLS item can only positively contribute to the SLSE dimensions of 'Higher-Order thinking skills', 'Everyday application' and 'Science Communication'. Conclusions: In general, students in strong agreement with learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way or the application of learned scientific knowledge are prone to possess higher confidence in learning science. However, students who consider learning science in terms of preparing for tests and examinations tend to hold lower science learning self-efficacy.

  18. Critical analysis of science-related texts in a breastfeeding information, support, and advocacy community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.

    This study examines the way in which women in a breastfeeding information, support, and advocacy (BISA) community of practice critically engage with written/oral science-related texts. The range of texts that these participants encounter is explored and two critical reading approaches are investigated: (1) critical science reading, or reading to assess text validity; and (2) critical science-related text analysis (CSTA), or reading to determine the way in which a text positions subjects or reality, is indicative of particular interests, or leaves out particular voices. The former has been addressed by science education research; the latter is based upon feminist poststructuralism and critical literacy literature. Participants in BISA encounter a wide range of science-related texts, and, to varying degrees, assess the validity of these texts based upon what they know about science, their own and others' experiences, and practical knowledge. Participants also engage in CSTA to greater and lesser extents. Also, experts in BISA are entrusted by participants in the organization to identify valid and trustworthy texts. Differences in critical science reading across participants and texts are discussed, as are the purposes for critical science reading and conditions in BISA that support these critical practices. This study informs both science education and critical literacy research, argues that critical science reading and CSTA are worthwhile practices of both everyday folks and students, and suggests that educators encourage engagement in these practices by presenting students with conflicting science-related texts, encouraging doubt in and epistemic distancing from science-related texts, and modeling critical engagement with science-related texts for students.

  19. A study of former students who chose postsecondary science-related programs: What they found useful in their high school science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Ronald

    This study explored a high school chemistry and physics teaching practice. The teacher had taught for 15 years in a rural school in Saskatchewan that produces on average 80-90 graduates each year. The purpose of this study is to explore how students enrolled in post secondary science-related programs understand their high school science experience. Eight former students who are currently enrolled in a post secondary science related fields were interviewed. Four students are in an Engineering program, one in Arts and Science, one in Physics, one in Animal science, and the other in an Instrumentation Technology School. The participants were in the third or fourth year of their programs. The participants discussed their opinions and gave insights about their own high school science experience. Students gave reasons about their choice of current program. Other topics that emerged were how former students thought about classroom laboratory work, demonstrations, assignments, exams, learning styles, lecture media, text book use, study groups, competitive learning, and topic relevance. Students also gave recommendations about how to improve science teaching. The findings were discussed and analyzed. One finding concludes students that chose Engineering or Physics programs were positively influenced by their high school physics courses. Some suggestions are made to improve current teaching practice. The recommendations are aimed at the researcher's practice as well as novice science teachers.

  20. 'The kind of mildly curious sort of science interested person like me': Science bloggers' practices relating to audience recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Mathieu; Bultitude, Karen

    2016-04-01

    With at least 150 million professional and amateur blogs on the Internet, blogging offers a potentially powerful tool for engaging large and diverse audiences with science. This article investigates science blogging practices to uncover key trends, including bloggers' self-perceptions of their role. Interviews with seven of the most popular science bloggers revealed them to be driven by intrinsic personal motivations. Wishing to pursue their love of writing and share their passion for science, they produce content suitable for niche audiences of science enthusiasts, although they do not assume background scientific knowledge. A content analysis of 1000 blog posts and comparison with the most popular blogs on the Internet further confirmed this result and additionally identified key factors that affect science blog popularity, including update frequency, topic diversity and the inclusion of non-text elements (especially images and video).

  1. C3R2 - Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation: Keck spectroscopy to train photometric redshifts for Euclid and WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; C3R2 Team

    2017-01-01

    A primary objective of both WFIRST and Euclid is to provide a 3D map of the distribution of matter across a significant fraction of the universe from the weak lensing shear field, but to do so requires robust distances to billions of galaxies. I will report on a multi-semester program, expected to total approximately 40 nights with Keck over the next two years. This program, supporting both the NASA PCOS and COR science goals, will obtain the necessary galaxy spectroscopy to calibrate the color-redshift relation for the Euclid mission, and make significant progress towards the WFIRST requirements. The program, called C3R2 or Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation, already encompasses 10 allocated nights of NASA Keck Key Strategic Mission Support (PI D. Stern), 12 allocated nights from Caltech (PI J. Cohen), 3 allocated nights from the University of Hawaii (PI D. Sanders), and 1.5 allocated nights from UC-Riverside (PI B. Mobasher). We are also pursuing opportunities at additional 8- to 10-meter class telescopes, including Magellan, VLT and GCT. I will present the motivation for this program, the plans, and current results.

  2. Mashup of Geo and Space Science Data Provided via Relational Databases in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of RDBMS for the storage and management of geo and space science data and/or metadata is very common. Although the information stored in tables is based on a data model and therefore well organized and structured, a direct mashup with RDF based data stored in triple stores is not possible. One solution of the problem consists in the transformation of the whole content into RDF structures and storage in triple stores. Another interesting way is the use of a specific system/service, such as e.g. D2RQ, for the access to relational database content as virtual, read only RDF graphs. The Semantic Web based -proof of concept- GFZ ISDC uses the triple store Virtuoso for the storage of general context information/metadata to geo and space science satellite and ground station data. There is information about projects, platforms, instruments, persons, product types, etc. available but no detailed metadata about the data granuals itself. Such important information, as e.g. start or end time or the detailed spatial coverage of a single measurement is stored in RDBMS tables of the ISDC catalog system only. In order to provide a seamless access to all available information about the granuals/data products a mashup of the different data resources (triple store and RDBMS) is necessary. This paper describes the use of D2RQ for a Semantic Web/SPARQL based mashup of relational databases used for ISDC data server but also for the access to IUGONET and/or ESPAS and further geo and space science data resources. RDBMS Relational Database Management System RDF Resource Description Framework SPARQL SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language D2RQ Accessing Relational Databases as Virtual RDF Graphs GFZ ISDC German Research Centre for Geosciences Information System and Data Center IUGONET Inter-university Upper Atmosphere Global Observation Network (Japanese project) ESPAS Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science (European Union funded project)

  3. UE-ACP relations and the strategy for Europe on life sciences and biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Manzano San Román

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A reflection on the opportunities and risks deriving from the strategy designed by the European Commission for biotechnology and life sciences or developing countries. Specifically, it analyses the possible impact of the application of this strategy in the new framework of the relations between the European Union and the countries of Africa, theCaribbean and the Pacific regulated by the Cotonú Agreement.

  4. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy in the investigation of new mineral-related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Frank J.; de Laune, Benjamin P.; Greaves, Colin; Whitaker, Mariana J.; Thomas, Michael F.; Marco, José F.

    2014-04-01

    New materials based on the composition of the mineral schafarzikite, FeSb, have been synthesised. Fe- and Sb- Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present as Fe and that antimony is present as Sb. The presence of Pb on the antimony sites in materials of composition FeSbPb induces partial oxidation of Feto Fe. The quasi-one-dimensional magnetic structure of schafarzikite is retained in FeSbPb and gives rise to weakly coupled non-magnetic Fe ions coexisting with Fe ions in a magnetically ordered state. A similar model can be applied to account for the spectra recorded from the compound CoFeSbPb.

  6. Quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens and its related phytopharmaceutical products by means of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, M; Schulz, H; Siuda, R; Strehle, M A; Rösch, P; Popp, J; Joubert, E; Manley, M

    2005-01-01

    NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy was used for identification and quantification of harpagoside in secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens as well as in related phytopharmaceutical products, e.g., ethanolic extracts and tablets. Applied Raman mappings reveal the spatial distribution of this valuable iridoid glycoside within the different samples. The same technique can be used for quality control purposes beginning from the plant to its final products. Based on the obtained spectral data and reference HPLC values of harpagoside, a reliable multivariate calibration model was developed.

  7. The highly-cited Electrocardiogram-related articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianglin; Gu, Jiaojiao; Yan, Hong; Xu, Zhi; Ren, Bing; Yang, Yaming; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Qi; Tan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    We used bibliometric analysis methodology in the expanded Science Citation Index to identify highly-cited electrocardiogram (ECG)-related articles with total citations (TC2012) exceeding 100 from the publication year to 2012. Web of Science search tools were used to identify the highly-cited articles. The aspects analyzed for highly cited publications included effect of time on citation analysis, journals and Web of Science categories, number of authors per publication, originating institutions and countries, total citation and total citation per year life cycles of articles (C2012) and research hotspots. Results showed that a total of 467 electrocardiogram-related publications were regarded as the highly-cited publications. TC2012 ranged from 101 to 2879, with 215 as the average number of citations. No highly-cited publications have emerged yet during the first two years of the present 2010 Decade. All 11 countries and institutions originating highly-cited ECG-related publications were developed countries, USA in 9 of them. Four subject categories were identified as hotspots by total citations TC2012 and C2012: atrial fibrillation, long QT syndrome, angina and myocardial infarction, and risk factor analysis and health evaluation.

  8. Theory and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  9. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  10. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  11. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  12. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to…

  13. A Bump on a Bump? Emerging Intuitions Concerning the Relative Difficulty of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.; Schlegel, Esther

    2011-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined how intuitions about the relative difficulties of the sciences develop. In Study 1, familiar everyday phenomena in physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and economics were pretested in adults, so as to be equally difficult to explain. When participants in kindergarten, Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, and college were asked to rate the difficulty of understanding these phenomena, children revealed a strong bias to see natural science phenomena as more difficult than those in psychology. The perceived relative difficulty of economics dropped dramatically in late childhood. In Study 2, children saw neuroscience phenomena as much more difficult than cognitive psychology phenomena, which were seen as more difficult than social psychology phenomena, even though all phenomena were again equated for difficulty in adults. In Study 3, we explored the basis for these results in intuitions about common knowledge and firsthand experience. Study 4 showed that the intuitions about the differences between the disciplines were based on intuitions about difficulty of understanding and not on the basis of more general intuitions about the feasibility or truth of the phenomena in question. Taken together, in the studies, the authors find an early emerging basis for judgments that some sciences are intrinsically more difficult than others, a bias that may persevere in adults in subtler forms in such settings as the courtroom. PMID:20121309

  14. Software Tool for Analysis of Breathing-Related Errors in Transthoracic Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, F.; Gyllensten, I. C.; Lindecrantz, K.; Seoane, F.

    2012-12-01

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied in a range of different applications and mainly using the frequency sweep-technique. Traditionally the tissue under study is considered to be timeinvariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored and instead treated as a noise source. This assumption has not been adequately tested and could have a negative impact and limit the accuracy for impedance monitoring systems. In order to successfully use frequency-sweeping EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to study the effect of frequency-sweep delay on Cole Model-based analysis. In this work, we present a software tool that can be used to simulate the influence of respiration activity in frequency-sweep EBIS measurements of the human thorax and analyse the effects of the different error sources. Preliminary results indicate that the deviation on the EBIS measurement might be significant at any frequency, and especially in the impedance plane. Therefore the impact on Cole-model analysis might be different depending on method applied for Cole parameter estimation.

  15. Changes in self-regulation-related prefrontal activities in eating disorders: a near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Sutoh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the symptomatology of the eating disorders examining the prefrontal function and activity associated with self-regulation among participants with or without eating disorders. METHODS: Ten patients with anorexia nervosa, fourteen with bulimia nervosa, and fourteen healthy control participants performed two cognitive tasks assessing self-regulatory functions, an auditorily distracted word fluency task and a rock-paper-scissors task under the measurements on prefrontal oxyhemoglobin concentration with near infrared spectroscopy. The psychiatric symptoms of patient groups were assessed with several questionnaires. RESULTS: Patients with bulimia nervosa showed decreased performances and prefrontal hyper activation patterns. Prefrontal activities showed a moderate negative correlation with task performances not in the patient groups but only in the healthy participants. The prefrontal activities of the patient groups showed positive correlations with some symptom scale aspects. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased cognitive abilities and characteristic prefrontal activation patterns associated with self-regulatory functions were shown in patients with bulimia nervosa, which correlated with their symptoms. These findings suggest inefficient prefrontal self-regulatory function of bulimia nervosa that associate with its symptoms.

  16. Inflammation-related alterations of lipids after spinal cord injury revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosaityte, Sandra; Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Koch, Maria; Later, Robert; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers several lipid alterations in nervous tissue. It is characterized by extensive demyelination and the inflammatory response leads to accumulation of activated microglia/macrophages, which often transform into foam cells by accumulation of lipid droplets after engulfment of the damaged myelin sheaths. Using an experimental rat model, Raman microspectroscopy was applied to retrieve the modifications of the lipid distribution following SCI. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and endogenous two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) microscopies were used for the detection of lipid-laden inflammatory cells. The Raman mapping of CH2 deformation mode intensity at 1440 cm-1 retrieved the lipid-depleted injury core. Preserved white matter and inflammatory regions with myelin fragmentation and foam cells were localized by specifically addressing the distribution of esterified lipids, i.e., by mapping the intensity of the carbonyl Raman band at 1743 cm-1, and were in agreement with CARS/TPEF microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the inflammatory regions are notably rich in saturated fatty acids. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy enabled to specifically detect inflammation after SCI and myelin degradation products.

  17. Raman spectroscopy uncovers biochemical tissue-related features of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualerzi, Alice; Niada, Stefania; Giannasi, Chiara; Picciolini, Silvia; Morasso, Carlo; Vanna, Renzo; Rossella, Valeria; Masserini, Massimo; Bedoni, Marzia; Ciceri, Fabio; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Brini, Anna Teresa; Gramatica, Furio

    2017-08-29

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are emerging as valuable therapeutic agents for tissue regeneration and immunomodulation, but their clinical applications have so far been limited by the technical restraints of current isolation and characterisation procedures. This study shows for the first time the successful application of Raman spectroscopy as label-free, sensitive and reproducible means of carrying out the routine bulk characterisation of MSC-derived vesicles before their use in vitro or in vivo, thus promoting the translation of EV research to clinical practice. The Raman spectra of the EVs of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were compared with human dermal fibroblast EVs in order to demonstrate the ability of the method to distinguish the vesicles of the three cytotypes automatically with an accuracy of 93.7%. Our data attribute a Raman fingerprint to EVs from undifferentiated and differentiated cells of diverse tissue origin, and provide insights into the biochemical characteristics of EVs from different sources and into the differential contribution of sphingomyelin, gangliosides and phosphatidilcholine to the Raman spectra themselves.

  18. Nuclear Data Resources for Capture gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear reaction data play an important role in nuclear reactor, medical, and fundamental science and national security applications. The wealth of information is stored in internally adopted ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. We present a complete calculation of resonance integrals, Westcott factors, thermal and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections for Z=1-100 using evaluated nuclear reaction data. The addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, and improvements in data processing techniques allows us to calculate nuclear industry and astrophysics parameters, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations will be discussed and an overview of the latest reaction data developments will be given.

  19. Nuclear Data Resources for Capture gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B.; Pritychenko,B.

    2011-08-18

    Nuclear reaction data play an important role in nuclear reactor, medical, and fundamental science and national security applications. The wealth of information is stored in internally adopted ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. We present a complete calculation of resonance integrals, Westcott factors, thermal and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections for Z = 1-100 using evaluated nuclear reaction data. The addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, and improvements in data processing techniques allows us to calculate nuclear industry and astrophysics parameters, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations will be discussed and an overview of the latest reaction data developments will be given.

  20. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  1. Gender-related attitudinal differences towards science fairs of students in Christian private schools in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Glenda F.

    Science fairs afford students at all grade levels the opportunity to practice thinking as a scientist does, a valuable 21st century skill (Jacobs, 2010) and may influence students to pursue STEM-related careers. Even though science fairs have been occurring since the 1920s, literature related to science competitions, especially science fairs, is limited (Dionne et al., 2012; Terzian, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study was to use a causal comparative research design to determine if there is a difference in overall attitudes towards science fairs, enjoyment of science fairs, and usefulness of science fairs of female and male students at private Christian middle schools. The sample included 146 fifth through eighth grade students, 72 males and 74 females from four private Christian schools in the southern United States. The researcher visited each school and administered the Students' Attitudes toward Science Fairs (SATSFS) instrument (Michael & Huddleston, 2014) to the students on the day of the local science fair. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the difference in attitudes between the female and male participants toward science fairs in the areas of overall attitude, student's enjoyment, and student's usefulness of science fairs. The result of the MANOVA was not significant at an alpha level of .05, where F (2, 143) = 2.52, p = .08, partial eta2 = 0.034, suggesting there are no significant differences on the dependent variables (enjoyment, usefulness, and overall attitude toward science fairs) by gender of fifth through eighth grade students in Christian private schools. The effect size as measured by partial eta squared was small. Implications for educators include the need to address gender differences in STEM education at earlier stages of development, and the importance of stressing personal meaning and relevance to science-related activities. Recommendations for further studies were made.

  2. Perovskite-Related Oxide Fluorides: The Use of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in the Investigation of Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Berry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review here some of our recent work on the synthesis and characterisation of new perovskite-related oxide fluorides. We demonstrate the use of low temperature fluorination methods for the preparation of new phases with high fluorine contents. We also show how fluorine can be accommodated in different sites according to the structural details of the initial oxide and the fluorine content. Importantly, we describe how Mössbauer spectroscopy is a powerful technique for monitoring changes in cation oxidation state as a result of fluorination and for examining the complex magnetic interactions which result from the accommodation of fluorine within the structures and how these can be related to structural properties and changes to the superexchange pathways.

  3. Factors related to the persistence and attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences by women science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Janet E.

    Researchers have shown that women remain underrepresented in the sciences particularly in doctorate degree attainment. This investigator aimed to extend previous research by examining possible causes of gender disparity in science graduate education using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B.:93/03. Variables in categories of demographics, academic achievement, financial resources, degree expectations and attitudes toward educational experiences, future study and employment were analyzed by t tests and hierarchical regression to determine gender differences in graduate degree expectations and attainment by male and female science majors. Findings supported gender disparity in undergraduate and graduate fields of study. Women dominated health areas and earned terminal master's degrees, whereas men dominated the physical science field and attained a higher proportion of doctorate degrees. Results also showed no gender differences in master's degree attainment in other fields thus confirming that these graduates did not persist in science fields. Graduate degree expectation was a strong predictor for master's and doctorate degree attainment. Parent education had a significant effect on degree expectations but not on graduate degree attainment. Women tended to have lower degree expectations and earned fewer science and math credits than men. Results showed that unemployment and loans predicted doctorate degree attainment by men and women showed higher levels of employment in graduate school.

  4. Planetary Entry Probes and Mass Spectroscopy: Tools and Science Results from In Situ Studies of Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.

    2007-01-01

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future missions will hopefully also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. 1 he success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and better data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. I'he pioneering and tireless work of Al Seiff and his collaborators at the NASA Ames Research Center had provided convincing evidence of the value of entry probe science and how to practically implement flight missions. Even in the most recent missions involving entry probes i.e. Galileo and Cassini/Huygens A1 contributed uniquely to the science results on atmospheric structure, turbulence and temperature on Jupiter and Titan.

  5. Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules in nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Lucarini, Valerio; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Vartiainen, Erik

    2004-05-01

    The full potential of the Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules for nonlinear susceptibilities has unfortunately drawn relatively little attention in nonlinear optical spectra analysis. In this feature article a simple treatment of an anharmonic oscillator model in description of the nonlinear susceptibility of media and holomorphic properties of the nonlinear susceptibility were utilized. Using such concepts, conventional Kramers-Kronig, multiply-subtractive Kramers-Kronig, and generalized Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations can be derived. We demonstrate how in practice the variety of different Kramers-Kronig relations mentioned above, as well as various sum rules, can be applied in nonlinear optical spectra analysis. As an example we treat the third-harmonic wave generation spectrum from a polymer.

  6. How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-06-01

    We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse.

  7. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  8. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university and assess…

  9. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  10. Determination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Level of Awareness of Environmental Ethics in Relation to Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Özgül; Özer, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the pre-service science teachers' awareness levels of environmental ethics in relation to different variables. The sampling of the present study is comprised of 1,023 third and fourth year pre-service science teachers selected from 12 different universities in the spring term of 2013-2014 academic…

  11. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  12. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  13. On the relation between radical behaviorism and the science of verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, S

    1989-01-01

    A fully-developed "science of verbal behavior" may depend upon a recognition of the implications of Skinner's scientific system, radical behaviorism, particularly as it relates to the nature of scientific research. An examination of the system and Skinner's own research practices imply, for example, that samples of vocal or written verbal behavior collected under controlling conditions may be observed as directly for the effects of controlling contingencies as in the traditional practice involving cumulative response records. Such practices may be defended on the basis of the pragmatic epistemology which characterizes radical behaviorism. An example of one type of exploratory method is described.

