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Sample records for related prophylactic measures

  1. [A study of the related factors and prophylactic measures of endodontic interappointment emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Gen-li; Yin, Shi-hai

    2004-12-01

    To estimate the related factors and prophylactic measures of endodontic interappointment emergencies (EIE). The clinical cases were divided into three groups. Cases in the routine group were treated according to the routine procedures of root canal therapy. Cases in the medicament group took dexamethasone tablets after the instrumentation. Root canals in the drainage group were prepared at the first visit and had been left open for two or three days. The related factors were recorded. The incidences and flare-up index (FUI) value of EIE were statistically analyzed. The EIE incidence of the routine group was 19.1%. The EIE incidence and FUI value of the overinstrumented teeth were significantly higher than those of other teeth (P 0.05). The FUI value of the medicament group was significantly lower than that of the routine group (P 0.05). The occurrence of EIE was significantly related to overinstrumentation. Taking dexamethasone may relieve EIE.

  2. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlicka, R.; Brestovansky, L.

    1996-01-01

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. Measurements enumarated in paragraph 1 are made on disconnected electric

  3. Prophylactic and thermovision measurements of electric machines and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedlicka, R; Brestovansky, L [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    High-voltage measurements of generators, unit and service transformers and some significant motor drives used at a nuclear power plant are described in this paper. Thermovision measurements of electric machines and distribution systems are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Power electric equipment represent one of the most significant components of a nuclear power plant. Turbine mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy within these equipment. Power generated by generators is transformed by transformers so that it can achieve appropriate parameters for both the transmission over the distribution system and the power plant service power supply. The service power supply switchboards and cables provide supply to motors and other consumers necessary for the nuclear power plant technological process. The whole complex of equipment has to be maintained in good technical conditions. It is necessary to make thermovision and prophylactic measurements to identify and verify the electric equipment technical condition. The mentioned measurements warn the operation staff in advance against both gradual deterioration of power connection contact resistances, i.e. power connections overheating, and the machine insulation systems condition deterioration. The operation staff try to prevent the electric equipment operation accidents by early removing the detected failures, thus, improving the nuclear safety. In order to provide the above-mentioned activities a special prophylactic measurement group was established at the NPP Bohunice in 1983. The group specialists make following types of measurements. 1. Prophylactic measurements of electric machines. Prophylactics of 220 MW generators and 6 MW service power generators; Prophylactics of both unit and service transformers and VHV bushings; Prophylactics of major 6 kV motor drives. 2. Thermovision measurements of current connections. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. The effect of prophylactic lymphovenous anastomosis and shunts for preventing cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads G; Toyserkani, Navid M; Sørensen, Jens A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is one of the most dreaded side effects to any cancer treatment involving lymphadenectomy. Progressed lymphedema is adversely complex and currently there is no widely acknowledged curative treatment. Therefore recent focus has shifted to risk reduction and prevention. It has...... with prophylactic LVA had a significant reduction in lymphedema incidence (Relative risk: 0.33, 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.56) when compared to patients receiving no prophylactic treatment (P 

  5. Guidelines on the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Among the fission products that may be released in a power reactor accident the radio iodines are unique in that the dose received by persons exposed by inhalation of radio iodines in the gaseous plume may be substantially reduced. GMA-9 provides guidance on the medical aspects of the use of stable iodine compounds as a prophylactic measure in the event of a nuclear accident. A review of the physiologic basis for the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure and the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland are provided. Logistic factors that must be considered to provide the optimum level of radiological protection and medical safety are also addressed. 71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Guidelines on the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure during nuclear emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Among the fission products that may be released in a power reactor accident the radio iodines are unique in that the dose received by persons exposed by inhalation of radio iodines in the gaseous plume may be substantially reduced. GMA-9 provides guidance on the medical aspects of the use of stable iodine compounds as a prophylactic measure in the event of a nuclear accident. A review of the physiologic basis for the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure and the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland are provided. Logistic factors that must be considered to provide the optimum level of radiological protection and medical safety are also addressed. 71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  8. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-07-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  9. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  10. Acute caries following radiation therapy in the nose/throat region. Prophylactic measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roella, G; Johansen, E [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Pedersen, K N [Rochester Univ., NY (USA)

    1978-05-10

    Recent research indicates that xerostomia caused by irradiation of the salivary glands causes rampant caries by inducing a soft sucrose rich diet in this group of patients and by reduction of the buffer capacity and volume of the secretion. Whereas total extraction of the teeth before the irradiation started was previously the normal procedure in these patients, the teeth now can be maintained by very simple and inexpensive prophylactic measures, involving use of a gel containing 1% of soldium fluoride for 5 minutes once daily.

  11. Guidelines on the use of stable iodine as a prophylactic measure during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Among the fission products that may be released in a power reactor accident the radioiodines are unique in that the dose received by persons exposed by inhalation of radioiodines in the gaseous plume may be substantially reduced. GMA-9 provides guidance on the medical aspects of the use of stable iodine compounds as a prophylactic measure in the event of a nuclear accident. A review of the physiologic basis for the use of stable iodine as a prophylatic measure and the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland are provided. Logistic factors that must be considered to provide the optimum level of radiological protection and medical safety are also addressed. Due to the delay in publishing the French version of this report, some sections of this report have been updated to reflect current practices.71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Comparison of efficacy of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Akça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort/pain in patients undergoing cystoscopy. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I-II patients between 18-75 years of age and undergoing cystoscopy between November 2011 and June 2012 at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups to receive 1 μ/kg dexmedetomidine, 250 μ/kg intravenous ketamine, or normal saline. All patients were questioned regarding probe-related discomfort, patient satisfaction, and pain at the end of the operation 0 (t0 and 15 (t1, 60 (t2, 120 (t3, and 360 (t4 minutes postoperatively. Evaluations were performed in person at the post-anesthesia care unit, or in ambulatory surgery rooms, or by phone calls. Results: Pain incidence in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.042 was significantly lower than that in the control group (p=0.044.The sedation scores recorded at t0 in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.004 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.017. Patient groups were similar regarding the rate of hallucinations experienced at t1, no patients experienced hallucinations at t2, t3, or t4. Significantly more patients experienced hallucinations at t0 in the ketamine group than in the dexmedetomidine group (p=0.034 and the control group (p=0.005. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine and ketamine had similar analgesic effects in preventing catheter-related pain; however, dexmedetomidine had a more acceptable side effect profile. To identify the optimal doses of dexmedetomidine and ketamine, more large-scale interventional studies are needed.

  13. Neutron activation appraisal of efficiency of herbs in prophylactic measures of teeth caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumatov, U.Zh.

    1997-01-01

    The results of neutron activation analysis of elemental composition of teeth in experimental animals under conditions of pesticides and fluorine influence on an organism have been obtained and the role of black mulberry and zizyphus jujubi mill in prophylactics of teeth caries has been determined. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  14. Perspectives about pandemic influenza and its prophylactic measures among final year pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najia Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In flu pandemics, pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices are critical to save patients life. The objective of study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude toward the pandemic influenza among the pharmacy students of Karachi, Pakistan. Settings and Designs: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 by adopting a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to senior pharmacy students (final year in seven private and public sector universities of Karachi. Materials and Methods: A total of 443 pharmacy students responded the survey. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics of the students, perceptions, level of knowledge and attitudes toward influenza, and prophylactic measures were collected. Statistical Analysis: To compute the correlation between different variables, data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square statistic method. P< 0.05 was considered statistical significance for all analysis. Results: Influenza was identified as a viral disease (n = 423; 95.48% and 282 (71.2% students correctly identified it as disease affecting humans and pigs. Textbooks reported as most common source of knowledge (n = 282; 64%. Most common symptoms identified were fever (81.94%, sore throat (64.1%, and nonproductive cough (43.34%. The most common preventive measures were covering nose and mouth (268; 60.5% and wearing protective coverings (254; 57.3%. Only half of the students correctly reported about the route of administration (180; 40.6% and strains in vaccine (186; 41.98%. The best time for administration of such vaccine was known by only 156 pharmacy students (35.34%. The majority of the students (82.6% had no idea about the manifestation of influenza pandemic. Knowledge regarding influenza differed according to gender and institutions differing in their affiliation with tertiary care hospitals. Conclusion: It was observed that knowledge about disease progression, transmission, vaccination

  15. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Björkman, S; Oh, M; Fritsch, S; Schroth, P; Spotts, G; Astermark, J; Ewenstein, B

    2009-03-01

    The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level break-through bleeding in patients with severe hemophilia A on prophylaxis. This study analysed data from 44 patients aged 1-6 and 99 patients aged 10-65 years with severe hemophilia A (FVIII safety and efficacy of a recombinant FVIII (Advate). Each patient had pharmacokinetic measurements and FVIII infusions recorded, and these were used to calculate time spent with a FVIII below 1, 2 and 5 IU dL(-1). The data demonstrate that increasing time with a FVIII below 1 IU dL(-1) is associated with increased total bleeds and hemarthroses. Lack of adherence to the intended frequency of FVIII infusion was the most important determinant of low FVIII and increased bleeding. In children aged 1-6 years, the rate of bleeding was also influenced by FVIII half-life and clearance. These data have important implications for the management of patients with severe hemophilia.

  16. Prophylactic role of taurine and its derivatives against diabetes mellitus and its related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulami; Basak, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kundu, Mousumi; Sil, Parames C

    2017-12-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid present in the body in free form. Mammalian taurine is synthesized in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation are two main properties through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Many studies have shown its excellent therapeutic potential against diabetes mellitus and related complications like diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, hematological dysfunctions, reproductive dysfunctions, liver and pancreas related complications etc. Not only taurine, a number of its derivatives have also been reported to be important in ameliorating diabetic complications. The present review has been aimed to describe the importance of taurine and its derivatives against diabetic metabolic syndrome and related complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and health-related quality of life in women at high risk undergoing prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern, A E; Tengrup, I; Loman, N; Olsson, H; Ringberg, A

    2008-10-01

    Prophylactic mastectomy is an effective risk-reducing option in women with hereditary increased risk of breast cancer. It may be combined with immediate reconstruction, with the intention of improving aesthetic outcome and health-related quality of life. Sixty-one women underwent prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction in Malmö, Sweden, between 1995 and 2003. Forty women underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Ten of these had a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Twenty-one women underwent contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction after a previous breast cancer. Fifty-four of the women (89%) were evaluated clinically for aesthetic results and complications. Patient satisfaction and quality of life were evaluated with one study-specific and two standardised health-related questionnaires administered at time of clinical follow-up. Median follow-up time was 42 months (range 7-99 months). The position of the reconstructed breasts was judged as satisfactory in 77% of breasts. Symmetry in relation to the midline was adequate in 89% of breasts. A capsular contracture grade III according to Baker and indentation tonometry was observed in 1% of breasts (1/104). The complication rate was 18% (7% early and 11% late). Secondary corrections were carried out in 11% of breasts. The study-specific questionnaire revealed a high degree of satisfaction. No woman regretted the procedure, and all women would have chosen the same type of surgery again. An age-stratified comparison of Swedish women using the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) questionnaire was carried out for this study. The study population scores were high, suggesting that prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction on both physical and psychological issues in this retrospective study had no negative effect. Also, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) questionnaire did not suggest any increased anxiety or

  18. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Young Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIncreasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy.MethodsThis was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy.ResultsSixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9% were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9% understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27% stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%, the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%, possible surgical complications (24%, and financial cost (6%.ConclusionsIn this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals.

  19. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P. W.; Blanchette, V. S.; Fischer, K.; Bjorkman, S.; Oh, M.; Fritsch, S.; Schroth, P.; Spotts, G.; Astermark, J.; Ewenstein, B.

    Background: The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level <1 IU dL(-1).

  20. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  1. Prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Cavalcante Salmito

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM is now accepted as a common cause of episodic vertigo. Treatment of VM involves two situations: the vestibular symptom attacks and the period between attacks. For the latter, some prophylaxis methods can be used. The current recommendation is to use the same prophylactic drugs used for migraines, including β-blockers, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The recent diagnostic definition of vestibular migraine makes the number of studies on its treatment scarce. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment used in patients from a VM outpatient clinic. Methods: Review of medical records from patients with VM according to the criteria of the Bárány Society/International Headache Society of 2012 criteria. The drugs used in the treatment and treatment response obtained through the visual analog scale (VAS for dizziness and headache were assessed. The pre and post-treatment VAS scores were compared (the improvement was evaluated together and individually, per drug used. Associations with clinical subgroups of patients were also assessed. Results: Of the 88 assessed records, 47 were eligible. We included patients that met the diagnostic criteria for VM and excluded those whose medical records were illegible and those of patients with other disorders causing dizziness and/or headache that did not meet the 2012 criteria for VM. 80.9% of the patients showed improvement with prophylaxis (p < 0.001. Amitriptyline, Flunarizine, Propranolol and Topiramate improved vestibular symptoms (p < 0.001 and headache (p < 0.015. The four drugs were effective in a statistically significant manner. There was a positive statistical association between the time of vestibular symptoms and clinical improvement. There was no additional benefit in hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs as prophylaxis or depressed patients who used antidepressants in relation to other prophylactic drugs. Drug

  2. Incidence of postoperative implant-related bacterial endocarditis in dogs that underwent trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus without intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics are routinely administered by veterinary cardiologists to dogs that undergo trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus for prevention of implant-related infective endocarditis. The hypothesis of our study was that primary antibiotic

  3. CKM related measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalseno, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent CKM-related results on the unitary triangle for B d decays from the BaBar and Belle Collaborations which collect BB-bar pairs at the Υ(4S) resonance produced in asymmetric e + e - collisions. These include the decay channels B 0 → (cc-bar)K 0 and B 0 → D (*)+ D (*)- , which are sensitive to the CP violating phase φ 1 : B 0 → α 1 (1260) ± π ± , which can constrain the CP violating phase φ 2 , and B → hlν, from which V ub can be determined. (author)

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part II. Recommendations from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Niehoff, P.; Wilhelm, R.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the recommendations from the literature are compared to the results of the questionnaire. An extensive research on common data information systems (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI and others) was performed. The criteria included the organ related morbidity and therapeutic strategies for its reduction. The obtained data were compared to the results from the questionnaire. The study data found by the research often demonstrate small patient numbers and little convincing results. However, as in the questionnaire, the joint principle seems to be the reduction of acute inflammatory tissue reaction by evasion of bacterial and mycotic overgrowth and reduction of exo- and endogenous toxins. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Is prophylactic fixation a cost-effective method to prevent a future contralateral fragility hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    : A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for

  6. Prevention of dimethylsulfoxide-related nausea and vomiting by prophylactic administration of ondansetron for patients receiving autologous cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Seth; Wickline, Mihkaila; Linenberger, Michael; Gooley, Ted; Holmberg, Leona

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ondansetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) during autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) infusion. Nonrandomized cohort using historical control. Comprehensive cancer center outpatient infusion department. 50 patients receiving ASCT in the outpatient setting. Patients were assessed for nausea and vomiting on their infusion day using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool (MAT) at arrival, pre-ASCT infusion, pre-ondansetron administration, prior to the first bag, and after each bag of stem cells. A standard script was used to ensure consistency. Ondansetron, 16 mg IV, was administered 30-90 minutes prior to each ASCT infusion. Number and volume of stem cells bags, as well as infusion rate and emesis episodes, were recorded. Nausea scores and vomiting episodes were compared to historical data. Subjectivity of nausea, potential Hawthorne Effect. Forty-five percent of patients had an MAT score greater than 2 on arrival, decreasing to 18% after receiving ondansetron before the first bag. Twenty-four percent had MAT increases of more than two points by infusion end compared to 58% in the historic control group. Eighteen percent of patients vomited compared to 28% of historic controls. The administration of 16 mg of IV ondansetron significantly reduced DMSO-related nausea and episodes of vomiting in patients receiving ASCT. Prophylactic administration of ondansetron had a positive effect on reducing nausea symptoms and episodes of vomiting during ASCT infusions. These results prompted a change in clinical practice. More research is required to determine whether the inclusion of other antiemetic agents would provide even greater benefit. To date, no other published studies have explored the benefits of premedicating patients with ondansetron prior to ASCT infusions. This study is the first to establish efficacy of ondansetron for an unlabeled indication. These

  7. [Prophylactic treatments of migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiou, H

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment is mainly intended to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. It is usually proposed to patients who suffer from two or more attacks per month. It should also be considered in patients who suffer from less frequent, but prolonged, disabling attacks with a poor response to abortive treatment, and who consider that their quality of life is reduced between attacks. Excessive intake of acute medication, more than twice a week, is a strong indication for prophylactic treatment. In order to obtain a good compliance to treatment, the patient must be informed of the expected efficacy of the drugs, and of their most frequent side effects. Thus, the choice of a prophylactic drug is made together with the patient. Based on the results of published controlled trials, the main prophylactic drugs are some betablockers, methysergide, pizotifene, oxetorone, flunarizine, amitriptyline, NSAIDs, and sodium valproate. Some less evaluated drugs such as aspirin, DHE, indoramine, verapamil, may be useful. Other substances such as riboflavin and new antiepileptic dugs are being evaluated. The choice of the drug to start with depends on several considerations. The first step is to make sure that there are no contra indications, and no possible interaction with the abortive medications. Then, possible side effects will be taken into account, for example, weight gain is a problem for most young women and patients who practice sports may not tolerate betablockers. Associated pathologies have to be checked. For example, a hypertensive migraine sufferers may benefit from betablockers; in a patient who suffers both from migraine and tension type headaches or from depression, amitriptyline is the first choice drug. The type of migraine should also be considered; for instance, in frequent attacks with aura, aspirin is recommended and betablockers avoided. In most cases, prophylaxis should be given as monotherapy, and it is often necessary to try successively several drugs

  8. A prophylactic amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Afsana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of amputation of the fourth toe is described in a diabetic patient. The patient had overlapping of third and fourth toes since her childhood and later she developed soft lipomas over the fourth toe and lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot. The lipomas were excised without relief of pain. Subsequently, the fourth toe was disarticulated with relief of pain and healing of ulcers. The role of prophylactic amputations in such cases is described. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 87-89

  9. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development scores). Two authors...

  10. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  11. Migraine - Prophylactic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Debashish

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive therapy in migraine constitutes an important aspect of migraine management especially in patients who are not controlled or have significant disability despite taking drugs for acute management. In spite of te recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine, the mechanisms of action of many preventive drugs are largely unknown. Further, these provide only about 50% reduction in frequency in about 2/3rds of migraine sufferers. Hence, risk-benefit ratio must be considered while prescribing these agents. Recent efforts to undertake large-scale meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of these agents have been rewarding and consensus guidelines have evolved. Propanolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, sodium valproate, flunarizine and lisuride have emerged as first line drugs. The role of newer anti-convulsants and botox injections in refractory cases are being investigated. Availability, co-morbidities, medical contraindications, concomitant acute therapy and costs are important determinants for choosing a particular agent. This article reviews the guidelines to be followed in choosing the prophylactic treatment options for migraine.

  12. Prophylactic digitalisation in pulmonary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A J; Danton, M; Gibbons, J R

    1992-01-01

    Prophylactic digoxin is widely used in patients undergoing pulmonary surgery to prevent or control cardiac arrhythmias, but whether it is helpful or not is uncertain. An open, controlled randomised prospective clinical study of 111 patients was undertaken to compare the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in the 58 patients who received preoperative digoxin and the 53 who did not. Cardiac arrhythmia occurred in half (29/58) of those given prophylactic digoxin and in 36% (19/53) of those who were not. The overall incidence of arrhythmia was 43%, with no statistically significant difference between the groups. Cardiac arrhythmias remain an important complication of pulmonary surgery and the incidence is not reduced by prophylactic digoxin.

  13. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... published before 2012. Four levels of screening identified 13 studies suitable for inclusion in this systematic review. No meta-analysis was conducted as no data suitable for statistical analysis were identified. In total, the initial examination after symptomatic PVD identified 85-95% of subsequent retinal......-47% of cases, respectively. The cumulated incidence of RRD despite prophylactic treatment was 2.1-8.8%. The findings in this review suggest that follow-up after symptomatic PVD is only necessary in cases of incomplete retinal examination at presentation. Prophylactic treatment of symptomatic retinal breaks...

  14. Prophylactic Antibiotics and Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.

  15. Prophylactic Effect of Dexamethasone on Regorafenib-Related Fatigue and/or Malaise: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Study in Patients with Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (KSCC1402/HGCSG1402).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Tsuji, Akihito; Asayama, Masako; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Yuki, Satoshi; Kotaka, Masahito; Makiyama, Akitaka; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Shimose, Takayuki; Masuda, Satohiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Komatsu, Yoshito; Saeki, Hiroshi; Emi, Yasunori; Baba, Hideo; Oki, Eiji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with a proven survival benefit for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The KSCC1402/HGCSG1402 study investigated the prophylactic effect of oral dexamethasone (DEX) on regorafenib-related fatigue and/or malaise. Patients who progressed after standard chemotherapy were randomized 1: 1 to a DEX group (2 mg/day; days 1-28) with regorafenib or a placebo group with regorafenib. The primary endpoint was the incidence of fatigue and/or malaise, based on version 4.0 of the National Cancer Institute's CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). One of the secondary endpoints was the in-cidence of fatigue and/or malaise based on the CTCAE assessed by patient-reported outcome (PRO). The incidence of any grade of fatigue and/or malaise assessed by the investigators was 58.8% in the DEX group and 61.1% in the placebo group (p = 0.8101), and that assessed by PRO was 47.2 and 58.3%, respectively (p = 0.3450). The incidence of grade ≥2 fatigue and/or malaise, as assessed by the investigators, was 19.4% for the DEX group and 38.9% for the placebo group (p = 0.0695), and that assessed by PRO was 27.8 and 52.8%, respectively (p = 0.0306). Our results suggest that prophylactic oral DEX is clinically effective in improving regorafenib-related fatigue and/or malaise. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Incidence of postoperative implant-related bacterial endocarditis in dogs that underwent trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus without intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Viktor

    2017-08-01

    Intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics are routinely administered by veterinary cardiologists to dogs that undergo trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus for prevention of implant-related infective endocarditis. The hypothesis of our study was that primary antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary to prevent bacterial endocarditis. In this retrospective case series 54 client-owned dogs that underwent trans-catheter occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus in a single tertiary veterinary referral center between 2004 and 2016 were evaluated. Follow-up information was gained by telephone interviews with the owners or the referring veterinarians, or from the digital archives of the authors' clinic. Inclusion criteria were that at least one metal implant (a coil or an Amplatz duct occluder) had to be delivered in the ductal ampulla, no local or systemic antibiotics were given on the day of the intervention or the week thereafter, at least 3 months of postoperative follow-up information was available, and the author was performing the procedure either as the primary or as the supervising cardiology specialist. None of the 54 dogs developed infective endocarditis in the postoperative 3 months. A study describing a similar population reports 2 of the included 47 dogs having developed infective endocarditis in the postoperative period despite the administration of intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics. We conclude that intra- and post-procedural antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified in dogs that undergo trans-catheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus. Proper surgical technique and the use of new sterile catheters and implants are sufficient to prevent infective endocarditis in these dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greate...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine....

  18. Optimal entropic uncertainty relation for successive measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measurements in quantum information theory. M D SRINIVAS ... derived by Robertson in 1929 [2] from the first principles of quantum theory, does not ... systems and may hence be referred to as 'uncertainty relations for distinct measurements'.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics in pediatric shunt surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, N; Grisaru-Soen, G; Steinbok, P; Sgouros, S; Constantini, S

    2006-11-01

    The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis for pediatric shunt-related procedures is not clear. There is much inconsistency among different medical centers. This paper summarizes and analyzes the various prophylactic antibiotic regiments used for shunt-related surgeries at different pediatric neurosurgery centers in the world. A survey questionnaire was distributed through the Pediatric Neurosurgery list-server (an e-mail-based special interest group in pediatric neurosurgery). Forty-five completed questionnaires were received, one per medical center, primarily from pediatric neurosurgeons with the following geographic breakdown: 25 from North America, 13 from Europe, and 7 from Asia and other countries. All centers routinely administered prophylactic antibiotics for shunt-related procedures. The drugs of choice were first-generation cephalosporins (23), second-generation cephalosporins (10), naficillin/oxacillin (4), vancomycin (3), clindamycin (1), amoxicillin (1), and mixed protocols in three centers. The initial drug administration ("first dose") was: in the department before transfer to operating room (5), upon arrival to operating room (11), at induction of anesthesia (13), and at initial skin incision (16). The duration of antibiotic dosage also varied: single dose (13), 24-h administration (26), 48-h administration (2), and longer than 48 h in four centers. Two general tendencies were noted, common to the majority of participating centers. There was a general trend to modify antibiotic treatment protocol in "high-risk" populations. The second common theme noted in more than half of responding centers was the use of long-term antibiotic treatment for externalized devices (such as externalized shunts, external ventricular drains or lumbar drains), usually till the device was in place.

  20. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part I. Results of a German multicenter questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Niehoff, P.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, it was to evaluate the remedies, which are used for prevention and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large bowel, rectum and vagina). A questionnaire was sent to 130 radiotherapeutic departments in Germany in Juli 1995. The questionnaire had been designed with 22 open questions concerning the preventive and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of skin and mucosal sites. From 130 questionnaires, 89 (68.4%) were sent back till August 1995. All of them were evaluable. The recommendations showed a broad spectrum for each site. Especially the oral mucositis was treated in many different ways and combinations. The prevention and therapy of complicating superinfections seem to be the joint principle of most of the recommendations. The management of the acute radiation related morbidity has a wide clinical spectrum among different radiation therapy centers. Systematic prospectively designed investigations are necessary in order to achieve a further reduction in the radiation related acute morbidity. Therefore, a multicenter collaborative working group has been founded. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Efficacy of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in reducing permanent pacemaker infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Huang; Huang, Ting-Chun; Lin, Li-Jen; Lee, Po-Tseng; Lin, Chih-Chan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Li, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ju-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Despite limited evidence, postoperative prophylactic antibiotics are often used in the setting of permanent pacemaker implantation or replacement. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of postoperative antibiotics. Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics may be not clinically useful. We recruited 367 consecutive patients undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation or generator replacement at a tertiary referral center. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and procedure information were collected, and all patients received preoperative prophylactic antibiotics. Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered at the discretion of the treating physician, and all patients were seen in follow-up every 3 to 6 months for an average follow-up period of 16 months. The primary endpoint was device-related infection. A total of 110 patients were treated with preoperative antibiotics only (group 1), whereas 257 patients received both preoperative and postoperative antibiotics (group 2). After a mean follow-up period of 16 months, 1 patient in group 1 (0.9%) and 4 patients in group 2 (1.5%) experienced a device-related infection. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection between the 2 groups (P = 0.624). In the univariate analysis, only the age (60 ± 11 vs 75 ± 12 years, P antibiotics had a similar rate of infection as those treated with preoperative antibiotics alone. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  3. [Prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, S; Riss, B

    1981-08-01

    The indications for and results of prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment during a period of five years are reported and compared with the results in the literature. Half of the cases (3 out of 6 eyes) which developed a retinal detachment had been horse-shoe tears combined with a vitreous hemorrhage. For this reason a small buckle operation is recommended in these cases, to prevent further traction. Lattice degeneration should rather be observed than treated, except in special cases: This includes eyes where the fellow eye had a detachment from a lattice degeneration, cases in which one eye is blind from an uncured detachment or has no useful visual acuity, and eyes whose fellow eye has giant tears. In aphakic eyes treatment of lattice degeneration is recommended, because the incidence of detachment from these areas is high, especially in young aphakic cases. In one aphakic eye which had been photocoagulated several times the formation of a preretinal membrane was observed.

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of oral complications related to chemotherapy and radiotherapy: role of dental oncology in cancer patient supportive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffarah, Henry Bittar

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients under treatment of head and neck tumors as well as those under chemotherapy for hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and those about to receive bone marrow grafts, do require preventive oral and dental care (prior to cancer treatment), as well as oral care during and after oncological treatment. Furthermore, chemo and radiotherapy-related adverse effects are also common in patients with other types of cancer, with an estimated frequency of 10 per cent in adjuvant chemotherapy (QT), 40 per cent in primary QT, 80 per cent in bone marrow transplantation, in which myeloablative regimens are introduced, and 100 per cent in head and neck radiotherapy, in which the targeted fields are those of the oral cavity. The dentist, specialized in dental oncology, works within the multidisciplinary team at the great centers of cancer treatment, contributing to improve the quality of life of these patients. The present review of literature and of the Guidelines for Management of Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head and Neck Radiation (US National Cancer Institute) aims to inform the clinical oncologist, the radio therapist, and other professionals about the resources available in Oral Supportive Therapy in both the prevention and managements of such complications. (author)

  5. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  6. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Bohndorf, W.

    1996-01-01

    To analyse if prophylactic cranial irradiation is small cell lung cancer for improved survival is indicated; if adjuvant irradiation could cure the microscopic disease; if and how late effects could be minimized. Data from randomized trials and retrospective studies are critically analysed related to the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in limited disease patients in complete remission with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The mechanisms of late effects on CNS of prophylactic cranial irradiation and combined treatment are presented. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could decrease the incidence of CNS metastases but could not improve survival. A subgroup of patients (9 to 14%) most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure. The actual used total dose in the range 30 to 40 Gy could only conditionally decrease the CNS failure. Higher total and/or daily doses and combined treatment are related with potentially devastating neurologic and intellectual disabilities. No prospective randomized trial has demonstrated a significant survival advantage for patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is capable of reducing the incidence of cerebral metastases and delays CNS failure. A subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation (9 to 14%) includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure, but this had yet to be demonstrated. The toxicity of treatment is difficult to be influenced. Prophylactic cranial irradiation should not be given concurrently with chemotherapy, a larger interval after chemotherapy is indicated. The total dose should be in the range 30 to 36 Gy and the daily fraction size not larger than 2 Gy. (orig.) [de

  7. Measurement Uncertainty Relations for Discrete Observables: Relative Entropy Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo; Toigo, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new information-theoretic formulation of quantum measurement uncertainty relations, based on the notion of relative entropy between measurement probabilities. In the case of a finite-dimensional system and for any approximate joint measurement of two target discrete observables, we define the entropic divergence as the maximal total loss of information occurring in the approximation at hand. For fixed target observables, we study the joint measurements minimizing the entropic divergence, and we prove the general properties of its minimum value. Such a minimum is our uncertainty lower bound: the total information lost by replacing the target observables with their optimal approximations, evaluated at the worst possible state. The bound turns out to be also an entropic incompatibility degree, that is, a good information-theoretic measure of incompatibility: indeed, it vanishes if and only if the target observables are compatible, it is state-independent, and it enjoys all the invariance properties which are desirable for such a measure. In this context, we point out the difference between general approximate joint measurements and sequential approximate joint measurements; to do this, we introduce a separate index for the tradeoff between the error of the first measurement and the disturbance of the second one. By exploiting the symmetry properties of the target observables, exact values, lower bounds and optimal approximations are evaluated in two different concrete examples: (1) a couple of spin-1/2 components (not necessarily orthogonal); (2) two Fourier conjugate mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimension. Finally, the entropic incompatibility degree straightforwardly generalizes to the case of many observables, still maintaining all its relevant properties; we explicitly compute it for three orthogonal spin-1/2 components.

  8. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics and anticonvulsants in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratilal, B; Sampaio, C

    2011-01-01

    The prophylactic administration of antibiotics to prevent infection and the prophylactic administration of anticonvulsants to prevent first seizure episodes are common practice in neurosurgery. If prophylactic medication therapy is not indicated, the patient not only incurs the discomfort and the inconvenience resulting from drug treatment but is also unnecessarily exposed to adverse drug reactions, and incurs extra costs. The main situations in which prophylactic anticonvulsants and antibiotics are used are described and those situations we found controversial in the literature and lack further investigation are identified: anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural hematomas, antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures in those suffering from brain tumors, antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures, and antibiotic prophylaxis for the surgical introduction of intracranial ventricular shunts.In the following we present systematic reviews of the literature in accordance with the standard protocol of The Cochrane Collaboration to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of these prophylactic medications in the situations mentioned. Our goal was to efficiently integrate valid information and provide a basis for rational decision-making.

  11. Personalized prophylactic anticoagulation decision analysis in patients with membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Biddle, Andrea K.; Lionaki, Sofia; Derebail, Vimal K.; Barbour, Sean J.; Tannous, Sameer; Hladunewich, Michelle A.; Hu, Yichun; Poulton, Caroline J.; Mahoney, Shannon L.; Jennette, J. Charles; Hogan, Susan L.; Falk, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Reich, Heather N.; Nachman, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary membranous nephropathy is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, which are inversely correlated with serum albumin levels. To evaluate the potential benefit of prophylactic anticoagulation (venous thromboembolic events prevented) relative to the risk (major bleeds), we constructed a Markov decision model. The venous thromboembolic event risk according to serum albumin was obtained from an inception cohort of 898 patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Risk estimates of hemorrhage were obtained from a systematic literature review. Benefit-to-risk ratios were predicted according to bleeding risk and serum albumin. This ratio increased with worsening hypoalbuminemia from 4.5:1 for an albumin under 3 g/dl to 13.1:1 for an albumin under 2 g/dl in patients at low bleeding risk. Patients at intermediate bleeding risk with an albumin under 2 g/dl have a moderately favorable benefit-to-risk ratio (under 5:1). Patients at high bleeding risk are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation regardless of albuminemia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis, to account for uncertainty in risk estimates, confirmed these trends. From these data, we constructed a tool to estimate the likelihood of benefit based on an individual’s bleeding risk profile, serum albumin level, and acceptable benefit-to-risk ratio (http://www.gntools.com). This tool provides an approach to the decision of prophylactic anticoagulation personalized to the individual’s needs and adaptable to dynamic changes in health status and risk profile. PMID:24336031

  12. Present and future of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Huang, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Nan; Xia, Qing

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of prophylactic antibiotics in the reduction of mortality of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients, which is highly questioned by more and more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. METHODS: An updated meta-analysis was performed. RCTs comparing prophylactic antibiotics for SAP with control or placebo were included for meta-analysis. The mortality outcomes were pooled for estimation, and re-pooled estimation was performed by the sensitivity analysis of an ideal large-scale RCT. RESULTS: Currently available 11 RCTs were included. Subgroup analysis showed that there was significant reduction of mortality rate in the period before 2000, while no significant reduction in the period from 2000 [Risk Ratio, (RR) = 1.01, P = 0.98]. Funnel plot indicated that there might be apparent publication bias in the period before 2000. Sensitivity analysis showed that the RR of mortality rate ranged from 0.77 to 1.00 with a relatively narrow confidence interval (P antibiotic prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Current evidences do not support prophylactic antibiotics as a routine treatment for SAP, but the potentially benefited sub-population requires further investigations. PMID:22294832

  13. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  14. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, P.M.; Pande, K.C.; Patwardhan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  15. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curative...... of the dysphagia outcomes during and after treatment. Adherence to exercises was poor and dropouts due to especially fatigue were very frequent in both groups. Systematic swallowing exercises had no impact on swallowing outcomes within the first year after RT. Despite repeated supervised sessions, adherence...

  16. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Andriesse, B.; Kernick, D.; Reis, R.; Ferrari, M.D.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic

  17. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva

    2016-01-01

    RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  18. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  19. Lack of benefit for prophylactic drugs of tension-type headache in adults : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Arianne P.; Damen, Leonie; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Passchier, Jan; Koes, Bart W.

    Methods. We searched several databases from inception to August 2009. We selected randomized trials that reported the effects of prophylactic drugs in patients with TTH, with a pain measure (intensity, frequency, duration, improvement or index) as outcome measure. Two authors independently assessed

  20. Prophylactic antidepressant treatment following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole G; Madsen, Michael T; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is significantly increased in patients following acute coronary syndrome resulting in twofold increased mortality compared with patients without depression. The depression diagnosis is often missed leading to considerable undertreatment. This systematic review assesses...... the current evidence of primary prophylactic treatment of depression in patients after acute coronary syndrome. The study protocol was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42015025587). A systematic review were conducted and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Cochran Library was searched. Two independent reviewers screened the records. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials on adult patients with acute coronary syndrome treated prophylactically...

  1. Chemical composition and prophylactic effects of Saturja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The main components of SKEO were carvacrol (78.8%), thymol (7.5%), and beta-Bisabolene (1.2%). Findings of prophylactic effects revealed that mortality rate of infected mice was 8 days after oral administration of SKEO at the concentration of 0.2 and 0.3ml/kg (P<0.05). In contrast, this value for control group was ...

  2. Unhealthy smokers: scopes for prophylactic intervention and clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Shikha; Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Cucullo, Luca

    2017-10-04

    Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Even though there has been a marginal smoking decline of around 5% in recent years (2005 vs 2015), smokers still account for 15% of the US adult population. What is also concerning is that 41,000 out of 480,000 deaths results from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with chronic smoking. Further, we discuss prophylactic interventions and associated benefits and provide a rationale for the scope of clinical treatment. Considering these premises, it is evident that much detailed translational and clinical studies are needed. Factors such as the length of smoking cessation for ex-smokers, the level of smoke exposure in case of SHS, pre-established health conditions, genetics (and epigenetics modification caused by chronic smoking) are few of the criteria that need to be evaluated to begin assessing the prophylactic and/or therapeutic impact of treatments aimed at chronic and former smokers (especially early stage ex-smokers) including those frequently subjected to second hand tobacco smoke exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with

  3. Benefits of prophylactic gastropexy for dogs at risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Patronek, Gary J; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2003-09-12

    The lifetime probability of death from gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) for five dog breeds was estimated based on published breed-specific longevity and GDV incidence. These breeds were Great Dane, Irish Setter, Rottweiler, Standard Poodle and Weimaraner. Lifetime risk (95% CI) of GDV in these breeds ranged from 3.9% (0-11.2%) for Rottweiler to 36.7% (25.2-44.6%) for Great Dane. A decision-tree analysis for prophylactic gastropexy--using lifetime probability of death from GDV and expected cost savings for veterinary services as outcome measures--was undertaken to determine the preferred course of action in several dog breeds. Prophylactic gastropexy was the preferred choice of action for all breeds examined, with the reduction in mortality (versus no gastropexy) ranging from 2.2-fold (Rottweiler) to 29.6-fold (Great Dane). Assuming a prophylactic gastropexy costs US$ 400, the procedure was cost-effective when the lifetime risk of GDV was > or = 34%. The maximum and minimum estimated breakeven costs for the gastopexy procedure ranged from US$ 20 (Rottweiler) to US$ 435 (Great Dane). The cost-effectiveness of prophylactic gastropexy was most sensitive to the cost of treating GDV (US$ 1500). Prophylactic gastropexy raises ethical issues that need to be considered by veterinarians and dog breeders.

  4. Efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Heung Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyung; Han, Ki Chang; Lee, Shin Wha

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D and C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D and C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D and C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UAE. All women received successful bilateral prophylactic UAE followed by D and C with preservation of the uterus. In all patients, UAE followed by obstetrical procedure prevented significant vaginal bleeding on gynecologic examination. There was no major complication related to UAE. Vaginal spotting continued for 3 months in three cases. Although oligomenorrhea continued for six months in one patient, normal menstruation resumed in all patients afterwards. During follow-up, four had subsequent successful natural pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester. Prophylactic UAE before an obstetrical procedure in patients with high risk of bleeding or symptomatic bleeding may be a safe and effective way to manage or prevent serious bleeding, especially for women who wish to preserve their fertility

  5. Efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Heung Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyung; Han, Ki Chang; Lee, Shin Wha [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D and C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D and C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D and C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UAE. All women received successful bilateral prophylactic UAE followed by D and C with preservation of the uterus. In all patients, UAE followed by obstetrical procedure prevented significant vaginal bleeding on gynecologic examination. There was no major complication related to UAE. Vaginal spotting continued for 3 months in three cases. Although oligomenorrhea continued for six months in one patient, normal menstruation resumed in all patients afterwards. During follow-up, four had subsequent successful natural pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester. Prophylactic UAE before an obstetrical procedure in patients with high risk of bleeding or symptomatic bleeding may be a safe and effective way to manage or prevent serious bleeding, especially for women who wish to preserve their fertility.

  6. Role of prophylactic antiemetics in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, S.; Warraich, R.A.; Khan, S.R.; Riaz, N.; Mehdi, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    To find out the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONY) in oral and maxillofacial surgery done under general anaesthesia and to evaluate the purpose of using prophylactic antiemetic drugs. Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of the Study: Oral and Maxillofacial Department, KEMU / Mayo Hospital Lahore, from September 20 II to June 2012. Method: The number of patients who were operated in oral and maxillofacial surgery ward irrespective of age and gender for this study were 240. Risk factors related with PONY including gender, anesthetic drug used, surgical procedure, approach' used, total time of surgery and postoperative use of opioids were investigated. A wait and watch scheme was followed in patients with complaint of PONY. Antiemetics to be given in those cases where more than 2 episodes of vomiting took place. Results: It was found out that only II patients experienced from nausea and vomiting in post operative period. A notable relation was seen between PONY and female population, total time of surgery, anesthetic drug, surgery of tumor and temporomandibular joint. The surgical approach and opioids in postoperative period for PONY were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: PONY is not a significant finding in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We find out that there is no logic for the use of prophylactic antiemetic drugs in maxillofacial surgery. (author)

  7. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  8. Prophylactic digitalization preoperatively of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B

    1981-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hemodynamic effect of prophylactic digitalization before major surgical procedures. Sixteen patients, all admitted for an elective vascular operation for arteriosclerotic disease and all with impaired left ventricular function, were investigated. In half of the patients, digitalis was given before the operation, the other half of the patients served as the control study. The measured parameters were pulmonary artery mean pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume and arterial, as well as venous, oxygen content. Preoperatively, before digitalization, no significant differences were noted between the two groups at rest and during exercise. Before anesthesia and postoperatively, those given digitalis had improved cardiac function. Those in both groups, however, had a normal hemodynamic response to the surgical trauma. In this study, a definite answer is not provided concerning the usefulness of prophylactic digitalization but an increase in the ability of the digitalized heart to withstand the imposition of a pressure load postoperatively is suggested.

  9. Electrical and calorimetric measurements and related software

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Koratzinos, M; Rijllart, A; Siemko, A; Strait, J; Tavian, L; Wolf, R

    2009-01-01

    During the incident of sector 3-4 on September 19th, the temperature of a number of magnets increased over the expected values prior to the circuit failure. A review of the data logged during powering tests on all circuits indicated potential resistive splices in sectors 1-2 and 6-7. Calorimetric and electrical measurements confirmed a high resistance in magnet B16. R1 and B32R6. Systematic measurements have been performed in other cold sectors of the LHC during which the temperature increase and voltage across magnets were acquired at different currents. Cryogenic subsectors on which the temperature increase was abnormal were equipped with precise voltmeters to detect eventual resistive splices in the bus-bars. The findings of the measurement campaign will be shown as well as the plans to implement similar diagnostics as a routine check prior to powering the superconducting circuits of the LHC.

  10. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, P.A.; Weaver, S.; Fulton, D.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need ≥900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  11. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  12. Prophylactic Administration of Bacterially Derived Immunomodulators Improves the Outcome of Influenza Virus Infection in a Murine Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Clements, John D.; Voss, Thomas G.; Cárdenas-Freytag, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for promoting distinct immunological profiles. BALB/c mice were treated nasally with either cholera toxin (CT), a mutant form of the CT-related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin designated LT(R192G), or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24 h after the last immunomodulation treatment and either monitored for survival or sacrificed postchallenge for viral and immunological analysis. Treatment with the three immunomodulators prevented or delayed mortality and weight loss, but only CT and LT(R192G) significantly reduced initial lung viral loads as measured by plaque assay. Analysis performed 4 days postinfection indicated that prophylactic treatments with CT, LT(R192G), or CpG resulted in significantly increased numbers of CD4 T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and altered costimulatory marker expression in the airways of infected mice, coinciding with reduced expression of pulmonary chemokines and the appearance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue-like structures in the lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that, despite different immunomodulatory mechanisms, CT, LT(R192G), and CpG induce an initial inflammatory process and enhance the immune response to primary influenza virus challenge while preventing potentially damaging chemokine expression. These studies provide insight into the immunological parameters and immune modulation strategies that have the potential to enhance the nonspecific host response to influenza virus infection. PMID:20053748

  13. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  14. Precision measurement of relative oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, D.E.; Ibbetson, P.A.; Petford, A.D.; Shallis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of the Oxford method of comparing oscillator strengths has been improved by a factor of 10 to 0.5 per cent (0.002 dex) for low excitation lines. The improvements made to the apparatus are briefly described and its new performance discussed. A test for LTE in the furnace is also described. Relative oscillator strengths for 60 lines of Fe I with excitation potentials between 0.00 and 0.12 eV are given. Those with lambda > 320 nm have an accuracy of 0.5 per cent, and those with lambda < 320 nm have an accuracy of 1.0 per cent. Absolute values with an accuracy of 2.5 per cent for all lines are given. (author)

  15. Lifetime Costs of Prophylactic Mastectomies and Reconstruction versus Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, David; Gfrerer, Lisa; Reish, Richard G; Hughes, Kevin S; Cetrulo, Curtis; Colwell, Amy S; Winograd, Jonathan M; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C

    2015-12-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing prevalence of prophylactic mastectomy with decreasing ages of patients treated for breast cancer. Data are limited on the fiscal impacts of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy trends, and no study has compared bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with reconstruction to surveillance in high-risk patients. Lifetime third-party payer costs over 30 years were estimated with 2013 Medicare reimbursement rates. Costs were estimated for patients choosing contralateral or bilateral prophylactic mastectomy versus surveillance, with immediate reconstructions using a single-stage implant, tissue expander, or perforator-based free flap approach. Published cancer incidence rates predicted the percentage of surveillance patients that would require mastectomies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted that varied cost growth, discount rate, cancer incidence rate, and other variables. Lifetime costs and present values (3 percent discount rate) were estimated. Lifetime prophylactic mastectomy costs were lower than surveillance costs, $1292 to $1993 lower for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and $15,668 to $21,342 lower for bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, depending on the reconstruction. Present value estimates were slightly higher for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy over contralateral surveillance but still cost saving for bilateral prophylactic mastectomy compared with bilateral surveillance. Present value estimates are also cost saving for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy when the modeled contralateral breast cancer incidence rate is increased to at least 0.6 percent per year. These findings are consistent with contralateral and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy being cost saving in many scenarios, regardless of the reconstructive option chosen. They suggest that physicians and patients should continue to receive flexibility in deciding how best to proceed clinically in each case.

  16. The prophylactic effect of valproate on glyceryltrinitrate induced migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Jesper Filtenborg; Thomsen, L L; Iversen, H K

    2004-01-01

    In this study the human glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) model of migraine was for the first time used to test the effect of a prophylactic drug. We chose to test valproate due to its well documented effect as a migraine prophylactic drug. Efficacy of this compound would support the usefulness of the mod...

  17. Prophylactic iodine treatment in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Prophylactic iodine treatment is to prevent accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. This is done by administering a large amount of stable iodine before uptake of radioactive iodine so that further accummulation of iodine in the thyroid will be impossible. This blocking effect should be as complete as possible. This is achieved by administering an initial dose of 200 mg potassium iodide. As the release of radioactive iodine may last several hours or even days; for this reason, maintenance doses of 100 mg potassium iodide should be administered in 8-hour intervals. The risk of prophylactiv iodine treatment is rather low; however, provocation of latent hyperthyreoses must be expected in, at the most, 0.2% of the exposed population. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Serial measurement of relative changes in net magnetization, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Furuse, Masahiro; Izawa, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We assessed to what extent relative changes in net magnetization could be measured with the low field (0.043 T) MR imager. By the procedure to stabilize the whole MR imager hardware, we could measure the minute relative changes of the net magnetization (less than 1%) from the forearm presumably related to blood volume change. This method may be useful to measure physiological changes of blood volume in various human tissues though we need further development of hardware to measure minute relative changes in MR signal intensity with small volume selection. (author)

  19. Decision-making process of women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation who have chosen prophylactic mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuirter, Megan; Castiglia, Luisa Luciani; Loiselle, Carmen G; Wong, Nora

    2010-05-01

    To explore the decision-making process of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation who have chosen to undergo prophylactic mastectomy. Cross-sectional, qualitative, descriptive design. Participants were recruited from an outpatient cancer prevention center in the oncology and medical genetics departments of a large university-affiliated hospital in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 10 women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation; 8 previously had had a prophylactic mastectomy and 2 were scheduled for surgery at the time of study. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Field notes were written and audiotapes were transcribed verbatim. The textual data were coded and analyzed. Decision-making process for prophylactic mastectomy. Two broad findings emerged. First, several intrapersonal and contextual factors interacted throughout the process to move women either closer to choosing a prophylactic mastectomy or further from the decision. Second, all women reported experiencing a "pivotal point," an emotionally charged event when the decision to have a prophylactic mastectomy became definitive. Pivotal points for patients included either receiving a positive result for a genetic mutation or a breast cancer diagnosis for herself or a family member in the context of positive mutation status. Decision making about prophylactic mastectomy was an affective and intuitive process incorporating contexts and their relations rather than a rational, straight-forward process of weighing pros and cons. Supportive interventions for women in this population should explicitly address the individual and the inter-relationships of contextual factors that shape decision making about prophylactic mastectomy while recognizing important affective components involved.