  14. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  15. DNP-enhanced ultrawideline (207)Pb solid-state NMR spectroscopy: an application to cultural heritage science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Perras, Frédéric A; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Catalano, Jaclyn; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-14

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used to enhance the (ultra)wideline (207)Pb solid-state NMR spectra of lead compounds of relevance in the preservation of cultural heritage objects. The DNP SSNMR experiments enabled, for the first time, the detection of the basic lead carbonate phase of the lead white pigment by (207)Pb SSNMR spectroscopy. Variable-temperature experiments revealed that the short T'2 relaxation time of the basic lead carbonate phase hinders the acquisition of the NMR signal at room temperature. We additionally observe that the DNP enhancement is twice as large for lead palmitate (a lead soap, which is a degradation product implicated in the visible deterioration of lead-based oil paintings), than it is for the basic lead carbonate. This enhancement has allowed us to detect the formation of a lead soap in an aged paint film by (207)Pb SSNMR spectroscopy; which may aid in the detection of deterioration products in smaller samples removed from works of art.

  16. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, T.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  17. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  18. Dielectric spectroscopy in benzophenone: the beta relaxation and its relation to the mode-coupling Cole-Cole peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L C; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2007-09-01

    We report a thorough characterization of the glassy dynamics of benzophenone by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We detect a well-pronounced beta relaxation peak developing into an excess wing with increasing temperature. A previous analysis of results from Optical-Kerr-effect measurements of this material within the mode-coupling theory revealed a high-frequency Cole-Cole peak. We address the question if this phenomenon also may explain the Johari-Goldstein beta relaxation, a so-far unexplained spectral feature inherent to glass-forming matter, mainly observed in dielectric spectra. Our results demonstrate that according to the present status of theory, both spectral features seem not to be directly related.

  19. Spectroscopy and photometry of the dwarf nova BZ Ursae Majoris and the CV linewidth/K, mass-ratio relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, J. S.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Schlegel, E. M.; Webbink, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy of the dwarf nova BZ Ursae Majoris (BZ UMa) reveals periodic velocity variations in the hydrogen emission lines with P = 97.9 +/- 0.1 min and K = 73 +/- 6 km/s. CCD photometry over a 16-month interval shows three outbursts of about 4 mag with a mean separation of 181 days. The mean full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the hydrogen beta emission is large, prompting a recalibration of the FWHM/K vs. mass ratio relation, giving a mass ratio (M(sub RD)/M(sub WD)) of 0.20 for BZ UMa. The short period, long outburst interval, and small mass ratio support the suggestion of BZ UMa being in the SU Ursae Majoris subclass of dwarf novae.

  20. Coproductive capacities: rethinking science-governance relations in a diverse world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae E. van Kerkhoff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tackling major environmental change issues requires effective partnerships between science and governance, but relatively little work in this area has examined the diversity of settings from which such partnerships may, or may not, emerge. In this special feature we draw on experiences from around the world to demonstrate and investigate the consequences of diverse capacities and capabilities in bringing science and governance together. We propose the concept of coproductive capacities as a useful new lens through which to examine these relations. Coproductive capacity is "the combination of scientific resources and governance capability that shapes the extent to which a society, at various levels, can operationalize relationships between scientific and public, private, and civil society institutions and actors to effect scientifically-informed social change." This recasts the relationships between science and society from notions of "gaps" to notions of interconnectedness and interplay (coproduction; alongside the societal foundations that shape what is or is not possible in that dynamic connection (capacities. The articles in this special feature apply this concept to reveal social, political, and institutional conditions that both support and inhibit high-quality environmental governance as global issues are tackled in particular places. Across these articles we suggest that five themes emerge as important to understanding coproductive capacity: history, experience, and perceptions; quality of relationships (especially in suboptimal settings; disjunct across scales; power, interests, and legitimacy; and alternative pathways for environmental governance. Taking a coproductive capacities perspective can help us identify which interventions may best enable scientifically informed, but locally sensitive approaches to environmental governance.

  1. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The

  2. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes Towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Luisa

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to improved student perception of the integration of science and mathematics. Although there is adequate literature to substantiate students' positive responses to integration in terms of attitudes, there has been little empirical data to support significant academic improvement when both disciplines are taught in an integrated method. This research study, conducted at several school districts on Long Island and New York City, New York, examined teachers' attitudes toward integration and students' attitudes about, and achievement on assessments in, an integrated 8th grade science classroom compared to students in a non-integrated classroom. An examination of these parameters was conducted to analyze the impact of the sizeable investment of time and resources needed to teach an integrated curriculum effectively. These resources included substantial teacher training, planning time, collaboration with colleagues, and administration of student assessments. The findings suggest that students had positive outcomes associated with experiencing an integrated science and mathematics curriculum, though these were only weakly correlated with teacher confidence in implementing the integrated model successfully. The positive outcomes included the ability of students to understand scientific concepts within a concrete mathematical framework, improved confidence in applying mathematics to scientific ideas, and increased agreement with the usefulness of mathematics in interpreting science concepts. Implications of these research findings may be of benefit to educators and policymakers looking to adapt integrated curricula in order to

  3. Adsorption of Saliva Related Protein on Denture Materials: An X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Miyake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the adsorption behavior of different types of bovine salivary proteins on the PMMA and Ti QCM sensors are fabricated by spin-coating and sputtering onto bare QCM sensors by using QCM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. SPM, XPS, and contact angle investigations were carried out to determine the chemical composition and surface wettability of the QCM surface. We discuss the quality of each sensor and evaluate the potential of the high-frequency QCM sensors by investigating the binding between the QCM sensor and the proteins albumin and mucin (a salivary-related protein. The SPM image showed a relatively homogeneous surface with nano-order roughness. The XPS survey spectra of the thin films coated on the sensors were similar to the binding energy of the characteristic spectra of PMMA and Ti. Additionally, the amount of salivary-related protein on the PMMA QCM sensor was higher than those on the Ti and Au QCM sensors. The difference of protein adsorption is proposed to be related to the wettability of each material. The PMMA and Ti QCM sensors are useful tools to study the adsorption and desorption of albumin and mucin on denture surfaces.

  4. Factors Impacting on Teachers' Job Satisfaction Related to Science Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S.; Mustafa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Science teachers' job satisfaction is identified as a major factor that affects the quality of a science program. This research investigated to what extent a science program supports science teachers in terms of curriculum materials or extracurricular activities. It also examined the relationships among schools' curriculum support, the number of…

  5. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  6. Science Instrument Support Electronics Systems for the Relativity Mission Satellite, Gravity Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, W. J.; Brumley, R. W.; Buchman, S.; Clarke, B.; Hipkins, D. N.; Farley, R.; Shestople, P.; Meriwether, D.; Gray, C.

    The Relativity Mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B), uses four redundant high precision electrostatically suspended mechanical gyroscopes for measuring the relativistic precessions of the frame of reference in a 640 km polar orbit. The two precessions to be measured are predicted in General Relativity are the geodetic effect, 6.6 arcsec/year, and the frame dragging effect, 0.042 arcsec/year. The Science Instrument Support Electronics or Payload Electronics Package enables this measurement to be performed by providing the necessary control and monitoring functions for the Science Instrument Assembly that contains the four gyroscopes and reference star tracking telescope. This paper describes the overall architecture of the Payload Electronics system and the design and operation of its component parts: 1) the SQUID Readout electronics (SRE) for gyroscope orientation measurement, 2) The Gyroscope Suspension System (GSS) for gyroscope electrostatic suspension and spin axis alignment, 3) the Telescope Readout Electronics (TRE) for measurement of the reference star location, 4) the Experiment Control Unit (ECU) for heater, valve, and rotor electrostatic charge control and thermometry, 5) the custom GPS receiver for orbital position determination and time reference generation, and 6) the Gas Management Assembly (GMA) that controls and routes the gaseous helium used for initial gyroscope spin-up. Contingent upon a successful launch of Gravity Probe on April 17 2004, preliminary performance results will be presented along side the predicated performance estimates derived from system analysis and test on the ground prior to launch.

  7. Effects of academic-industry relations on the professional socialization graduate science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Margaret Ann Phillippi

    This study asks if there has been a change in graduate student socialization in the biological sciences given the increased commercialism of life sciences. Drawing on the work of Steven Brint (1994) and Sheila Slaughter and Larry Leslie (1997) and Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades (2004), this study asks if graduate student socialization has shifted emphasis from the social and moral dimensions of work (social trustee professionalism) to the practical, technical, and commercial dimensions (expert professionalism). Building on the survey results of the Acadia Project (Swazey, Louis, & Anderson, 1994; Louis, Anderson & Rosenberg, 1995), this qualitative study uses interviews with 25 graduate science students at two A.A.U. research universities that have been heavily involved in academic-industry relations to see how the students were professionally socialized throughout their educational careers. The student configuration compares males and females, U.S. and international students, and those funded by the government versus those receiving at least partial support from industry. It uses critical professionalization theory as a framework. The study found that students' career goals and values were usually set before graduate school primarily by females in non-elite institutions, such as community colleges, women's and liberal arts colleges, and non-flagship state universities. Also, university science faculty tend to continue to socialize students---even those planning to go into industry---for the professoriate, as their prestige is based on placing proteges into other elite schools. U.S. females and most students going into academics or government labs had the values of social trustee professionals while those going into industry held those of expert professionals. The former were more likely to recognize situations involving conflicts of interest or commitment. Almost all the students were disillusioned by the grants and promotion and tenure systems. They feel both

  8. Science and Technology Cooperation as an Effective Bridge for Strengthening Relations Between Russia and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyak, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of spiraling tensions and curtailing of many platforms for the dialogue between Russia and the U.S. scientific cooperation could play a positive role. The history of our relations shows that joint effort by Russian and American scientists has repeatedly contributed to finding solutions in difficult situations, even during the ``cold war''. Thanks to the common efforts of the scientists of our countries hundreds of remarkable discoveries and significant achievements in such areas as physics, chemistry, space, medicine, etc. were made. Scientific community has no doubt that our bilateral scientific cooperation is in national interests of both nations. Although our joint work on a number of important issues is suspended today. The author is going to share his view with us on whether science and technology cooperation serve as an effective bridge for strengthening relations between Russia and the U.S.?

  9. Attitudes toward science: measurement and psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for its use in Spanish-speaking classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its discriminant and concurrent validity, and its reliability. The evidence presented suggests that TOSRA, in its Spanish-adapted version, has adequate construct validity regarding its theoretical referents, as well as good indexes of reliability. In addition, it determines the attitudes toward science of secondary school students in Santiago de Chile (n = 664) and analyzes the sex variable as a differentiating factor in such attitudes. The analysis by sex revealed low-relevance gender difference. The results are contrasted with those obtained in English-speaking countries. This TOSRA sample showed good psychometric parameters for measuring and evaluating attitudes toward science, which can be used in classrooms of Spanish-speaking countries or with immigrant populations with limited English proficiency.

  10. ACCESS - A Science and Engineering Assessment of Space Coronagraph Concepts for the Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, John

    2008-01-01

    Topics include and overview, science objectives, study objectives, coronagraph types, metrics, ACCESS observatory, laboratory validations, and summary. Individual slides examine ACCESS engineering approach, ACCESS gamut of coronagraph types, coronagraph metrics, ACCESS Discovery Space, coronagraph optical layout, wavefront control on the "level playing field", deformable mirror development for HCIT, laboratory testbed demonstrations, high contract imaging with the HCIT, laboratory coronagraph contrast and stability, model validation and performance predictions, HCIT coronagraph optical layout, Lyot coronagraph on the HCIT, pupil mapping (PIAA), shaped pupils, and vortex phase mask experiments on the HCIT.

  11. Clock Hypothesis of Relativity Theory, Maximal Acceleration, and M\\"ossbauer Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Potzel, W

    2014-01-01

    Results obtained several years ago using the high-resolution 93.3 keV M\\"ossbauer resonance in $^{67}$ZnO and $\\beta'$-brass have been reanalyzed with the notion that the clock hypothesis of Special Relativity Theory is not sufficient, but that a maximal acceleration $a_m$ exists and that an acceleration $a$ contributes to the temperature dependence of the center shift by a term $-(1/2)(a/a_m)^2$. For both substances a lower limit of $a_m>5\\cdot10^{21}m/s^2$ is inferred which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than the value $a_m=1\\cdot10^{19}m/s^2$ suggested by $^{57}$Fe rotor experiments.

  12. Clock hypothesis of relativity theory, maximal acceleration, and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzel, W., E-mail: wpotzel@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Results obtained several years ago using the high-resolution 93.3 keV Mössbauer resonance in {sup 67}ZnO and β{sup ′}-brass have been reanalyzed with the notion that the clock hypothesis of Special Relativity Theory is not sufficient, but that a maximal acceleration a{sub m} exists and that an acceleration a contributes to the temperature dependence of the center shift by a term ±(1/2)(a/a{sub m}){sup 2}. The significance of the sign of this term is discussed in detail. For both substances a lower limit of a{sub m}>1.5⋅10{sup 21}m/s {sup 2} is inferred which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than - and thus excludes - the value a{sub m}=1⋅10{sup 19}m/s {sup 2} suggested by {sup 57}Fe rotor experiments.

  13. Clock hypothesis of relativity theory, maximal acceleration, and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzel, W.

    2016-12-01

    Results obtained several years ago using the high-resolution 93.3 keV Mössbauer resonance in 67ZnO and β '-brass have been reanalyzed with the notion that the clock hypothesis of Special Relativity Theory is not sufficient, but that a maximal acceleration a m exists and that an acceleration a contributes to the temperature dependence of the center shift by a term ±(1/2)( a/ a m )2. The significance of the sign of this term is discussed in detail. For both substances a lower limit of a m >1.5ṡ1021m/s 2 is inferred which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than - and thus excludes - the value a m =1ṡ1019m/s 2 suggested by 57Fe rotor experiments.

  14. Voluntary Modulation of Hemodynamic Responses in Swallowing Related Motor Areas: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Neurofeedback Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show for the first time that motor imagery of swallowing, which is defined as the mental imagination of a specific motor act without overt movements by muscular activity, can be successfully used as mental strategy in a neurofeedback training paradigm. Furthermore, we demonstrate its effects on cortical correlates of swallowing function. Therefore, N = 20 healthy young adults were trained to voluntarily increase their hemodynamic response in swallowing related brain areas as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. During seven training sessions, participants received either feedback of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb group, N = 10 or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb group, N = 10 over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during motor imagery of swallowing. Before and after the training, we assessed cortical activation patterns during motor execution and imagery of swallowing. The deoxy-Hb group was able to voluntarily increase deoxy-Hb over the IFG during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, swallowing related cortical activation patterns were more pronounced during motor execution and imagery after the training compared to the pre-test, indicating cortical reorganization due to neurofeedback training. The oxy-Hb group could neither control oxy-Hb during neurofeedback training nor showed any cortical changes. Hence, successful modulation of deoxy-Hb over swallowing related brain areas led to cortical reorganization and might be useful for future treatments of swallowing dysfunction.

  15. Progress in field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, E.J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Anderson, K.; Kneubühler, M.; Fox, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in the science of field spectroscopy, focusing on the last twenty years in particular. During this period field spectroscopy has become established as an important technique for characterising the reflectance of natural surfaces in situ, for supporting the vicarious c

  16. Exaggerations and Caveats in Press Releases and Health-Related Science News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Petroc; Boivin, Jacky; Bott, Lewis; Adams, Rachel; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exaggerated or simplistic news is often blamed for adversely influencing public health. However, recent findings suggested many exaggerations were already present in university press releases, which scientists approve. Surprisingly, these exaggerations were not associated with more news coverage. Here we test whether these two controversial results also arise in press releases from prominent science and medical journals. We then investigate the influence of mitigating caveats in press releases, to test assumptions that caveats harm news interest or are ignored. Methods and Findings Using quantitative content analysis, we analyzed press releases (N = 534) on biomedical and health-related science issued by leading peer-reviewed journals. We similarly analysed the associated peer-reviewed papers (N = 534) and news stories (N = 582). Main outcome measures were advice to readers and causal statements drawn from correlational research. Exaggerations in press releases predicted exaggerations in news (odds ratios 2.4 and 10.9, 95% CIs 1.3 to 4.5 and 3.9 to 30.1) but were not associated with increased news coverage, consistent with previous findings. Combining datasets from universities and journals (996 press releases, 1250 news), we found that when caveats appeared in press releases there was no reduction in journalistic uptake, but there was a clear increase in caveats in news (odds ratios 9.6 and 9.5 for caveats for advice and causal claims, CIs 4.1 to 24.3 and 6.0 to 15.2). The main study limitation is its retrospective correlational nature. Conclusions For health and science news directly inspired by press releases, the main source of both exaggerations and caveats appears to be the press release itself. However we find no evidence that exaggerations increase, or caveats decrease, the likelihood of news coverage. These findings should be encouraging for press officers and scientists who wish to minimise exaggeration and include caveats in their press

  17. The Tully-Fisher relation of intermediate redshift field and cluster galaxies from Subaru spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, O; Milvang-Jensen, B; Arimoto, N; Ikuta, C; Bamford, S P

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out spectroscopic observations in 4 cluster fields using Subaru's FOCAS multi-slit spectrograph and obtained spectra for 103 bright disk field and cluster galaxies at $0.06 \\le z \\le 1.20$. Seventy-seven of these show emission lines, and 33 provide reasonably-secure determinations of the galaxies' rotation velocity. The rotation velocities, luminosities, colours and emission-line properties of these galaxies are used to study the possible effects of the cluster environment on the star-formation history of the galaxies. Comparing the Tully-Fisher relations of cluster and field galaxies at similar reshifts we find no measurable difference in rest-frame $B$-band luminosity at a given rotation velocity (the formal difference is $0.18\\pm0.33 $mag). The colours of the cluster emission line galaxies are only marginally redder in rest-frame $B-V$ (by $0.06\\pm0.04 $mag) than the field galaxies in our sample. Taken at face value, these results seem to indicate that bright star-forming cluster spirals ar...

  18. Electronic structures of melatonin and related compounds studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, M

    2003-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone structurally regarded as being composed of a 5-methoxyindole group and an N-ethylacetamide group; its various physiological activities have attracted a great deal of attention recently. The gas phase He(I) photoelectron spectra of melatonin (M) and its related compounds including N-acetylserotonin have been studied with the aid of molecular orbital calculations. The first photoelectron spectral band group of compound M is ascribed to ionizations from the two pi orbitals localized on the methoxyindole group. The second band group is quite complicated and is regarded as being composed of several bands. The lower energy part of the second band group is ascribed to the three orbitals relevant to the third highest occupied pi orbital of 5-methoxyindole and the highest occupied pi and the n sub C sub = sub 0 orbitals of N-ethylacetamide. The interactions among the three orbitals have been found to operate on the basis of the molecular orbital calculations; these interactions depend strongly o...

  19. Electronic structures of melatonin and related compounds studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Mari. E-mail: marik@hc.cc.keio.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Tsunetoshi

    2003-02-01

    Melatonin is a hormone structurally regarded as being composed of a 5-methoxyindole group and an N-ethylacetamide group; its various physiological activities have attracted a great deal of attention recently. The gas phase He(I) photoelectron spectra of melatonin (M) and its related compounds including N-acetylserotonin have been studied with the aid of molecular orbital calculations. The first photoelectron spectral band group of compound M is ascribed to ionizations from the two {pi} orbitals localized on the methoxyindole group. The second band group is quite complicated and is regarded as being composed of several bands. The lower energy part of the second band group is ascribed to the three orbitals relevant to the third highest occupied {pi} orbital of 5-methoxyindole and the highest occupied {pi} and the n{sub C=0} orbitals of N-ethylacetamide. The interactions among the three orbitals have been found to operate on the basis of the molecular orbital calculations; these interactions depend strongly on the conformations. The high energy end of the second band group is relevant to the {pi} orbital mainly localized on the 5-methoxyindole group and is ascribed to the fourth highest occupied {pi} orbital of 5-methoxyindole.