  20. Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  2. Measuring relational security in forensic mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Verity; Alexander, Regi T; Morgan, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    Aims and method Relational security is an important component of care and risk assessment in mental health services, but the utility of available measures remains under-researched. This study analysed the psychometric properties of two relational security tools, the See Think Act (STA) scale and the Relational Security Explorer (RSE). Results The STA scale had good internal consistency and could highlight differences between occupational groups, whereas the RSE did not perform well as a psychometric measure. Clinical implications The measures provide unique and complimentary perspectives on the quality of relational security within secure services, but have some limitations. Use of the RSE should be restricted to its intended purpose; to guide team discussions about relational security, and services should refrain from collecting and aggregating this data. Until further research validates their use, relational security measurement should be multidimensional and form part of a wider process of service quality assessment.

  3. Measuring relational security in forensic mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Verity; Alexander, Regi T.; Morgan, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method Relational security is an important component of care and risk assessment in mental health services, but the utility of available measures remains under-researched. This study analysed the psychometric properties of two relational security tools, the See Think Act (STA) scale and the Relational Security Explorer (RSE). Results The STA scale had good internal consistency and could highlight differences between occupational groups, whereas the RSE did not perform well as a psychometric measure. Clinical implications The measures provide unique and complimentary perspectives on the quality of relational security within secure services, but have some limitations. Use of the RSE should be restricted to its intended purpose; to guide team discussions about relational security, and services should refrain from collecting and aggregating this data. Until further research validates their use, relational security measurement should be multidimensional and form part of a wider process of service quality assessment. PMID:29234515

  4. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  5. [A prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka, Grazyna; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna J; Bień, Agnieszka M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to work out a prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence. Analysis of literature on the subject and results of own investigations presented in the first part of the paper indicate that the program of prophylaxis of strain urinary incontinence should primarily include: (1) Preparation of the medical staff (nurses, midwives) for propagating health education among women on prevention of strain urinary incontinence. (2) Preparation of adequate educational materials in the form of brochures, leaflets, information posters about symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of urinary incontinence indicating health care institutions available to all women when the disease is suspected or already present. (3) Propagation of problems connected with strain urinary incontinence in the mass media providing information to a wide audience in order to make people realize the significance of this social problem and break stereotypes associated with this disease of "shame". (4) Preparation of sets of exercises for the muscles of the base of the pelvis to be performed during pregnancy, confinement and menopause to maintain their proper function. (5) Indicating factors predisposing to strain urinary incontinence with focus on possibilities of their reduction or elimination.

  6. Prophylactic Antibiotics for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Patrick; Samra, Navdeep S; Ballard, David H; Moss, Jonathan B; Griffen, Forrest D

    2018-04-01

    Surgical site infections with elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy are less frequent and less severe, leading some to suggest that prophylactic antibiotics (PA) are no longer indicated. We compared the incidence of surgical site infections before and after an institutional practice change of withholding PA for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Between May 7, 2013, and March 11, 2015, no PA were given to patients selected for elective cholecystectomy by two surgeons at a single center. The only patients excluded were those who received antibiotics before surgery for any reason. All others, including those at high risk for infection, were included. The incidence and severity of infections were compared with historical controls treated with prophylaxis by the same two surgeons from November 6, 2011, to January 13, 2013. There were 268 patients in the study group and 119 patients in the control group. Infection occurred in 3.0 per cent in the study group compared with 0.9 per cent in the controls (P = 0.29). All infections were mild except one. Based on these data, the routine use of PA for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not supported.

  7. Prophylactic ibuprofed administration during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Demers, L.M.; Mortel, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to begin pelvic irradiation for malignant disease were randomized to receive ibuprofen 400 mg P.O. q.i.d. during their radiotherapy or standard therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. Seventeen of 19 patients in the ibuprofen group completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in the daily stool frequency between the ibuprofen and control patients during the 5 to 6 week course of pelvic irradiation; the incidence and severity of diarrhea was the same. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea reported by the patients but the severity of nausea was less in the ibuprofen group; none of the 17 patients in the ibuprofen group reported vomiting at any time, whereas, 27% of the patients in the control group reported vomiting. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic ibuprofen administration may be beneficial in reducing the severity of nausea and preventing radiation-induced vomiting in patients who receive pelvic irradiation

  8. Cancer Registries and Monitoring the Impact of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: The Potential Role

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiya, Mona; Goodman, Marc T.; Datta, S. Deblina; Chen, Vivien W.; Wingo, Phyllis A.

    2008-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration licensure of a prophylactic vaccine against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, the first of its kind, poses unique challenges in postmarketing vaccine surveillance, especially in measuring vaccine effectiveness against biologic endpoints of HPV infection. Historically, the national system of population-based cancer registries in the US has provided high-quality data on cancer incidence and mortality for the most important biologic ...

  9. Biomechanical considerations in slipped capital femoral epiphysis and insights into prophylactic fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, E; Bellemore, J M; Cheng, T; Little, D G; Birke, O

    2017-04-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a deformity of the proximal femur secondary to widened and unstable physis. In stabilising the slip, gold standard treatments stop growth and involve premature physeal closure, which prevents the remodelling of the acquired deformity and creates a leg length discrepancy that may be significant in younger patients. We measured the impact of placing threaded screws across the proximal femoral physis by measuring the centre-trochanteric distance (CTD) and articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) in participants with or without prophylactic fixation. We then compared the mechanical performance of static (stainless and titanium cannulated Synthes screws) and potentially growing implants (Synthes SCFE screw and Pega Medical Free Gliding screw) in a validated synthetic bone model. In the review of 30 non-fixed and 60 fixated hips over a mean follow-up of 1.9 years, we have noted a significant difference in pre/post CTD and ATD, as well as the change in CTD and ATD over time. In the biomechanical study, the newer implants allowing growth (Synthes SCFE screw and Pega Medical Free Gliding screw) were both shown to be at least non-inferior. The primary deformity of a SCFE in itself alters hip mechanics. Also, as confirmed in this study, there is a secondary deformity that is created by static fixation and relative trochanteric overgrowth. To help remodel mild deformities and prevent secondary trochanteric overgrowth, growing implants seem to be non-inferior to the more standard means of fixation in static testing.

  10. Surgical site infection and timing of prophylactic antibiotics for appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wan-Ting; Tai, Feng-Chuan; Wang, Pa-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics may decrease the frequency of surgical site infection after appendectomy. However, the optimal timing for administration of pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of prophylactic antibiotics on the frequency of surgical site infection after appendectomy. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 577 consecutive patients who had appendectomy for acute appendicitis from 2006 to 2009. Quality assurance guidelines for timing of prophylactic antibiotics before the skin incision were changed from 0 to 30 min before the skin incision (before June 2008) to 30 to 60 min before the skin incision (after June 2008). Surgical site infection occurred in 28 patients (4.9%). There was no difference in frequency of surgical site infection with different timing of pre-operative prophylactic antibiotic (pre-operative time 0 to 30 min: 9 infections [3.6%]; 31 to 60 min: 13 infections [5.4%]; 61 to 120 min: 5 infections [7.0%]; >120 min: 1 infection [6.6%]). Multivariable analysis showed that surgical site infection was associated significantly with medical comorbidity but not perforated appendicitis. The frequency of surgical site infection was independent of timing of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics but was associated with the presence of medical comorbidity.

  11. Assessing errors related to characteristics of the items measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggett, W.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that are related to some intrinsic property of the items measured are often encountered in nuclear material accounting. An example is the error in nondestructive assay measurements caused by uncorrected matrix effects. Nuclear material accounting requires for each materials type one measurement method for which bounds on these errors can be determined. If such a method is available, a second method might be used to reduce costs or to improve precision. If the measurement error for the first method is longer-tailed than Gaussian, then precision might be improved by measuring all items by both methods. 8 refs

  12. Novel paradigm for immunotherapy of ovarian cancer by engaging prophylactic immunity against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Marek; Putzer, Emily; Quach, Caroline; Dodivenaka, Chaitanya; Tombokan, Xenia

    2016-12-01

    Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective. The specific aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and administer biomolecules, which would engage prophylactic, vaccination-induced immunity for HBV towards killing of ovarian cancer cells with high specificity and efficacy. Tissue biopsies, ascites, and blood were acquired from the patients, whose identities were entirely concealed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, pursuant to the Institutional Review Board approval, and with the Patients' informed consent. By biomolecular engineering, we have created a novel family of biomolecules: antibody × vaccine engineered constructs (AVEC: anti-HER-2 × HBsAg). We have collected the blood from the volunteers, and measured the titers of anti-HBV antibodies resulting from the FDA approved and CDC scheduled HBV vaccinations. We have acquired tumor biopsies, ascites, and blood from patients suffering from the advanced ovarian cancers. We have established cultures of HER-2 over-expressing epithelial ovarian cancers: OV-90, TOC-112D, SKOV-3, as well as human ovary surface epithelial (HOSE) and human artery endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment of the HER-2+ ovarian cancer cells with AVEC: anti-HER-2 × HBsAg, accompanied by administration of blood drawn from patients with high titers of the anti-HBV antibodies, resulted in much higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to treatment with the naked anti-HER-2 antibodies alone and/or with the relevant isotype antibodies. This treatment had practically no effect upon the HOSE and HAE

  13. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  14. A measure of satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.

    2007-01-01

    A measure of satisfaction with food-related life is developed and tested in three studies in eight European countries. Five items are retained from an original pool of seven; these items exhibit good reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha, good temporal stability, convergent validity with two...... related measures, and construct validity as indicated by relationships with other indicators of quality of life, including the Satisfaction With Life and the SF-8 scales. It is concluded that this scale will be useful in studies trying to identify factors contributing to satisfaction with food...

  15. Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemkhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of  dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.

  16. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  17. Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Sandra; van Roosmalen, Mariëlle S; Otten, Wilma; Stalmeier, Peep F M

    2008-05-10

    Women who test positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation face difficult choices to manage their breast cancer risk; one of these choices is whether to opt for prophylactic mastectomy. Few data are available about this decision-making process. The current study provides data regarding the stability of risk-management preferences over time and the factors that are associated with these preferences. We analyzed data from 338 women who opted for breast cancer antigen (BRCA) testing. First, we prospectively assessed preferences of 80 BRCA mutation carriers at five different points in time ranging from 1 week after blood sampling up to 9 months after BRCA-test disclosure. Second, we applied univariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine which medical, sociodemographic, and psychological factors are related to a preference for prophylactic mastectomy. Ninety percent of the women already indicated a preference regarding risk management at baseline. Moreover, most women had stable preferences over time. Furthermore, anticipated feelings of regret in case of a hypothetical breast cancer diagnosis in the near future were strongly related to risk-management preference (odds ratio = 8.93; P preferences. Many of them may be sensitive to the possibility of regret in case of a bad outcome. We discuss whether possible regret in the future is a rational reason for opting for prophylactic mastectomy, or whether it signifies an emotional coping process or strategy in which the future costs are no longer fully considered.

  18. Data and methods to estimate fetal dose from fluoroscopically guided prophylactic hypogastric artery balloon occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomou, G.; Stratakis, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Crete 71003 (Greece); Perisinakis, K.; Tsetis, D.; Damilakis, J., E-mail: john.damilakis@med.uoc.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Crete 71003, Greece and Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Heraklion, P.O. Box 1352, Heraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To provide data for estimation of fetal radiation dose (D{sub F}) from prophylactic hypogastric artery balloon occlusion (HABO) procedures. Methods: The Monte-Carlo-N-particle (MCNP) transport code and mathematical phantoms representing a pregnant patient at the ninth month of gestation were employed. PA, RAO 20° and LAO 20° fluoroscopy projections of left and right internal iliac arteries were simulated. Projection-specific normalized fetal dose (NFD) data were produced for various beam qualities. The effects of projection angle, x-ray field location relative to the fetus, field size, maternal body size, and fetal size on NFD were investigated. Presented NFD values were compared to corresponding values derived using a physical anthropomorphic phantom simulating pregnancy at the third trimester and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Results: NFD did not considerably vary when projection angle was altered by ±5°, whereas it was found to markedly depend on tube voltage, filtration, x-ray field location and size, and maternal body size. Differences in NFD < 7.5% were observed for naturally expected variations in fetal size. A difference of less than 13.5% was observed between NFD values estimated by MCNP and direct measurements. Conclusions: Data and methods provided allow for reliable estimation of radiation burden to the fetus from HABO.

  19. Women's preferences for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: An investigation using protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Stephanie; Richards, Imogen; Porter, David; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Rankin, Nicole; Musiello, Toni; Marven, Michelle; Butow, Phyllis

    2016-05-01

    Most women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are at low risk of contralateral breast cancer. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM) decreases the relative risk of contralateral breast cancer, but may not increase life expectancy; yet international uptake is increasing. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with women's intentions to undergo CPM. Three hundred eighty-eight women previously diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and of negative or unknown BRCA1 or BRCA2 status were recruited from an advocacy group's research database. Participants completed measures of PMT constructs based on a common hypothetical CPM decision-making scenario. PMT constructs explained 16% of variance in intentions to undergo CPM. Response efficacy (CPM's advantages) and response costs (CPM's disadvantages) were unique individual predictors of intentions. Decision-making appears driven by considerations of the psychological, cosmetic and emotional advantages and disadvantages of CPM. Overestimations of threat to life from contralateral breast cancer and survival benefit from CPM also appear influential factors. Patients require balanced and medically accurate information regarding the pros and cons of CPM, survival rates, and recurrence risks to ensure realistic and informed decision-making.

  20. Prophylactic treatment of hereditary severe factor VII deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrepper, Christian; Siegemund, Annelie; Hildebrandt, Sven; Kronberg, Juliane; Scholz, Ute; Niederwieser, Dietger

    2017-09-01

    : Severe hereditary factor VII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder and may be associated with a severe bleeding phenotype. We describe a pregnancy in a 33-year-old woman with compound heterozygous factor VII deficiency and a history of severe menorrhagia and mucocutaneous bleedings. After discontinuation of contraceptives, menstruation was covered with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), and during pregnancy, rFVIIa had to be administered in first trimester in doses ranging from 15 to 90 μg/kg per day because of recurrent retroplacental hematomas and vaginal bleedings. Thrombin generation was measured in first trimester at different doses of rFVIIa and showed an increase in lag time when doses of less than 30 μg/kg/day were administered, whereas time to thrombin peak and peak thrombin were not influenced. A low-dose rFVIIa prophylactic treatment of 15 μg/kg every other day in the late second and in the third trimester was sufficient to allow a successful childbirth in this patient with severe factor VII deficiency.

  1. Prophylactic intracameral vancomycin: efficacy in preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Kumar Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Post Operative endophthalmitis is rare but devastating complication in ocular surgery. The present study determined the efficacy of intracameral vancomycin after phaco-emusification cataract surgery to prevent endophthalmitis. Method: A total of 768 cases who had undergone phaco-emusification cataract surgery were included in the study. Every alternate patient received 0.5 ml injection of vancomycin (1mg in 0.1 ml in the anterior chamber after completion of phaco-emulcification and formation of anterior chamber. All the patients were examined for symptoms and signs of bacterial endophthalmitis at 24 hrs, 7 days, 15 days and subsequently at 1, 3 and 6 months following surgery. Results: No endophthalmitis case was recorded at any time period during 6 month follow up in either group. However, significantly higher number of cases in vancomycin group had cells in anterior chamber and disturbances in visual acuity at day 15 following surgery. Conclusion: Vancomycin did not have any prophylactic role in preventing endophthalmitis. Proper aseptic measures are important to prevent any infection in ocular surgery. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 24-28

  2. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  3. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europ...

  4. Analysis of occupational risk and antirrabies prophylactic treatment in health and endemic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Tenório Ferrer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferrer M.T., de Melo S.R., Pimentel J. de L., Pinheiro Junior J.W. & Brandespim D.F. [Analysis of occupational risk and antirrabies prophylactic treatment in health and endemic agents.] Análise do risco ocupacional e do tratamento profilático antirrábico em agentes de endemia e de saúde. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:307-311, 2014. Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor, s/n°, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, PE 55292-270, Brasil. E-mail: moises.vet@hotmail.com This paper aimed to assess the risk of exposure and conduct of prophylactic antirrabies treatment established by health care providers and the endemics Municipality of Garanhuns, PE during their professional activities. We conducted a descriptive epidemiological study of retrospective type, from data collection through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire containing open and closed questions, to 192 professionals, 168 health agents and 24 agents of the municipality of endemics Garanhuns -PE. Of the 192 interviewed agents, 14.1% (27/165 had been attacked by animals during their occupation activities. On the post-exposure prophylactic treatment, it was found that 44.5% (12/27 received-vaccination serum, 37% (10/27 did not undergo any treatment, while only 18.5% (5/27 had the wound washed with soap and water. Was concluded that there is a lack of basic information regarding both the pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies in professionals like agents that act with both health and / or endemic diseases and it is suggested both the improvement of their professional skills as the preexposure immunization as prophylactic measure to minimize the occupational risk in function of their field activities.

  5. Effectiveness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Masanori; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Kiyota, Naomi; Okuno, Shinya; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Patients with head and neck carcinoma are often provided concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), but they experience severe mucositis and dysphagia. These side effects can lead to decreased oral intake, resulting in interruption of treatment. In our hospital, from September 2007, all patients with oropharyngeal cancer who were to receive CCRT, were principally offered percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) before the start of treatment, and tube feeding was started when swallowing became impaired, to accomplish the treatment as planned. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic PEG, outcome measures in this study included the frequency of unplanned break from CCRT, nutritional deterioration and required analgesic during CCRT, complication of PEG, and patient satisfaction between 15 patients with PEG and 11 patients without PEG as a control group. Although no significant weight loss occurred in either group, there were fewer patients with a Body Mass Index <18.5 in the PEG group after CCRT than in the control group. Regarding the treatment, most patients were satisfied with their PEG and considered that prophylactic PEG was necessary and helpful in completing the CCRT. This study suggests that prophylactic PEG helps patients to complete CCRT both mentally and nutritionally. (author)

  6. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  7. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Gina; Cotter, Amanda M; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2013-10-30

    Active management of the third stage of labour has been shown to reduce the risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) greater than 1000 mL. One aspect of the active management protocol is the administration of prophylactic uterotonics, however, the type of uterotonic, dose, and route of administration vary across the globe and may have an impact on maternal outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of prophylactic oxytocin at any dose to prevent PPH and other adverse maternal outcomes related to the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2013). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials including pregnant women anticipating a vaginal delivery where prophylactic oxytocin was given during management of the third stage of labour. The primary outcomes were blood loss > 500 mL and the use of therapeutic uterotonics. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. This updated review included 20 trials (involving 10,806 women). Prophylactic oxytocin versus placebo Prophylactic oxytocin compared with placebo reduced the risk of PPH greater than 500 mL, (risk ratio (RR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.74; six trials, 4203 women; T² = 0.11, I² = 78%) and the need for therapeutic uterotonics (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87, four trials, 3174 women; T² = 0.10, I² = 58%). The benefit of prophylactic oxytocin to prevent PPH greater than 500 mL was seen in all subgroups. Decreased use of therapeutic uterotonics was only seen in the following subgroups: randomised trials with low risk of bias (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92; three trials, 3122 women; T² = 0.11, I² = 69%); trials that performed active management of the third stage (RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.58; one trial, 1901 women; heterogeneity not applicable); trials that delivered oxytocin as an IV bolus (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.82; one trial, 1000 women

  8. Mathematic modeling of the method of measurement relative dielectric permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Stepanov, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The method of measuring relative permittivity’s and the position of the interface between layers of a liquid medium is considered in the article. An electric capacitor is a system consisting of two conductors that are separated by a dielectric layer. It is mathematically proven that at any given time it is possible to obtain the values of the relative permittivity in the layers of the liquid medium and to determine the level of the interface between the layers of the two-layer liquid. The estimation of measurement errors is made.

  9. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  10. Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior: Measurement and Relations With Sociometric Status and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A; Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles. Each participant role subscale was positively associated with depressive symptoms with the exception of the overt and relational outsider subscales. Future research and intervention efforts should consider overt and relational aggression participant roles, separately. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  11. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  12. Cardiac disturbances after pneumonectomy--the value of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, A; Mattila, T; Appelqvist, P; Meurala, H; Mattila, S

    1978-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative cardiac disturbances and the value of prophylactic digitalization were studied retrospectively in 143 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for carcinoma of the lung. Cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 29% and tachycardia episodes in 30% of the patients. The incidence of myocardial infarction was 2%. Operative mortality was 4%. The cardiac disturbances developed more often after left than after right pneumonectomy. The age of the patients, a history of angina pectoris or hypertension did not markedly increase the incidence of cardiac disturbances, neither did operative factors, such as pericardiotomy, left atrial resection, major bleeding nor postoperative empyema. Prophylactic digitalization significantly reduced postoperative cardiac disorders, their frequency being 33% in the group of patients who received prophylactic digitalis compared with 65% in the group that did not.

  13. Prophylactic use of octreotide for asparaginase-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Sachi; Higa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Fujimura, Junya; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, we sought to evaluate the prophylactic use of octreotide for asparaginase-induced acute pancreatitis. We reviewed the medical records of seven patients in two institutions who received prophylactic octreotide for re-administration of asparaginase after asparaginase-induced acute pancreatitis. Three patients completed asparaginase treatment without developing pancreatitis, and four experienced recurrence of pancreatitis. A literature search using PubMed identified four additional patients in whom asparaginase was successfully re-administered with octreotide. Prophylactic use of octreotide may, thus, be warranted for patients who would benefit from re-administration of asparaginase for cancer treatment; however, careful observation is needed to monitor for breakthrough recurrence of pancreatitis.

  14. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Fuzzy Relational Databases: Representational Issues and Reduction Using Similarity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Testemale, Claudette

    1987-01-01

    Compares and expands upon two approaches to dealing with fuzzy relational databases. The proposed similarity measure is based on a fuzzy Hausdorff distance and estimates the mismatch between two possibility distributions using a reduction process. The consequences of the reduction process on query evaluation are studied. (Author/EM)

  16. On the measurement of the relative viscosity of suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrivos, A.; Fan, X.; Mauri, R.

    1994-01-01

    The relative viscosity of a suspension of rigid, noncolloidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid was measured in a Couette device and was found to be shear thinning even for values of the solids fraction as low as 20%. Although such behavior was reported previously, no satisfactory explanation appears to have been given thus far. It shall be shown presently, however, that, at least for our systems, this shear-thinning effect was due to a slight mismatch in the densities of the two phases. Moreover, the apparent relative viscosities measured in our apparatus were found to be in excellent agreement with those predicted theoretically using a model, originally proposed by Leighton and Acrivos [Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 1377--1384 (1986)], to describe viscous resuspension, according to which the measured relative viscosity should depend on the bulk particle concentration and on the dimensionless Shields number A, and should attain its correct value for a well-mixed suspension only as A→∞. The predictions of this model are also in excellent agreement with the measured transient response of the apparent relative viscosity due to a sudden change in the shear rate

  17. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, D.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131 -hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131 I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85 Sr- or 95 Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate

  18. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt

  20. Measurement of event-related potentials and placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Platon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723

  1. Relations of mitochondrial genetic variants to measures of vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Liu, Chunyu; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vita, Joseph A; Hamburg, Naomi M; Levy, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variation with resultant alterations in oxidative phosphorylation may influence vascular function and contribute to cardiovascular disease susceptibility. We assessed relations of peptide-encoding variants in the mitochondrial genome with measures of vascular function in Framingham Heart Study participants. Of 258 variants assessed, 40 were predicted to have functional consequences by bioinformatics programs. A maternal pattern of heritability was estimated to contribute to the variability of aortic stiffness. A putative association with a microvascular function measure was identified that requires replication. The methods we have developed can be applied to assess the relations of mitochondrial genetic variation to other phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactivity measurement in imported food and food related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Santos, F.L.; Rosa, A.M. de la; Tangonan, M.C.; Bulos, A.D.; Nuguid, Z.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) undertook the radioactivity monitoring of imported food and food-related products after the Chernobyl Plant accident in April 1986. Food samples were analyzed for 137 Cs and 134 Cs by gamma spectral method of analysis. This report deals with the measurement process and gives the result of the activity covering the period June 1986 to December 1987. (Auth.). 9 tabs., 7 figs., 4 refs

  3. Prophylactic versus therapeutic amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Natalia; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George

    2012-09-12

    Amnioinfusion aims to relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a liquid into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic amnioinfusion for women in labour with oligohydramnios, but not fetal heart deceleration, compared with therapeutic amnioinfusion only if fetal heart rate decelerations or thick meconium-staining of the liquor occur. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). Randomised trials comparing prophylactic amnioinfusion in women in labour with oligohydramnios but not fetal heart rate deceleration in labour with therapeutic amnioinfusion. The authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. One randomized trial of 116 women was included. No differences were found in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 2.74). There were no differences in cord arterial pH, oxytocin augmentation, neonatal pneumonia or postpartum endometritis. Prophylactic amnioinfusion was associated with increased intrapartum fever (risk ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 10.05). There appears to be no advantage of prophylactic amnioinfusion over therapeutic amnioinfusion carried out only when fetal heart rate decelerations or thick meconium-staining of the liquor occur.

  4. The effect of colloid preload versus prophylactic ephedrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of colloid infusion immediately before the spinal anesthesia, and the prophylactic intravenous (IV) infusion of ephedrine after injection of intrathecal bupivacaine on hemodynamic parameters, QT, The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), and dispersion of QTc (QTcDisp) intervals ...

  5. Prophylactic Oophorectomy: Preventing Cancer by Surgically Removing Your Ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much lower than the lifetime risk of ovarian cancer if the ovaries remain intact. Prophylactic oophorectomy might relieve much of ... cancer. Screening usually includes a blood test for cancer antigen (CA) 125 and an ultrasound exam of your ovaries. In theory, increased screening should be able to ...

  6. Iranian women's attitude toward prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Majidzadeh-A

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preventive mastectomy has a higher rate of acceptability among women who have had a family history of breast cancer. Therefore, it may be concluded that raising public awareness about the advantages of prophylactic mastectomy could help better address breast cancer in Iran.

  7. Prophylactic antibiotic for pacemaker surgery: what is optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of them, a bed-ridden patient developed severe pocket infection necessitating explantation and replacement 3 weeks later. Conclusions: We noted with satisfaction that short regime of prophylactic parentral ceftriaxone is effective in preventing pacemaker infection and there is no need for the long regimen. Niger Med J.

  8. Planning horizon affects prophylactic decision-making and epidemic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, Luis G; Miller, Craig R; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Krone, Stephen M; Joyce, Paul; Baumgaertner, Bert O

    2016-01-01

    The spread of infectious diseases can be impacted by human behavior, and behavioral decisions often depend implicitly on a planning horizon-the time in the future over which options are weighed. We investigate the effects of planning horizons on epidemic dynamics. We developed an epidemiological agent-based model (along with an ODE analog) to explore the decision-making of self-interested individuals on adopting prophylactic behavior. The decision-making process incorporates prophylaxis efficacy and disease prevalence with the individuals' payoffs and planning horizon. Our results show that for short and long planning horizons individuals do not consider engaging in prophylactic behavior. In contrast, individuals adopt prophylactic behavior when considering intermediate planning horizons. Such adoption, however, is not always monotonically associated with the prevalence of the disease, depending on the perceived protection efficacy and the disease parameters. Adoption of prophylactic behavior reduces the epidemic peak size while prolonging the epidemic and potentially generates secondary waves of infection. These effects can be made stronger by increasing the behavioral decision frequency or distorting an individual's perceived risk of infection.

  9. The effect of Prophylactic knee bracing on selected performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the wearing of a prophylactic knee brace by uninjured rugby players affected the following performance based parameters: speed, agility, strength, proprioception and economy of running. Thirty rugby players were subjected to a selected number of carefully monitored ...

  10. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    S Davies (BA Hons, MA Ergonomics, PhD). Department of Human ... of joint position in space as sensed by the central nervous system.23. It incorporates joint .... The finding of this work supports the research hypothesis that prophylactic knee ...

  11. Modelling formulae of strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Expediency of the development of formulae and innovative technologies for production of prophylactic application drinks possessing antioxidant, probiotic and hepatoprotective properties with the use of the secondary dairy product – whey, as well as the domestic vegetable raw materials having a high content of bioactive substances has been substantiated.Formulation composition of the prophylactic drinks based on cheese whey, extract of Tagetes patula flowers and the berry filler “Strawberry” with the use of the response surface method has been developed. Bioactivity of the drinks and the complex quality indicator which accounts for the total influence of the bioactivity, organoleptic assessment and weight coefficients of the specified unit indicators were taken as the optimization criteria; as the independent factors that were varied in the course of the experiment, the mass fractions of the marigold flowers extract and the strawberries filler were selected. It is recommended that the mass fractions of the berry filler “Strawberry” and the extract of Tagetes patula flowers in the prophylactic drinks are set as 7 and 20 % of the finished product, accordingly. The practical mass fraction of the citric acid of 0.2 % was determined as it ensures high organoleptic characteristics of the finished drinks. Recommendations are given concerning development of innovative technologies of unfermented and fermented strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application enriched with the extract of Tagetes patula flowers.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Variability of Drugs Used for Prophylactic Treatment of Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Pavbro, Agniezka

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the variability in the pharmacokinetics of 11 drugs with established prophylactic effects in migraine to facilitate 'personalized medicine' with these drugs. PubMed was searched for 'single-dose' and 'steady-state' pharmacokinetic studies of these 11 drugs. The maximum...

  13. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  14. Improved GPS-based Satellite Relative Navigation Using Femtosecond Laser Relative Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjik Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for improving Carrier-phase Differential Global Positioning System (CDGPS based realtime satellite relative navigation by applying laser baseline measurement data. The robustness against the space operational environment was considered, and a Synthetic Wavelength Interferometer (SWI algorithm based on a femtosecond laser measurement model was developed. The phase differences between two laser wavelengths were combined to measure precise distance. Generated laser data were used to improve estimation accuracy for the float ambiguity of CDGPS data. Relative navigation simulations in real-time were performed using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. The GPS and laser-combined relative navigation accuracy was compared with GPS-only relative navigation solutions to determine the impact of laser data on relative navigation. In numerical simulations, the success rate of integer ambiguity resolution increased when laser data was added to GPS data. The relative navigational errors also improved five-fold and two-fold, relative to the GPS-only error, for 250 m and 5 km initial relative distances, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is suitable for application to future satellite formation-flying missions.

  15. Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Kopias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Polish occupational health system (OHS, existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. Material and methods: The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Results: Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45–47% of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and “silent approval” of many (but not all occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. Conclusions: The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. Med Pr 2015;66(6:815–825

  16. [Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopias, Jerzy A

    2015-01-01

    The Polish occupational health system (OHS), existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45-47%) of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and "silent approval" of many (but not all) occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  18. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalm, Marie; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus; Nyman, Jan; Hietala, Max Albert; Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars; Elam, Mikael; Blennow, Kaj; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments

  19. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  20. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology Rev 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; White, Michael K.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Andrews, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Documentation of the methodology used to calculate relative hazard and risk measure results for the DOE complex wide risk profiles. This methodology is used on major site risk profiles. In February 1997, the Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) was created and charged as a technical, field-based partner to the Office of Science and Risk Policy (EM-52). One of the initial charges to the CRE is to assist the sites in the development of ''site risk profiles.'' These profiles are to be relatively short summaries (periodically updated) that present a broad perspective on the major risk related challenges that face the respective site. The risk profiles are intended to serve as a high-level communication tool for interested internal and external parties to enhance the understanding of these risk-related challenges. The risk profiles for each site have been designed to qualitatively present the following information: (1) a brief overview of the site, (2) a brief discussion on the historical mission of the site, (3) a quote from the site manager indicating the site's commitment to risk management, (4) a listing of the site's top risk-related challenges, (5) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's current risk picture, (6) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's future risk reduction picture, and (7) graphic illustrations of the projected management of the relative hazards at the site. The graphic illustrations were included to provide the reader of the risk profiles with a high-level mental picture to associate with all the qualitative information presented in the risk profile. Inclusion of these graphic illustrations presented the CRE with the challenge of how to fold this high-level qualitative risk information into a system to produce a numeric result that would depict the relative change in hazard, associated with each major risk management action, so it could be presented graphically. This report presents the methodology developed

  1. Do implicit measures of attitudes incrementally predict snacking behaviour over explicit affect-related measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Karen; Conner, Mark T; Prestwich, Andrew; Smith, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated an association between implicit measures of attitudes and dietary-related behaviours. However, no study has tested whether implicit measures of attitudes predict dietary behaviour after controlling for explicit measures of palatability. In a prospective design, two studies assessed the validity of measures of implicit attitude (Implicit Association Test, IAT) and explicit measures of palatability and health-related attitudes on self-reported (Studies 1 and 2) and objective food (fruit vs. chocolate) choice (Study 2). Following regression analyses, in both studies, implicit measures of attitudes were correlated with food choice but failed to significantly predict food choice when controlling specifically for explicit measures of palatability. These consistent relationships emerged despite using different category labels within the IAT in the two studies. The current research suggests implicit measures of attitudes may not predict dietary behaviours after taking into account the palatability of food. This is important in order to establish determinants that explain unique variance in dietary behaviours and to inform dietary change interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  3. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  4. Integrated CMOS dew point sensors for relative humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicolo; Baglio, Salvatore; Castorina, Salvatore; Sacco, Vincenzo; Tringali, Cristina

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the development of integrated relative humidity dew point sensors realized by adopting standard CMOS technology for applications in various fields. The proposed system is composed by a suspended plate that is cooled by exploiting integrated Peltier cells. The cold junctions of the cells have been spread over the plate surface to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over its surface, where cooling will cause the water condensation. The temperature at which water drops occur, named dew point temperature, is a function of the air humidity. Measurement of such dew point temperature and the ambient temperature allows to know the relative humidity. The detection of water drops is achieved by adopting a capacitive sensing strategy realized by interdigited fixed combs, composed by the upper layer of the adopted process. Such a capacitive sensor, together with its conditioning circuit, drives a trigger that stops the cooling of the plate and enables the reading of the dew point temperature. Temperature measurements are achieved by means of suitably integrated thermocouples. The analytical model of the proposed system has been developed and has been used to design a prototype device and to estimate its performances. In such a prototype, the thermoelectric cooler is composed by 56 Peltier cells, made by metal 1/poly 1 junctions. The plate has a square shape with 200 μm side, and it is realized by exploiting the oxide layers. Starting from the ambient temperature a temperature variation of ΔT = 15 K can be reached in 10 ms thus allowing to measure a relative humidity greater than 40%.

  5. Leukoencephalopathy in childhood hematopoietic neoplasm caused by moderate-dose methotrexate and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy -- an MR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ko; Takahashi, Shoki; Sato, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Masue; Higano, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Tada, Keiya

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine influential factors related to minor leukoencephalopathy (LEP) caused by moderate-dose methotrexate (MTX) and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in childhood hematopoietic malignancies. We also compared the incidence of LEP following this treatment to that reported in the literature following treatment with high-dose MTX alone. Methods and Materials: Thirty-eight pediatric patients of hematopoietic malignancies (37 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) who were given CRT (18-24 Gy) as well as prophylactic intrathecal and per os MTX were studied for leukoencephalopathy by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All the patients were free from grave neuropsychiatric disturbances. The data were examined to elucidate the influential ones of five factors (patients' age, doses of intrathecal and per os MTX, dose of CRT, interval between treatment, and MR study) to develop LEP using multiple regression analysis. To compare the effect of moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT on LEP to that of high-dose MTX alone, we conducted literature review. Results: Seven out of 38 patients (18%) developed LEP. From multiple regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients, the age and CRT dose seemed influential in the subsequent development of LEP. The incidence of LEP following treatment with moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT appears to be less than that reported in the literature following treatment with intravenous high-dose MTX. However, even moderate-dose MTX in combination with CRT can result in a significant incidence of MR-detectable LEP, particularly in children 6 years of age or younger receiving 24 Gy. Conclusion: Leukoencephalopathy was caused by moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT in pediatric patients, probably less frequently than by high-dose MTX treatment alone. The influential factors were patient's age and CRT dose

  6. Measurements of jet-related observables at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkas, P.

    2015-11-01

    During the first years of the LHC operation a large amount of jet data was recorded by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this review several measurements of jet-related observables are presented, such as multi-jet rates and cross sections, ratios of jet cross sections, jet shapes and event shape observables. All results presented here are based on jet data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Data are compared to various Monte Carlo generators, as well as to theoretical next-to-leading-order calculations allowing a test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in a previously unexplored energy region.

  7. Labor Relations and Social Dialogue: Measurement and Diagnosis Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Social dialogue and tripartism play an important role in promoting and strengthening fundamental principles and rights at work, promoting job creation and expanding social protection. In the context of the severe challenges of globalization, a growing number of developing countries are recognizing the need to faster dialogue, partnership and participatory approaches to decision-making. Thus, social dialogue becomes a prerequisite for efficient corporate governance and means to attain national economic and social objectives and to contribute to poverty reduction policies. We shall propose a diagnosis and analysis system in order to measure and monitor the evolution of the industrial relations and social dialogue.

  8. Some Thoughts on Commutation Relations and Measurement Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-01-01

    We show that measuring the trajectories of charged particles to finite accuracy leads to the commutation relations needed for the derivation of the free space Maxwell equations using the discrete ordered calculus (DOC). We note that the finite step length derivation of the discrete difference version of the single particle Dirac equation implies the discrete version of the p, q commutation relations for a free particle. We speculate that a careful operational analysis of the change in momenta occurring in a step-wise continuous solution of the discrete Dirac equation could supply the missing source-sink terms in the DOC derivation of the Maxwell equations, and lead to a finite and discrete (''renormalized'') quantum electrodynamics (QED)

  9. Relational humility: conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Gartner, Aubrey L; Jennings, David J; Emmons, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    The study of humility has progressed slowly due to measurement problems. We describe a model of relational humility that conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment. In this set of 5 studies, we developed the 16-item Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and offered initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N = 300), we developed the RHS and its subscales--Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of Self. In Study 2, we confirmed the factor structure of the scale in an independent sample (N = 196). In Study 3, we provided initial evidence supporting construct validity using an experimental design (N = 200). In Study 4 (N = 150), we provided additional evidence of construct validity by examining the relationships between humility and empathy, forgiveness, and other virtues. In Study 5 (N = 163), we adduced evidence of discriminant and incremental validity of the RHS compared with the Honesty-Humility subscale of the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

  10. Effect of prophylactic phenobarbital on seizures, encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebral metabolism and re-oxygenation, which lead to cerebral oedema .... their serum electrolytes and glucose, calcium and magnesium levels measured. ..... Dzhala V, Ben-Ari Y, Khazipov R. Seizures accelerate anoxia-induced neuronal.

  11. Relative humidity measurements with thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Naihsien.

    1991-01-01

    The relative humidity is one of the important hydrological parameters affecting waste package performance. Water potential of a system is defined as the amount of work required to reversibly and isothermally move an infinitesimal quantity of water from a pool of pure water to that system at the same elevation. The thermocouple psychrometer, which acts as a wet-dry bulb instrument based on the Peltier effect, is used to measure water potential. The thermocouple psychrometer works only for relative humidity greater than 94 percent. Other sensors must be used for drier conditions. Hence, the author also uses a Vaisala Humicap, which measures the capacitance change due to relative humidity change. The operation range of the Humicap (Model HMP 135Y) is from 0 to 100 percent relative humidity and up to 160C (320F) in temperature. A psychrometer has three thermocouple junctions. Two copper-constantan junctions serve as reference temperature junctions and the constantan-chromel junction is the sensing junction. Current is passed through the thermocouple causing cooling of the sensing junction by the Peltier effect. When the temperature of the junction is below the dew point, water will condense upon the junction from the air. The Peltier current is discontinued and the thermocouple output is recorded as the temperature of the thermocouple returns to ambient. The temperature changes rapidly toward the ambient temperature until it reaches the wet bulb depression temperature. At this point, evaporation of the water from the junction produces a cooling effect upon the junction that offsets the heat absorbed from the ambient surroundings. This continues until the water is depleted and the thermocouple temperature returns to the ambient temperature (Briscoe, 1984). The datalogger starts to take data roughly at the wet bulb depression temperature

  12. Measurement-induced localization of relative degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, Hugo; Knight, Peter L.; Rudolph, Terry

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study, using both analytical and numerical methods, of measurement-induced localization of relational degrees of freedom. Looking first at the interference of two optical modes, we find that the localization of the relative phase can be as good for mixed states--in particular, for two initially Poissonian or thermal states--as for the well-known case of two Fock states. In a realistic setup the localization for mixed states is robust and experimentally accessible, and we discuss applications to superselection rules. For an ideal setup we show how a relational Schroedinger cat state emerges and investigate circumstances under which such a state is destroyed. In our second example we consider the localization of relative atomic phase between two Bose Einstein condensates, looking particularly at the build up of spatial interference patterns, an area which has attracted much attention since the work of Javanainen and Yoo. We show that the relative phase localizes much faster than was intimated in previous studies focusing on the emerging interference pattern itself. Finally, we explore the localization of relative spatial parameters discussed in recent work by Rau, Dunningham, and Burnett. We retain their models of indistinguishable scattering but make different assumptions. In particular we consider the case of a real distant observer monitoring light scattering off two particles, who records events only from a narrow field of view. The localization is only partial regardless of the number of observations. This paper contributes to the wider debate on relationism in quantum mechanics, which treats fundamental concepts - reference frames and conservation laws - from a fully quantum and operational perspective

  13. Measuring the relative performance of stock market using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, investors used some basic financial ratios to measure the relative performance of various active industries based on two-digit ISIC classification. However, direct implementation of basic financial figures may not be practical in today's business environment since investors face with different criteria. The proposed model of this paper uses Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to compare 37 various industries based on different financial figures. We gather the necessary data over the period of 2009-2010 from Tehran Stock Exchange and investigate the data in two stages. In the first stage, we perform fundamental analysis to select the most appropriate firms and the in the second stage, we use TOPSIS to rank selected firms based on different criteria. The results of the study confirm that information and communication technology, which is one of the biggest firms in this exchange is considered as the best option (relative ranking 0.88 in two years followed by some Cement industry (with relative ranking of 0.26 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010 and oil refinery units (with relative ranking of 0.23 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010. The figure also shows that other firms maintain low ratios varied from 0.23 to 0.01. The lowest industry ranking belongs to marine industry.

  14. Cost and effectiveness evaluation of prophylactic HPV vaccine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Havanond, Piyalamporn; Khemapech, Nipon; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Khorprasert, Chonlakiet; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. In Thailand, cervical cancer has been the leading cancer in females, with an incidence of 24.7 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. We constructed a decision model to simulate the lifetime economic impact for women in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevention. HPV-related diseases were of interest: cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and genital warts. The two strategies used were 1) current practice and 2) prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. We developed a Markov simulation model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of prophylactic HPV vaccine. Women transition through a model either healthy or developing HPV or its related diseases, or die from cervical cancer or from other causes according to transitional probabilities under the Thai health-care context. Costs from a provider perspective were obtained from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Compared with no prophylactic HPV vaccine, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 160,649.50 baht per quality-adjusted life-year. The mortality rate was reduced by 54.8%. The incidence of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, and genital warts was reduced by up to 55.1%. Compared with commonly accepted standard thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, the nationwide coverage of HPV vaccination in girls is likely to be cost-effective in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Lower Limb Kinematics, Kinetics, and Energetics During Double-Leg Drop Landing at 2 Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during landing maneuvers. Prophylactic knee braces were introduced to reduce the risk of ACL injuries, but their effectiveness is debated. We hypothesized that bracing would improve biomechanical factors previously related to the risk of ACL injuries, such as increased hip and knee flexion angles at initial contact and at peak vertical ground-reaction force (GRF), increased ankle plantar flexion angles at initial contact, decreased peak GRFs, and decreased peak knee extension moment. We also hypothesized that bracing would increase the negative power and work of the hip joint and would decrease the negative power and work of the knee and ankle joints. Controlled laboratory study. Three-dimensional motion and force plate data were collected from 8 female and 7 male recreational athletes performing double-leg drop landings from 0.30 m and 0.60 m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. GRFs, joint angles, moments, power, and work were calculated for each athlete with and without a knee brace. Prophylactic knee bracing increased the hip flexion angle at peak GRF by 5.56° (P knee flexion angle at peak GRF by 4.75° (P = .001), and peak hip extension moment by 0.44 N·m/kg (P knee and ankle. No differences in peak GRFs and peak knee extension moment were observed with bracing. The application of a prophylactic knee brace resulted in improvements in important biomechanical factors associated with the risk of ACL injuries. Prophylactic knee braces may help reduce the risk of noncontact knee injuries in recreational and professional athletes while playing sports. Further studies should investigate different types of prophylactic knee braces in conjunction with existing training interventions so that the sports medicine community can better assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee bracing. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  17. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  18. In patients with a tumour invading the phrenic nerve does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve postoperative lung function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Gwyn W; Dunn, William G; Asif, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'In patients with tumours involving the phrenic nerve, does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve lung function following tumour resection?' Using the reported search, 258 papers were found of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Three case reports and one case series represent 37 patients in the literature along with two relevant animal studies. Patients treated with prophylactic plication at the time of injury or sacrifice of the phrenic nerve had reduced radiological evidence of diaphragm paralysis, lower reported shortness of breath and reduced requirement for ventilatory support. In patients with prophylactic diaphragm plication and a concurrent pulmonary resection, the predicted postoperative lung function correlated closely with the postoperative measured FEV1, FVC and gas transfer. The postoperative measured FEV1 was reported as 86-98%, the FVC 82-89% and gas transfer 97% of the predicted values. Two animal models investigate the mechanics of respiration, spirometry and gas exchange following diaphragmatic plication. A randomized control study in four dogs measured a 50% reduction in tidal volume and respiratory rate, a 40% decrease in arterial PO2 and a 43% increase in arterial CO2 when the phrenic nerve was crushed in animals with a pneumonectomy but without prophylactic diaphragm plication. A further randomized control animal study with 28 dogs found that plicating the diaphragm after unilateral phrenic nerve transection resulted in a significant increase in tidal volume and lung compliance and a significant decrease in respiratory frequency and the work of breathing. Prophylactic diaphragm plication may preserve lung function, reduce the risk of

  19. [Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against human papilloma virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, A E; Hoffmann, T K; Klussmann, J P; Kaufmann, A M

    2010-08-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as the cause of recurrent papillomatosis and of a subgroup of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. A change in prevalence of these lesions, especially for oropharyngeal carcinoma, can be expected as a consequence of the introduction of prophylactic HPV vaccines for young women, targeting the most frequent high- and low-risk HPV subtypes. Vaccination for the major low-risk HPV types has proven to be highly effective against genital warts and activity against papillomatosis can be expected. The possibilities of prophylactic HPV vaccination as well as new developments and the rationale for therapeutic vaccines are discussed on the basis of the current literature.