  20. Deriving soil function maps to assess related ecosystem services using imaging spectroscopy in the Lyss agricultural area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek, Sanne; de Jong, Rogier; Braun, Daniela; Böhler, Jonas; Schaepman, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Soils play an important role in the benefits offered by ecosystems services. In densely populated Switzerland soils are a scarce resource, with high pressure on services ranging from urban expansion to over-utilization. Key change drivers include erosion, soil degradation, land management change and (chemical) pollution, which should be taken into consideration. Therefore there is an emerging need for an integrated, sustainable and efficient system assessing the management of soil and land as a resource. The use of remote sensing can offer spatio-temporal and quantitative information of extended areas. In particular imaging spectroscopy has shown to perfectly complement existing sampling schemes as secondary information for digital soil mapping. Although only the upper-most layer of soil interacts with light when using reflectance spectroscopy, it still can offer valuable information that can be utilized by farmers and decision makers. Fully processed airborne imaging spectrometer data from APEX as well as land cover classification for the agricultural area in Lyss were available. Based on several spectral analysis methods we derived multiple soil properties, including soil organic matter, soil texture, and mineralogy; complemented by vegetation parameters, including leaf area index, chlorophyll content, pigment distribution, and water content. The surface variables were retrieved using a combination of index-based and physically-based retrievals. Soil properties in partly to fully vegetated areas were interpolated using regression kriging based methods. This allowed the continuous assessment of potential soil functions as well as non-contiguous maps of abundances of combined soil and vegetation parameters. Based on a simple regression model we could make a rough estimate of ecosystem services. This provided the opportunity to look at the differences between the interpolated soil function maps and the non-contiguous (but combined) vegetation and soil function maps

  1. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES RELATED TO HIV/AIDS AMONG MEDICAL AND ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.

  2. Semantic Network Analysis on Terms related Mantle in Earth Science 2 Textbooks of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  3. Beyond agency: sources of knowing and learning in children's science- and technology-related problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-12-01

    In (science) education, primacy is given to agency, the human capability to act and, in this, to learn. However, phenomenological philosophers and societal-historical psychologists point out that agency, the purposeful (intentional) engagement with the world, is only the effect of a much more profound capacity: passibility, the capacity to be affected. In this study, we begin with what has been recognized as a fundamental condition of learning: learners cannot intentionally orient to the learning outcome because they inherently do not know it so that that knowledge cannot be the object of intention. In this study, we provide evidence for three empirically grounded assertions: (a) children do not intend new knowledge and understanding, which instead give themselves in and through materials and material configurations; (b) knowing-how is received (as unintended gifts) because our bodies are endowed with passibility, the capability to be affected; and (c) the new knowledge and understanding exists as and in social relation first. We suggest implications for engineering design in science classrooms.

  4. Is there a relation between student lecture attendance and clinical science subject examination score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, J W; Blanco, J D

    1994-08-01

    To determine whether there is a relation between lecture attendance and factual knowledge of obstetrics and gynecology, as measured by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) clinical science subject examination. We analyzed data on 197 students completing 8-week obstetrics and gynecology rotations from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. Each student was expected to attend a weekly lecture series, and each completed the NBME clinical science subject examination at the end of the clerkship. Student attendance and board scores were correlated at the end of the academic year overall and by subgroups. Scores in the top and bottom 15% were defined as good and poor performance, respectively. A negative correlation (r = -0.1738, P = .0146) was found between percent absence and examination score. The odds ratio for poor performance was 5.48 (95% confidence interval 1.3-26.5; P = .015) for the subgroup of students with more than 30% absence compared to those without absences. Odds ratios for scoring in the upper 15th percentile were not significant. The negative correlation and the high odds ratio for poor performance suggest the value of monitoring attendance and identifying students at risk for poor performance (more than 30% absence). Lower absence rates did not predict performance.

  5. Beyond agency: sources of knowing and learning in children's science- and technology-related problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-02-01

    In (science) education, primacy is given to agency, the human capability to act and, in this, to learn. However, phenomenological philosophers and societal-historical psychologists point out that agency, the purposeful (intentional) engagement with the world, is only the effect of a much more profound capacity: passibility, the capacity to be affected. In this study, we begin with what has been recognized as a fundamental condition of learning: learners cannot intentionally orient to the learning outcome because they inherently do not know it so that that knowledge cannot be the object of intention. In this study, we provide evidence for three empirically grounded assertions: (a) children do not intend new knowledge and understanding, which instead give themselves in and through materials and material configurations; (b) knowing-how is received (as unintended gifts) because our bodies are endowed with passibility, the capability to be affected; and (c) the new knowledge and understanding exists as and in social relation first. We suggest implications for engineering design in science classrooms.

  6. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  7. Spatially Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy to Probe Electronic Phase Separation in Manganites and Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Sarma, Dipankar

    2005-03-01

    Manganese oxides that exhibit colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) are often characterised by a competition of different electronic phases that critically influence their properties and leads to the coexistence of spatially separated competing phases. Despite extensive experimentation, characteristic length-scales associated with phase coexistence remains an important open question. While theoretical work has pointed to a nanometric length-scale, experiments have uncovered multiple length-scales ranging from the atomic to the sub-micron, covering many orders of magnitude. The role of chemical inhomogeneity in driving this phenomenon is not well understood. Moreover, these early experiments were carried out on polycrystalline and thin film specimens. Here we use a spatially resolved, direct spectroscopic probe for electronic structure with an additional unique sensitivity to chemical compositions to investigate high quality single crystal sample of La1/4Pr3/8Ca3/8MnO3. The formation of distinct electronic domains is observed in absence of any perceptible chemical inhomogeneity, where the relevant length-scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than all previous estimates. The present results, exhibiting memory effects in the domain morphology, suggest that electronic domain formation is intimately connected with long-range strains, often thought to be an important ingredient in the physics of this effect. Additionally, we have also applied this technique to a variety of related materials, such as (LuMnO3)0.79(La5/8Sr3/8MnO3)0.21, and Sr2FexMo1-xO6. Our preliminary results in all these cases suggest that the existence of spatially inhomogeneous electronic phases plays important roles in determining many of the interesting properties of such systems. This work is carried out in collaboration with M. Bertolo, G. Cautero, S-W. Cheong, A. Fujimori, T. Y. Koo, S.R. Krishnakumar, U. Manju, S. Ray, S. La Rosa P. A. Sharma and D. Topwal.

  8. The Relationship between Low-carbon Agriculture and Agricultural Science and Technology Based on Gray Relational Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ai-xiang

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural energy consumption per unit of GDP is selected as an indicator for measuring the development level of low-carbon agriculture. Using gray relational theory, I analyze the relationship between development level of agricultural science and technology and development level of low-carbon agriculture in China. The results show that the correlation between the two is prominent; the number of agricultural science and technology talents, the number of agricultural science and technology patents, and the number of agricultural science and technology input are three major factors influencing the development of low-carbon agriculture. On this basis, I propose to take further effective measures, and put forth corresponding recommendations, in order to improve the level of agricultural science and technology.

  9. Cognitive Difficulty Intensifies Age-related Changes in Anterior Frontal Hemodynamics: Novel Evidence from Near-infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierre, Kirstin L; Lucas, Samuel J E; Guiney, Hayley; Cotter, James D; Machado, Liana

    2017-02-01

    Alongside age-related brain deterioration, cognitive functioning declines, particularly for more demanding tasks. Past research indicates that, to offset this decline, older adults exhibit hemodynamic changes consistent with recruitment of more anterior brain regions. However, the nature of the hemodynamic changes remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we used near-infrared spectroscopy in 36 young adults (aged 18-30 years) and 36 older adults (aged 60-72 years) to assess anterior frontal hemodynamic responses to engagement in three cognitive tasks of increasing difficulty. Behavioral results for all three tasks confirmed aging deficits (evidenced by slower reaction times and reduced accuracy rates) that progressively increased with task difficulty. Hemodynamic results showed opposing effects in young versus older adults, with oxygenated and total hemoglobin decreasing in young but increasing in older adults, particularly during the harder tasks. Also, tissue oxygenation increased only in older adults during the harder tasks. Among the older adults only, anterior frontal hemodynamic changes correlated with better cognitive performance, indicating that they were compensatory in nature. These findings provide novel evidence of age-related anterior frontal hemodynamic changes that intensify with cognitive demands and compensate for performance deficits.

  10. Mapping the Geography of Science: Distribution Patterns and Networks of Relations among Cities and Institutes

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Using Google Earth, Google Maps and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications on the geographic map. We discuss the pros en cons of the various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging existing gaps between the Science Citation Indices and Scopus, on the one side, and these various visualization tools, on the other. At the level of city names, the global map can be drawn reliably on the basis of the available address information. At the level of the names of organizations and institutes, there are problems of unification both in the ISI-databases and Scopus. Pajek enables us to combine the visualization with statistical analysis, whereas the Google Maps and its derivates provide superior tools at the Internet.

  11. Precision electrostatic suspension system for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission’s science gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, W. J.; Eglington, M. E.; Brumley, R. W.; Buchman, S.

    Presented here is a hybrid digital/analog electrostatic suspension control system for the NASA/Stanford University Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission’s science gyroscopes. An adaptive LQE algorithm, called Authority-on-Demand (AOD), has been developed to meet the high dynamic range requirements for mission’s electrostatic suspension, while minimizing suspension induced torques on the rotor. AOD is novel because it uses plant state estimates, rather than plant parameter estimates, as inputs for adaptation. In addition minimizing disturbance torques on the gyroscope, this suspension system can also maximize and control disturbances torques to perform a post spin-up alignment of the gyroscope spin axes. A backup all-analog proportional-derivative (PD) controller subsystem is provided to maintain control of the rotor in the event of computer faults/radiation induced upsets. A precision mechanical simulation of the gyroscope’s capacitive interface and dynamic response is used to verify performance of the overall system.

  12. Energy II: a bibliography of 1975--1976 social science and related literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.E.; Bemis, V.; Frankena, F.L.; Buttel, F.H.; Galin, J.; Mejorado, O.; Cardinal, J. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This volume updates Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature (Garland, 1975) from the date the earlier manuscript was completed in January, 1975. It represents a special attempt to include the very large number of recently published behavioral and empirical studies made in the context of the 1973-74 energy crisis. Covering all relevant works in English, the material deals with the way in which individuals, families, communities, businesses, and nations have reacted and adjusted to less energy and higher energy prices. The over 2,000 entries are cross-referenced into 75 categories in margin keywords. This guide is a fundamental reference bibliography for students, teachers, researchers, policymakers, and lay persons involved in attempting to understand the crucial social dimensions of the energy problem. See also ''Energy Guide: A Directory of Information Resources,'' another Garland publication.

  13. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed.

  14. Enhancing Teachers' Awareness About Relations Between Science and Religion. The Debate Between Steady State and Big Bang Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonas, Alexandre; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2015-11-01

    Educators advocate that science education can help the development of more responsible worldviews when students learn not only scientific concepts, but also about science, or "nature of science". Cosmology can help the formation of worldviews because this topic is embedded in socio-cultural and religious issues. Indeed, during the Cold War period, the cosmological controversy between Big Bang and Steady State theory was tied up with political and religious arguments. The present paper discusses a didactic sequence developed for and applied in a pre-service science teacher-training course on history of science. After studying the historical case, pre-service science teachers discussed how to deal with possible conflicts between scientific views and students' personal worldviews related to religion. The course focused on the study of primary and secondary sources about cosmology and religion written by cosmologists such as Georges Lemaître, Fred Hoyle and the Pope Pius XII. We used didactic strategies such as short seminars given by groups of pre-service teachers, videos, computer simulations, role-play, debates and preparation of written essays. Along the course, most pre-service teachers emphasized differences between science and religion and pointed out that they do not feel prepared to conduct classroom discussions about this topic. Discussing the relations between science and religion using the history of cosmology turned into an effective way to teach not only science concepts but also to stimulate reflections about nature of science. This topic may contribute to increasing students' critical stance on controversial issues, without the need to explicitly defend certain positions, or disapprove students' cultural traditions. Moreover, pre-service teachers practiced didactic strategies to deal with this kind of unusual content.

  15. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  16. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  17. Workplace skills and the skills gaps related to employee critical thinking ability and science education curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William A.

    In recent years, business and industry have been vocal critics of education. Critics complain the American workforce, particularly young people, are deficient in workplace skills. A survey of 500 randomly selected Ohio businesses was used to determine opinions of respondents related to workplace skills gaps, rising skill levels, and level and type of critical thinking used on the job by all employees and entry-level employees. Four of 18 science outcomes promoted by the Ohio Department of Education had an application in business and these required critical-thinking skills to complete. These four formed the foundation in the survey because they provided a connection between thinking skills required on the Ohio 12 th Grade Proficiency Test and those required on the job. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to identify correlation between responses. The alpha level was p ≤ .05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify significant (p ≤ .05) relationships between variables as represented by responses. In addition, one version of the Science Section of the Ohio 12th Grade Proficiency Test was analyzed for use of critical thinking using the SCAN's critical-thinking attributes as a standard. There were several findings related to workplace skills and critical thinking. Only 17.1% of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the basic academic skill level of their employees. A majority (71.1%) of responding businesses perceived a lack of work ethic as more important than deficient academic skills. Only 17.1% of respondents reported the skill level of their entry-level employees was rising. Approximately 1/3 of responding businesses required no critical thinking at all from their entry-level employees. Small businesses were significantly more likely to require higher levels of critical thinking from their entry level employees than larger businesses. Employers who reported rising skill levels in entry-level employees required all of

  18. Movement-related cortical activation with voluntary pinch task: simultaneous monitoring of near-infrared spectroscopy signals and movement-related cortical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Fukuda, Masafumi; Oishi, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate hemodynamic and electrophysiological motor cortex responses to voluntary finger pinching in humans, with simultaneous recording of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). Six healthy, right-handed subjects performed 100 trials of voluntary right-thumb index-finger pinching with about a 10-second interval at their own pace. Throughout the session, 48 regions over the bilateral motor cortex were assessed by NIRS, while MRCP and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously monitored. MRCP started 1536+/-58 ms before EMG onset and peaked 127+/-24 ms after EMG onset. NIRS data showed bilateral prefrontal cortex at 0.5+/-0.1 s before EMG onset and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex activations at 0.6+/-0.1 s before EMG onset. The hand area of the sensorimotor cortex was activated left-dominantly, seen obviously peaked at 3.7+/-0.2 s after EMG onset. The comparison between MRCP and NIRS results raised the possibility that the vascular response to neural activity occurs within 4 s with a voluntary pinch task. These results indicate that our technique allows detailed study of the motor control. Our method is a promising strategy for event-related motor control and neurovascular coupling studies.

  19. Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Giulia; Tommei, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10^-6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10^-5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5×10^-7 and 1×10^-7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α1 and α2, respectively.

  20. Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Schettino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10 − 6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10 − 5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5 × 10 − 7 and 1 × 10 − 7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α 1 and α 2 , respectively.

  1. Sex, grade, and course differences in attitudes that are related to cognitive performance in secondary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James; Seymour Fowler, H.

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the modified science subscales were all high ( > 0.83). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data for the main and interaction effects of the independent variables of sex (male, female), grade level (10th, 11th, 12th), and science program (advanced placement, academic, general, terminal). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were indicated for all main effects (sex, grade, science program). Interaction effects were not found. Mean separations for the various levels of sex, grade, and science program were performed for all attitudinal subscales. Females evidenced a significantly more positive attitude (p 0.01) than males on three subscales: Attitude Toward Success in Science Scale, Science as a Male Domain Scale, and Teacher Scale. Although not significant, males evidenced more positive attitudes on all the remaining five subscales. Eleventh graders evidenced significantly more positive attitudes than tenth graders on all but the Effectance Motivation Scale. Students in 11th grade had more positive attitudes than 12th-grade students on all scales but Science as a Male Domain Scale; however, these differences were not significant. Tenth graders differed significantly from 12th graders on three subscales; Science Usefulness Scale, Confidence in Learning Science Scale, and Teacher Scale. Positive attitudes decreased from advanced placement to terminal programs. Academic students did not differ significantly from general students except on the Father Scale; however, they were significantly different (more positive) from the terminal

  2. How Do High School Science Textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Explain Bioaccumulation-Related Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…

  3. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  4. Integral field spectroscopy of nearby QSOs: I. ENLR size-luminosity relation, ongoing star formation & resolved gas-phase metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Husemann, B; Sánchez, S F; Wisotzki, L; Nugroho, D; Kupko, D; Schramm, M

    2014-01-01

    [abridged] We present optical integral field spectroscopy for a flux-limited sample of 19 QSOs at z<0.2 and spatially resolve their ionized gas properties at a physical resolution of 2-5kpc. The extended narrow line regions (ENLRs), photoionized by the radiation of AGN, have sizes of up to several kpc and correlate more strongly with the QSO continuum luminosity than with the integrated [OIII] luminosity. We find a relation of the form log(r)~(0.46+-0.04)log(L_5100), reinforcing the picture of an approximately constant ionization parameter for the ionized clouds across the ENLR. Besides the ENLR, we also find gas ionized by young massive stars in more than 50 per cent of the galaxies on kpc scales. In more than half of the sample, the specific star formation rates based on the extinction-corrected Ha luminosity are consistent with those of inactive disc-dominated galaxies, even for some bulge-dominated QSO hosts. Enhanced SFRs of up to 70Msun/yr are rare and always associated with signatures of major merge...

  5. Investigation of cell wall composition related to stem lodging resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhu, Jinmao; Huang, RuZhu; Yang, YuSheng

    2012-07-01

    We explored the rapid qualitative analysis of wheat cultivars with good lodging resistances by Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. FTIR imaging showing that wheat stem cell walls were mainly composed of cellulose, pectin, protein, and lignin. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to eliminate multicollinearity among multiple peak absorptions. PCA revealed the developmental internodes of wheat stems could be distributed from low to high along the load of the second principal component, which was consistent with the corresponding bands of cellulose in the FTIR spectra of the cell walls. Furthermore, four distinct stem populations could also be identified by spectral features related to their corresponding mechanical properties via PCA and cluster analysis. Histochemical staining of four types of wheat stems with various abilities to resist lodging revealed that cellulose contributed more than lignin to the ability to resist lodging. These results strongly suggested that the main cell wall component responsible for these differences was cellulose. Therefore, the combination of multivariate analysis and FTIR could rapidly screen wheat cultivars with good lodging resistance. Furthermore, the application of these methods to a much wider range of cultivars of unknown mechanical properties promises to be of interest.

  6. Origins of spatial working memory deficits in schizophrenia: an event-related FMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Lee

    Full Text Available Abnormal prefrontal functioning plays a central role in the working memory (WM deficits of schizophrenic patients, but the nature of the relationship between WM and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Using two functional neuroimaging methods, we investigated the neural correlates of remembering and forgetting in schizophrenic and healthy participants. We focused on the brain activation during WM maintenance phase with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We also examined oxygenated hemoglobin changes in relation to memory performance with the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS using the same spatial WM task. Distinct types of correct and error trials were segregated for analysis. fMRI data indicated that prefrontal activation was increased during WM maintenance on correct trials in both schizophrenic and healthy subjects. However, a significant difference was observed in the functional asymmetry of frontal activation pattern. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the right frontal, temporal and cingulate regions. Schizophrenic patients showed greater activation compared with control subjects in left frontal, temporal and parietal regions as well as in right frontal regions. We also observed increased 'false memory' errors in schizophrenic patients, associated with increased prefrontal activation and resembling the activation pattern observed on the correct trials. NIRS data replicated the fMRI results. Thus, increased frontal activity was correlated with the accuracy of WM in both healthy control and schizophrenic participants. The major difference between the two groups concerned functional asymmetry; healthy subjects recruited right frontal regions during spatial WM maintenance whereas schizophrenic subjects recruited a wider network in both hemispheres to achieve the same level of memory performance. Increased "false memory" errors and accompanying bilateral prefrontal activation in schizophrenia suggest

  7. Experimental Methods to Evaluate Science Utility Relative to the Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widergren, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The driving factor for competed missions is the science that it plans on performing once it has reached its target body. These science goals are derived from the science recommended by the most current Decadal Survey. This work focuses on science goals in previous Venus mission proposals with respect to the 2013 Decadal Survey. By looking at how the goals compare to the survey and how much confidence NASA has in the mission's ability to accomplish these goals, a method was created to assess the science return utility of each mission. This method can be used as a tool for future Venus mission formulation and serves as a starting point for future development of create science utility assessment tools.