  20. Efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in altering renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, R.; Johnson, H.K.; Braren, H.V.; Richie, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Renal allograft rejection is a complex phenomenon involving both cell-mediated and humoral antibody responses. Most transplant programs have used a combination of therapeutic modalites to combat the immune system in an attempt to prolong both allograft and patient survival. Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) and prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) are widely accepted as immunosuppressive drugs; however, both are non-specific and have the disadvantage of compromising the recipients' defense mechanisms. Nevertheless, these drugs have proved to be essential to the success of renal transplantation and they are routinely used while the efficacy of other modalities continues to be evaluated. We could find no reports of a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in the complex therapeutic situation of renal transplantation with the only variable being the administration of local graft irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prophylactic graft irradiation for its effectiveness in preventing graft rejection in conjunction with Imuran and corticosteroids

  1. Prophylactic Fasciotomy in a Porcine Model of Extremity Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    Morrison, MRCS,b,c,d Jerry R. Spencer, BS,a James D. Ross, PhD,a and Todd E. Rasmussen, MD, FACSa,e,f,* a59th Medical Wing, Joint Base San Antonio, San...Vascular injury Extremity Ischemiaereperfusion Recovery Neuromuscular Functional Fasciotomy a b s t r a c t Background: Extremity injury, with...prophylactic fasciotomy on neuromuscular recovery, labora- tory markers of ischemiaereperfusion, and tissue injury as determined by histologic evaluation. We

  2. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  3. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  4. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi

    2017-05-25

    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  5. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  6. Prophylactic use of laxative for constipation in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was designed to evaluate the use of laxative prophylaxis for constipation in intensive care unit (ICU and the impact of early versus late bowel movement on patient′s outcome. Methods : The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in critically ill ventilated adult patients, who were expected to stay on ventilator for >72 h. Control group did not receive any intervention for bowel movement for the first 72 h, whereas interventional group received prophylactic dose of lactulose 20 cc enterally every 12 h for the first 72 h. The parameters measured during the study were admission diagnosis, age, gender, comorbid conditions, admission Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II, sedative and narcotic agents with doses and duration, timing and tolerance of nutrition, daily assessment of bowel movement, total use of prokinetic, doses of suppositories, and enema for first bowel movement, total number of days on ventilator, weaning failures, extubation or tracheostomy, ICU length of stay, and death or discharge. Results : A total of 100 patients were enrolled, 50 patients in each control and interventional group. Mean age was 38.8 years, and both groups had male predominance. Mean SAPS II score for both was 35. Mean dose of Fentanyl (323.8 ± 108.89 mcg/h in control and 345.83 ± 94.43 mcg/h in interventional group and mean dose of Midazolam (11.1 ± 4.04 mg/h in control and 12.4 ± 3.19 mg/h in interventional group. There were only two (4% patients in control, while nine (18% patients in interventional group who had bowel movement in <72 h (P < 0.05. Mean ventilator days were 16.19, and 17.36 days in control and interventional groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the patients who moved bowel in <5 days in both groups had mean ventilator days of 18.5, whereas it was 15.88 days for the patients who moved bowel after 5 days in both groups (P< 0.05. Mean ICU days for control was 21.15 ± 10.44 and 20

  7. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    -day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation...... to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of post...

  8. Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Yu, Edward; Markman, Barbara R.; Evans, William K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline that would address the following questions: (a) What is the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited or extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have achieved complete remission in response to induction therapy (chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy)? (b) What dose and fractionation schedules of PCI are optimal? (c) Does the use of PCI in patients with SCLC in complete remission affect quality of life? Survival, disease-free survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were the outcomes of interest. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the published literature was undertaken to provide the data for an evidence-based practice guideline. Results: Six randomized controlled trials and one fully published individual patient data meta-analysis were included in the systematic review of the evidence. For patients who have achieved complete response after induction therapy, there is evidence of a disease-free survival benefit (4 of 6 trials) and an overall survival benefit (meta-analysis). There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation with respect to dose. There is some indication that 30-36 Gy in 2-3 Gy per fraction, or a biologically equivalent dose, may produce a better outcome than a lower dose or less aggressive fractionation regimen. The schedule commonly used in Canada is 25 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Data from further research, including a trial currently ongoing that compares 25 Gy in 10 fractions with 36 Gy in 18 fractions, will be required to determine optimal dose of PCI. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations concerning the optimal timing of PCI in relation to the administration of chemotherapy. Lung DSG members generally felt that it should be given as soon as possible after completion of chemotherapy. There is evidence from trials with data for up to 2 years of follow-up that prophylactic cranial

  9. Acoustic emission measurements in petroleum-related rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, Tor Erling

    2002-07-01

    Acoustic emission activity in rock has usually been studied in crystalline rock, which reflects that rock mechanics has also mostly been occupied with such rocks in relations to seismology, mining and tunneling. On the other hand, petroleum-related rock mechanics focuses on the behaviour of sedimentary rock. Thus, this thesis presents a general study of acoustic emission activity in sedimentary rock, primarily in sandstone. Chalk, limestone and shale have also been tested, but to much less degree because the AE activity in these materials is low. To simplify the study, pore fluids have not been used. The advent of the personal computer and computerized measuring equipment have made possible new methods both for measuring and analysing acoustic emissions. Consequently, a majority of this work is devoted to the development and implementation of new analysis techniques. A broad range of topics are treated: (1) Quantification of the AE activity level, assuming that the event rate best represents the activity. An algorithm for estimating the event rate and a methodology for objectively describing special changes in the activity e.g., onset determination, are presented. (2) Analysis of AE waveform data. A new method for determining the source energy of an AE event is presented, and it is shown how seismic source theory can be used to analyze even intermediate quality data. Based on these techniques, it is shown that a major part of the measured AE activity originates from a region close to the sensor, not necessarily representing the entire sample. (3) An improved procedure for estimating source locations is presented. The main benefit is a procedure that better handles arrival time data with large errors. Statistical simulations are used to quantify the uncertainties in the locations. The analysis techniques are developed with the application to sedimentary rock in mind, and in two articles, the techniques are used in the study of such materials. The work in the first

  10. Studies Relating to EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  11. Prophylactic first-line antibiotics reduce infectious fever and shorten hospital stay during chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqin; Ruan, Yongsheng; He, Yuelin; Zhang, Yuming; Wu, Xuedong; Liu, Huayin; Liu, Xuan; He, Lan; Li, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    There exists few pediatric data on the safety and efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis. We prospectively studied the incidence of infection-related fever in 38 children, aged 2-16 years, with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over 121 chemotherapy treatment cycles. A prophylactic group (n = 18) was given either vancomycin/cefepime (400 mg/m(2), q12 h/50 mg/kg, q12 h) or piperacillin/tazobactam (110 mg/kg, q12 h). Control patients (n = 20) received no preventive antibiotics. The prophylactic group (59 treatment cycles) experienced fever less frequently than the control group (0.4 vs. 0.9 events; p chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis can effectively reduce the incidence of infectious fever and can shorten the average length of hospital stay, improving treatment success and quality of life. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Assessing tolerance for wildlife: Clarifying relations between concepts and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, Jeremy T.; Singh, Ajay; Fulton, David C.; Slagle, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel lines of inquiry, tolerance for and acceptance of wildlife populations, have arisen in the applied literature on wildlife conservation to assess probability of successfully establishing or increasing populations of controversial species. Neither of these lines is well grounded in social science theory, and diverse measures have been employed to assess tolerance, which inhibits comparability across studies. We empirically tested behavioral measures of tolerance against self-reports of previous policy-relevant behavior and behavioral intentions. Both composite behavioral measures were strongly correlated (r > .70) with two attitudinal measures of tolerance commonly employed in the literature. The strong correlation between attitudinal and behavioral measures suggests existing attitudinal measures represent valid, parsimonious measures of tolerance that may be useful when behavioral measures are too cumbersome or misreporting of behavior is anticipated. Our results demonstrate how behavioral measures of tolerance provide additional, useful information beyond general attitudinal measures.

  13. Neurologic complications of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine administered prophylactically to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Palma, José Alberto; Carmona-Iragui, María; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Irimia, Pablo; Rodríguez-Otero, Paula; Panizo, Carlos; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo

    2011-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis is required during initial treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS involvement. Intrathecal (IT) liposomal cytarabine, a formulation with prolonged half-life, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of meningeal disease in patients with high-grade lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients with high-grade NHL that received prophylactic therapy with IT liposomal cytarabine and developed neurologic complications in our institution between April 2007 and May 2009. We recorded information on hospital admission, chemotherapy regimens, clinical features, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, neurophysiology data, and outcome. Neurotoxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC). Four of fourteen patients (28%) developed moderate or severe neurotoxicity (grades 2 and 3 of the NCI-CTC), manifested as conus medullaris/cauda equine syndrome or pseudotumour cerebri-like syndrome, after a median of 3.5 IT courses of liposomal cytarabine. All patients had received corticosteroids to prevent arachnoiditis. Liposomal cytarabine given via the IT route, even with concomitant corticosteroid administration, can result in significant neurotoxicity in some patients. We discuss the potential pathogenesis of these effects and suggest hypothetical therapeutic measures to prevent these complications. Specialists should be aware of these possible complications when administering prophylactic IT liposomal cytarabine in high-grade NHL patients, and additional prospective studies should be conducted to more clearly delineate the frequency and characteristics of these complications.

  14. Pain from copper intrauterine device insertion: randomized trial of prophylactic ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Reyes, Veronica; Lillo, Sonia; Zepeda, Ana; Chen, Pai-Lien; Croxatto, Horacio

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether 400 mg of prophylactic ibuprofen can alleviate pain from insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) and to measure level of pain with improved techniques. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2019 first-time IUD users: 1008 women received placebo and 1011 women received 400 mg of ibuprofen. Participants took the single tablet at least 45 minutes before IUD insertion. Immediately after insertion, participants recorded level of pain by using a 10-cm visual analog scale, with the value of 10 meaning "worst imaginable pain." Median level of pain was 1.0 for both ibuprofen and placebo participants; rank test statistics confirmed no difference. Some subgroups of women experienced higher pain (eg, nulliparous women), but ibuprofen still had no important impact on level of pain. Even among first-time users, pain from IUD insertion is generally low. Prophylactic ibuprofen as used in this protocol does not reduce IUD insertion pain.

  15. Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and discussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucialpieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii simple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information-transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random variables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.

  16. Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and dis- cussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucial pieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii sim- ple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information- transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random vari- ables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.

  17. Prophylactic radiotherapy of the breast in patients with prostatic carcinoma before application of contrasexual hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, D.; Heibel, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    Symptoms and objective parameters of gynecomastia are analysed in 113 patients, who received prophylactic irradiation of the breast (12 Gy in 3 fractions) prior to estrogen therapy of prostatic carcinoma. Another 10 patients were treated equally after estrogens had caused severe complaints. Symptoms increased from 10% to 100% in relation to 4 classes of gynecomastia. They were mild in 27.5%, moderate in 23.9% and severe in 8.8%. A correlation between metric classification and graded symptoms became more evident when only 2 groups were distinguished. With a maximum diameter of 3.5 cm only 17% of the patients had mostly slight discomfort in contrast to 70% of the patients with a gland of more than 3.5 cm in diameter; they revealed moderate or serious complaints. These results indicate that prophylactic radiotherapy may reduce severe complications to less than 10% as compared to 70-80% without irradiation. If gynecomastia has developed, regression by subsequent radiotherapy seems to be impossible; but the intensity of complaints could be reduced in our ten patients. Provided that irradiation precedes estrogen application, this sequence may be considered as a reasonable alternative to expensive antiandrogen therapy.

  18. Should prophylactic antibiotics be used routinely in epistaxis patients with nasal packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, K; Patel, NN; Salib, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current mainstream practice in otolaryngology departments relating to the use of prophylactic antibiotics in epistaxis patients requiring nasal packing is highly variable. This is due primarily to the lack of any validated guidelines. As such, we introduced a new treatment algorithm resulting in significant reduction of use in the systemic antibiotics, with emphasis instead on the use of topical antibiotics. The results were validated through a complete audit cycle. Methods A total of 57 patients undergoing nasal packing for spontaneous epistaxis were studied. Reaudit occurred after the implementation of new guidelines. Telephone surveys were conducted six weeks after hospital discharge, assessing infective nasal symptoms as well as rebleeding and readmission rates. Results Systemic antibiotic prescribing in anterior nasal packing fell by 58.2% between audit cycles with no statistically significant associated increase in infective nasal symptoms, rebleeding or readmission rates six weeks following hospital discharge. Conclusions Systemic prophylactic antibiotics are unnecessary in the majority of epistaxis patients with nasal packs. The use of topical antibiotics such as Naseptin® may be more appropriate, cheaper and as effective. Implementation of this treatment algorithm will help standardise systemic antibiotic usage in epistaxis patients with nasal packing and should reduce costs associated with unnecessary use of such medication. PMID:23317726

  19. Prophylaxis of travel-related thrombosis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Travel-related thrombosis occurs in 1/6,000 individuals who fly long-haul flights. The risk is increased significantly in passengers with thrombophilia and during hormonal therapy. Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state with 5-10-fold increase in VTE risk. Mechanisms for hypercoagulation on air are related to cabin atmospheric conditions, with immobility and flight duration playing a major role. Prophylactic measures include frequent exercise in all passengers, elastic stockings and LMWH in travelers at high risk.

  20. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative entropy as a measure of entanglement for Gaussian states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huai-Xin; Zhao Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an explicit analytic expression of the relative entropy between two general Gaussian states. In the restriction of the set for Gaussian states and with the help of relative entropy formula and Peres-Simon separability criterion, one can conveniently obtain the relative entropy entanglement for Gaussian states. As an example,the relative entanglement for a two-mode squeezed thermal state has been obtained.

  2. Prophylactic transcervical amnioinfusion in laboring women with oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A F; Mohammed, M S; Sayed, G H; Abdel-Razik, S

    2003-05-01

    Evaluation of prophylactic intrapartum amnioinfusion in women with oligohydramnios. Assiut University Hospital during the period from February 2000 to September 2001, 160 laboring women with oligohydramnios [amniotic fluid index (AFI) amnioinfusion and control groups. Inclusion criteria were: term singleton gestation, vertex presentation, cervical dilatation amnioinfusion was done with warmed normal saline. there was a significant increase in AFI after amnioinfusion (Pamnioinfusion group showed lower cesarean section rate for fetal distress (P=0.003), lower incidence of abnormal FHR (P=0.006), fewer neonates with Apgar score amnioinfusion is a simple, safe and effective procedure.

  3. Cross-Sensitivity Of Aethalometer Measurements To Relative Humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2005-03-01

    Absorptive light reduction by atmospheric aerosols is important with respect to their climate forcing. An instrument to measure light absorption is the aethalometer, which is routinely used to measure the attenuation of light transmitted through aerosol-laden fibre filters. Measurements have shown that the condensable gases require a correction for artefacts. We present the first corrections for hydrophobic Palas soot-laden filters for the whole humidity range, enhancing the accuracy of aethalometer datasets. (author)

  4. A prospective randomized evaluation of the prophylactic use of low-dose dopamine in cancer patients receiving interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, J N; Hurst, R; Vasselli, J; Lee, D; Kim, C J; McKee, M; Venzon, D; White, D; Marincola, F M; Rosenberg, S A

    1997-07-01

    The administration of high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) causes tumor regression in 17-25% of patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Renal dysfunction is a common dose-limiting toxicity of IL-2 administration, limiting 26% of treatment cycles. We have conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluate whether the prophylactic administration of low-dose dopamine (2 mg/kg/min) can minimize renal toxicity and thus affect the amount of IL-2 administered. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic high-dose IL-2 with standard supportive measures (group A = 21 patients) or with the addition of prophylactic dopamine (group B = 21 patients) at 2 mg/kg/min. For patients in group B, dopamine was instituted 1 h before the initiation of IL-2 administration and was discontinued 6-12 h after the maximum number of doses of IL-2 were given. There was no difference in the amount of IL-2 administered for each course of therapy for groups A and B. Despite differences in urine flow (milliliters per kilogram per day), fluid balance (liters per day), and overall weight gain, prophylactic low-dose dopamine did not significantly alter maximum plasma urea or creatinine levels in group B when compared with the control group (group A). The overall toxicity profile considering all grade 3 and 4 toxicities for patients in groups A and B was comparable. Thus, there is no evidence to support the routine use of prophylactic low-dose dopamine in patients receiving high-dose IL-2.

  5. Effect of Prophylactic Ankle-Brace Use During a High School Competitive Basketball Season on Dynamic Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Nathan J; Sandrey, Michelle A

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a sport season. To determine the effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a high school basketball season on dynamic postural control and functional tests. Prospective repeated-measures design. High school athletic facility. 21 healthy high school basketball athletes (13 girls, 8 boys). The order of testing was randomized using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions and 3 functional tests (FT) consisting of the single-leg crossover hop, single-leg vertical jump, and the single-leg 6-m hop for time at pre-, mid-, and postseason. After pretesting, the ankle brace was worn on both limbs during the entire 16-wk competitive basketball season. SEBT for PM, M, and AM and 3 single-leg FTs. Dynamic postural control using the SEBT and the 3 FTs improved over time, notably from pretest to posttest. The left limb was different from the right limb during the single-leg vertical jump. Effect sizes were large for pretest to posttest for the 3 SEBT directions and 2 of the 3 FTs. The 16-wk basketball prophylactic ankle-brace intervention significantly improved dynamic postural control and single-limb FTs over time.

  6. Quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    A regional quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay is being established in the Middle East. The scheme started in January 1985, with eight laboratories which were all from Iraq. At the present nineteen laboratories from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai) are now participating in the scheme. The scheme was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All participants received monthly three freeze dried quality control samples for assay. Results for T3, T4 and TSH received from participants are analysed statistically batch by batch and returned to the participants. Laboratories reporting quite marked bias results were contacted to check the assay performance for that particular batch and to define the weak points. Clinical interpretation for certain well defined samples were reported. A regular case study report is recently introduced to the scheme and will be distributed regularly as one of the guidelines in establishing a trouble shooting programme throughout the scheme. The overall mean between the laboratory performance showed a good result for the T4, moderate but acceptable for T3 and poor for TSH. The statistical analysis of the results based on the concept of a ''target'' value is derived from the believed correct value the ''Median''. The overall mean bias values (ignoring signs) for respectively low, normal and high concentration samples were for T4 18.0 ± 12.5, 11.2 ± 6.4 and 11.2 ± 6.4, for T3 28.8 ± 23.5, 11.2 ± 8.4 and 13.4 ± 9.0 and for TSH 46.3 ± 50.1, 37.2 ± 28.5 and 19.1 ± 12.1. The scheme proved to be effective not only in improving the overall performance but also it helped to develop awareness of the need for internal quality control programmes and gave confidence in the results of the participants. The scheme will continue and will be expanded to involve more laboratories in the region. Refs, fig and tabs

  7. Effect of prophylactic polishing protocols on the surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, A L; Frazier, K B; Roeder, L B; Debner, T L

    2002-01-01

    Many polishing protocols have been evaluated in vitro for their effect on the surface roughness of restorative materials. These results have been useful in establishing protocols for in vivo application. However, limited research has focused on the subsequent care and maintenance of esthetic restorations following their placement. This investigation evaluated the effect of five polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of five direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n=25) measuring 8 mm diameter x 3 mm thick were fabricated in an acrylic mold using five light-cured resin-based materials (hybrid composite, microfilled composite, packable composite, compomer and resin-modified glass ionomer). After photopolymerization, all specimens were polished with Sof-Lex Disks to produce an initial (baseline) surface finish. All specimens were then polished with one of five prophylactic protocols (Butler medium paste, Butler coarse paste, OneGloss, SuperBuff or OneGloss & SuperBuff). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined from three measurements with a profilometer (Surface 1). Next, all specimens were brushed 60,000 times at 1.5 Hz using a brush-head force of 2 N on a Manly V-8 cross-brushing machine in a 50:50 (w/w) slurry of toothpaste and water. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing (Surface 2) followed by re-polishing with one of five protocols, then final surface roughness values were determined (Surface 3). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Significant differences (p=0.05) in surface roughness were observed among restorative materials and polishing protocols. The microfilled and hybrid resin composite yielded significantly rougher surfaces than the other three materials following tooth brushing. Prophylactic polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on resin-based esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth

  8. Patient and parent preferences for characteristics of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Furlan,1 Sangeeta Krishnan,2 Jeffrey Vietri3 1Advanced Methods, Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, MA, USA; 3Health Outcomes, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy Introduction: New longer-acting factor products will potentially allow for less frequent infusion in prophylactic treatment of hemophilia. However, the role of administration frequency relative to other treatment attributes in determining preferences for prophylactic hemophilia treatment regimens is not well understood. Aim: To identify the relative importance of frequency of administration, efficacy, and other treatment characteristics among candidates for prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A and B. Method: An Internet survey was conducted among hemophilia patients and the parents of pediatric hemophilia patients in Australia, Canada, and the US. A monadic conjoint task was included in the survey, which varied frequency of administration (three, two, or one time per week for hemophilia A; twice weekly, weekly, or biweekly for hemophilia B, efficacy (no bleeding or breakthrough bleeding once every 4 months, 6 months, or 12 months, diluent volume (3 mL vs 2.5 mL for hemophilia A; 5 mL vs 3 mL for hemophilia B, vials per infusion (2 vs 1, reconstitution device (assembly required vs not, and manufacturer (established in hemophilia vs not. Respondents were asked their likelihood to switch from their current regimen to the presented treatment. Respondents were told to assume that other aspects of treatment, such as risk of inhibitor development, cost, and method of distribution, would remain the same. Results: A total of 89 patients and/or parents of children with hemophilia A participated; another 32 were included in the exercise for hemophilia B. Relative importance was 47%, 24%, and 18% for frequency of administration, efficacy, and manufacturer, respectively, in hemophilia A; analogous values were 48%, 26%, and 21% in

  9. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  10. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: use of prophylactic dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Reid,1 Elizabeth A Ayello,2 Afsaneh Alavi,3 1Department of Nursing Practice and Education, Bridgepoint Active Healthcare, Toronto, Canada; 2School of Nursing, Excelsior College, Albany, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Abstract: The management of pressure ulcers is challenging for health care providers across disciplines. Pressure ulcers have significant impact on emotional and physical wellbeing, quality of life, and health care costs. The use of wound dressings could be an important and cost-effective strategy in preventing pressure ulcers. The main types of dressings that are examined for this purpose in the literature are foam, hydrocolloid, and films. Some small studies have shown a preventative role for sacral dressings with low-shear backings, though they raise concerns about over-hydration of the skin. Further research demonstrates the application of barrier films over bony prominences to have a prophylactic effect; however, adhesive dressings can also contribute to shearing forces on the skin. There is a vast body of research that examines the use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers; however, there is limited high-level evidence, such as randomized control trials. A 2013 Cochrane review indicated that there is a paucity of high-level evidence to support the prophylactic use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers; this paper will examine the emerging literature and consider its relevance to pressure ulcer prevention protocols. Keywords: quality of life, hydrocolloid dressing, topical agent

  11. Prescribing prophylactic antibiotics to users of therapeutic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé-Campos, J; Quevedo-Junyent, L; Godoy-Barreda, N; Martínez-Salcedo, I; Romero-Aroca, P

    2013-03-01

    To describe the benefits and optimum use of prophylactic antibiotics in users of therapeutic contact lenses (TCL). A microbiological study was carried out on samples from 33 patients who continuously wore TCL. The resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated in our health region was also reviewed. An assessment was also made on whether there were microorganisms of a higher pathogenic potential in TCL than conventional contact lenses, as reported in the literature. No bacteria were isolated from 17 (52%) of the 33 lenses studied. From the 16 (48%) remaining lenses, coagulase negative Staphylococci were isolated from 10 (62%), Propionibacterium acnes from 4 (25%), and Corynebacterium from 2 (13%). The high number of negative cultures and the presence of saprophytic bacteria indicate that prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not precise. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria found in contact lenses are strongly resistant to the current commercially available antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Prophylactic antibiotics in vesicoureteric reflux: Evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this review was to systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cases of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR. Materials and Methods: We searched the relevant data on medical management of VUR and the date of last search was June 2008. The search included both randomized controlled trials as well as the nonrandomized trials and the data sources were; MEDLINE, online peer reviewed journals, Cochrane database and abstracts from conference proceedings. Results: Barring few most of the studies published on medical management were nonrandomized. Besides being small in number many of these studies were of poor-quality and poorly designed eventually failing in giving a reliable answer in this regard. Few of the studies suggest that the children with low grade VUR might do well even without antibiotic prophylaxis. Conclusions : In the absence of properly designed, randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up the question of antibiotic prophylaxis in cases of VUR remains unanswered in large part of it. Whether to give prophylactic antibiotics or not would ultimately need a shared decision-making involving both the treating physician and the parents assessing both the risks and the benefits.