  8. University studies science course selection and academic achievement in relation to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauge, Suzanne Elizabeth

    This research conducted at a southern regional university studied general education (University Studies - US) science course selection and academic success in US science in relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preference categories (SF, ST, NF and NT). Additionally, differences in type preferences among students with mathematics and/or reading competency were explored. Data was examined for 755 students enrolled in the freshman success seminar course between Fall 1989 and Spring 1995 who had completed the MBTI test as part of that class. US science courses examined were grouped by science study: earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. Academic success was defined as a grade of "C" or higher and proficiency criteria were dictated by the university catalog. The study's nonparametric test results did not find any significant differences between MBTI type preferences and the two main areas of focus, US science course selection and academic success in US science courses. However, significant proportional differences were found between type preferences in relation to student reading competency (sig. = .03), as well as, reading competency and academic success in science (sig. = .04) even though fairly weak relationships existed between the variables with contingency coefficients of .11 and .10 respectively. All other relationships tested proved not significant. Each type's course selection closely reflected the overall sample: Earth Science 52.3%, Biology 34%, Chemistry 7.5% and Physics 6.1%. Nearly one-fifth (19.7%) of the sample were not successful in their selected science course. Less than two-fifths (37.7%) of student sample were not mathematics and/or reading competent. Academically in science intuitive types tended to do better than sensing types and feeling types tended to better than thinking types (NF 2.41, NT 2.36, SF 2.29 and ST 2.23). Further analysis found the TF preference scale contributed more toward the significant differences in reading

  9. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  10. Framework for Reducing Teaching Challenges Relating to Improvisation of Science Education Equipment and Materials in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2016-01-01

    The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical…

  11. Prospective Science Teachers' Perception Related to Formative Assessment Approaches in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, M. Diyaddin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the perceptions and competences of prospective science teachers about formative assessment approaches. Qualitative case study methodology was used in the study. Research group consisted of 17 senior students of science education. As a data collection tool, a semi-structured "Formative Assessment…

  12. An Analysis of Theories Related to Experiential Learning for Practical Ethics in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahakaran, Suma

    2017-01-01

    Learners in higher education are self -driven to attain goals and objectives of what is required by the Universities for career prospects in the fields of Sciences and Technology. This paper analyses theories of experiential learning which will contribute to implementation of Ethical behaviors in science and technology towards citizenship…

  13. Introducing Curriculum Innovations in Science: Identifying Teachers' Transformations and the Design of Related Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roser

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the four research papers in this paper set, which all derive from a European research project, STTIS (Science Teacher Training in an Information Society). The central concern of the project was to study curriculum innovations in science, and to investigate ways in which teachers transform these innovations when putting them…

  14. Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or…

  15. A bird's-eye view of scientific trading: Dependency relations among fields of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, E.; Ding, Y.; Cronin, B.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    We use a trading metaphor to study knowledge transfer in the sciences as well as the social sciences. The metaphor comprises four dimensions: (a) Discipline Self-dependence, (b) Knowledge Exports/Imports, (c) Scientific Trading Dynamics, and (d) Scientific Trading Impact. This framework is applied t

  16. International Co-authorship Relations in the Social Science Citation Index: Is Internationalization Leading the Network?

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Wagner, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We analyze international co-authorship relations in the Social Science Citation Index 2011 using all citable items in the DVD-version of this index. Network statistics indicate four groups of nations: (i) an Asian-Pacific one to which all Anglo-Saxon nations (including the UK and Ireland) are attributed; (ii) a continental European one including also the Latin-American countries; (iii) the Scandinavian nations; and (iv) a community of African nations. Within the EU-28 (including Croatia), eleven of the EU-15 states have dominant positions. Collapsing the EU-28 into a single node leads to a bi-polar structure between the US and EU-28; China is part of the US-pole. We develop an information-theoretical test to distinguish whether international collaborations or domestic collaborations prevail; the results are mixed, but the international dimension is more important than the national one in the aggregated sets (this was found in both SSCI and SCI). In France, however, the national distribution is more important ...

  17. The Axion Dark Matter Experiment: Big Science with a (relatively) Small Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Gianpaolo

    2016-03-01

    The idea of the solitary physicist tinkering alone in a lab was my image of how science was done growing up (mostly influenced by popular culture). Of course this is not generally how experimental physics is done now days with examples of experiments at the LHC now involving thousands of scientists. In this talk I will describe my experience in a relatively modest project, the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), which involves only a few dozen scientists at various universities and national labs. I will outline ADMX's humble beginnings at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where it began in the mid-1990s, and describe how the collaboration has evolved and grown throughout the years, as we pursue our elusive quarry: the dark-matter axion. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  18. The Study of Relation of Happiness and Performance of Employees at Shahrood Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Ali Bagheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Happiness and joy as one of the most important human psychological needs, has always occupied the human mind, because of its effect on formation of human personality and in generally on the whole of human life and creation of cheerfull organization is a strategic need for its long term success. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation of happiness and performance of employees at Shahrood Medical Sciences University.Methods: In this research, happiness in 10 key dimensions, including organizational learning, Self- disclosure, participation, organizational justice, positive thinking, flexible structure, meaning ful work, interesting work, security and interaction with colleagues, has been studied with the oxford happiness and hersey and gold smith questionnaire. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi linear regression statistical analysis is used for data analysis at software SPSS 19.Results: Results showed that there are significant correlation between organizational performance with participants with the correlation coefficient equal 0.87, interested in working (0.79, organizational learning (0.78 and justice whith (0.75, respectively, and the next rank is for happiness (0.73.Conclusion: According to the results, managers must look for practical and functional strategies to increase the level of gappiness of employees in which their performance will be imprived.

  19. Regional variations and age-related changes detected with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the brain of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masato; Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Natsumi; Watari, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    To investigate age-related and regional differences in estimated metabolite concentrations in the brain of healthy dogs by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). 15 healthy Beagles. Dogs were grouped according to age as young (n = 5; all dogs were 2 months old), adult (5; mean age, 4.5 years), or geriatric (5; all dogs were 12 years old). Imaging was performed by use of a 1.5-T MRI system with T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Signal intensity measurements for N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and lactate-alanine (the spectroscopic peaks associated with alanine and lactate could not be reliably differentiated) were determined with MRS, and areas under the spectroscopic peaks (representing concentration estimates) were calculated. Ratios of these metabolite values were compared among age groups and among brain regions with regression analysis. The choline-to-creatine ratio was significantly higher in young dogs, compared with other age groups. The N-acetyl aspartate-to-choline ratio was significantly lower in young dogs and geriatric dogs than in adult dogs. When all age groups were considered, the choline-to-creatine ratio was significantly higher and N-acetyl aspartate-to-choline ratio was significantly lower in the frontal lobe than in all other regions. The N-acetyl aspartate-to-creatine ratio was significantly lower in the cerebellum than in other regions. Metabolite ratios varied significantly among age groups and brain regions in healthy dogs. Future studies should evaluate absolute concentration differences in a larger number of dogs and assess clinical applications in dogs with neurologic diseases.

  20. Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Duplan, Hélène; Delalleau, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-07-21

    Skin hydration plays an important role in the optimal physical properties and physiological functions of the skin. Despite the advancements in the last decade, dry skin remains the most common characteristic of human skin disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of hydration on Stratum Corneum (SC) components. In this respect, our interest consists in correlating the variations of unbound and bound water content in the SC with structural and organizational changes in lipids and proteins using a non-invasive technique: Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired on human SC at different relative humidity (RH) levels (4-75%). The content of different types of water, bound and free, was measured using the second derivative and curve fitting of the Raman bands in the range of 3100-3700 cm(-1). Changes in lipidic order were evaluated using νC-C and νC-H. To analyze the effect of RH on the protein structure, we examined in the Amide I region, the Fermi doublet of tyrosine, and the νasymCH3 vibration. The contributions of totally bound water were found not to vary with humidity, while partially bound water varied with three different rates. Unbound water increased greatly when all sites for bound water were saturated. Lipid organization as well as protein deployment was found to be optimal at intermediate RH values (around 60%), which correspond to the maximum of SC water binding capacity. This analysis highlights the relationship between bound water, the SC barrier state and the protein structure and elucidates the optimal conditions. Moreover, our results showed that increased content of unbound water in the SC induces disorder in the structures of lipids and proteins.

  1. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  2. Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  3. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been…

  4. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been performed on…

  5. School-Related Factors Contributing to the Delivery Enhancement of the Special Science Program in Western Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangcaya, Porferio S.; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, the secondary schools in Western Visayas, Philippines offering special science program (SSP) were assessed as basis for delivery enhancement. The SSP along student-related factors and the extent of implementation in the areas of curriculum and instruction, laboratory facilities, and administration in terms of the…

  6. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been…

  7. Lebanese Students' Conceptions of and Attitudes towards Science and Related Careers Based on Their Gender and Religious Affiliations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and conceptions seem to be influenced by social/cultural contexts and interactions with other students from diverse backgrounds. Therefore, educators need to study attitudes, conceptions, and career choices in relation to diversity indicators. Such was one focus of the Science Education for Diversity project, which involved…

  8. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, R.C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Anderson, R.B. [United States Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Clegg, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blaney, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Barraclough, B.L. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cousin, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Deflores, L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Dyar, M.D. [Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Fabre, C. [Georessources, Nancy (France); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Lanza, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Mazoyer, J. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Meslin, P.-Y. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  9. Dynamic variables of science classroom discourse in relation to teachers' instructional beliefs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines if the occurence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs...

  10. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  11. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  12. Strategic thinking and its related factors in a medical science university in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Sedigheh; Veshareh, Effat Jahanbani; Safari, Hossein; Veysian, Amir; Amirnezhad, Ghanbar

    2017-05-01

    Having strategic thinking is necessary in order to anticipate future changes and make strategic decisions. This study was carried out to assess the strategic thinking level in managers and personnel of Ahvaz Jundishapour University of Medical Science (AJUMS) - a public university in Iran. It was a cross-sectional and analytical study and all managers (50) as well as a sample of personnel (200) from AJUMS participated in it. A researcher-made questionnaire was used in order to measure four dimensions of strategic thinking, including system thinking, futurism, conceptual thinking, and intelligent opportunism along with demographic and organizational characteristics of respondents. Statistical analysis was done by Freedman ranking test, one-way ANOVA, and Independent-samples t-test in SPSS software version 16. Strategic thinking in managers (5.62±0.51) and personnel (5.22±0.4), was evaluated at a somewhat high level. The maximum score among strategic thinking dimensions in managers (5.62±0.42) and personnel (5.52±0.43) was related to conceptual thinking that was in "good" level. A significant relationship was seen between intelligent opportunism dimension with job location in managers and education degree in personnel (p≤0.005). Also, there was a significant relationship between future dimension in managers and personnel with education degrees (p≤0.005). There was a significant difference between managers and employees in future dimension (p=0.018). It seems that the participants have acceptable strategic thinking levels, although there is still room for improvement. Therefore, considering the factors such as educational development of managers and personnel can be very useful in this regard.

  13. Archetypal values of science and engineering staff in relation to their career orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi-Mari du Toit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Career decision-making in the 21st century is increasingly guided by the individuals’ deep-seated values and career orientations, as they are required to become proactive career agents in the pursuit of their career.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between individuals’ archetypal values (measured by the Pearson–Marr Archetype Indicator and career orientations (measured by the Career Orientations Inventory. The study also assessed the differences between race, gender, marital status, employment status and age groups regarding the archetypal values and career orientations of the individuals.Motivation for study: Career counsellors and industrial psychologists are increasingly required to explore new career guidance frameworks that are relevant and appropriate to the evolving nature of careers.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted. A non-probability sample of 207 voluntary participants employed within the science and engineering sector was obtained.Main findings: Correlational analyses revealed that the participants’ archetypal values related significantly to their career orientations. The various biographical groups differed significantly regarding their archetypal values and career orientations.Practical/managerial implications: The findings highlight the importance of understanding the deep-seated archetypal values that seem to explain the individuals’ career choices and decisions, and how these values differ regarding these choices and decisions.Contribution/value-add: The explanatory utility of the results may prove useful to enhance the individuals’ self-insight in their career choices and experiences. This study represents original research that contributes new knowledge to the field of career psychology and career counselling practices.

  14. Identification and relative quantification of tyrosine nitration in a model peptide using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Valim, Lays; Davies, Julia A; Tveen Jensen, Karina; Guo, Rui; Willison, Keith R; Spickett, Corinne M; Pitt, Andrew R; Klug, David R

    2014-11-13

    Nitration of tyrosine in proteins and peptides is a post-translational modification that occurs under conditions of oxidative stress. It is implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, monitoring tyrosine nitration and understanding its role in modifying biological function remains a major challenge. In this work, we investigate the use of electron-vibration-vibration (EVV) two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy for the study of tyrosine nitration in model peptides. We demonstrate the ability of EVV 2DIR spectroscopy to differentiate between the neutral and deprotonated states of 3-nitrotyrosine, and we characterize their spectral signatures using information obtained from quantum chemistry calculations and simulated EVV 2DIR spectra. To test the sensitivity of the technique, we use mixed-peptide samples containing various levels of tyrosine nitration, and we use mass spectrometry to independently verify the level of nitration. We conclude that EVV 2DIR spectroscopy is able to provide detailed spectroscopic information on peptide side-chain modifications and to detect nitration levels down to 1%. We further propose that lower nitration levels could be detected by introducing a resonant Raman probe step to increase the detection sensitivity of EVV 2DIR spectroscopy.

  15. Effects of maturity on chlorophyll-related absorption in nectarines, measured by non-destructive time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Jacob, S.; Grassi, M.; Cebeddu, R.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ripening of fruits like nectarines and peaches is characterised by the decrease in chlorophyll content or colour of the fruit flesh. However, measuring the colour of fruit flesh is usually not conducted, as there is a lack of suitable techniques. Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy (TRS) is a

  16. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  17. Constructivist Instructional Practices and Teacher Beliefs Related to Secondary Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrienne Fleurette

    The purpose of this mixed method research study was to examine the constructivist beliefs and instructional practices of secondary science teachers. The research also explored situations that impacted whether or not student centered instruction occurred. The study revealed science teachers held constructive beliefs pertaining to student questioning of the learning process and student autonomy in interacting with other learners. Teachers held the least constructivist beliefs pertaining to student teacher collaboration on lesson design. Additionally, teacher beliefs and practice were not congruent due to instructional practices being deemed less constructivist than reported. The study found that curricular demands, teacher perceptions about students, inadequate laboratory resources, and the lack of teacher understanding about the components of constructivist instruction inhibited student centered instruction. The results of this study led to six recommendations that can be implemented by school districts in collaboration with science teachers to promote constructivist instruction.

  18. Investigating Undergraduate Students' Science Literacy: Responses Related to Radiation and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Nieberding, M.; Romine, J.

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a larger one investigating undergraduate students' science literacy. Over the past 25 years we have been investigating undergraduate students' basic science knowledge as well as beliefs and attitudes towards science and technology. Data has been collected from almost 12,000 students, mostly freshman and sophomore students and mostly non-STEM majors. This paper presents findings of two open ended questions that probe students' understanding of radiation and DNA. Each open ended question was coded using a scheme developed from existing literature and emergent themes. Analyses revealed that STEM students are better able to correctly describe radiation and had fewer misconceptions. Many students mentioned chemical characteristics and functions of DNA although a substantial number of students reported common misconceptions or trivial responses. Our results add to our existing work to help us understand how to better support students' learning in our undergraduate courses.

  1. New international dictionary of acronyms in library and information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sawoniak, Henryk

    1994-01-01

    This enlarged and expanded edition is designed to be a valuable resource for librarians and users of information sources, clarifying the bewidering number of new acronyms that appear every year in the information science field. Nearly 30,000 acronyms in 35 languages are listed. As libraries are to a large extent interdisciplinary, the dictionary covers language forms used in computers, publishing, printing, archive management, journalism and reprography, as well as in the library and information science fields Acronyms reproduced here represent institutions, library and information systems, pr

  2. [Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should include standards related to acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiyu

    2016-03-01

    The development of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should be in accord with the trend of standardization and internationalization of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion. Based on the arrangement of chapters and sections in the textbook, 29 national standards, 6 standards or guidelines made by World Health Or- ganization(WHO) and 1 standard out of International Standardization Organization (ISO) are classified and intro- duced. It is suggested that the above contents should be considered as the evidence when the textbook is reedited. Also, it is proposed that humanization should be supplemented and the newest research findings should be traced.

  3. Reconsidering experiential knowledge in the relation of art and science practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Søndergaard, Morten; Allen, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    As practice-theory orientations the arts and sciences have often seemed juxtaposed. We are interested in how a new generation of artist-scientists think, operate and communicate. We argue that it is crucial to find new forms and formats for engagement and communication in communities of interdisc......As practice-theory orientations the arts and sciences have often seemed juxtaposed. We are interested in how a new generation of artist-scientists think, operate and communicate. We argue that it is crucial to find new forms and formats for engagement and communication in communities......’ situations in which art-scientists meet in conference and festival settings....

  4. Fusion related research with laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy on metallic samples at the ENEA-Frascati laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Maddaluno, G.

    2016-04-01

    The study of plasma-wall interactions is of paramount importance for continuous and fault free operations in thermonuclear fusion research to monitor the damages of plasma facing components (PFCs), plasma pollution from impurities and wall retention of hydrogen isotopes, like tritium. These needs make laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy (LIBS) a suitable candidate for a real time monitoring of PFCs in the current and next generation fusion devices, like ITER. It is also worthwhile for the quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructivity of the sample and depth profiling capabilities with sub-micrometric sensitivity. In this paper LIBS spectroscopy is exploited as a valid diagnostic tool for PFCs at the ENEA Research Center in Frascati (Italy) and at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) of Warsaw (Poland). The activities have been focused on LIBS characterization of samples simulating PFCs surfaces eroded/redeposited or contaminated from nuclear fuel after or during the normal operation of the reactor.

  5. Ciência e arte: relações improváveis? Science and art: unlikely relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Reis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as relações entre ciência e arte, principalmente entre física e pintura, com o objetivo de apresentar uma abordagem cultural para a ciência. Dessa forma, entendemos que a compreensão dos conteúdos da ciência torna-se mais significativa. Abordamos diferentes momentos da história desde a revolução científica até o século XX. As relações aqui salientadas não buscam uma relação causal entre ciência e arte, mas sim uma visão mais significativa do que é o processo de construção do conhecimento. Assim, a ciência se desnuda para nós como parte da cultura e pode nos ajudar a compreender melhor o processo histórico que nos trouxe até aqui.With the goal of presenting a cultural approach to science, the article discusses relations between science and art, especially between physics and painting. From this standpoint, we can see how understanding the substance of science becomes more important. Different moments in history are examined, from the scientific revolution down through the twentieth century. The relations highlighted herein are not chosen in an effort to undercover a causal relation between science and art but to arrive at a more meaningful understanding of how knowledge is constructed. Science is thus revealed to be part of culture, which can help us better understand the historical process through which we have come to this point.

  6. Science in Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Cerrosen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing theory in relation to science presents the physics as an ideal, although many sciences not approach the same, so that the current philosophy of science-Theory of Science- is not much help when it comes to analyze the computer science, an emerging field of knowledge that aims investigation of computers, which are included in the materialization of the ideas that try to structure the knowledge and information about the world. Computer Science is based on logic and mathematics, but both theoretical research methods and experimental follow patterns of classical scientific fields. Modeling and computer simulation, as a method, are specific to the discipline and will be further developed in the near future, not only applied to computers but also to other scientific fields. In this article it is analyze the aspects of science in computer science, is presenting an approach to the definition of science and the scientific method in general and describes the relationships between science, research, development and technology.

  7. Dynamic Variables of Science Classroom Discourse in Relation to Teachers' Instructional Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines if the occurrence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through…

  8. Teaching Race-Ethnic Relations Through Science Fiction in Senior High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, H. L.

    A rationale and suggestions for teaching 12th grade sociology using Ray Bradbury's novel "The Martian Chronicles" are presented. The conceptual material found in a high school sociology textbook is not always exciting and stimulating to read, but with a science fiction work that supplements this conceptual material, the motivation for learning can…

  9. Agree-Disagree Activities for Stimulating Student Analysis of Science Related Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    This document discusses the need for agree-disagree, consensus science activities for teaching students skills in resolving differences and arriving at positions acceptable to all members of a group. Three activity sets are included, each containing ten exercises. The sets deal with human problems, life style problems, and problems of scientific…

  10. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  11. Women in Community College: Factors Related to Intentions to Pursue Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…

  12. Personal, Informal and Relatable: Engaging Wide Audiences in Climate Science with Nasa's Earth Right Now Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Shaftel, H.; Jackson, R.

    2014-12-01

    There is no such thing as a non-scientist, but there are some who have yet to acknowledge their inner science spark. Aiming to ignite and fan the flame of curiosity, promote dialogue and attempt to make climate science personal and relevant to everyday life, NASA's Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ and Earth Right Now campaign http://www.nasa.gov/content/earth-right-now/ partnered together this year to launch the Earth Right Now blog http://climate.nasa.gov/blog. It quickly became one of the most popular blogs in all of NASA social media, receiving thousands of likes per week, and frequent comments as well as thoughtful and respectful discussions about climate change. Social media platforms such as blogs have become popular vehicles for engaging large swaths of the public in new exciting ways. NASA's Earth Right Now blog has become a powerful platform for engaging both scientists and the science-curious in constructive, fruitful conversations about the complex topic of climate science. We continue to interact and have ongoing dialogue with our readers by making the scientific content both accessible and engaging for diverse populations.

  13. Chinese Students' Science-Related Experiences: Comparison of the ROSE Study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite…

  14. Women in Community College: Factors Related to Intentions to Pursue Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…

  15. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  16. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  17. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  18. Science Fair Projects Bring It All Together: Collaboration, Information Literacy, and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of school library media specialists in helping students with science fair projects. Topics include selecting a topic; reviewing basic library resources, including print and electronic; remote access to databases; locating information on the Web; word processing and presentation software; and relevant Web sites. (LRW)

  19. Are Students' Performances in Labs Related to Their Performances in Lecture Portions of Introductory Science Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author examined how attendance in the lab is associated with students' lab grades and overall course grades in an introductory biology course. Results from this study indicate that academic motivation, as expressed by high rates of class attendance, is critical to students' success in introductory science courses. The highest…

  20. Argumentation as/in/for Dialogical Relation: A Case Study from Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation as a form of introducing children to science has received increasing attention over the past decade. Argumentation tends to be studied and theorized through the lens of individual speakers, who contribute to a conversation by means of opposing statements. M.M. Bakhtin and L.S. Vygotsky independently proposed a very different approach…

  1. Knowledge and behavior related to oral health among Jimma University Health Sciences students, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abbas Darout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health practices are essential for prevention of dental and other associated systemic diseases. This study explores Jimma University Health Sciences students, with the respect to frequency and quality of use and the effect of gender differences on the distribution of oral health knowledge and behavior. Materials and Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to be completed by the participants from health sciences students. These students were selected at random after having read a consent letter. Three hundred students (males 206 and 94 females were completed the questionnaires. The data were processed and analyzed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14.0, Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results: About 57.6% males and 52.5% females scored highly in knowledge of caries. The corresponding rates regarding the knowledge of gingivitis were 49% and 44% respectively. Tooth brushing and the use of mefakia (chewing stick ≤2 times a day was confirmed by 56.8% males and 58.2% females and by 74.8% males and 62.8% females, respectively. Conclusion: Awareness of oral health issues is high, but specific misconceptions exist. There is gender equality in knowledge and practice of oral hygiene among health sciences students. Mefakia chewing stick was equally used with toothbrush for oral hygiene practice.

  2. Argumentation as/in/for Dialogical Relation: A Case Study from Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation as a form of introducing children to science has received increasing attention over the past decade. Argumentation tends to be studied and theorized through the lens of individual speakers, who contribute to a conversation by means of opposing statements. M.M. Bakhtin and L.S. Vygotsky independently proposed a very different approach…

  3. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  4. Evaluating a National Science and Technology Program Using the Human Capital and Relational Asset Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively…

  5. Relative effectiveness of physical and virtual manipulatives for conceptual change in science: how falling objects fall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Ehrenhard, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study offers new insights into the ongoing debate about whether physical and virtual materials are equally effective in inquiry-based science instruction. Physical materials were predicted to have a surplus value when haptic feedback helps discern object characteristics or when the perceived

  6. Explaining how the mind works: on the relation between cognitive science and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Jonathan; Kalish, Michael

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we argue that under certain prevalent interpretations of the nature and aims of cognitive science, theories of cognition generate a forced choice between a conception of cognition which depends on the possibility of a private language, and a conception of cognition which depends on mereological confusions. We argue, further, that this should not pose a fundamental problem for cognitive scientists since a plausible interpretation of the nature and aims of cognitive science is available that does not generate this forced choice. The crucial difference between these interpretations is that on the one hand the aim of theories of cognition is to tell us what thinking (etc.) is, and on the other it is to tell us what is causally necessary if an intelligent creature is to be able to think. Our argument draws heavily on a Wittgensteinian conception of philosophy in which no philosophical theory can explain what thinking, perceiving, remembering, etc. are, either. The positive, strictly therapeutic, purpose of a philosophy of cognitive science should be to show that, since the traditional problems which constitute the philosophy of mind are chimerical, there is nothing for philosophical theorizing in cognitive science to achieve.

  7. Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public

  8. The attitudes and beliefs of a female science teacher: Implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara

    In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective

  9. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination despite relatively pristine site characteristics: Results of a field study in the Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinaju, Blessing E; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an emerging technique to detect biochemical alterations in biological tissues, particularly changes due to sub-lethal exposures to environmental contaminants. We have previously shown the potential of attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect real-time exposure to contaminants in sentinel organisms as well as the potential to relate spectral alterations to the presence of specific environmental agents. In this study based in the Niger Delta (Nigeria), changes occurring in fish tissues as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure at contaminated sites are compared to the infrared (IR) spectra of the tissues obtained from a relatively pristine site. Multivariate analysis revealed that PAH contamination could be occurring at the pristine site, based on the IR spectra and significant (P<0.0001) differences between sites. The study provides evidence of the IR spectroscopy techniques' sensitivity and supports their potential application in environmental biomonitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender-Related Effect in Oxygenation Dynamics by Using Far-Infrared Intervention with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Measurement: A Gender Differences Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Kao

    Full Text Available Many studies have indicated the microcirculation can directly respond to disease-related symptoms. However, the capacity of microcirculation would vary due to the gender differences. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive technique to monitor tissue oxygenation dynamics. In this study, the far-infrared (FIR source was used for physiological intervention of microcirculation. The experimental results show that the nature difference of oxygenation status exists between male and female during FIR irradiation. Therefore, we suggest the NIRS-based assessment should be calibrated with the gender-related effect for clinical diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease.

  11. A Further Characterization of Empirical Research Related to Learning Outcome Achievement in Remote and Virtual Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, James R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper further characterizes recently reviewed literature related to student learning outcome achievement in non-traditional (virtual and remote) versus traditional (hands-on) science labs, as well as factors to consider when evaluating the state and progress of research in this field as a whole. Current research is characterized according to (1) participant nationality and culture, (2) participant education level, (3) participant demography, (4) scientific discipline, and (5) research methodology, which could provide avenues for further research and useful dialog regarding the measurement and interpretation of data related to student learning outcome achievement in, and thus the efficacy of, non-traditional versus traditional science labs. Current research is also characterized by (6) research publication media and (7) availability of non-traditional labs used, which demonstrate some of the obstacles to progress and consensus in this research field.

  12. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  13. Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence.

  14. The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer (SSE) concept is conceived as a scalable mission, with two to four instruments and a strong focus on coronal spectroscopy. In its core configuration it is a small strategic mission ($250-500M) built around a microcalorimeter (an imaging X-ray spectrometer) and a high spatial resolution (0.2 arcsec) EUV imager. SSE puts a strong focus on the plasma spectroscopy, balanced with high resolution imaging - providing for break-through imaging science as well as providing the necessary context for the spectroscopy suite. Even in its smallest configuration SSE provides observatory class science, with significant science contributions ranging from basic plasma and radiative processes to the onset of space weather events. The basic configuration can carry an expanded instrument suite with the addition of a hard X-ray imaging spectrometer and/or a high spectral resolution EUV instrument - significantly expanding the science capabilities. In this configuration, it will fall at the small end...

  15. Chiroptical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurst, Jerome E.

    1995-09-01

    absolute or relative configuration, or it can be useful in conformational analyses (1). Experiments are being developed for undergraduates that involve the synthesis of chiral materials, or the resolution of chiral materials, including organic compounds, inorganic complexes and organometallic compounds. Both classical and chiral HPLC resolutions are being tested. Once prepared, these chiral materials are studied by various techniques including NMR, Raman, IR, UV-VIS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and chiroptical techniques. Molecular mechanics calculations are included (using PCModel which is available from Serena Software, Bloomington, IN.) when appropriate. Examples include some traditional experiments; i.e., the preparation and resolution of the tris-ethylenediaminecobalt complexes as well as some not now found in typical undergraduate laboratory manuals. For example, the resolution of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and subsequent conversion to the bis-Schiff base with para-dimethylamino-benzaldehyde. These Schiff bases have been studied by Nakanishi (2) using the exciton coupling method. AcknowledgmentThis work was supported partially under the award DUE-9351122 from the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program. Literature Cited Eliel, E.; Wilen, S. H. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds; J. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 1994; Djerassi, C. Optical Rotary Dispersion; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1960.; Crabbe, P. Optical Rotary Dispersion and Circular Dichroism in Organic Chemistry; Holden-Day: San Francisco, 1965. Gargiulo, D.; Cai, G.; Ikemoto, N.; Bozhkova, N.; Odingo, J. Berova, N. Nakanishi, K. Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. Engl. 1993, 32, 888-891.

  16. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-06-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  17. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-03-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  18. Space Gravity Spectroscopy - determination of the Earth’s gravitational field by means of Newton interpolated LEO ephemeris Case studies on dynamic (CHAMP Rapid Science Orbit and kinematic orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reubelt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the (kinematic orbit analysis of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO GPS tracked satellite to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients of the terrestrial gravitational field is presented. A contribution to existing long wavelength gravity field models is expected since the kinematic orbit of a LEO satellite can nowadays be determined with very high accuracy in the range of a few centimeters. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, first results from the analysis of real CHAMP Rapid Science (dynamic Orbits (RSO and kinematic orbits are illustrated. In particular, we take advantage of Newton’s Law of Motion which balances the acceleration vector and the gradient of the gravitational potential with respect to an Inertial Frame of Reference (IRF. The satellite’s acceleration vector is determined by means of the second order functional of Newton’s Interpolation Formula from relative satellite ephemeris (baselines with respect to the IRF. Therefore the satellite ephemeris, which are normally given in a Body fixed Frame of Reference (BRF have to be transformed into the IRF. Subsequently the Newton interpolated accelerations have to be reduced for disturbing gravitational and non-gravitational accelerations in order to obtain the accelerations caused by the Earth’s gravitational field. For a first insight in real data processing these reductions have been neglected. The gradient of the gravitational potential, conventionally expressed in vector-valued spherical harmonics and given in a Body Fixed Frame of Reference, must be transformed from BRF to IRF by means of the polar motion matrix, the precession-nutation matrices and the Greenwich Siderial Time Angle (GAST. The resulting linear system of equations is solved by means of a least squares adjustment in terms of a Gauss-Markov model in order to estimate the spherical harmonics coefficients of the Earth’s gravitational field.Key words. space gravity spectroscopy

  19. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  20. Definition of the intermediates and mechanism of the anticancer drug bleomycin using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei V.; Bell, Caleb B.; Wong, Shaun D.; Wilson, Samuel A.; Kwak, Yeonju; Chow, Marina S.; Zhao, Jiyong; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.

    2010-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a glycopeptide anticancer drug capable of effecting single- and double-strand DNA cleavage. The last detectable intermediate prior to DNA cleavage is a low spin FeIII peroxy level species, termed activated bleomycin (ABLM). DNA strand scission is initiated through the abstraction of the C-4′ hydrogen atom of the deoxyribose sugar unit. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) aided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are applied to define the natures of FeIIIBLM and ABLM as (BLM)FeIII─OH and (BLM)FeIII(η1─OOH) species, respectively. The NRVS spectra of FeIIIBLM and ABLM are strikingly different because in ABLM the δFe─O─O bending mode mixes with, and energetically splits, the doubly degenerate, intense O─Fe─Nax transaxial bends. DFT calculations of the reaction of ABLM with DNA, based on the species defined by the NRVS data, show that the direct H-atom abstraction by ABLM is thermodynamically favored over other proposed reaction pathways. PMID:21149675

  1. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  2. Determination of lycopene and beta-carotene content in tomato fruits and related products: Comparison of FT-Raman, ATR-IR, and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, M; Schütze, W; Schulz, H

    2006-12-15

    Tomatoes and various products derived from thermally processed tomatoes are major sources of lycopene, but apart from this micronutrient, other carotenoids such as beta-carotene also are present in the fruit. They occur in tomato fruits and various tomato products in amounts of 2.62-629.00 (lycopene) and 0.23-2.83 mg/100 g (beta-carotene). Standard methods for determining the carotenoid content require the extraction of the analyte as well as other cleanup steps. In this work, FT-Raman, ATR-IR, and NIR spectroscopy are applied in order to establish new, fast, and nondestructive calibration methods for quantification of lycopene and beta-carotene content in tomato fruits and related products. The best prediction quality was achieved using a model based on IR spectroscopy (R2 = 0.98 and 0.97, SECV = 33.20 and 0.16 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively). In spite of the fact that Raman spectra of tomato products show characteristic key bands of the investigated carotenoids, this method gives slightly lower reliability (R2 = 0.91 and 0.89, SECV = 74.34 and 0.34 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively). NIR spectroscopy, which has been used for quantification purposes in the agricultural sector for several decades, in this study shows the worse prediction quality (R2 = 0.85 and 0.80, SECV = 91.19 and 0.41 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively).

  3. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Quinn, Helen; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council (2011) released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" that is guiding the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, which are expected to be finalized in early 2013. This article addresses language demands and opportunities that are embedded in the science and engineering practices delineated in the…

  4. Stratifying Science: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Student Views and Experiences of School Selective Practices in Relation to "Triple Science" at KS4 in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Louise; Moote, Julie; Francis, Becky; DeWitt, Jennifer; Yeomans, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, science in England is distinctive at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in comparison to most other subjects, in that there is a notable stratification of award routes. The most prestigious of these, "Triple Science" (the route for entry for three separate science GCSEs), is championed by English government and…

  5. Teacher- or Learner-Centred? Science Teacher Beliefs Related to Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth; Rollnick, Marissa

    2016-12-01

    In science education, learner-centred classroom practices are widely accepted as desirable and are associated with responsive and reformed kinds of teacher beliefs. They are further associated with high-quality Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK), a version of PCK defined at topic level, is known to enable the transformation of topic content into a form accessible to learners. However, little is known about teacher science beliefs in relation to TSPCK and therefore the nature of likely associated classroom practices. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TSPCK and underlying science teacher beliefs following an intervention targeting the improvement of TSPCK in the topic chemical equilibrium. Sixteen final year pre-service chemistry teachers were exposed to an intervention that explicitly focussed on knowledge for transforming the content of chemical equilibrium using the five knowledge components of TSPCK. A specially designed TSPCK instrument in chemical equilibrium and the Teacher Belief Instrument (TBI) were used to capture written responses in pre- and post-tests. Additional qualitative data was collected from audio-recorded discussions and written responses from an open-ended question asked before and after the intervention. Two key findings emerged from the study. Firstly, the development of TSPCK was linked to shifts in underlying science teacher beliefs in the direction of learner-centred teaching for the majority of pre-service teachers. Secondly, this shift was not evident for all, as for some there was development of TSPCK without a shift from teacher-centred beliefs about science teaching.

  6. The relation between flexibility of human resources and performance indexes of selected hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Alibakhshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, flexibility has turned to one of important issues in management theories and policies and most current discussions about flexibility patterns focus on management policies, so that these patterns are one of important aspects of human resources strategic management. This study was performed with the aim of assessing the flexibility rate of human resources and performance indexes of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals and determining the possible relation between these variables. The present study is descriptive – analytical which was conducted in cross-sectional form in 2015. The statistical population was selected by stratifies random sampling method as 317 persons from nursing, administrative and financial personnel of 5 hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University. Data collecting toll was hospitals performance indexes form and Wright & Snell flexibility questionnaire of human resources. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software and with the aid of descriptive statistical indexes and linear regression analysis. The results showed that personnel ( human resources had high flexibility = 4.16.\tthere was a significant relation between total flexibility and the index of bed circulation so that by one unit increase in bed circulation space, normally, the average of total flexibility decreased 0.64 units ( p-value<0.05. The results showed that human resources of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have high flexibility, so authorities and policy makers are suggested to adopt policies of human resources management for creating flexibility in human resources and improving hospitals performance and amending hospitals status.

  7. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  8. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lessick, MA, MLS, AHIP, FMLA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods: An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized openended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results: Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions: Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity.

  9. University, industry and government in relation to employability of Colombia’s workers in the field of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahir Alexander Gutiérrez Ossa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the possibility to outline a new road map aimed at the creation of job opportunities in the field of science and research through university - industry - government (UIG partnerships. The emerging requirements for this triple-helix sectors’ gathering will also need to ponder over employability. The frame of reference for the UIG partnership involves validating the conditions where those alliances have an impact on employment generation. The bodies created under the triad play a critical role in creating job opportunities in the field of science and research. Finally, the basis upon which the relation of both topics also entails professional opportunities should be suggested.

  10. An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Hilary; Hinton, Tina; Bullock, Shane; Babey, Anna-Marie; Davis, Elizabeth; Fernandes, Lynette; Hart, Joanne; Musgrave, Ian; Ziogas, James

    2013-11-19

    Pharmacology is a biomedical discipline taught in basic science and professional degree programs. In order to provide information that would facilitate pharmacology curricula to be refined and developed, and approaches to teaching to be updated, a national survey was undertaken in Australia that investigated pharmacology course content, teaching and summative assessment methods. Twenty-two institutions participated in a purpose-built online questionnaire, which enabled an evaluation of 147 courses taught in 10 different degrees. To enable comparison, degrees were grouped into four major degree programs, namely science, pharmacy, medicine and nursing. The pharmacology content was then classified into 16 lecture themes, with 2-21 lecture topics identified per theme. The resultant data were analysed for similarities and differences in pharmacology curricula across the degree programs. While all lecture themes were taught across degree programs, curriculum content differed with respect to the breadth and hours of coverage. Overall, lecture themes were taught most broadly in medicine and with greatest coverage in pharmacy. Reflecting a more traditional approach, lectures were a dominant teaching method (at least 90% of courses). Sixty-three percent of science courses provided practical classes but such sessions occurred much less frequently in other degree programs, while tutorials were much more common in pharmacy degree programs (70%). Notably, problem-based learning was common across medical programs. Considerable diversity was found in the types of summative assessment tasks employed. In science courses the most common form of in-semester assessment was practical reports, whereas in other programs pen-and-paper quizzes predominated. End-of-semester assessment contributed 50-80% to overall assessment across degree programs. The similarity in lecture themes taught across the four different degree programs shows that common knowledge- and competency-based learning

  11. What Makes You Tick? An Empirical Study of Space Science Related Social Media Communications Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The rise of social media has transformed the way the public engages with scientists and science organisations. `Retweet', `Like', `Share' and `Comment' are a few ways users engage with messages on Twitter and Facebook, two of the most popular social media platforms. Despite the availability of big data from these digital footprints, research into social media science communication is scant. This paper presents the results of an empirical study into the processes and outcomes of space science related social media communications using machine learning. The study is divided into two main parts. The first part is dedicated to the use of supervised learning methods to investigate the features of highly engaging messages., e.g. highly retweeted tweets and shared Facebook posts. It is hypothesised that these messages contain certain psycholinguistic features that are unique to the field of space science. We built a predictive model to forecast the engagement levels of social media posts. By using four feature sets (n-grams, psycholinguistics, grammar and social media), we were able to achieve prediction accuracies in the vicinity of 90% using three supervised learning algorithms (Naive Bayes, linear classifier and decision tree). We conducted the same experiments on social media messages from three other fields (politics, business and non-profit) and discovered several features that are exclusive to space science communications: anger, authenticity, hashtags, visual descriptions and a tentative tone. The second part of the study focuses on the extraction of topics from a corpus of texts using topic modelling. This part of the study is exploratory in nature and uses an unsupervised method called Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to uncover previously unknown topics within a large body of documents. Preliminary results indicate a strong potential of topic model algorithms to automatically uncover themes hidden within social media chatters on space related issues, with

  12. In Situ Molecular Level Studies on Membrane Related Peptides and Proteins in Real Time Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuji; Nguyen, Khoi Tan; Le Clair, Stéphanie V.; Chen, Zhan

    2009-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study the molecular structures of surfaces and interfaces in different chemical environments. This review summarizes recent SFG studies on hybrid bilayer membranes and substrate-supported lipid monolayers and bilayers, the interaction between peptides/proteins and lipid monolayers/bilayers, and bilayer perturbation induced by peptides/proteins. To demonstrate the ability of SFG to determine the orientations of various secondary structures, studies on the interaction between different peptides/proteins (melittin, G proteins, almethicin, and tachyplesin I) and lipid bilayers are discussed. Molecular level details revealed by SFG in these studies show that SFG can provide a unique understanding on the interactions between a lipid monolayer/bilayer and peptides/proteins in real time, in situ and without any exogenous labeling. PMID:19306928

  13. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology], e-mail: aragao@truenet.com; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Studies

    2009-03-15

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) {sup 1}H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early {sup 1}H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  14. The science, technology and mission design for the Laser Astrometric test of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) is a Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the Einstein's general theory of relativity in the most intense gravitational environment available in the solar system - the close proximity to the Sun.