  13. Prophylactic Antiviral Treatment in Recurrent Herpes Zoster: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gamze Bayram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ occurs in older ages with activation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV which persists in a dormant phase within the dorsal root ganglia. The incidence of HZ in immunosuppressed patients is 20-100 times higher and the clinical progress is more severe than in immunocompetent individuals. A 48-year-old man who had been diagnosed with acute myelocytic leukemia type M3 and had been treated with immunosuppressive agents was admitted to our clinic. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having HZ. He was treated with acyclovir 800 mg five times daily for 7 days. In the consecutive three months, he attended our clinic again with similar complaints. The left cervical (C5, C6 dermatomes were involved at the fourth attack of HZ. Multinucleated giant cells were determined on the Tzanck smear. VZV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Treatment with valacyclovir 1 g three times daily for 14 days was prescribed and then, prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir 500 mg two times a day was administered. Although immunosuppressive treatment was continued, no new attacks of herpes zoster occurred. We think that prophylactic antiviral therapy should be initiated in immunosuppressive individuals who have recurrent herpes zoster attacks.

  14. Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua G X; Leo, Yee-Sin; Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Lee, Linda K; Lye, David C

    2016-03-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2005 to December 2008. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the non-transfused vs. transfused groups. Outcomes studied were clinical bleeding, platelet increment, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission and death. Of the 788 patients included, 486 received prophylactic platelet transfusion. There was no significant difference in the presence of clinical bleeding in the two groups (18.2% in non-transfused group vs. 23.5% in transfused group; P = 0.08). Patients in the transfused group took a median of 1 day longer than the non-transfused group to increase their platelet count to 50,000/mm3 or more (3 days vs. 2 days, P hospital stay in the non-transfused group was 5 days vs. 6 days in the transfused group (P50,000/mm3 and increasing length of hospitalization.

  15. Identification of Measures Related to Cross-Cultural Competence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, K. G; Thornson, C. A

    2008-01-01

    This task, the first of five tasks in a project to support Cultural Readiness for the Department of Defense, represents the first step in the development of a "paper and pencil" questionnaire measure...

  16. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    1975-10-01

    'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

  17. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions

  18. Engineering related neutron diffraction measurements probing strains, texture and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balogh, Levente [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used for engineering applications for nearly three decades. The basis of the technique is powder diffraction following Bragg's Law. From the measured diffraction patterns information about internal, or residual, strain can be deduced from the peak positions, texture information can be extracted from the peak intensities, and finally the peak widths can provide information about the microstructure, e.g. dislocation densities and grain sizes. The strains are measured directly from changes in lattice parameters, however, in many cases it is non-trivial to determine macroscopic values of stress or strain from the measured data. The effects of intergranular strains must be considered, and combining the neutron diffraction measurements with polycrystal deformation modeling has proven invaluable in determining the overall stress and strain values of interest in designing and dimensioning engineering components. Furthelmore, the combined use of measurements and modeling has provided a tool for elucidating basic material properties, such as critical resolved shear stresses for the active deformation modes and their evolution as a function of applied deformation.

  19. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  20. Prophylactic intracameral levofloxacin in cataract surgery – an evaluation of safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espiritu CR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cesar Ramon G Espiritu,1,2,* Joanne G Bolinao1,* 1American Eye Center, Mandaluyong, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Manila Doctors Hospital, Manila, Philippines *The authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To evaluate posterior and anterior segment safety of an intracameral injection of levofloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution as prophylaxis for patients undergoing cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation.Setting: This study was conducted at Manila Doctors Hospital, Ermita, Manila, Philippines.Design: This was a prospective interventional study.Methods: Eyes undergoing standard phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation were treated with intracameral levofloxacin 0.5% at the conclusion of surgery. Safety parameters, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, endothelial cell counts, anterior chamber cells and flare, and central foveal thickness, were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 day and 1 week postoperatively.Results: A total of 50 eyes of 50 patients were included in the analysis. At 1 week postoperatively, all eyes demonstrated BCVA of 20/30 or better and 19 eyes (38% achieved BCVA of 20/20 or better. On the first postoperative day, no corneal edema was observed, and trace to +2 cells and flare in the anterior chamber were noted in all eyes. After 1 week, all eyes had a quiet anterior chamber and endothelial cell counts decreased by an average of 225 cells/mm2, which was marginally significant (p=0.0525 when compared to other time points. Optical coherence tomography results showed no statistically significant differences between central foveal thickness measurements before and after surgery. There were also no statistically significant differences in preoperative and postoperative pachymetry. No study-related adverse events occurred.Conclusion: There were no safety concerns associated with intracameral injection of levofloxacin 0.5%, prophylactically, following cataract surgery

  1. Impact of the prophylactic gastrostomy for unresectable squamous cell head and neck carcinomas treated with radio-chemotherapy on quality of life: Prospective randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Sebastien; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Alfonsi, Marc; Digue, Laurence; Bagarry, Danielle; Feham, Nasreddine; Bensadoun, Rene Jean; Pignon, Thierry; Loundon, Anderson; Deville, Jean-Laurent; Zanaret, Michel; Favre, Roger; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment for unresectable head and neck carcinomas. Placement of prophylactic gastrostomy has been proposed to provide adequate nutrition during the therapeutic sequence. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of prophylactic gastrostomy on the 6-month quality of life, and to determine the factors related to this quality of life. Materials and methods: Design. randomized, controlled, open study ('systematic percutaneous gastrostomy' versus 'no systematic gastrostomy'). Patients. squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (stages III and IV, UICC 1997). Setting. oncological departments of French university teaching hospitals. Treatment. optimal concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Evaluations. T0 baseline evaluation, T1 during the treatment, T2 end of the treatment, and T3 6-month post-inclusion. Primary endpoint. 6-month quality of life (Qol) assessed using SF36, EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ H and N35 questionnaires. Results: The Qol changes from baseline included a decline (T1 and T2) followed by an improvement (T3). Qol at 6 months was significantly higher in the group receiving systematic prophylactic gastrostomy (p = 10 -3 ). Higher initial BMI and lower initial Karnofsky index were significant factors related to a higher 6-month Qol. Conclusions: The study results suggest that prophylactic gastrostomy improves post-treatment quality of life for unresectable head and neck cancer patients, after adjusting for other potential predictive quality of life factors.

  2. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  3. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  4. Control perceptions and control appraisal: Relation to measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between control variables and measures of subjective wellbeing. The primary question asked was “who is happy and well, and why?” Design: A questionnaire survey and the data was analyzed by examining bivariate relationships between variables of interest. Participants: Two ...

  5. Feasible Indoor Air-related measures against Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franchimon, F.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    The threat of a new pandemic has forced the WHO to publish preparedness plans. Although WHO recognized the effect of airborne transmission of the causative agent, they did not attempt to include feasible measures for indoor environmental control as yet. The efficacy of indoor humidity control

  6. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Samantha C; Poole, Phillippa

    2013-11-28

    There has been renewal of interest in the use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether or not regular treatment of COPD patients with prophylactic antibiotics reduces exacerbations or affects quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was August 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared prophylactic antibiotics with placebo in patients with COPD. We used the standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration. Data were extracted and analysed by two independent review authors. Seven RCTs involving 3170 patients were included in this systematic review. All studies were published between 2001 and 2011. Five studies were of continuous antibiotics and two studies were of intermittent antibiotic prophylaxis (termed 'pulsed' for this review). The antibiotics investigated were azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Azithromycin, erythromycin and clarithromycin are macrolides while moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The study duration varied from three months to 36 months and all used intention-to-treat analysis. Most of the results were of moderate quality. The risk of bias of the included studies was generally low, and we did not downgrade the quality of evidence for risk of bias.The trials recruited participants with a mean age of 66 years and with at least a moderate severity of COPD. Three trials included participants with frequent exacerbations and two trials recruited participants requiring systemic steroids or antibiotics, or both, or who were at the end stage of their disease and required oxygen.The primary outcomes for this review were the number of exacerbations and quality of life.With use of continuous prophylactic antibiotics the number of patients experiencing

  7. A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers Authors: DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Paul C. Algra, LT, MC...May 2012 – May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To prevent acute otitis externa (AOE) in the saturation setting and to decrease the side effects

  8. Prophylactic treatment of migraine in children. Part 1. A systematic review of non-pharmacological trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, L; Bruijn, J; Koes, BW; Berger, MY; Passchier, J; Verhagen, AP

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological prophylactic treatments of migraine in children. Databases were searched from inception to June 2004 and references were checked. We selected controlled trials reporting the effects of non-pharmacological prophylactic treatments

  9. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  10. Measurement of the relative afferent pupillary defect in retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Burton, T C

    1980-07-01

    A swinging flashlight test and calibrated neutral density filters were used to quantitate the depth of relative afferent pupillary defects in ten patients with retinal detachment. Postoperatively, the pupillary responses returned to normal in seven of nine patients with anatomically successful surgery.

  11. Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Anderson, George M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    Objective Increased plasma kynurenine has been reported in tic disorder patients, and this observation has been suggested to be indicative of immune dysregulation. In the present study, we examined plasma levels of kynurenine and related molecules in a group of tic disorder patients. Methods Plasma

  12. Measuring the Computer-Related Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Schönfelder, Mona; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    A positive self-concept supposedly affects a student's well-being as well as his or her perception of individual competence at school. As computer-based learning is becoming increasingly important in school, a positive computer-related self-concept (CSC) might help to enhance cognitive achievement. Consequently, we focused on establishing a short,…

  13. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects.

  14. Participation in two phase II prophylactic HIV vaccine trials in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kimberly; Legg, K; Sharp, A; Mackie, N; Olarinde, F; De Souza, C; Weber, J; Peters, B

    2008-06-02

    There will be a continued imperative to recruit large numbers of healthy volunteers to early phase prophylactic HIV vaccine (PHV) trials. We studied mechanisms associated with participation in two related phase II PHV trials. The most cited reasons for volunteering were altruism and a personal connection to HIV. The most successful recruiting strategies targeted organisations dealing with HIV, health or social issues, or were directed to large audiences through the mass media. However, circulated emails and word of mouth were the most resource-effective approaches. Group discussions and the collection of a pool of potential volunteers were much less effective than one-to-one discussions and immediate screening after recruitment. We utilised our findings to devise key recommendations to assist PHV trial teams who are planning future studies.

  15. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, H.N.; BUNCE, G.; CAREY, R.M.; CUSHMAN, P.; DANBY, G.T.; DEBEVEC, P.T.; DEILE, M.; DENG, H.; DENINGER, W.; DHAWAN, S.K.; MENG, W.

    2001-01-01

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a μ =(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a μ =11659202(14)(6) x 10 10 (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a μ (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10 10 (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed

  16. Evaluating probability measures related to subsurface flow and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling approaches are being used increasingly in order to carry out quantified risk analysis and to evaluate the uncertainty existing in subsurface flow and transport analyses. The work presented in this paper addresses three issues: comparison of common probabilistic modeling techniques, recent results regarding the sensitivity of probability measures to likely changes in the uncertain variables for transport in porous media, and a discussion of some questions regarding fundamental modeling philosophy within a probabilistic framework. Recent results indicate that uncertainty regarding average flow velocity controls the probabilistic outcome, while uncertainty in the dispersivity and diffusion coefficient does not seem very important. Uncertainty of reaction terms is important only at early times in the transport process. Questions are posed regarding (1) the inclusion of macrodispersion in a probabilistic analysis, (2) statistics of flow velocity and (3) the notion of an ultimate probability measure for subsurface flow analyses

  17. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  18. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J; Reuter, U [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1996-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  19. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  20. Relational description of the measurement process in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.

    2002-01-01

    We have recently introduced a realistic, covariant, interpretation for the reduction process in relativistic quantum mechanics. The basic problem for a covariant description is the dependence of the states on the frame within which collapse takes place. A suitable use of the causal structure of the devices involved in the measurement process allowed us to introduce a covariant notion for the collapse of quantum states. However, a fully consistent description in the relativistic domain requires the extension of the interpretation to quantum fields. The extension is far from straightforward. Besides the obvious difficulty of dealing with the infinite degrees of freedom of the field theory, one has to analyse the restrictions imposed by causality concerning the allowed operations in a measurement process. In this paper we address these issues. We shall show that, in the case of partial causally connected measurements, our description allows us to include a wider class of causal operations than the one resulting from the standard way of computing conditional probabilities. This alternative description could be experimentally tested. A verification of this proposal would give stronger support to the realistic interpretations of the states in quantum mechanics. (author)

  1. Long-Term Outcome and Complications Following Prophylactic Laparoscopic-Assisted Gastropexy in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy Son, Natasha K; Singh, Ameet; Amsellem, Pierre; Kilkenny, Jessica; Brisson, Brigitte A; Oblak, Michelle L; Ogilvie, Adam T

    2016-11-01

    To characterize the short- and long-term outcome (>12 months), complications, and owner satisfaction following prophylactic laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy (LAG) in dogs. Retrospective study. Client-owned dogs (n = 49). Dogs that underwent prophylactic LAG at 2 veterinary academic hospitals were studied. Surgical time, anesthesia time, concurrent intra- and extra-abdominal procedures, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded following review of medical records. Veterinarian and/or owner follow-up was obtained to determine outcome and satisfaction with LAG. Five of 49 dogs (10%) experienced complications related to abdominal access during LAG. Four percent (2/49) of dogs experienced an intraoperative complication. Follow-up information was available for 89% of dogs (44/49). Four dogs died of causes unrelated to LAG or gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) in the follow-up period. Two dogs experienced major postoperative complications requiring additional veterinary intervention. Thirty percent (13 dogs) experienced a minor postoperative self-limiting wound-related complication. Median follow-up time was 698 days (range, 411-1825). No dogs experienced GDV. One hundred percent of dog owners were satisfied with LAG, would repeat the procedure in a future pet, and would recommend the procedure to a friend or family member. LAG was an effective procedure for prevention of GDV and was associated with high client satisfaction in this cohort of dogs. A moderate rate of postoperative wound complications occurred that were minor and self-limiting in nature. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Prophylactic effects of sulforaphane on depression-like behavior and dendritic changes in mice after inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Wu, Jin; Ushida, Yusuke; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate compound derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which plays a role in inflammation. In this study, we examined whether the prevention effects of SFN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced depression-like behavior in mice. Pretreatment with SFN significantly blocked an increase in the serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level and an increase in microglial activation of brain regions after a single administration of LPS (0.5 mg/kg). Furthermore, SFN significantly potentiated increased serum levels of IL-10 after LPS administration. In the tail-suspension test and forced swimming test, SFN significantly attenuated an increase of the immobility time after LPS administration. In addition, SFN significantly recovered to control levels for LPS-induced alterations in the proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, postsynaptic density protein 95 and AMPA receptor 1 (GluA1) and dendritic spine density in the brain regions. Finally, dietary intake of 0.1% glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN) food during the juvenile and adolescence could prevent the onset of LPS-induced depression-like behaviors and dendritic spine changes in the brain regions at adulthood. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprout has prophylactic effects on inflammation-related depressive symptoms. Therefore, supplementation of SFN-rich broccoli sprout could be prophylactic vegetable to prevent or minimize the relapse by inflammation in the remission state of depressed patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4% peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p=0.20. The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005. Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05. Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05. No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05. Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p=0.10. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such

  4. Postoperative Complications After Prophylactic Thyroidectomy for Very Young Patients With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P.; van Beek, Dirk-Jan; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A.; Lodewijk, Lutske; Valk, Gerlof D.; van der Zee, David C.; Vriens, Menno R.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether younger age at surgery is associated with the increased incidence of postoperative complications after prophylactic thyroidectomy in pediatric patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2. The shift toward earlier thyroidectomy has resulted in significantly less medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)-related morbidity and mortality. However, very young pediatric patients might have a higher morbidity rate compared with older patients. Hardly any literature exists on complications in the very young. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on the outcomes of MEN2 patients undergoing a prophylactic total thyroidectomy at the age of 17 or younger. Forty-one MEN2A and 3 MEN2B patients with thyroidectomy after January 1993 and at least 6 months of follow-up were included, subdivided in 9 patients younger than 3 years, 15 patients 3 to 6 years, and 20 patients older than 6 years. Postoperative hypocalcemia and other complications were registered. Twelve (27%) patients developed transient hypocalcemia and 9 (20%) patients suffered from permanent hypocalcemia, with a nonsignificant trend toward higher incidence with decreasing age. Three (7%) patients had other complications, of whom 2 were younger than 3 years. For patients younger than 3 years, the average length of stay (LOS) was 6.7 days, versus 1.7 and 3.5 days, respectively, for the older patient groups (P < 0.05). Patients with complications had a longer LOS compared with patients without (5.0 vs 2.0, P < 0.01). None of the patients had clinical signs of recurrent MTC after a mean follow-up of 10.5 years. Prophylactic thyroidectomy in very young children is associated with a higher rate of complications, causing a significant increased LOS. Irrespective age of surgery, MTC did not recur in any patient. In planning optimal timing of surgery, clinicians should take the risk of complications into account. We advise not to perform total

  5. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  6. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-11-18

    trigger (5 x 10(9)/L); standard trigger (10 x 10(9)/L); higher trigger (20 x 10(9)/L, 30 x 10(9)/L, 50 x 10(9)/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 x 10(9)/L) versus a higher trigger (20 x 10(9)/L or 30 x 10(9)/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations.The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review.Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity.Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence).One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; relative proportion of days with World Health Organization Grade 2 or worse

  7. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (low trigger (5 × 109/L); standard trigger (10 × 109/L); higher trigger (20 × 109/L, 30 × 109/L, 50 × 109/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 × 109/L) versus a higher trigger (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence). One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255

  8. Cytogenetic measurements of the relative biological effectiveness of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, C.; Heddle, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which are used to estimate radiation dose biologically, were induced by tritium 1.14 times as effectively as X-rays (95% confidence limits: 0.8 - 1.5). Chromosome translocations in spermatogonia, which are one component of genetic risk, were induced by tritium 1.21 times as effectively as X-rays (95% confidence limits: 0.8 -1.9). All experimental measurements were made in CBA/H mice injected with tritiated water or exposed to X-rays at a comparable dose rate

  9. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  10. PROBES, POPULATIONS, SAMPLES, MEASUREMENTS AND RELATIONS IN STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Dehoff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This summary paper provides an overview of the content of stereology. The typical problem at hand centers around some three dimensional object that has an internal structure that determines its function, performance, or response. To understand and quantify the geometry of that structure it is necessary to probe it with geometric entities: points, lines, planes volumes, etc. Meaningful results are obtained only if the set of probes chosen for use in the assessment is drawn uniformly from the population of such probes for the structure as a whole. This requires an understanding of the population of each kind of probe. Interaction of the probes with the structure produce geometric events which are the focus of stereological measurements. In almost all applications the measurement that is made is a simple count of the number of these events. Rigorous application of these requirements for sample design produce unbiased estimates of geometric properties of features in the structure no matter how complex are the features or what their arrangement in space. It is this assumption-free characteristic of the methodology that makes it a powerful tool for characterizing the internal structure of three dimensional objects.

  11. Posterior epistaxis: Common bleeding sites and prophylactic electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Sun, Xicai; Guo, Limin; Wang, Dehui

    2016-01-01

    Posterior epistaxis is a frequent emergency, and the key to efficient management is identification of the bleeding point. We performed a retrospective study of 318 patients with posterior epistaxis treated with endoscopic bipolar electrocautery during a 4-year period. Distribution of the bleeding sites was recorded. Patients with no definite bleeding sites in the first operation were assigned to Group A (n = 39) and Group B (n = 34). Patients in Group A were only observed in the ward. Patients in Group B were given prophylactic electrocoagulation at the common bleeding points. Of the 318 patients, bleeding sites were successfully identified and coagulated in 263 patients. All of them were located posteriorly, with 166 on the lateral nasal wall, 86 on the septum, and 11 on the anterior face of the sphenoid sinus. The rebleeding rate of Group B (8.8%) was lower than that of Group A (38.5%) (p < 0.01).

  12. Prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene are the predisposing cause of gastric cancer in most families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). The lifetime risk of cancer in mutation positive members is more than 80 % and prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended. Not all...... mutations in the CDH1 gene are however pathogenic and it is important to classify mutations before this major operation is performed. Probands from two Danish families with gastric cancer and a history suggesting HDGC were screened for CDH1 gene mutations. Two novel CDH1 gene mutations were identified....... Hospital stay was 6-8 days and there were no complications. Small foci of diffuse gastric cancer were found in all patients-intramucosal in six and advanced in one. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies had revealed a microscopic cancer focus in two of the patients. Our data confirmed the pathogenic nature...

  13. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-12-31

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  15. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Dewing, Michelle; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, radical breast cancer surgery has been largely replaced by breast conservation treatment, due to early diagnosis and more effective adjuvant treatment. While breast conservation is mostly preferred, the trend of bilateral mastectomy has risen in the United States. The aim of this study is to determine factors influencing patients’ choice for having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). Methods: This is a retrospective study of 373 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who were treated by bilateral or unilateral mastectomy (BM or UM) at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between Jan. 2002 and Dec. 2010. In the BM group, only those with unilateral breast cancer who chose CPM were included in the analysis. Results: When compared with the UM group, the following factors were found to be associated with BM: younger age, pre-menopausal, a family history of breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA mutation, more breast biopsies, history of breast augmentation, having MRI study within 6 months before the surgery, more likely to have reconstruction and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and fewer had neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy/radiation. When patients with bilateral breast cancer were excluded, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated younger patients with negative nodes, SLNB as the only nodal surgery and positive family history were significant factors predicting CPM and immediate reconstruction using tissue expanders or implants. Conclusion: Younger age, lower TN stage, requiring only SLNB and high risk family history predict contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Tissue expander/implant-based reconstructions were more frequently chosen by patients with BM. PMID:26097557

  16. Value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in contemporary neurosurgical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in diseases leading to intractable epilepsy. We reviewed 11 glioneuronal tumors (GNT) including gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 11 cortical dysplasia (CD), and 33 cavernous angiomas (CA) diagnosed with MRI between the years 2000 and 2008 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Juntendo University in this study. We analyzed retrospectively the followings. Age of seizure onset and seizure severity. Region of each disease leading to intractable epilepsy. Seizure outcome after the surgery. Surgical morbidity. Ages of seizure onset of GNT, CD, and CA were 21.0±12.1, 1.3±7.5, 24.8±18.1 years, respectively. 81.8% of CD and GNT were intractable, however CA progresses to intractable epilepsy in 48.5%. The 66.7% of GNT with intractable seizures located in the mesial temporal lobe and 66.7% of CD had entra-temporal location. CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progressed to intractable epilepsy in 80%. Seizure free ratios of GNT, CD, and CA were 87.5%, 50.0%, 81.3%, respectively. In CDs where was impossible to carry out complete resection resulted in residual seizures. Neurological sequelae after surgery were observed in 3 cases. Morbidity ratios of motor weakness, speech difficulty, and memory disturbances are 4.6%, 4.6%, 2.3%, respectively. Majority of CD, GNT, and CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progress towards intractable epilepsy. Prophylactic epilepsy surgery by experienced surgeon with low complication rates can be an acceptable alternative for these pathological conditions. Seizure outcome of surgery for CD does not reach the success rates of those in GNT and CA. The cause of the unfavorable result in CD is the inapplicability to eloquent areas. Aggressive early surgery for CD may improve outcome considering neuronal plasticity of childhood. (author)

  17. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  18. Detecting measurement-induced relative-position localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, P A; Sindt, J; Dunningham, J A

    2013-01-01

    The theory of decoherence explains how classicality emerges from an underlying quantum reality. An additional interpretation to this has been proposed in which scattering events induce the localization of relative observables (Rau et al 2003 Science 301 1081). An interesting consequence of this process is that it involves the build-up of certain robust entanglements between the observables being localized. To date the weakness of this interpretation has been the lack of a clear experimental signature that allows it to be tested. Here we provide a simple experimentally accessible scheme that enables just that. We also discuss a Bayesian technique that could, in principle, allow experiments to confirm the localization to any desired degree of accuracy and we present precision requirements that are achievable with current experiments. Finally, we extend the scheme from its initial one dimensional proof of principle to the more real world scenario of three dimensional localization. (paper)

  19. Efficacy of Prophylactic Mesh in End-Colostomy Construction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuanhu; Wang, Wenbin; Zhu, Bing; Song, Guolei; Jiang, Congqiao

    2016-10-01

    Parastomal hernia is a very common complication after colostomy, especially end-colostomy. It is unclear whether prophylactic placement of mesh at the time of stoma formation could prevent parastomal hernia formation after surgery for rectal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic mesh in end-colostomy construction. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched, covering records entered from their inception to September 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing stoma with mesh to stoma without mesh after surgery for rectal cancer were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of parastomal hernia. Pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using random effects models. Six RCTs containing 309 patients were included. Parastomal hernia occurred in 24.4 % (38 of 156) of patients with mesh and 50.3 % (77 of 153) of patients without mesh. Meta-analysis showed a lower incidence of parastomal hernia (RR, 0.42; 95 % CI 0.22-0.82) and reoperation related to parastomal hernia (RR, 0.23; 95 % CI 0.06-0.89) in patients with mesh. Stoma-related morbidity was similar between mesh group and non-mesh group (RR, 0.65; 95 % CI 0.33-1.30). Prophylactic placement of a mesh at the time of a stoma formation seems to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of parastomal hernia and reoperation related to parastomal hernia after surgery for rectal cancer, but not the rate of stoma-related morbidity. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity among the studies.