  15. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  16. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  17. A Collection of Articles Reprinted from Science & Technology Review on University Relations Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H; Rennie, G; Henke, A

    2006-08-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Power of Partnership--Livermore researchers forge strategic collaborations with colleagues from other University of California campuses to further science and better protect the nation; (2) Collaborative Research Prepares Our Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers--Commentary by Laura R. Gilliom; (3) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with Livermore scientists and engineers to conduct fundamental research as part of their theses; (4) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory; and (5) Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore--Faculty members from around the world come to the Laboratory as sabbatical scholars.

  18. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  19. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome.

  20. Interactive activities to stimulate debate and critical thinking about issues related to Earth sciences and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magagna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the International Year of Planet Earth (2007-2009, the Department of Earth Sciences of Turin University and a local Museum of Natural History promoted a project entitled, Understanding how the Earth works: from local situations to global processes. In this context, two geothematic exhibitions on the Cape Verde Archipelago were designed and staged in local museums. The exhibition called Getting to know a volcano in order to live with it was the subject of action research that involved the design of interactive activities and the analysis of data collected during guided tours conducted with students of different ages. This study allowed the demonstration of the effectiveness of teaching strategies in which relevant Earth sciences topics are proposed, like risk and sustainable development, thus stimulating debate among the students. This approach enhances the cultural experience of individuals by sharing it with other people. The aim was to widen their awareness of the cultural value of the territory, and to stimulate a new critical way of thinking about the Earth sciences. These didactic tools were further developed when they were proposed and pursued by experienced museum guides and teachers, who were able to involve not only institutions (museums and schools in the knowledge construction process, but also families, relatives and the local community.

  1. Analytical Study of Interdisciplinary Relations in Selected High Priority Areas of Science and Technology Based on Data of ISI Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the interdisciplinary relations in selected high priority areas of science and technology based on ISI data. This is an applied study using scientometric, citation analysis and network analysis methods. After identifying and extracting data from WOS, in order to determine the interdisciplinary relations and the evolution of these relationships, all citations of these records have been analysed. In order to judge the interdisciplinarity of data, the results of the two approaches have been considered: 1-To determine the subject areas of the journals 2- To determine the institutional affiliation of the authors.There is a positive correlation between co-authorship and interdisciplinary approach in all studied areas. There is no significant relation between the number of citations and interdisciplinary approach. Mapping of interdisciplinary relationships in nanotechnology showed this is a unique method to discover the structural patterns of a research area.

  2. Scopus and Web-of-Science 2012 compared in terms of aggregated journal-journal citation relations: Global maps and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.; Noyons, E.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the networks of aggregated journal-journal citation relations as provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science and Social Science Citation Indexes (SCI and SSCI) with similar data for 2012 based on Scopus. First, we develop basemaps and overlays for the two sets separ

  3. Aggregated journal–journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the network of aggregated journal–journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2 se

  4. Scopus and Web-of-Science 2012 compared in terms of aggregated journal-journal citation relations: Global maps and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.; Noyons, E.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the networks of aggregated journal-journal citation relations as provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science and Social Science Citation Indexes (SCI and SSCI) with similar data for 2012 based on Scopus. First, we develop basemaps and overlays for the two sets

  5. Aggregated journal–journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.

    We compare the network of aggregated journal–journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2

  6. Scopus and Web-of-Science 2012 compared in terms of aggregated journal-journal citation relations: Global maps and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.; Noyons, E.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the networks of aggregated journal-journal citation relations as provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science and Social Science Citation Indexes (SCI and SSCI) with similar data for 2012 based on Scopus. First, we develop basemaps and overlays for the two sets separ

  7. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  8. ‘The kind of mildly curious sort of science interested person like me’: Science bloggers’ practices relating to audience recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Mathieu; Bultitude, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With at least 150 million professional and amateur blogs on the Internet, blogging offers a potentially powerful tool for engaging large and diverse audiences with science. This article investigates science blogging practices to uncover key trends, including bloggers’ self-perceptions of their role. Interviews with seven of the most popular science bloggers revealed them to be driven by intrinsic personal motivations. Wishing to pursue their love of writing and share their passion for science, they produce content suitable for niche audiences of science enthusiasts, although they do not assume background scientific knowledge. A content analysis of 1000 blog posts and comparison with the most popular blogs on the Internet further confirmed this result and additionally identified key factors that affect science blog popularity, including update frequency, topic diversity and the inclusion of non-text elements (especially images and video). PMID:25361791

  9. How Science/Technology/Society relations are approached in the contents of organic functions in high school chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lúcia Costa Amaral

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify how the relation between Science/Technology/Society (STS is present in Chemistry textbooks recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Education. The interest in textbooks is due to the fact that they constitute important resources used by teachers to prepare their classes. Thus, researches in this area are necessary to indicate how the authors could improve the quality of their books. We believe that one way to do this is the introduction of the STS relation, which took place because of the necessity in establishing new ways of teaching, specially the teaching of science. One of the goals of STS education is to create conditions to develop abilities and competences that qualify the students for discussions concerning scientific and technologic questions of everyday life. The analysis of testbooks used the descriptors and indicators developed by Fracalanza and Megid-Neto (2006 as reference. In order to carry out the study, we chose the area of Organic Chemistry, more specifically contents referring to organic functions, with great use in society. In general, the results showed that STS relations are not totally observed in the investigated contents, contributing to the development of Chemistry classes through activities apart from the students social context.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  11. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  12. Relative Determination of Micronutrients of Different Species of Teff (Eragrestis Seeds of Ethiopia Origin by Calibration Free Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dilbetigle Assefa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy techniques has been used to analysis the multi-component of three different species of Teff seeds (Red, White and Sirgegna of Ethiopia origin using a second harmonic (532 nm of a nanosecond Q-switched Nd: YAG laser focused on the surface of the pelletized powder of Teff seeds. Based on the idea of the plasma is homogeneous. The seven essential micronutrients in three species of Teff seeds are identified carbon as a matrix element. Electron density and plasma temperature are calculated applying Saha-Boltzmann equation and Boltzmann plot method. And making use of the semi-quantitative method the three species relative concentrations of (Ca, Mg, Al, Si, Mn, Fe and K are obtained using Calibration Free Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS technique. The result demonstrated that the relative concentrations of the some elements in the species are different. In Red Teff species Ca is more, but Mg is least. On the contrary Mg is high in Sirgegna and White Teff as compared to Red Teff And High content of Calcium, Magnesium and Iron micronutrients are found in the three species.

  13. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of…

  14. Characterization method for relative Raman enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using gold nanoparticle dimer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Koji; Ikegami, Kohei; Isono, Yoshitada

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a characterization method for Raman enhancement for highly sensitive and quantitative surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is reported. A particle dimer shows a marked electromagnetic enhancement when the particle connection direction is matched to the polarization direction of incident light. In this study, dimers were arrayed by nanotrench-guided self-assembly for a marked total Raman enhancement. By measuring acetonedicarboxylic acid, the fabricated structures were characterized for SERS depending on the polarization angle against the particle connection direction. This indicates that the fabricated structures cause an effective SERS enhancement, which is dominated by the electromagnetic enhancement. Then, we measured 4,4‧-bipyridine, which is a pesticide material, for quantitative analysis. In advance, we evaluated the enhancement of the particle structure by the Raman measurement of acetonedicarboxylic acid. Finally, we compared the Raman intensities of acetonedicarboxylic acid and 4,4‧-bipyridine. Their intensities showed good correlation. The advantage of this method for previously evaluating the enhancement of the substrate was demonstrated. This developed SERS characterization method is expected to be applied to various quantitative trace analyses of molecules with high sensitivity.

  15. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  16. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement.

  17. Reflectance Spectroscopy in Planetary Science. Review and Strategy for the Future. Report of a Workshop (Yountville, California, April 9-11, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas B., Ed.

    Reflectance Spectroscopy is one of several remote sensing techniques used to study the surfaces and atmospheres of solar system objects. It provides first-order information on the presence and amounts of certain ions, molecules, and minerals on a surface or in an atmosphere. This report is a consolidation of written material generated at a 3-day…

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  19. Sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kamelia; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Espie, Colin A; MacMahon, Kenneth M A; Woods, Heather Cleland; Kyle, Simon D

    2015-12-01

    Prominent models of insomnia posit that sleep-related attentional bias plays an important role in the development and maintenance of insomnia. Here we conduct the first systematic review of the sleep-related attentional bias construct, indexed through reaction time-based experimental tasks. Literature search identified 13 studies that met pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies involved between-group comparisons (poor sleepers versus controls), as well as sleep manipulations and correlational investigations with healthy sleepers. For studies involving comparisons between poor sleepers and healthy controls, effect size estimates were computed for task-relevant dependent variables. Six of the nine studies comparing poor sleepers and controls revealed statistically significant group differences in support of a differential sleep-related attentional bias (medium-to-large effect sizes), with flicker, dot-probe and Posner tasks being most sensitive to group effects. Due to the paucity of studies and variability in design and measurement, no conclusions could be reached regarding manipulation or induction of attentional bias in good sleepers. Results from the relatively small number of studies support the presence of sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia; however, its role in the development and/or maintenance of insomnia remains to be elucidated. We set out a research agenda aimed at advancing the understanding of sleep-related attention bias.

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rosser, Tena [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haynes, Robin L. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  1. Research and Teaching: Factors Related to College Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science--Comparison of Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Worch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more scientifically literate society, students need to understand the nature of science, which may be affected by controversial topics such as evolution. There are conflicting views among researchers concerning the relationships between understanding evolution, acceptance of evolution, and understanding of the nature of science. Four…

  2. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okhee Lee; Helen Quinn; Guadalupe Valdés

    2013-01-01

    ...-intensive science and engineering practices. We propose that when students, especially English language learners, are adequately supported to "do" specific things with language, both science learning and language learning are promoted. We highlight implications for Common Core State Standards for English language arts and mathematics.

  3. Research and Teaching: Factors Related to College Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science--Comparison of Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Worch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more scientifically literate society, students need to understand the nature of science, which may be affected by controversial topics such as evolution. There are conflicting views among researchers concerning the relationships between understanding evolution, acceptance of evolution, and understanding of the nature of science. Four…

  4. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  5. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  6. Achievement-Related within-School Socioeconomic Gaps in Science Subjects in China: Evidence on Existence, Consistency, and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Xingkai

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2011 (Chinese) Student Academic Achievement Evaluation, we examined whether within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement exist across science subjects, how consistent they are, and whether there are relationships between school average science achievement and within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement.…

  7. Do Science and Common Wisdom Collide or Coincide in their Understanding of Relational Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather S.; Mcloughlin, Caven S.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with “mean-girl” behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls’ social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means. PMID:21833240

  8. Ratings of journals for the dissemination of pharmacy-related social and administrative science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunniran, Suvapun; Holmes, Erin R; Lobb, William B; McCaffrey, David J

    2008-06-01

    It has been over a decade since a journal quality rating study has been conducted in the social and administrative sciences (SAdS). This study sought to reevaluate perceptions of journal quality. To develop a list of journals that are suitable publication venues for SAdS scholars and compare the quality of these journals as rated by school of pharmacy deans, SAdS department/division chairs, and SAdS faculty. A list of journals was assembled and presented to a Delphi panel of 15 SAdS scholars. Using a modified Delphi technique, the panel refined the list by judging the suitability of each journal as a publication venue for scholars. This list was used in a survey administered via the Internet. Journal quality was rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale with the option of indicating unfamiliarity with each journal. Differences in quality ratings between faculty, chairs, and deans were explored. Adjusted rating scores were calculated based on familiarity with journals. Ratings from the current study were compared to previous studies. One hundred and twelve journals emerged from the modified Delphi technique. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance found no significant difference in perceived journal quality across all journals evaluated by the 3 groups (KW=3.91). Groups did differ in their familiarity (KW=11.71, Pjournals and deans being the least familiar. Journal rankings were highly correlated with journal rankings from previously published studies. Results of this study have implications for scholars choosing publication venues and those who make decisions contingent on scholars' publication records. These differences may represent a positive or negative bias that affects hiring as well as tenure and promotion decisions. This study provides guidance for decisions reliant on publication records, but should not be used exclusively as such an indicator.

  9. Crystal structure, IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic properties of KZnFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} related to the zeolite-ABW-like compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badri, Abdessalem [UR Matériaux Inorganiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Hidouri, Mourad, E-mail: mourad_hidouri@yahoo.fr [UR Matériaux Inorganiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Wattiaux, Alain [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux I, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac-Cedex 33608 (France); López, María Luisa; Veiga, María Luisa [Departamento de Química Inorgánica I, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Amara, Mongi Ben [UR Matériaux Inorganiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The reported structure of KZnFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is closely related to the zeolite ABW-type. • The structure is described in detail. • The IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy results are reported. • The magnetic properties are developed. - Abstract: The new iron phosphate KZnFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} has been synthesized by flux method and solid state reaction, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with the cell parameters: a = 13.514(4) Å, b = 13.273(6) Å, c = 8.742(3) Å and β = 100.07(2)°. It displays strong similarities with the phosphates KCoAl(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and NaCoPO{sub 4} and features some analogies with the zeolite-ABW structural type. 3D framework is built up by a corner-sharing between MO{sub 4} (M = 0.5 Zn + 0.5 Fe) and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The K{sup +} ions are found within crossing tunnels perpendicular to the (1 0 0), (0 1 0) and (0 0 1) planes, delimited by this framework. A Mössbauer study confirmed the presence of Fe{sup 3+} ions in a tetrahedral environment. Magnetic measurements revealed an antiferromagnetic behavior with T{sub N} = 8.5 K.

  10. Critical Review Upon the Role and Potential of Fluorescence and Near-Infrared Imaging and Absorption Spectroscopy in Cancer Related Cells, Serum, Saliva, Urine and Tissue Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Christian W; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Huck-Pezzei, Verena A

    2016-01-01

    During the last years, non-invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic tools in cancer diagnostics have become more important. Many fluorescence spectroscopic methodologies have been established for nearly all different kinds of cancer. The reason therefore is its high sensitivity, low amount of sample required, short testing time, and the suitability for in situ testing. The potential influence factors for cancer diagnostics and the subsequent suitability of the method to different applications are well described. Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is based on differences of endogenous chromophores between cancer and normal tissues using either oxyhaemoglobin or deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid or water bands, or a combination of two or more of these diagnostic markers. These marker bands are known to provide the fundamental for the diagnosis of several cancers and the spectroscopic setup can be applied for the analysis of cells, urine and tissue. For the preparation of this review the literature published during the last fifteen years has been taken into consideration. It will provide an overview on the importance of the fluorescence and NIRS tools in cancer analysis giving hints about how these techniques can play a crucial role in cancer diagnosis, treatment decisions and therapy. The two techniques, fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are faced to each other and individual advantages and/or drawbacks are discussed. Finally, it will be taken into consideration; how the synergistic combination of different approaches can give additional information related to development and progression stages of cancer.

  11. Mapping the geography of science: distribution patterns and networks of relations among cities and institutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Persson, O.

    2010-01-01

    Using Google Earth, Google Maps, and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications onto the geographic map. The authors discuss the pros and cons of various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging ex

  12. Mapping the geography of science: distribution patterns and networks of relations among cities and institutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Persson, O.

    2010-01-01

    Using Google Earth, Google Maps, and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications onto the geographic map. The authors discuss the pros and cons of various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging

  13. Mapping the geography of science: distribution patterns and networks of relations among cities and institutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Persson, O.

    2010-01-01

    Using Google Earth, Google Maps, and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications onto the geographic map. The authors discuss the pros and cons of various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging ex

  14. No Gene Is an Island: Analogical Relations between Science and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Frank L.

    Arguing that scientific facts and insights can be used analogically to clarify literary analysis at specific moments, this paper presents a number of such facts and their analogical relationship to several literary passages. The examples cited relate the first and second laws of thermodynamics to scenes from "King Lear," rigid bodies in motion to…

  15. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  16. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera.

  17. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  18. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. Method: The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed–indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. Results: In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. Conclusions: our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases. PMID:27708491

  19. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-07-16

    Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases.

  20. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  1. Towards a characterization of current Art and Science practices related to Synthetic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Moñivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the field of artistic creation has been a privileged space for reflection, cultural criticism, ethical questioning, and both aesthetical and technical experimentation that has been testing the most varied views of evolution; the transformation of relations with nature and the self-understanding of the human being. Within synthetic biology open discussion, this article aims to highlight that both bioart, genetic art, transgenic art and biohacking, are powerful tools for social debate whose ethical and aesthetic dimensions should be reviewed and discussed in detail.

  2. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nikanjam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The data collection tool used in this study was a self-report questionnaire containing two parts: a section on subjects' demographic details and another section for Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI. Data were analyzed in SPSS20-using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation test and one-way ANOVA. Results: This study revealed that %57of the students had moderate levels of stress. The most important stressors included self-impose and pressure, and also the most important reactions to stressors included cognitive appraisal and emotional reactions, respectively. There was a significant association between exam stressors and branch, educational level, and mother's and father's education level (P< 0.05. Conclusions: According to the high level of stress in students and the recognition of demographic factors, effective educational interventions can be conducted to reduce stress.

  3. "Structuration" by intellectual organization: the configuration of knowledge in relations among structural components in networks of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-08-01

    Using aggregated journal-journal citation networks, the measurement of the knowledge base in empirical systems is factor-analyzed in two cases of interdisciplinary developments during the period 1995-2005: (i) the development of nanotechnology in the natural sciences and (ii) the development of communication studies as an interdiscipline between social psychology and political science. The results are compared with a case of stable development: the citation networks of core journals in chemistry. These citation networks are intellectually organized by networks of expectations in the knowledge base at the specialty (that is, above-journal) level. The "structuration" of structural components (over time) can be measured as configurational information. The latter is compared with the Shannon-type information generated in the interactions among structural components: the difference between these two measures provides us with a measure for the redundancy generated by the specification of a model in the knowledge base of the system. This knowledge base incurs (against the entropy law) to variable extents on the knowledge infrastructures provided by the observable networks of relations.

  4. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  5. Analysis and Comparison of Interdisciplinary Relations of Library Science and Information Science Based on Citation Clustering in The Period of Before and After the Appearance of the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Osareh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the interdisciplinary relations of “Library Science and Information Science”. For this purpose the subject categories of citing and cited journals of these fields were investigated in JCR database during the period of 1987-1997 and 2003-2013, and through the comparsion of obtained results the impact of information technology on the development of “LIS” interdisciplinarity was investigated. Methedology of the research was co-citation analysis of journals in scientometrics studies. Also the research was performed using the conventional techniques of scientometrics including Bradford law, Ward hierarchical clustering approach in statistical software SPSS, and the new measure including Proximity index. Research community includes citing and cited journals of 56 “LIS” journals during 1987-1997 and 83 journals during 2003-2013 in Journals Ctiation Report (JCR database. The results showed that “LIS” has been influenced by other subject categories more than affecting them. For example, the number of journals which “LIS” cited from 1758 (in the first period has increased to 5303 (in the second period. Co-occurrence matrix of core citing and cited subject categories was analyzed, and three main clusters in the first period and seven clusters in the second period were drawn. In general, the amount and quality of co-occurrence of subject categories in clusters showed that the domain and variety of affecting and affected subject categories were expanded in the second period. Structural similarity of clusters for affecting and affected subject categories calculated. Results showed that structural similarity of clusters in the second period was %10 higher than in the first period. Also, the Structural similarity of affecting clusters of “LIS” was more than affected clusters. Assessment of difference between subject categories groups by ANOVA and Tukey Post hoc tests showed that there were

  6. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Contini, T. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Pérez Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Balestra, I., E-mail: christian.maier@univie.ac.at [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching b. München (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  7. Spectroscopy for the Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Robert J.; Hopkins, Scott; Power, William P.; Leung, Tong; Hepburn, John

    2015-06-01

    Undergraduate students in all areas of science encounter one or more types of spectroscopy as an essential tool in their discipline, but most never take the advanced physics or chemistry courses in which the subject is normally taught. To address this problem, for over 20 years our department has been teaching a popular Introductory Spectroscopy course that assumes as background only a one-term introductory chemistry course containing a unit on atomic theory, and a familiarity with rudimentary calculus. This survey course provides an introduction to microwave, infrared, Raman, electronic, photoelectron and NMR spectroscopy in a manner that allows students to understand many of these phenomena as intuitive generalizations of the problem of a particle in a 1-D box or a particle-on-a-ring, and does not require any high level mathematics.

  8. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  9. Pathology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Weisbord six box model and its relation with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Jahangir; Taheri, Behjat; Sadeghpour, Masoumeh; Sadeghpour, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the pathology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Weisbord six box model and to find its relation with mental health. The research method followed was a descriptive survey. The statistical society consisted of all staffs of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences consisting of professors in the year 2012 (personnel of deputy of treatment, deputy of training, cultural-student deputy, supporting deputy, deputy of food and drugs, health deputy, and deputy of research). The number of subjects in the mentioned society was 1647, sample size was 332 Based on Cochrane's formula. They were selected by random sampling method in proportion with the statistical society. The measurement instruments included organizational pathology questionnaire (ODQ) with 35 questions and the questionnaire of mental health standard [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)] with 28 questions. The validity of the questionnaires obtained from reviews by faculties and experts, and the reliability of the questionnaire assessed through Cronbach's coefficient were 0.86, 0.85, and 0.76, respectively. To analyze data, the statistical methods such as single-variance t-test, regression analysis, correlation coefficient, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were used. The findings of research demonstrated that the organizational damage based on six box model was seen only in the reward component at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Mental health of persons in the sample group of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was in the suitable status. There was a meaningful and positive interrelation between mental health and attitude toward the organizational damages in the dimensions of communications, useful merchandises, and attitude to change. However, no meaningful interrelation was seen between aims, structure, leadership, and reward and mental health. There was no meaningful difference between the averages of

  10. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z>2 using VLT and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Ziegler, B; Contini, T; Montero, E Perez; Peng, Y; Balestra, I

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M,SFR) relation is invariant with redshift - the so-called Fundamental Metallicity Relation (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M,SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z>2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.12 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically-motivated formulation of the Z(M,SFR) relation from Lilly et al. (2003), but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. (2010).

  11. The nucleosynthetic history of elements in the Galactic disk: [X/Fe] - age relations from high-precision spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spina, L; Karakas, A I; Ramírez, I; Monroe, T R; Asplund, M; Yong, D

    2016-01-01

    Context: The chemical composition of stars is intimately linked to the Galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We aim to trace the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk through the inspection of the [X/Fe]-age relations of 24 species from C to Eu. Methods: Using high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise UVES spectra of nine solar twins, we obtained precise estimates of stellar ages and chemical abundances. These determinations have been integrated with additional accurate age and abundance determinations from recent spectroscopic studies of solar twins existing in the literature, comprising superb abundances with 0.01~dex precision. Based on this data set, we outlined the [X/Fe]-age relations over a time interval of 10~Gyr. Results: We present the [X/Fe] - age relations for 24 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu). Each different class of elements showed distinct evolution with time that relies on the different characteristics, rates and timesca...

  12. Nucleosynthetic history of elements in the Galactic disk. [X/Fe]-age relations from high-precision spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Meléndez, J.; Karakas, A. I.; Ramírez, I.; Monroe, T. R.; Asplund, M.; Yong, D.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The chemical composition of stars is intimately linked to the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Aims: We aim to trace the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk through the inspection of the [X/Fe]-age relations of 24 species from C to Eu. Methods: Using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise UVES spectra of nine solar twins, we obtained precise estimates of stellar ages and chemical abundances. These determinations have been integrated with additional accurate age and abundance determinations from recent spectroscopic studies of solar twins existing in the literature, comprising superb abundances with 0.01 dex precision. Based on this data set, we outlined the [X/Fe]-age relations over a time interval of 10 Gyr. Results: We present the [X/Fe] - age relations for 24 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu). Each different class of elements showed a distinct evolution with time that relies on the different characteristics, rates, and timescales of the nucleosynthesis sites from which they are produced. The α-elements are characterized by a [X/Fe] decrease with time. Strikingly, the opposite behavior is observed for Ca. The iron-peak elements show an early [X/Fe] increase followed by a decrease towards the youngest stars. The [X/Fe] for the n-capture elements decrease with age. We also found that both [Mg/Y] and [Al/Y] are precise stellar clocks, with [Al/Y] showing the steepest dependence on age. Conclusions: Knowledge of the [X/Fe]-age relations is a gold mine from which we can achieve a great understanding of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. Through the reverse engineering of these relations we will be able to put strong constraints on the nature of the stellar formation history, the SNe rates, the stellar yields, and the variety of the SNe progenitors. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT at Paranal Observatory (Observing program 083

  13. Artificial heart pumps: bridging the gap between science, technology and personalized medicine by relational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Federica; Deng, Mario C

    2017-01-01

    In the US population of 300 million, 3 million have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and 300,000 have advanced heart failure. Long-term mechanical circulatory support will, within the next decade, be recommended to 30,000 patients annually in the USA, 3000 undergo heart transplantation annually. What do these advances mean for persons suffering from advanced heart failure and their loved ones/caregivers? In this perspective article, we discuss - by exemplifying a case report of a 27-year-old man receiving a Total Artificial Heart - a practice concept of modern medicine that fully incorporates the patient's personhood perspective which we have termed Relational Medicine™. From this case study, it becomes apparent that the successful practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires the person-person encounter as a core practice element.

  14. Layman friendly spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    Affordable consumer grade spectroscopes (e.g. SCiO, Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE) are becoming more available to the general public. We introduce the concepts of spectroscopy to the public and K12 students and motivate them to delve deeper into spectroscopy in a dramatic participatory presentation and play. We use diffraction gratings, lasers, and light sources of different spectral properties to provide a direct experience of spectroscopy techniques. Finally, we invite the audience to build their own spectroscope--utilizing the APS SpectraSnapp cell phone application--and study light sources surrounding them in everyday life. We recontextualize the stigma that science is hard (e.g. ``Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They're Hard,'' The Wall Street Journal) by presenting the material in such a way that it demonstrates the scientific method, and aiming to make failure an impersonal scientific tool--rather than a measure of one's ability, which is often a reason for shying away from science. We will present lessons we have learned in doing our outreach to audiences of different ages. This work is funded by the APS Outreach Grant ``Captain, we have matter matters!'' We thank New Mexico Tech Physics Department and Physics Club for help and technical equipment.

  15. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the "Science Process Skills Questionnaire" (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's…

  16. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edington, C.W.

    1992-06-01

    This progress report relates progress in the various research projects evaluating the late health effects, both somatic and genetic, resulting from radiation exposure of the survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the collection and utilization of the various epidemiological data bases. These include the Life Span Study, (LSS) cohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort, the In Utero cohort, the leukemia registry and the F-1 Study population. Important progress has been made in using RERF Tumor and Tissue Registry records for evaluation of cancer incidence and radiation risk estimates for comparison with cancer mortality and risk in the LSS cohort. At the present time, a manuscript on the incidence of solid tumors (1950-1987) is undergoing internal and external review for publication as an RERF Technical report (TR) and for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, manuscripts are in preparation on (1) a comprehensive report on the incidence of hematological cancers, including analysis of leukemia by cell type (1950-1987), (2) a general description of Tumor Registry operations and (3) a comparison of incidence- and mortality-based estimates of radiation risk in the LSS cohort.

  17. Ideology and International Relations: Russian View. Interview with Academician, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Director of Center of The Situational Analysis at RAS V.G. Baranovskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Nikulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir G. Baranovskiy is one of the leading specialists in the field of international relations in Russia. He was born on December 30, 1950 in Moscow. In 1972 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1973-1976 he studied at the graduate school of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1976 he works in the structure of the IMEMO Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1982-1988 - Head of the International Security Sector of the IMEMO Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1986he defended his doctoral thesis on “The European Community in the System of International Relations”. In 1988-1992 - Head of the Department of Western European Studies, IMEMO USSR Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAS. In 1992-1998 he was the chief research fellow at IMEMO RAS. In 1992-1996 he led the project at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI. Since 1998 - deputy director of IMEMO RAS. Since 2005 - Professor of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Policy of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Since 2011 - full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In his interview, V. G. Baranovsky talks about ethics and morality in international relations, multipolarity and the role of ideology in foreign policy.

  18. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  19. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  20. Descriptive and predictive assessment of enzyme activity and enzyme related processes in biorefinery using IR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas

    Enzyme technology provides key strategies to green chemistry as many processes have undergone re-design to serve increasing demands towards being sustainable. While the population is rapidly increasing on our planet it is leading to accumulative problems in terms of production of waste, depletion...... of natural fossil resources and increasing demands for food and energy. Biorefinery, in particular, deals with related challenges, as it is defined to deal with the conversion of biomass using enzyme technology to produce renewable energy, in terms of heat, power and fuel. Furthermore, biorefinery intends...... industries. However, as biorefinery concepts are implemented in many industrial processes an increasing demand for Process Analytical Technology (PAT) evolves to monitor, understand and steer processes optimally. Biomasses can be very diverse and are usually of complex chemical nature. Conventional...

  1. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from...... molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  2. Haptoglobin, hemopexin and related defense pathways—basic science, clinical perspectives and drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik J Schaer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemolysis, which occurs in many disease states, can trigger a diverse pathophysiologic cascade that is related to the specific biochemical activities of free Hb and its porphyrin component heme. Normal erythropoiesis and concomitant removal of senescent red blood cells (RBC from the circulation occurs at rates of approximately 2x106 RBCs/second. Within this physiologic range of RBC turnover, a small fraction of hemoglobin (Hb is released into plasma as free extracellular Hb. In humans, there is an efficient multicomponent system of Hb sequestration, oxidative neutralization and clearance. Haptoglobin (Hp is the primary Hb-binding protein in human plasma, which attenuates the adverse biochemical and physiologic effects of extracellular Hb. The cellular receptor target of Hp is the monocyte/macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163. Following Hb-Hp binding to CD163, cellular internalization of the complex leads to globin and heme metabolism, which is followed by adaptive changes in antioxidant and iron metabolism pathways and macrophage phenotype polarization. When Hb is released from RBCs within the physiologic range of Hp, the potential deleterious effects of Hb are prevented. However, during hyper-hemolytic conditions or with chronic hemolysis, Hp is depleted and Hb readily distributes to tissues where it might be exposed to oxidative conditions. In such conditions, heme can be released from ferric Hb. The free heme can then accelerate tissue damage by promoting peroxidative reactions and activation of inflammatory cascades. Hemopexin (Hx is another plasma glycoprotein able to bind heme with high affinity. Hx sequesters heme in an inert, non-toxic form and transports it to the liver for catabolism and excretion. In the present review we discuss the components of physiologic Hb/heme detoxification and their potential therapeutic application in a wide range of hemolytic conditions.

  3. Transient increase in systemic interferences in the superficial layer and its influence on event-related motor tasks: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Isao; Ozawa, Takuya; Sato, Takanori; Aihara, Takatsugu; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Otaka, Yohei; Osu, Rieko; Izawa, Jun; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a widely utilized neuroimaging tool in fundamental neuroscience research and clinical investigation. Previous research has revealed that task-evoked systemic artifacts mainly originating from the superficial-tissue may preclude the identification of cerebral activation during a given task. We examined the influence of such artifacts on event-related brain activity during a brisk squeezing movement. We estimated task-evoked superficial-tissue hemodynamics from short source-detector distance channels (15 mm) by applying principal component analysis. The estimated superficial-tissue hemodynamics exhibited temporal profiles similar to the canonical cerebral hemodynamic model. Importantly, this task-evoked profile was also observed in data from a block design motor experiment, suggesting a transient increase in superficial-tissue hemodynamics occurs following motor behavior, irrespective of task design. We also confirmed that estimation of event-related cerebral hemodynamics was improved by a simple superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal process using 15-mm short distance channels, compared to the results when no artifact removal was applied. Thus, our results elucidate task design-independent characteristics of superficial-tissue hemodynamics and highlight the need for the application of superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal methods when analyzing fNIRS data obtained during event-related motor tasks.

  4. Persona and the Performance of Identity : Parallel Developments in the Biographical Historiography of Science and Gender, and the Related Uses of Self Narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Mineke

    2013-01-01

    In this article Bosch explores the parallel development in scientific and gender biography to shed light on the relation between the individual and the collective, the self and society. In the history of science the relational/collective scientific self and the concept of the scientific persona (or

  5. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  6. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  7. The Frequency of Heartburn (GERD and Its Related Factors in the Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Khalilian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease (GERD is the most common disease of the digestive system in the world and Iran. The main Symptom of GERD is heart-burn. GERD reduces the quality of life and leads to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of heartburn in students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study on 388 randomly se-lected students. They had the inclusion criteria. The survey tool included questionnaire (demographic questions and symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation. Data were ana-lyzed with descriptive statistics. Chi square and t- tests were used to examine the relation-ships between variables. Results: Out of the 388 students, 270 (69.6% reported symptoms of heartburn. The relation-ship of BMI, sex, marital status, body mass index, ethnicity of individuals, fruits and fresh vegetables, and most food with heartburn was not significant (P> 0.05but the relationship was significant with age, smoking and smoking hookah, the college, semester, tea consump-tion and pickles, spices, smoked and canned foods, soft drinks and high-fat (P <0.05. Conclusion: A lot of people in this study had heartburn. But they were not concerned about its cause and suitable treatment. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:232-239

  8. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on brain connectivity in motor-related cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiaqing; Wei, Yun; Wang, Yinghua; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive, safe and convenient neuro-modulatory technique in neurological rehabilitation, treatment, and other aspects of brain disorders. However, evaluating the effects of tDCS is still difficult. We aimed to evaluate the effects of tDCS using hemodynamic changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Five healthy participants were employed and anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor-related cortex, with cathodes positioned on the right dorsolateral supraorbital area. fNIRS data were collected from the right motor-related area at the same time. Functional connectivity (FC) between intracortical regions was calculated between fNIRS channels using a minimum variance distortion-less response magnitude squared coherence (MVDR-MSC) method. The levels of Oxy-HbO change and the FC between channels during the prestimulation, stimulation, and poststimulation stages were compared. Results showed no significant level difference, but the FC measured by MVDR-MSC significantly decreased during tDCS compared with pre-tDCS and post-tDCS, although the FC difference between pre-tDCS and post-tDCS was not significant. We conclude that coherence calculated from resting state fNIRS may be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of anodal tDCS and optimizing parameters for tDCS application.

  9. Observation of surface reduction of NiO to Ni by surface-sensitive total reflection X-ray spectroscopy using Kramers-Kronig relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Takeshi; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Nitani, Hiroaki; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masaharu

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a promising surface-sensitive X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement method. This method is based on total reflection detection and Kramers-Kronig relations, and has been named the KK-XAFS method. Total reflection spectra are transformed via Kramers-Kronig relations to obtain XAFS spectra. KK-XAFS experiments give us surface-sensitive structural parameters, while usual EXAFS analyses yield bulk structural parameters. The total reflection spectra themselves are useful for observing and discussing time evolutions of chemical reactions at surfaces by quick scanning measurements. Chemical species are analyzed to estimate their fractions during reactions. The whole method would be named total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TREXS). A reduction of the NiO layer at the surface of Ni (30 nm)/Si was observed in a laboratory-built TREXS in situ cell. The method would be applicable to observe chemical reactions starting at surfaces and to study their kinetics and mechanisms.

  10. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  11. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  12. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  13. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation.

  14. Science-Related Telecommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norm

    1993-01-01

    A physics teacher at rural Cedar Falls High School (Iowa) describes how teacher telecommunication networks provided ongoing support following summer teacher workshops, his inability to get fellow teachers engaged in telecommunication, and the benefits of a telecommunication network to rural teachers. (SV)

  15. A different interpretation of science-society relations: the socialization of scientific and technological research (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano d'Andrea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent data delivered by Eurobarometer show how Europeans tend not to perceive science and technology as important factors for the Europe’s future. While showing the scarce development of scientific culture in Europe, these data allow to understand how science and technology are exposed to risk of social marginalization, notwithstanding the results they are attaining. In order to interpret this quite contradictory picture, an analytical framework revolving around the notion of “science and technology socialization” is proposed and developed. Implications of such an approach on research policies, on citizens’ participation and on the role of social sciences are also briefly examined.

  16. Science Education Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides perspectives and background information on selected aspects of science instruction. Addresses concerns related to physics teaching, academic assessment, problem-solving, integrated science, readability, college science for pre-nursing students, and a graded assessment scheme. (ML)

  17. Science Education After Dainton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kevin

    1969-01-01

    The Dainton committee indicated that science must not be directed simply at the committed students. Curriculum changes, including those related to teaching science as a unity, could have a profound effect in making science more attractive and relevant. (JK)

  18. A Comparison between the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database and the Science Citation Index in terms of journal hierarchies and inter-journal citation relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The journal structure in the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database (CSTPCD) is analysed from three perspectives: the database level, the specialty level and the institutional level (i.e., university journals versus journals issued by the Chinese Academy of Sciences). The results are compared with those for (Chinese) journals included in the Science Citation Index. The frequency of journal-journal citation relations in the CSTPCD is an order of magnitude lower than in the SCI. Chinese journals, especially high-quality journals, prefer to cite international journals rather than domestic ones. However, Chinese journals do not get an equivalent reception from their international counterparts. The international visibility of Chinese journals is low, but varies among fields of science. Journals of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have a better reception in the international scientific community than university journals.

  19. Recent progress in terahertz science and technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relatively new technique of coherent electromagnetic radiation, in the region of 1012 Hz, has potential to detect the nature of low energy processes in physics, chemistry and biomedicine. In this review article, an overview of recent progress of terahertz (THz) science and technology is presented. The development of the THz generation and detection system, the THz radiation applications which include THz time-domain spectroscopy and T-ray imaging, and the future potential of THz wave research are discussed.

  20. An exploration of elementary science teachers' expertise, creativity skills, and motivation in relation to the use of an innovation and the delivery of high-quality science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Karen L.

    This two-year study sought to uncover characteristic differences among a purposive sample of 23 elementary teachers who were using an elementary science innovation with various levels of proficiency. Two theoretical frameworks supported the development of the research, the Concerns Based Adoption Model Level of Use (LoU) (Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin & Hall, 1987) and Amabile's (1996) Componential Model of Creativity. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were employed to gather data on participants' science content knowledge, pedagogical skill, creativity relevant process skills, motivation orientation, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and workplace environment. Results dispute the common conception among educators that "mechanical use" teachers do not provide high quality lessons. A new method for categorizing teachers' proficiency with an innovation is suggested by this study that incorporates both qualitative data from the LoU interview and classroom observation. Additionally, results show that the quality of the observed science lessons was associated with a teacher's creativity. The data suggest that a teacher's creativity relevant process skills and expertise are indicators of lesson quality. There were important differences among teachers' conceptions of creativity, how they involved students in the reported lessons and in the type of adaptations they made to the innovation. The more creative teachers tended to provide lessons that were more complex, of longer duration, had ties to student home life, and used multiple resources. Following an analysis of these results is a set of suggested professional development strategies and workplace changes to support less proficient teachers in their ability to provide higher quality elementary science lessons.

  1. Using Project-Based Data in Physics to Examine Television Viewing in Relation to Student Performance in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the…

  2. Teacher Beliefs toward Using Alternative Teaching Approaches in Science and Mathematics Classes Related to Experience in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine; Sahin, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among Turkish classroom, science and mathematics teachers' beliefs toward using inquiry-based approaches, traditional teaching approaches, and technology in their mathematics and science classrooms; their efficacy beliefs in teaching those subjects; and years of experience in teaching in…

  3. Art and Science as Related Concepts: An Attempt at Their Comparative Anatomy as Revealed in Various Fields of Human Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menuhin, Yehudi

    1987-01-01

    To support the statement that intuitive process is as important as the scientific, two axioms are explored by the violinist: no phenomenon discovered or created by science is possible unless its equivalent has already existed in nature; and the basic revelations of science can be formulated by intuition through meditation. (Author/KM)

  4. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  5. Student and high-school characteristics related to completing a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) major in college

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.