  20. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  1. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  2. Cryopump measurements relating to safety, pumping speed, and radiation outgassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.; Ruby, L.

    1978-09-01

    A test cryopump has been constructed to investigate operation in close proximity to a neutral beam, to determine static and dynamic pumping speeds, and to study outgassing such as might be produced by a pulse of nuclear radiation. No difficulty was encountered in operating the cryopump close to a deuterium neutral-beam source suitable for a fusion-reactor injector. Static and dynamic pumping-speed measurements agreed well, but were somewhat lower than expectations, probably due to the unusual method chosen to supply liquid helium. Safety tests showed that hydrogen could not be ignited at any subatmospheric pressure resulting from a leak-up-to-air accident. The possible hazard of liquid-oxygen condensation in such accidents was not explored. Tests made with pulses of neutrons and gamma rays produced by a TRIGA showed that the cryopump could be partially outgassed by radiation pulses of sufficient intensity. However, the effect is ascribed to the gamma-ray component of the TRIGA pulse which is about 10 3 times that expected from a fusion reactor such as TFTR

  3. Prophylactic antibiotic regimen and dental implant failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether there are any positive effects of prophylactic antibiotic regimen on implant failure rates and post-operative infection when performing dental implant treatment in healthy individuals. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in March 2014. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not. The search strategy resulted in 14 publications. The I(2) statistic was used to express the percentage of the total variation across studies due to heterogeneity. The inverse variance method was used with a fixed- or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity. The estimates of relative effect were expressed in risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Six studies were judged to be at high risk of bias, whereas one study was considered at moderate risk, and six studies were considered at low risk of bias. The test for overall effect showed that the difference between the procedures (use versus non-use of antibiotics) significantly affected the implant failure rates (P = 0.0002), with a RR of 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.75). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient having an implant failure was 50 (95% CI 33-100). There were no apparent significant effects of prophylactic antibiotics on the occurrence of post-operative infections in healthy patients receiving implants (P = 0.520). A sensitivity analysis did not reveal difference when studies judged as having high risk of bias were not considered. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [The effect of prophylactic mastectomy with recontruction on quality of life in BRCA positive women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurná, Z; Dražan, L; Foretová, L; Dvorská, L

    2012-01-01

    It is presumed that bilateral mastectomy is so far the most efficient way how to prevent development of breast carcinoma among BRCA positive patients. This mutilating intervention might be unacceptable for cosmetic reasons for most women. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of prophylactic mastectomy on the quality of life of BRCA positive patients by comparing results of psychodiagnostic questionnaire methods before surgical intervention and after it. Our data set consisted of 25 BRCA positive healthy women and 19 BRCA positive women in remission. All these patients underwent a reconstructive surgical intervention after mastectomy. Age of patients was 38-55 years. The following questionnaires were used: Life Satisfaction Questionnaire by J. Fahrenberg, M. Myrtek and E. Brähler, Clinical analysis questionnaire by S. E. Kruge and R. B. Cattel, Impact of Event Scale - Revised by D. S. Weiss and C. R. Marmar. Women in remission showed most significant decrease in Financial position category and minor decrease in Work and Employment category and Friends, Acquaintances and Relatives category. Improvement of quality of life was recorded especially in category of Health, Sexuality, Own person, Partnership and in Relationship with own children and there was also a significant improvement to overall life satisfaction. Among healthy patients, there was a significant improvement in category of Health and Own person. Most significant decrease was in dimension of Financial position and Work and employment. Prophylactic mastectomy with reconstruction might be the way of prevention of breast carcinoma because from psychological point of view there is the unambiguously significant fact that there was improvement of perception of own health and own person in both groups of women. These are the quality of life aspects that are considered to be basal and long term stabilizing from the perspective of dynamics of own self and they also systematically influence

  5. Alcohol calibration of tests measuring skills related to car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Vuurman, Eric; Ramaekers, Jan; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2014-06-01

    Medication and illicit drugs can have detrimental side effects which impair driving performance. A drug's impairing potential should be determined by well-validated, reliable, and sensitive tests and ideally be calibrated by benchmark drugs and doses. To date, no consensus has been reached on the issue of which psychometric tests are best suited for initial screening of a drug's driving impairment potential. The aim of this alcohol calibration study is to determine which performance tests are useful to measure drug-induced impairment. The effects of alcohol are used to compare the psychometric quality between tests and as benchmark to quantify performance changes in each test associated with potentially impairing drug effects. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-way crossover study. Treatments were placebo and three different doses of alcohol leading to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 g/L. Main effects of alcohol were found in most tests. Compared with placebo, performance in the Divided Attention Test (DAT) was significantly impaired after all alcohol doses and performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Balance Test was impaired with a BAC of 0.5 and 0.8 g/L. The largest effect sizes were found on postural balance with eyes open and mean reaction time in the divided attention and the psychomotor vigilance test. The preferable tests for initial screening are the DAT and the PVT, as these tests were most sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol and being considerably valid in assessing potential driving impairment.

  6. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  7. Prophylactic post-operative radiotherapy prevents heterotopic ossification following traumatic acetabular fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Joseph T.; Hixson, William C.; Jennelle, Richard L. S.; Alonso, Jorge E.; Raben, David; Spencer, Sharon S.; Kim, Robert Y.

    1996-01-01

    (6))) of patients receiving 1000 cGy/5 fxs developed heterotopic ossification, while 7% ((2(26))) and 0% ((0(2))) receiving 700 cGy/1 fx and 800 cGy/1 fx developed heterotopic ossification, respectively. In patients with and without heterotopic ossification, the mean injury-to-radiation interval was 23.2 and 7.8 days and the surgery-to-radiation interval was 6.6 and 2.2 days, respectively. Conclusion: Prophylactic post-operative radiotherapy following traumatic acetabular fracture significantly reduces the incidence of heterotopic ossification. Radiation dose, surgery-to-radiation interval, and as yet unrecognized, injury-to-radiation interval are related to the development of heterotopic ossification

  8. Clinical course of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes in the era of prophylactic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phupong Vorapong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm prelabor rupture of membrane (PPROM causes maternal and neonatal complications. Prophylactic antiobiotics were used in the management of PPROM. The objectives of this retrospective study were to compare clinical course and outcome of PPROM managed expectantly with prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids with those without prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids. Results A total of 170 cases of singleton pregnant women with gestational age between 28–34 weeks suffering from PROM during January 1998 to December 2009 were included; 119 cases received prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids while 51 cases did not received prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids. Median latency period in the study group was significantly longer than in the control group (89.8 vs. 24.3 hours, P  Conclusions Latency period of PPROM after using prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids increased while neonatal infectious morbidity was low. But maternal infectious morbidity was not increased. This retrospective study confirms the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics and antenatal corticosteroids in management of PPROM.

  9. Prophylactic Interventions in Neonatology: How Do They Fare in Real Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnitsky, Asaph; Lee, Shoo K; Piedbouf, Bruno; Harrison, Adele; Shah, Prakesh S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the association of prophylactic antenatal steroids, indomethacin, and phototherapy with extremely preterm infant outcomes in a pragmatic setting. Retrospective study of infants born at <28 weeks gestation and admitted to 26 Canadian Neonatal Network neonatal intensive care units between 2010 and 2012. Mortality, severe neurological injury, retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nosocomial infection, and patent ductus arteriosus ligation rates were compared between infants who received antenatal steroids, prophylactic indomethacin, and/or prophylactic phototherapy and those who did not. Of 3,465 eligible infants, 2,900 (84%) received antenatal steroids, 269 (8%) prophylactic indomethacin, and 403 (12%) prophylactic phototherapy. Associations were observed between antenatal steroids and mortality (adjusted odds ration [aOR] 0.47 [0.33-0.66]) and severe neurological injury (aOR 0.60 [0.46-0.77]), indomethacin and ductus arteriosus ligations (aOR 0.52 [0.31-0.87]), but not severe neurological injury (aOR 1.12 [0.81-1.54]), but phototherapy was not associated with any of the neonatal outcomes despite reductions in bilirubin. Antenatal steroids were associated with reduced mortality and neurological injury, prophylactic indomethacin was not associated with reduction in neurological injury and phototherapy was not associated with any improvement in neonatal outcomes. In a pragmatic setting, outside randomized controlled trials, the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic interventions in extremely preterm neonates vary; ongoing monitoring is warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Factors Associated With the Prophylactic Prescription of a Bowel Regimen to Prevent Opioid-Induced Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nancy Y; Nguyen, Eugene; Schrager, Sheree M; Russell, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Identify factors associated with the prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen with an inpatient opioid prescription. This was a retrospective cohort study from June 1, 2013, to October 31, 2014 of pediatric inpatients prescribed an oral or intravenous opioid on the general medical/surgical floors. We identified patients with or without a prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen. We obtained patient demographics, prescriber training level and service and used multivariate logistic regression to analyze the factors associated with prophylactic bowel regimen and opioid prescription. Of the 6682 encounters that met study criteria, only 966 (14.5%) encounters had prophylactic prescriptions. Patient factors associated with prophylactic prescription include increasing age (per year; odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.07) and sickle cell diagnosis (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 2.08-4.91). Medication factors associated with prophylactic prescription include a scheduled opioid prescription (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.46-2.1) and a prescription for oxycodone (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.57-5.00) or morphine (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.39-2.44), compared with acetaminophen-hydrocodone. Compared with medical providers, surgeons were less likely (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.35-0.53) and pain service providers were more likely to prescribe a prophylactic bowel regimen (OR = 4.12, 95% CI 3.13-5.43). More than 85% of inpatient opioid prescriptions did not receive a prophylactic bowel regimen. Future research should examine factors (eg, clinical decision support tools) to increase prophylactic prescription of bowel regimens with opioids for populations found to have lower rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Validation of the Brazilian version of the VERITAS-Pro scale to assess adherence to prophylactic regimens in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prophylaxis is the treatment of choice for patients with severe hemophilia. Low adherence may limit the effectiveness of the prophylactic regimen, thereby compromising outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the Brazilian version of the VERITAS-Pro prophylaxis adherence scale, originally an American questionnaire that can be answered by the individual responsible for prophylaxis as well as by an observer. Methods: The scale has 24 questions divided into six subscales: Routine, Dosage, Plan, Remember, Skip and Communicate. Participants were recruited at a blood center in southeastern Brazil for validation and reliability analyses. Validation measures included the results obtained using analog visual scales of adherence, interval between medication dispensed by the treatment center pharmacy and the percentage of recommended doses administered and infusions registered in the patients’ logs. Results: The study included 32 individuals responsible for prophylaxis and five observers. The internal consistency was very good for the VERITAS-Pro total score, excellent for the Remember, Skip and Communicate subscales, good for the Dosage subscale, and acceptable for the Routine and Plan subscales. Twelve participants answered the questionnaire on more than one occasion to evaluate reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent. Regarding convergent validity, the VERITAS-Pro scores were moderately correlated with the global adherence scale and with infusion log records, but showed a weak correlation with pharmacy dispensation records. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of VERITAS-Pro is a valid and reliable instrument, enabling the understanding of specific factors related to non-adherence and allowing targeted interventions for proper treatment. Keywords: Hemophilia, Medication adherence, Questionnaire, Validation study

  12. Prophylactic interventions after delivery of placenta for reducing bleeding during the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaju, Yukari; Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Mori, Rintaro

    2013-11-26

    There are several Cochrane systematic reviews looking at postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) prophylaxis in the third stage of labour and another Cochrane review investigating the timing of prophylactic uterotonics in the third stage of labour (i.e. before or after delivery of the placenta). There are, however, no Cochrane reviews looking at the use of interventions given purely after delivery of the placenta. Ergometrine or methylergometrine are used for the prevention of PPH in the postpartum period (the period after delivery of the infant) after delivery of the placenta in some countries. There are, furthermore, no Cochrane reviews that have so far considered herbal therapies or homeopathic remedies for the prevention of PPH after delivery of the placenta. To assess the effectiveness of available prophylactic interventions for PPH including prophylactic use of ergotamine, ergometrine, methylergometrine, herbal therapies, and homeopathic remedies, administered after delivery of the placenta, compared with no uterotonic agents as well as with different routes of administration for prevention of PPH after delivery of the placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013), The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (USA),  Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) (UK), European Medicines Agency (EMA) (EU), Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) (Japan),  Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) (Australia), ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; Japan), Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (Japic-CTI; Japan), Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registration (JMACCT CTR; Japan) (all on 30 April 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing prophylactic

  13. Measuring the relative importance of strategic thinking dimensions in relation to counterproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zamani Moghaddam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relative importance of strategic thinking dimensions in prediction of counter-productive behavior. The research method is based on a descriptive- Survey research. After collecting the questionnaires from 73 top managers and 110 staffs, the correlations between strategic thinking dimensions and counterproductive behavior were calculated. The relative importance method was used to calculate the relative weight of each dimension of strategic thinking in prediction of counterproductive behaviors. The results show that the strategic thinking of top managers is associated with their counterproductive behavior (correlation coefficient -0.38. Furthermore, The results of the Relative Importance Method indicate that the relative importance of each dimension of strategic thinking in prediction of counterproductive behavior is not the same. System perspective with 31.1% has the highest importance and hypothesis driven with 11.7% has the lowest weight. Intent focus, thinking in time and intelligent opportunism predict 14.1%, 13.3%, and 29.8% of counter-productive changes, respectively.

  14. Optimizing Prophylactic CPAP in Patients Without Obstructive Sleep Apnoea for High-Risk Abdominal Surgeries: A Meta-regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Shah, Dipal; Sinha, Ashish; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Trikha, Anjan; Goudra, Basavana Gouda

    2016-04-01

    Prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can prevent pulmonary adverse events following upper abdominal surgeries. The present meta-regression evaluates and quantifies the effect of degree/duration of (CPAP) on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary events. Medical databases were searched for randomized controlled trials involving adult patients, comparing the outcome in those receiving prophylactic postoperative CPAP versus no CPAP, undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Our meta-analysis evaluated the relationship between the postoperative pulmonary complications and the use of CPAP. Furthermore, meta-regression was used to quantify the effect of cumulative duration and degree of CPAP on the measured outcomes. Seventy-three potentially relevant studies were identified, of which 11 had appropriate data, allowing us to compare a total of 362 and 363 patients in CPAP and control groups, respectively. Qualitatively, Odds ratio for CPAP showed protective effect for pneumonia [0.39 (0.19-0.78)], atelectasis [0.51 (0.32-0.80)] and pulmonary complications [0.37 (0.24-0.56)] with zero heterogeneity. For prevention of pulmonary complications, odds ratio was better for continuous than intermittent CPAP. Meta-regression demonstrated a positive correlation between the degree of CPAP and the incidence of pneumonia with a regression coefficient of +0.61 (95 % CI 0.02-1.21, P = 0.048, τ (2) = 0.078, r (2) = 7.87 %). Overall, adverse effects were similar with or without the use of CPAP. Prophylactic postoperative use of continuous CPAP significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative pneumonia, atelectasis and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Quantitatively, increasing the CPAP levels does not necessarily enhance the protective effect against pneumonia. Instead, protective effect diminishes with increasing degree of CPAP.

  15. Prophylactic peritoneal dialysis following cardiopulmonary bypass in children is associated with decreased inflammation and improved clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, William C; Dabal, Robert J; Askenazi, David J; Borasino, Santiago; Moellinger, Ashley B; Kirklin, James K; Alten, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate impact of prophylactic peritoneal dialysis (PD) on clinical outcomes and inflammatory cytokines in children following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective before-and-after nonrandomized cohort study. Pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit in tertiary hospital. Fifty-two consecutive neonates and infants at high risk for postoperative fluid overload following cardiopulmonary bypass. All had PD catheters placed during primary cardiac surgery. Initial 27 patients were managed with passive peritoneal drainage and diuretics (controls). Following 25 patients were started on prophylactic PD in immediate postoperative period and managed per PD protocol (+PD). Cumulative fluid balance, indices of disease severity, and clinical outcomes were prospectively collected. Plasma interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were measured immediately before-and-after cardiopulmonary bypass and at 24 and 48 hours post-cardiopulmonary bypass. Demographics, diagnoses, and intraoperative variables were similar. Median net fluid balance was more negative in +PD at 24 hours, -24 mL/kg (interquartile range: -62, 11) vs. +18 mL/kg (interquartile range: -26, 11), P = .003, and 48 hours, -88 mL/kg (interquartile range: -132, -54) vs. -46 mL/kg (interquartile range: -84, -12), P = .004. +PD had median 55 mL/kg less fluid intake at 24 hours, P = .058. Peritoneal drain, urine, and chest tube output were comparable over first 24 hours. Mean inotrope score was lower in +PD at 24 hours. +PD had earlier sternal closure--24 hours (interquartile range: 20, 40) vs. 63 hours (interquartile range: 44, 72), P interquartile range: 49, 135) vs. 125 hours (interquartile range: 70, 195), P = .10. +PD experienced lower serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 at 24 hours. Prophylactic PD is associated with greater net negative fluid balance, decreased inotrope requirements, and lower serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the early postoperative

  16. Naratriptan in the Prophylactic Treatment of Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo; Mitsufuji, Takashi; Asano, Yoshio; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Kato, Yuji; Tanahashi, Norio; Maruki, Yuichi; Sakai, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Araki, Nobuo

    2017-10-01

    Objective Naratriptan has been reported to reduce the frequency of cluster headache. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naratriptan is effective as a prophylactic treatment for cluster headache in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all 43 patients with cluster headache who received preventive treatment with naratriptan from April 2009 to April 2015. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (beta version) (ICHD-3 beta) was used to diagnose cluster headache. This study was conducted at 3 centers (Department of Neurology, Saitama Medical University; Saitama Neuropsychiatric Institute; Saitama Medical University International Medical Center). Patients were recruited from these specialized headache outpatient centers. Naratriptan was taken before the patient went to bed. Results The study population included 30 men (69.8%) and 13 women (30.2%). Twenty-two cases received other preventive treatments (51.2%), while 21 cases only received naratriptan (48.8%). Among the 43 cases, 37 patients (86.0%) achieved an improvement of cluster headache on naratriptan. Conclusion Naratriptan has been suggested as a preventive medicine for cluster headache because of the longer the biological half-life in comparison to other triptans. The internal use of naratriptan 2 hours before attacks appears to achieve a good response in patients with cluster headache.

  17. Effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilletta, A F; Rudnik, M; Arcilla, R A; Straube, R

    1977-11-01

    The effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy was studied in adult rats. Digitoxin, 0.1 mg/100 g body wt or solvent was given daily for 1 wk prior to either aortic constriction or sham operation and was continued until the animals were killed, either 1 or 4 wk after surgery. A hemodynamic study was done in those animals killed 1 wk after surgery; hearts of all animals were examined for evidence of myocardial hypertrophy. Constriction of the ascending aorta had no significant effect on cardiac output but did reduce peak flow velocity and flow acceleration. An increase in left ventricular mass, RNA, and hydroxyproline was found in the animals with aortic constriction. Digitoxin treatment did not alter peak flow velocity or flow acceleration, but did significantly increase isovolumic (dP/dt)P-1. Digitoxin had no effect on body weight, heart weight, RNA, or hydroxyproline in either the sham-operated animals or in the animals with aortic constriction. Therefore, despite plasma digitoxin levels sufficient to affect myocardial contractility, left ventricular hypertrophy still developed after aortic constriction.

  18. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...... retrospectively with regard to disease stage, treatment, date of PCI, steroid dose during PCI, toxicity, time to recurrence, site of recurrence and time of death. The median follow up time was 16.6months (range 3-54months). RESULTS: Of the 118 patients undergoing PCI, 74 had limited disease (LD-SCLC) and 44 had...... extensive disease (ED-SCLC). The median age was 65years (range 46-80years). The median overall survival of all patients from the time of diagnosis was 16.0months (CI 95% 13.0-19.0), in LD-SCLC it was 24.0months (CI 95% 19.6-28.3), and in ED-SCLC it was 12.0months (CI 95% 9.6-14.4). Twenty-one patients (17...

  19. PROPHYLACTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF FUSAFUNGINE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008/2009, at the time of influenza epidemic, the study of ambulatory prophylactic treatment of fusafungine (Bioparox in 50 children 7–15 years old with chronic tonsillitis was performed. All these children underwent regular ENT check-up. The control group included 50 schoolchildren the same age without chronic diseases of upper airways. After the treatment with intranasal fusafungine, the amount of patients with Streptococcus pyogenes was decreased 1,6 times low (and after 3 months of treatment it was decreased 3,5 times low. The sanation of palatine tonsils from Candida albicans was detected (eradication of microorganism was achieved in 58% of cases, and the amount of patients with pharyngomycosis was decreased 2,4 times low. Patient’s quality of life significantly increased, and ENT-specialists met less complaints (in 4,5–15 times low. The morbidity with respiratory infections in 3 months after the treatment with fusafungine was 7,5 times low than in control group.Key words: schoolchildren, chronic tonsillitis, acute respiratory infection, fusafungine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:26-31

  20. Low-dose prophylactic craniospinal radiotherapy for intracranial germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, Gordon O.; Amdur, Robert J.; Schmalfuss, Ilona M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Keole, Sameer R.; Mendenhall, William M.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of patients with localized intracranial germinoma treated with low-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) followed by a boost to the ventricular system and primary site. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients had pathologically confirmed intracranial germinoma and no spine metastases. Low-dose CSI was administered in 29 patients: usually 21 Gy of CSI, 9.0 Gy of ventricular boost, and a 19.5-Gy tumor boost, all at 1.5 Gy per fraction. Our neuroradiologist recorded three-dimensional tumor size on magnetic resonance images before, during, and after radiotherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 29 of 31 patients (94%) are disease free. One failure had nongerminomatous histology; the initial diagnosis was a sampling error. Of 3 patients who did not receive CSI, 1 died. No patient developed myelopathy, visual deficits, dementia, or skeletal growth problems. In locally controlled patients, tumor response according to magnetic resonance scan was nearly complete within 6 months after radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone with low-dose prophylactic CSI cures almost all patients with localized intracranial germinoma. Complications are rare when the daily dose of radiotherapy is limited to 1.5 Gy and the total CSI dose to 21 Gy. Patients without a near-complete response to radiotherapy should undergo resection to rule out a nongerminomatous element

  1. Recruitment barriers for prophylactic vaccine trials: A study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lauriane; Van Damme, Pierre; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Mali, Stéphanie

    2017-12-04

    Recruitment of volunteers is one of the main challenges in clinical trial management, and there is little information about recruitment barriers for preventative vaccine trials. We investigated both the recruitment barriers and recruitment strategies for preventive vaccine trials in Belgium. A 10 min survey was used as well as interviews of staff at all clinical trial sites in Belgium that regularly perform vaccine trials. We observed that there are successful recruitment strategies and few recruitment issues for trials involving healthy adults and those over 65 years old. However, challenges face the recruitment of paediatric populations, pregnant women, patients and the very elderly (over 85 years old). From these results, we identified three priority areas to increase recruitment for prophylactic vaccine trials in Belgium. These are: the lack of public knowledge about infectious diseases; the lack of resources of healthcare professionals to take part in clinical trials; and the burden to potential volunteers to take part in a trial. These were discussed with stakeholders and solutions were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Problems of prophylactic CNS radiotherapy in acute children's leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Pribylova, O.; Abrahamova, J.; Hynieova, H.; Hrodek, O.