  6. Authentic science experiences as a vehicle for assessing orientation towards science and science careers relative to identity and agency: a response to ``learning from the path followed by Brad''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2009-09-01

    This response draws from the literature on adaptive learning, traditional ecological knowledge, and social-ecological systems to show that Brad's choice is not a simple decision between traditional ecological knowledge and authentic science. This perspective recognizes knowledge systems as dynamic, cultural and historical activities characterized by diverse worldviews and ways of constructing and legitimizing knowledge. Brad's decision is seen as an example of adaptive learning, identity development and personal/collective agency oriented to increasing tribal influence in resource management decisions and policies. I will conclude that science literacy for all is not served by a transcendent, universal, Western modern view of science.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Riley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students’ equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, the upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents and an open wound (17.4% were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling (30.4% and being kicked (30.4% accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3% or an open wound (17.4%. Most (60.9% injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related off

  8. HST Hα grism spectroscopy of ROLES: a flatter low-mass slope for the z ∼ 1 SSFR-mass relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Riona; Gilbank, David G.; Blyth, Sarah-Louise; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of star formation rates (SFRs) for dwarf galaxies (M* ∼ 108.5 M_{⊙}) at z ∼ 1 using near-infrared slitless spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by targeting and measuring the luminosity of the Hα emission line. Our sample is derived from the Redshift One LDSS3 Emission Line Survey (ROLES), which used [O II]λ3727 as a tracer of star formation to target very low stellar masses down to very low SFRs (∼0.1 M_{⊙} yr-1) at this epoch. Dust corrections are estimated using SED fits and we find, by comparison with other studies using Balmer decrement dust corrections, that we require a smaller ratio between the gas phase and stellar extinction than the nominal Calzetti relation, in agreement with recent findings by other studies. By stacking the Wide-Field Camera (WFC)3 spectra at the redshifts obtained from ground-based [O II] detections, we are able to push the WFC3 spectra to much lower SFRs and obtain the most complete spectroscopic measurement of the low-mass end of the SSFR-mass relation to date. We measure a flatter low-mass power-law slope (-0.47 ± 0.04) than found by other (shallower) H α-selected samples (≈-1), although still somewhat steeper than that predicted by the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulation (-0.14 ± 0.05), hinting at possible missing physics not modelled by EAGLE or remaining incompleteness for our H α data.

  9. Changes in Motor-related Cortical Activity Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Detected by Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Morishita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear how deep brain stimulation (DBS modulates the global neuronal network involving cortical activity. We aimed to evaluate changes in cortical activity in six (two men; four women patients with Parkinson's disease (PD who underwent unilateral globus pallidus interna DBS surgery using a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS system. As five of the patients were right-handed, DBS was performed on the left in these five cases. The mean age was 66.8 ± 4.0 years. The unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS motor scores were evaluated at baseline and 1- and 6-month follow-up. Task-related NIRS experiments applying the block design were performed at baseline and one-month follow-up. The mean of the total UPDRS motor score was 48.5 ± 11.1 in the off-medication state preoperatively. Postoperatively, total UPDRS motor scores improved to 26.8 ± 16.6 (p < 0.05 and 22.2 ± 8.6 (p < 0.05 at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. A task-related NIRS experiment showed a postoperative increase in the cortical activity of the prefrontal cortex comparable to the preoperative state. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a multi-channel NIRS system for PD patients treated with DBS. In this pilot study, we showed changes in motor-associated cortical activities following DBS surgery. Therapeutic DBS was concluded to have promoted the underlying neuronal network remodeling.

  10. [Identification and description of a new epistemological category of inferential reasoning related to meta-naturalistic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2010-01-01

    Modern science underwent a substantial shift of methodology passing from naturalistic science to meta-naturalistic science, the latter addressed to introduce "Technologically Modified Beings or Objects" (TMB - TMO) in nature, with the intention to utilize them for some endpoints. Classically, naturalistic science draws epistemological inferences using the traditional criteria of induction, deduction or abduction. The question arises: "What is the epistemological criterion of inference used by meta-naturalistic science?". Meditating on this question, I have identified the new epistemological category of reasoning that characterizes the meta-naturalistic science, calling it: "Adduction". Adduction can be defined as "A new epistemological category of inferential reasoning, beside induction, deduction, abduction, currently used in meta-naturalistic science, that consists in deriving inferences to what it has not been yet scientifically experimented, demonstrated and validated, simply by adducing, as a support to the inference, the motivation itself for which the scientists were exerted to produce their meta-naturalistic artifacts. In so doing, the inference is no other than an aprioristic, adubitative assertion of a thesis that gives an authorization to the scope and a certainty to the results, without knowing whether or not the promised endpoints will be fulfilled. In conclusion, adduction is a convolute (sometime, tautological and para-sylogistic) process of reasoning that makes "prospective prophecies" because of its inference to the predicted premises rather than to the demonstrated conclusions".

  11. Philosophy of the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Kimelyev; N. L. Polyakova

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  12. Les caractéristiques de la terminologie des sciences relatives à la famille du point de vue de l’extraction terminologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágoston Nagy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nagy, Á.: The Characteristics of Terminology of Sciences in relation to Family from point of view of Terminological Extraction According to Eugen Wüster, terms are lexical units that belong to a scientific domain where they are connected to a concept that they denote; therefore, terms have to have a precise definition. In the term extraction process, terms can mainly be recognised by morphosyntactic patterns: for example, noun+noun is a typical term pattern in French (e.g. navigateur web. One of the aims of this article is to find the typical term patterns and their frequency in the domain of social sciences. For this reason, three articles were chosen as corpus in the social sciences domain with the criterion that they include frequently the words famille ’family’ and/or individu ’individual’. In the three articles, all terms were manually annotated. The other aim of this article is to compare the frequencies of the term patterns in social sciences with the results of previous research on terms of a corpus of computer science. The further aim of this analysis is to determine whether an automatic term extractor fine-tuned for texts on computer science could also be used on a corpus of social sciences. In order to achieve this goal, problematic patterns – like adjectives preceding the nominal head in a term – are also examined. The results showed that the IT corpus followed the same tendency as the corpus on human sciences; however, juxtaposed nouns are less frequent in the latter which prefers the noun-adjective sequence. Concerning the problematic patterns, the two corpora did not show important differences: their presence is minimal in both (~7%. So the same rule-based extractor could work well on both corpora; however, psychological and sociological terms are more frequently used in common language, which makes statistical filtering more difficult.

  13. Is Continuing Contumely Relative to Mc Leod's Vision and ``Secret Sacred Science, (SSS),'': Contagiously Counterproductive in Science, or an Unhealthy Artifact of ``Turf Wars''?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leod, Roger

    2007-04-01

    Mc Leod confirmed, with physics, his models for vision, and for electromagnetic artifacts, by traditional methods, associated with phenomena like tornados, hurricanes, and earthquakes. The latter confirmations are evidently apparent across current ethnology, cultures, linguistics, religion, rituals, exotic astronomy, somewhat concealed evidence of native record-keeping/writing, and iconography. Use of cultural anthropology while observing a modern Peruvian sacred-site-sweeping at Cuzco, coupled with their assertion that Ñari Huallac means ``serpent God,'' plus electromagnet information, reveals that their religious world-view include(s)(d) applied science that is still otherwise unacknowledged. Alexander Thom's precise megalithic site-measurements also imply that ``The Ancients' Serpent'' made/makes precise tracks that convey valuable information. The linguistics of words like Seminole, and unusual visual effects, reveal some traditionalists have done better than most scientists, for vision, and observational physics, and earth science. Tornado and hurricane tracks are predictable, as are some earthquakes. Tornado ``detuning'' or shutdown is electromagnetically possible. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.7

  14. Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ochkin, Vladimir N

    2009-01-01

    Providing an up-to-date overview on spectroscopical diagnostics of low temperature plasma Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasma covers the latest developments and techniques. Written by a distinguished scientist and experienced book author this text is applicable to many fields in materials and surface science as well as nanotechnology and contains numerous appendices with indispensable reference data.

  15. A Multicase Study of the Impact of Perceived Gender Roles on the Career Decisions of Women in Science-Related Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Stephen Frank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative…

  16. Ten-year analysis of hepatitis-related papers in the Middle East: a web of science-based scientometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East (ME), the proper understanding of hepatitis, especially viral hepatitis, is considered to be extremely important. However, no published paper has investigated the status of hepatitis-related research in the ME. A scientometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was conducted on hepatitis-related papers in the ME to determine the current status of research on this topic. A scientometric analysis using the Web of Science database, specifically articles from the Expanded Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, was conducted on work published between 2005 and 2014 using the keyword "hepatitis" in conjunction with the names of countries in the ME. Of 103,096 papers that used the word "hepatitis" in their title, abstract, or keywords, only 6,540 papers (6.34%) were associated with countries in the ME. Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Israel, and Saudi Arabia were the top five countries in which hepatitis-related papers were published. Most papers on hepatitis A, B, and D and autoimmune hepatitis were published in Turkey, and most papers on hepatitis C were published in Egypt. We believe that both the quantity and the quality of hepatitis-related papers in this region should be improved. Implementing multicenter and international research projects, holding conferences and congress meetings, conducting educational workshops, and establishing high-quality medical research journals in the region will help countries in the ME address this issue effectively.

  17. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  18. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  19. The situation analysis of the international relations management and inter-university collaboration in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during the years 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farajollahi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nowadays, with the development of science and communication, collaboration with other countriesand universities seems inevitable to universities. The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of internationalrelations management and inter-university collaboration (IRM-IUC in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS,Iran, during the years 2005-2010. METHODS: In this descriptive study, one checklist was used for analysis of the inter-university collaboration management and another one for the situation analysis of international relations management which included 4 sections itself. There were a total of 56 questions designed and developed through literature review and the expert panel.RESULTS: The results indicated the poor performance of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in the international relations management and inter-university collaboration fields. Most of the reviewed items had not been adequatelypaid attention to in the management of international relations and only one out of 14 evaluated items was considered inthe field of inter-university collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: In line with the overall globalization process, education and research have also become globalizedprocesses, and as a result, it is necessary for universities to develop effective ties and relationships with otherorganizations. However, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences has not been doing quite optimally in this regard. Thus,it is suggested that, based on the shortcomings pointed out in this study, new appropriate plans and policies be set todevelop fruitful and effective relations and correspondences with other universities and countries.

  20. NMR Spectroscopy and Its Value: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used by chemists. Furthermore, the use of NMR spectroscopy to solve structures of macromolecules or to examine protein-ligand interactions is popular. Yet, few students entering graduate education in biological sciences have been introduced to this method or its utility. Over the last six…

  1. NMR Spectroscopy and Its Value: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used by chemists. Furthermore, the use of NMR spectroscopy to solve structures of macromolecules or to examine protein-ligand interactions is popular. Yet, few students entering graduate education in biological sciences have been introduced to this method or its utility. Over the last six…

  2. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  3. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Schafer, Martha W [LSU; Tucker, Jonathan M [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  4. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  5. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  6. 14th September 2011 - US Under Secretary for Science, Department of Energy S. Koonin signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    CERN-HI-1109234 48, from left to right: ALICE Collaboration USA National Coordination J. Harris, ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford, Head of International Relations F. Pauss, Under Secretary for Science, Department of Energy S. Koonin, Adviser for the US R. Voss, Special Assistant to Under Secretary for Science C. Lin, CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson and Spokesperson elect 2012-2013 J. Incandela and LHC Collaboration S. Stone.During his tour of the LHC superconducting magnet test hall he saw one of the superconducting inner-triplet magnets contributed by Fermilab to the LHC. His visit also included the CMS, ATLAS and ALICE experiments as well as the CERN Control Centre.

  7. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  9. Integral field spectroscopy of nearby QSOs - I. ENLR size-luminosity relation, ongoing star formation and resolved gas-phase metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Wisotzki, L.; Nugroho, D.; Kupko, D.; Schramm, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy for a flux-limited sample of 19 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at low redshift (z reinforcing the picture of an approximately constant ionization parameter for the ionized clouds across the ENLR. Besides the ENLR, we also find gas ionized by young massive stars in more than 50 per cent of the galaxies on kpc scales. In more than half of the sample, the specific star formation rates based on the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity are consistent with those of inactive disc-dominated galaxies, even for some bulge-dominated QSO hosts. Enhanced star formation rates of up to ˜70 M⊙ yr-1 are rare and always associated with signatures of major mergers. Comparison with the star formation rate based on the 60+100 μm far-infrared (FIR) luminosity suggests that the FIR luminosity is systematically contaminated by AGN emission and Hα appears to be a more robust and sensitive tracer for the star formation rate. Evidence for efficient AGN feedback is scarce in our sample, but some of our QSO hosts lack signatures of ongoing star formation leading to a reduced specific star formation rate with respect to the main sequence of galaxies. Whether this is causally linked to the AGN or simply caused by gas depletion remains an open question. Based on 12 QSOs where we can make measurements, we find that on average bulge-dominated QSO host galaxies tend to fall below the mass-metallicity relation compared to their disc-dominated counterparts. While not yet statistically significant for our small sample, this may provide a useful diagnostic for future large surveys if this metal dilution can be shown to be linked to recent or ongoing galaxy interactions.

  10. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  11. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  12. Modern Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  13. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  14. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Noy, Aleksandr

    2008-01-01

    "...Noy's Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy is both a timely and useful summary of fundamental aspects of molecular force spectroscopy, and I believe it would make a worthwhile addition to any good scientific library. New research groups that are entering this field would be well advisedto study this handbook in detail before venturing into the exciting and challenging world of molecular force spectroscopy." Matthew F. Paige, University of Saskatchewan, Journal of the American Chemical Society Modern materials science and biophysics are increasingly focused on studying and controlling intermolecular interactions on the single-molecule level. Molecular force spectroscopy was developed in the past decade as the result of several unprecedented advances in the capabilities of modern scientific instrumentation, and defines a number of techniques that use mechanical force measurements to study interactions between single molecules and molecular assemblies in chemical and biological systems. Examples of these...

  15. Planning JWST NIRSpec MSA spectroscopy using NIRCam pre-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Ubeda, Leonardo; Kassin, Susan A.; Gilbert, Karoline; Karakla, Diane M.; Reid, I. N.; Blair, William P.; Keyes, Charles D.; Soderblom, D. R.; Peña-Guerrero, Maria A.

    2016-07-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the work-horse spectrograph at 1-5microns for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). A showcase observing mode of NIRSpec is the multi-object spectroscopy with the Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs), which consist of a quarter million tiny configurable shutters that are 0. ''20×0. ''46 in size. The NIRSpec MSA shutters can be opened in adjacent rows to create flexible and positionable spectroscopy slits on prime science targets of interest. Because of the very small shutter width, the NIRSpec MSA spectral data quality will benefit significantly from accurate astrometric knowledge of the positions of planned science sources. Images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have the optimal relative astrometric accuracy for planning NIRSpec observations of 5-10 milli-arcseconds (mas). However, some science fields of interest might have no HST images, galactic fields can have moderate proper motions at the 5mas level or greater, and extragalactic images with HST may have inadequate source information at NIRSpec wavelengths beyond 2 microns. Thus, optimal NIRSpec spectroscopy planning may require pre-imaging observations with the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on JWST to accurately establish source positions for alignment with the NIRSpec MSAs. We describe operational philosophies and programmatic considerations for acquiring JWST NIRCam pre-image observations for NIRSpec MSA spectroscopic planning within the same JWST observing Cycle.

  16. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.

  17. Development of knowledge about electricity and magnetism during a visit to a science museum and related post-visit activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Lucas, Keith B.; Ginns, Ian S.; Dierking, Lynn D.

    2000-09-01

    This article reports on part of a larger study of how 11- and 12-year-old students construct knowledge about electricity and magnetism by drawing on aspects of their experiences during the course of a school visit to an interactive science museum and subsequent classroom activities linked to the science museum exhibits. The significance of this study is that it focuses on an aspect of school visits to informal learning centers that has been neglected by researchers in the past, namely the influence of post-visit activities in the classroom on subsequent learning and knowledge construction. This study provides evidence that the integrated series of post-visit activities resulted in students constructing and reconstructing their personal knowledge of science concepts and principles represented in the science museum exhibits, sometimes toward the accepted scientific understanding and sometimes in different and surprising ways. A descriptive interpretive approach was adopted, with principal data sources comprising student-generated concept maps and semistructured interviews at three stages of the study. Findings demonstrate the interrelationships between learning that occurs at school, home, and in informal learning settings. The study also underscores for classroom teachers and staff of science museums and similar centers the importance of planning pre- and post-visit activities. The importance of this planning is not only to support the development of scientific conceptions, but also to detect and respond to alternative conceptions that may be produced or strengthened during a visit to an informal learning center.

  18. Vigilance task-related change in brain functional connectivity as revealed by wavelet phase coherence analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the vigilance task-related change in connectivity in healthy adults using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy signals (NIRS. NIRS is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique for assessing brain activity. Continuous recordings of the NIRS signals were obtained from the prefrontal cortex (PFC and sensorimotor cortical areas of 20 young healthy adults (24.9±3.3 years during a 10-min resting state and a 20-min vigilance task state. The vigilance task was used to simulate driving mental load by judging three random numbers (i.e., whether odd numbers. The task was divided into two sessions: the first 10 minutes (Task t1 and the second 10 minutes (Task t2. The WPCO of six channel pairs were calculated in five frequency intervals: 0.6–2 Hz (I, 0.145–0.6 Hz (II, 0.052–0.145 Hz (III, 0.021–0.052 Hz (IV, and 0.0095–0.021 Hz (V. The significant WPCO formed global connectivity (GC maps in intervals I and II and functional connectivity (FC maps in intervals III to V. Results show that the GC levels in interval I and FC levels in interval III were significantly lower in the Task t2 than in the resting state (p < 0.05, particularly between the left PFC and bilateral sensorimotor regions. Also, the reaction time shows an increase in Task t2 compared with that in Task t1. However, no significant difference in WPCO was found between Task t1 and resting state. The results showed that the change in FC at the range of 0.6-2 Hz was not attributed to the vigilance task pe se, but the interaction effect of vigilance task and time factors. The findings suggest that the decreased attention level might be partly attributed to the reduced GC levels between the left prefrontal region and sensorimotor area. The present results provide a new insight into the vigilance task-related brain activity.

  19. Pulsed EPR and NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic iron porphyrinates and related iron macrocycles: how to understand patterns of spin delocalization and recognize macrocycle radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, F Ann

    2003-07-28

    Pulsed EPR spectroscopic techniques, including ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) and pulsed ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance), are extremely useful for determining the magnitudes of the hyperfine couplings of macrocycle and axial ligand nuclei to the unpaired electron(s) on the metal as a function of magnetic field orientation relative to the complex. These data can frequently be used to determine the orientation of the g-tensor and the distribution of spin density over the macrocycle, and to determine the metal orbital(s) containing unpaired electrons and the macrocycle orbital(s) involved in spin delocalization. However, these studies cannot be carried out on metal complexes that do not have resolved EPR signals, as in the case of paramagnetic even-electron metal complexes. In addition, the signs of the hyperfine couplings, which are not determined directly in either ESEEM or pulsed ENDOR experiments, are often needed in order to translate hyperfine couplings into spin densities. In these cases, NMR isotropic (hyperfine) shifts are extremely useful in determining the amount and sign of the spin density at each nucleus probed. For metal complexes of aromatic macrocycles such as porphyrins, chlorins, or corroles, simple rules allow prediction of whether spin delocalization occurs through sigma or pi bonds, and whether spin density on the ligands is of the same or opposite sign as that on the metal. In cases where the amount of spin density on the macrocycle and axial ligands is found to be too large for simple metal-ligand spin delocalization, a macrocycle radical may be suspected. Large spin density on the macrocycle that is of the same sign as that on the metal provides clear evidence of either no coupling or weak ferromagnetic coupling of a macrocycle radical to the unpaired electron(s) on the metal, while large spin density on the macrocycle that is of opposite sign to that on the metal provides clear evidence of antiferromagnetic coupling

  20. CARMENES science preparation: characterisation of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of low-mass objects that can be targets of exoplanet searches with near-infrared spectrographs in general and CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs; see Quirrenbach et al. 2014) in particular. The CARMENES consortium comprises 11 institutions from Germany and Spain that are building a high-resolution spectrograph (R=82,000) with two channels, visible (0.55 - 1.05 um) and infrared (0.95 - 1.7 um), for the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It will observe a sample of 300 M dwarfs in 600 nights of guaranteed time during at least three years, starting in January 2016. The final sample will be chosen from the 2200 M dwarfs included in the CARMENCITA input catalogue. For these stars, we have obtained and collected a large amount of data: spectral types, radial and rotational velocities, photometry in several bands, etc. Part of the e effort of the science preparation necessary for the final selection of targets for CARMENES and other near-infrared spectrographs has been collected in two publications, which are presented in this PhD thesis. In the first publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...577A.128A), we obtained low-resolution spectra for 753 stars using the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope. The main goal was to derive accurate spectral types, which are fundamental parameters for the sample selection. We used a grid of 49 standard stars, from spectral types K3V to M8V, together with a double least-square minimisation technique and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. In addition, we quantified the surface gravity, metallicity and chromospheric activity of the sample, in order to detect low-gravity stars (giants and very young), metal-poor and very metal-poor stars (subdwarfs), and very active stars. In the second publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...583A..85A), we searched for common proper