    1980-01-01

    The prophylactic treatment of the CNS was conducted by cobalt teletherapy of the cranium and by intrathecal application of MTX after the induction of primary remission in 70 children with acute leukemia throughout 5 years up to the end of 1978. The method of the combined radio- and chemoprophylaxis of the CNS was being changed during the years, especially as far as the radiation dose for the cranium was concerned. A detailed analysis made in a group of 59 children with the minimum interval of 18 months from the beginning of the treatment showed the best results after the application of a dose of 24 Gy/3 weeks. Following this procedure the relapse of leukemia in the CNS occurred in 9% only, whereas on the application of doses of 20 Gy and lower it occurred in 35 to 40%. On the whole 24 out of 59 children, i.e. 41%, are surviving, 35 children, i.e. 59%, died. Mostly complete, but only temporary, epilation was an invariable consequence of the irradiation of the cranium. The somnolence syndrome was only sporadically observed. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of its forms in patients discharged from hospital escaped attention. No case was recorded of serious impairment of the CNS of the leukoencephalopathic type. Up to now the psychomotor, intellectual and emotional development of the surviving children has been normal. (author)

  3. The influence of prophylactic factor VIII in severe hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissel, Matthew; Whelihan, Matthew F; Ferris, Lauren A; Mann, Kenneth G; Rivard, Georges E; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A individuals displaying a similar genetic defect have heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Aim To evaluate the underlying effect of exogenous factor (f)VIII on tissue factor (Tf)-initiated blood coagulation in severe hemophilia utilizing both empirical and computational models. Methods We investigated twenty-five clinically severe hemophilia A patients. All individuals were on fVIII prophylaxis and had not received fVIII from 0.25 to 4 days prior to phlebotomy. Coagulation was initiated by the addition of Tf to contact-pathway inhibited whole blood ± an anti-fVIII antibody. Aliquots were quenched over 20 min and analyzed for thrombin generation and fibrin formation. Coagulation factor levels were obtained and used to computationally predict thrombin generation with fVIII set to either zero or its value at the time of the draw. Results Due to prophylactic fVIII, at the time of the blood draw, the individuals had fVIII levels that ranged from hemophilia A. The combination of each individual's coagulation factors (outside of fVIII) determine each individual's baseline thrombin potential and may affect bleeding risk. PMID:21899664

  4. Prophylactic Appendectomy during Laparoscopic Surgery for Other Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Occhionorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis remains the most common surgical emergency. Laparoscopy has gained increasing favor as a method of both investigating right iliac fossa pain and treating the finding of appendicitis. A question arises: what to do with an apparent healthy appendix discovered during laparoscopic surgery for other pathology. We present a case of unilateral hydroureteronephrosis complicated with rupture of the renal pelvis, due to gangrenous appendicitis with abscess of the right iliopsoas muscle and periappendicular inflammation in a 67-year-old woman, who underwent laparoscopic right annessiectomy for right ovarian cyst few years earlier, in which a healthy appendix was left inside. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what to do with a normal appendix. The main argument for removing an apparently normal appendix is that endoluminal appendicitis may not be recognized during surgery, leading to concern that an abnormal appendix is left in place. Because of a lack of evidence from randomized trials, it remains unclear whether the benefits of routine elective coincidental appendectomy outweigh the costs and risks of morbidity associated with this prophylactic procedure. Nevertheless, it appears, from limited data, that women aged 35 years and under benefit most from elective coincidental appendectomy.

  5. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  6. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walla

    Full Text Available With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG (i and their skin conductance (ii and their heart rate (iii were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  7. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted. PMID:22073192

  8. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amygdalina) were used to investigate their prophylactic effects on the incidence of myco-pathogens of groundnut in. Ishiagu, south eastern Nigeria. Two field experiments were conducted: pre-soaking of the seeds before sowing and ...

  9. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gazyakan, MD, MSc

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass.

  10. Prophylactic dialysis in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure after CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Borji

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: According the results of this study, prophylactic dialysis, before conduct-ing CABG, does not have any significant effect on mortality and other complications. The only exception is lung complications in non-dialysis-dependent patients with renal failure.

  11. Radioembolization : Is Prophylactic Embolization of Hepaticoenteric Arteries Necessary? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, Alicia S; Landman, Anadeijda J E M C; Vissers, Coco M J; De Jong, Charlotte D; Lam, Marnix G E H; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Prince, Jip F

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the effectiveness of prophylactic embolization of hepaticoenteric arteries to prevent gastrointestinal complications during radioembolization. METHODS: A PubMed, Embase and Cochrane literature search was performed. We included studies assessing both a group of patients with and

  12. Effects of prophylactic knee bracing on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan K; Vincent, Hayley; Richards, Jim D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee brace on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements. Repeated measures. Laboratory. Twenty university first team level female netball players. Participants performed three movements, run, cut and vertical jump under two conditions (brace and no-brace). 3-D knee joint kinetics and kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. Knee joint kinetics and kinematics were examined using 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA whilst the subjective ratings of comfort and stability were investigated using chi-squared tests. The results showed no differences (p > 0.05) in knee joint kinetics. However the internal/external rotation range of motion was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced when wearing the brace in all movements. The subjective ratings of stability revealed that netballers felt that the knee brace improved knee stability in all movements. Further study is required to determine whether reductions in transverse plane knee range of motion serve to attenuate the risk from injury in netballers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Classification of prophylactic antiradiation drugs as the consistency of conceptual basis of current radiation pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, M.F

    1999-01-01

    The consistency of the classification of prophylactic antiradiation drugs have been given consideration as history of their discovery, theory of the radioprotection mechanisms and their use in applied medicine. Prophylactic drugs consists of radioprotectors with short-term of long-term action, drugs stimulating radioresistance, the ones suppressing symptoms of primary radiation reaction, the ones of early detoxication, the ones for adsorption and elimination of radionuclides from an organism [ru

  14. Cost analysis of prophylactic intraoperative cystoscopic ureteral stents in gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, James; Fenton, Bradford; Jean, Geraldine Marie; Chae, Clara

    2011-12-01

    Prophylactic intraoperative ureteral stent placement is performed to decrease operative ureteric injury, though few data are available on the effectiveness of this procedure, and no data are available on its cost. To analyze the cost of prophylactic intraoperative cystoscopic ureteral stents in gynecologic surgery. All cases of prophylactic ureteral stent placement performed in gynecologic surgery during a 1-year period were identified and retrospectively reviewed through the electronic medical records database of Summa Health System. Costs were obtained through the Healthcare Cost Accounting System. The principles of cost-effective analysis were used (ie, explicit and detailed descriptions of costs and cost-effectiveness statistics). Importantly, we evaluated cost and not charges or financial model estimates. In addition, we obtained the contribution margins (ie, the hospital's net profit or loss) for prophylactic ureteral stent placement. Other gynecologic procedures were also analyzed. Among 792 major inpatient gynecologic procedures, 18 cases of prophylactic intraoperative ureteral stents were identified. Median costs were as follows: additional cost of prophylactic intraoperative ureteral stenting, $1580; additional cost of surgical resources, $770; cost of ureteral catheters, $427; cost of surgeons, $383. The contribution margins per case for various gynecologic surgical procedures were as follows: oophorectomy, $2804 profit; abdominal hysterectomy, $2649 profit; laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), $1760 profit. When intraoperative ureteral stenting was added, the contribution margins changed to the following: oophorectomy, $782 profit; abdominal hysterectomy, $627 profit; LAVH, $262 loss. Overall, the contribution margin profit was decreased by about 85%, from $2400 to $380. Prophylactic intraoperative ureteral stenting in gynecologic surgery decreases a hospital's contribution margin. Because of the expense of this procedure, as well as

  15. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  16. [Therapeutic-prophylactic milk products with a new immunocorrector of natural origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Epshteĭn, L M; Gazha, A K; Borovskaia, G A; Besednov, A L; Rozhzhov, I V; Smolina, T P

    1997-01-01

    Authors had received and investigated on experiment milk medical and prophylactic products (milk and kefir) with addition peptide, obtained from nervous tissue of squids. It has been established that addition of gangliin to the milk and kefir causes stimulation cellular and humoral factors of immunity answer at laboratory animals. Medical and prophylactic milk products with gangliin return to the normal state reduced immunity indexes of the mice with experimental immunodeficits.

  17. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid, Reisi; Leila, Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  18. Prophylactic balloon occlusion of internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta: Literature review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilauro, M.D.; Dason, S. [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Athreya, S., E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To review the literature on the use of prophylactic balloon occlusion alone and in conjunction with arterial embolization of the internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta. Materials and methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for keywords related to this technique and its use in the avoidance of caesarean hysterectomy. The relevant published articles were selected and then searched for further references. Results: The literature search found 15 case reports and five studies for a total of 20 articles. The use of balloon catheters to prevent post-partum haemorrhage in women with placenta accreta is controversial with some investigators reporting reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements while others reporting no benefit. This procedure does not appear to reduce operative time or hospital stay. Some groups have described catheter-related complications, such as maternal thromboembolic events and the need for stent placement and/or arterial bypass. Thus far, there is no reported maternal or foetal mortality related to this procedure. Conclusion: Current evidence is based upon case reports and small retrospective studies. Larger studies or randomized controlled trials are essential in order to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of bilateral iliac balloon occlusion. The creation of a data registry would also facilitate the reporting of this technique.

  19. The effect of prophylactic intravenous tranexamic acid on blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Abbasalizadeh, Fatemeh; Shirdel, Mina

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TA) on calculated and measured blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 120 women with a singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to receive either one gram intravenous TA or placebo in addition to 10 IU oxytocin after delivery of the fetus. Calculated blood loss was determined based on haematocrit before delivery and 12-24 h postdelivery. The quantity of blood loss was measured during two time periods: from delivery of the fetus to placental expulsion and from placental expulsion to the end of the second hour after childbirth. The mean (SD) calculated total blood loss (519 (320) vs 659 (402) mL, P = 0.036) and measured blood loss from placental delivery to 2 h postpartum (69 (39) vs 108 (53) mL, P  1000 mL was lower in the TA group (7% vs 18%, P = 0.048). Prophylactic TA reduces blood loss after vaginal delivery in women with a low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. The prophylactic use of TA may reduce blood loss complications and enhance maternal health. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Psychometric considerations in the measurement of event-related brain potentials: Guidelines for measurement and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Miller, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Failing to consider psychometric issues related to reliability and validity, differential deficits, and statistical power potentially undermines the conclusions of a study. In research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous contextual factors (population sampled, task, data recording, analysis pipeline, etc.) can impact the reliability of ERP scores. The present review considers the contextual factors that influence ERP score reliability and the downstream effects that reliability has on statistical analyses. Given the context-dependent nature of ERPs, it is recommended that ERP score reliability be formally assessed on a study-by-study basis. Recommended guidelines for ERP studies include 1) reporting the threshold of acceptable reliability and reliability estimates for observed scores, 2) specifying the approach used to estimate reliability, and 3) justifying how trial-count minima were chosen. A reliability threshold for internal consistency of at least 0.70 is recommended, and a threshold of 0.80 is preferred. The review also advocates the use of generalizability theory for estimating score dependability (the generalizability theory analog to reliability) as an improvement on classical test theory reliability estimates, suggesting that the latter is less well suited to ERP research. To facilitate the calculation and reporting of dependability estimates, an open-source Matlab program, the ERP Reliability Analysis Toolbox, is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The EC randomised controlled trial of prophylactic ethamsylate for very preterm neonates: early mortality and morbidity. The EC Ethamsylate Trial Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Immature infants are at increased risk of death and disability, often related to haemorrhagic and ischaemic brain damage. Two controlled trials have suggested that a policy of prophylactic ethamsylate may reduce this damage. The aim of the trial reported here was to assess the effects of such a policy in respect of death, disability, and the use of health service resources up to 2 years of age. Short term findings are reported here. Three hundred and thirty four immature (< or = 32 weeks' ges...

  2. Effect of prophylactic trochanteric epiphyseodesis in older children with Perthes' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh; Siddesh, Nandi D; Joseph, Benjamin; Nair, Sreekumaran N

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic epiphyseodesis of the greater trochanter in Perthes' disease, 62 children with unilateral Perthes' disease who underwent trochanteric epiphyseodesis combined with varus osteotomy of the femur during the active stage of the disease (mean age at surgery: 8.4 y) and 20 controls were followed up until skeletal maturity. On radiographs taken at skeletal maturity, the articulo-trochanteric distance, the center-trochanteric distance, the length of the abductor lever arm, the neck-shaft angle, the radius of the femoral head, and the Reimer's migration index of normal and affected hips were measured. The shape of the femoral head was assessed according to the criteria of Mose. The range of hip motion, the strength of hip abduction, and limb lengths were measured and the Trendelenburg sign was elicited. The mean values of articulo-trochanteric distance and center-trochanteric distance were greater and the frequency of a positive Trendelenburg sign was less in children who had undergone trochanteric epiphyseodesis than in children who had no surgery (P<0.01). Trochanteric epiphyseodesis achieved optimal trochanteric growth arrest in 60% of operated children; the procedure was not effective in 30%, and in 10% of children there was overcorrection. Logistic regression analysis showed that the size of the femoral head at healing and the age at surgery were variables that significantly influenced the effectiveness of trochanteric growth arrest. At skeletal maturity, the mean shortening of the affected limb in operated children was 0.44 cm (SD 0.68 cm), whereas that of non-operated children was 0.86 cm (SD 0.78 cm) (P<0.05). The range of motion of the hip was excellent and there were no significant differences in the range of motion among children with optimal correction, under-correction, and overcorrection. A probability curve plotted on the basis of a logistic regression model suggests that effective trochanteric arrest may be achieved in a

  3. Cancer registries and monitoring the impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines: the potential role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Goodman, Marc T; Datta, S Deblina; Chen, Vivien W; Wingo, Phyllis A

    2008-11-15

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration licensure of a prophylactic vaccine against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, the first of its kind, poses unique challenges in postmarketing vaccine surveillance, especially in measuring vaccine effectiveness against biologic endpoints of HPV infection. Historically, the national system of population-based cancer registries in the US has provided high-quality data on cancer incidence and mortality for the most important biologic endpoints, namely, anogenital cancers and some oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancers. There also has been some data collection on cancer precursors; however, this activity has been inconsistent and of lower priority. Because effectiveness against HPV-associated cancers will not be measurable for several decades, strengthening and possibly expanding the capacity of registries to collect precancer data, which are earlier manifestations of infection, must be considered. Collecting type-specific data on HPV-associated precancers and cancers. While keeping in mind the current limitations of registry operations, they discuss resources that may be needed to implement and sustain these types of activities.

  4. Scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Kachris, Stefanos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood. The MCNP transport code and mathematical phantoms representing the average individual at ages 3, 5, 10, 15 and 18 years old were employed to simulate cranial radiotherapy using two lateral opposed fields. The mean radiation dose received by the thyroid gland was calculated. A 10 cm thick lead block placed on the patient's couch to shield the thyroid was simulated by MCNP code. The Monte Carlo model was validated by measuring the scattered dose to the unshielded and shielded thyroid using three different humanoid phantoms and thermoluminescense dosimetry. For a cranial dose of 18 Gy, the thyroid dose obtained by Monte Carlo calculations varied from 47 to 79 cGy depending upon the age of the child. Appropriate placement of the couch block resulted in a thyroid dose reduction by 39 to 54%. Thyroid dose values at all possible positions of the radiosensitive gland with respect to the inferior field edge at five different patient ages were found. The mean difference between Monte Carlo results and thyroid dose measurements was 9.6%. (note)

  5. Pharmacological preconditioning with GYKI 52466: a prophylactic approach to neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea S Goulton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Some toxins and drugs can trigger lasting neuroprotective mechanisms that enable neurons to resist a subsequent severe insult. This ‘pharmacological preconditioning’ has far-reaching implications for conditions in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted. We have previously shown that in vitro preconditioning with the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 induces tolerance to kainic acid (KA toxicity in hippocampus. This effect persists well after washout of the drug and may be mediated via inverse agonism of G protein linked receptors. Given the amplifying nature of metabotropic modulation, we hypothesised that GYKI 52466 may be effective in reducing seizure severity at doses well below those normally associated with adverse side effects. Here we report that pharmacological preconditioning with low-dose GYKI imparts a significant protection against KA-induced seizures in vivo. GYKI (3 mg/kg, s.c., 90 to 180 min. prior to high-dose KA, markedly reduced seizure scores, virtually abolished all level 3 and level 4 seizures, and completely suppressed KA-induced hippocampal cFOS expression. In addition, preconditioned animals exhibited significant reductions in high frequency/high amplitude spiking and ECoG power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands during KA. Adverse behaviours often associated with higher doses of GYKI were not evident during preconditioning. The fact that GYKI is effective at doses well-below, and at pre-administration intervals well-beyond previous studies, suggests that a classical blockade of ionotropic AMPA receptors does not underlie anticonvulsant effects. Low-dose GYKI preconditioning may represent a novel, prophylactic strategy for neuroprotection in a field almost completely devoid of effective pharmaceuticals.

  6. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyi; Fu, Jing; Hu, Lina; Fang, Fang; Xie, Lingxia; Chen, Hengxi; He, Fan; Wu, Taixiang; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2017-09-11

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012.Hydatidiform mole (HM), also called a molar pregnancy, is characterised by an overgrowth of foetal chorionic tissue within the uterus. HMs may be partial (PM) or complete (CM) depending on their gross appearance, histopathology and karyotype. PMs usually have a triploid karyotype, derived from maternal and paternal origins, whereas CMs are diploid and have paternal origins only. Most women with HM can be cured by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) and their fertility preserved. However, in some women the growth persists and develops into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a malignant form of the disease that requires treatment with chemotherapy. CMs have a higher rate of malignant transformation than PMs. It may be possible to reduce the risk of GTN in women with HM by administering prophylactic chemotherapy (P-Chem). However, P-Chem given before or after evacuation of HM to prevent malignant sequelae remains controversial, as the risks and benefits of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of P-Chem to prevent GTN in women with a molar pregnancy. To investigate whether any subgroup of women with HM may benefit more from P-Chem than others. For the original review we performed electronic searches in the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2012), MEDLINE (1946 to February week 4, 2012) and Embase (1980 to 2012, week 9). We developed the search strategy using free text and MeSH. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5, 2017), MEDLINE (February 2012 to June week 1, 2017) and Embase (February 2012 to 2017, week 23). We also handsearched reference lists of relevant literature to identify additional studies and searched trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials

  7. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Tan, Xiao Wei; Goh, Gwendoline Tze Wei; Saraswathi, Padmanabhan; Chen, Liyan; Nyein, Chan Lwin; Zhou, Lei; Beuerman, Roger; Tan, Donald Tiang Hwee; Mehta, Jod

    2015-01-01

    Background Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2–17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model. Methodology Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13) that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10) that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7–12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits. Results On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT) were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively). On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71) on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml) exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of

  9. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Konstantopoulos

    Full Text Available Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2-17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model.Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13 that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10 that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7-12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits.On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively. On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71 on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of prophylactic drops.Prophylactic

  10. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine

  11. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X

    2016-03-18

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products.

  12. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)

  13. Prophylactic Level VII Nodal Dissection as a Prognostic Factor in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Pilot Study of 27 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayek, Ihab Samy

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic value of prophylactic level VII nodal dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma has been highlighted. A total of 27 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with N0 neck underwent total thyroidectomy with level VI and VII nodal dissection through same collar neck incision. Multicentricity, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, level VI and VII lymph nodes were studied as separate and independent prognostic factors for DFS at 24 months. 21 females and 6 males with a mean age of 34.6 years old, tumor size was 5-24 mm. (mean 12.4 mm.), multicentricity in 11 patients 2-4 foci (mean 2.7), bilaterality in 8 patients and extrathyroidal extension in 8 patients. Dissected level VI LNs 2-8 (mean 5 LNs) and level VII LNs 1-4 (mean 1.9). Metastatic level VI LNs 0-3 (mean 1) and level VII LNs 0-2 (mean 0.5). Follow-up from 6-51 months (mean 25.6) with 7 patients showed recurrence (3 local and 4 distant). Cumulative DFS at 24 months was 87.8% and was significantly affected in relation to bilaterality (p-valueVII positive ((p-valueVII nodal involvement. Level VII prophylactic nodal dissection is an important and integral prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma. A larger multicenter study is crucial to reach a satisfactory conclusion about the necessity and safety of this approach.

  14. Prophylactic Use of Oral Dexamethasone to Alleviate Fatigue During Regorafenib Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shota; Shitara, Kohei; Noguchi, Masaaki; Kawazoe, Akihito; Kuboki, Yasutoshi; Bando, Hedeaki; Okamoto, Wataru; Kojima, Takashi; Doi, Toshihiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshino, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    Fatigue is the most common toxicity of all grade toxicities with regorafenib, was the second most common toxicity in the CORRECT (regorafenib monotherapy for previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer) study, and is a major reason for early dose modification. The results from a recent randomized study suggested that dexamethasone (DEX) can improve cancer-related fatigue. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of prophylactic use of an oral DEX on fatigue during regorafenib treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 105 patients who had received regorafenib at our institution from May 2013 to August 2014 were divided into 2 groups according to oral DEX use (2 mg/day; at the physician's discretion). Of the 105 patients, 31 received prophylactic DEX and 74 received regorafenib alone. The time to dose modification was significantly longer in the DEX group than in the no DEX group (15 days vs. 9 days; P = .009). The incidence of fatigue (grade ≥ 1) was significantly lower with DEX than without DEX (25.8% vs. 50.0%; P = .022). Fewer patients experienced a decreased appetite (grade ≥ 1; 3.2% vs. 35.1%; P regorafenib treatment, resulting in prolonging the time to dose modification for regorafenib. The decreased incidence of appetite loss and HFSR also suggest that concurrent DEX administration with regorafenib warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

  16. Prophylactic Dextrose Gel Does Not Prevent Neonatal Hypoglycemia: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Sarah M; Cousin, Joshua J; Hagan, Joseph L; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2018-03-28

    To test the hypothesis that prophylactic dextrose gel administered to newborn infants at risk for hypoglycemia will increase the initial blood glucose concentration after the first feeding and decrease neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for treatment of asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia compared with feedings alone. This quasi-experimental study allocated asymptomatic at-risk newborn infants (late preterm, birth weight 4000 g, and infants of mothers with diabetes) to receive prophylactic dextrose gel (Insta-Glucose; Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey); other at-risk infants formed the control group. After the initial feeding, the prophylactic group received dextrose gel (0.5 mL/kg) rubbed into the buccal mucosa. The blood glucose concentration was checked 30 minutes later. Initial glucose concentrations and rate of NICU admissions were compared between the prophylactic group and controls using bivariate analyses. A multivariable linear regression compared first glucose concentrations between groups, adjusting for at-risk categories and age at first glucose concentration. There were 236 subjects (72 prophylactic, 164 controls). The first glucose concentration was not different between the prophylactic and control groups in bivariate analysis (52.1 ± 17.1 vs 50.5 ± 15.3 mg/dL, P = .69) and after adjusting for covariates (P  = .18). Rates of NICU admission for treatment of transient neonatal hypoglycemia were 9.7% and 14.6%, respectively (P = .40). Prophylactic dextrose gel did not reduce transient neonatal hypoglycemia or NICU admissions for hypoglycemia. The carbohydrate concentration of Insta-Glucose (77%) may have caused a hyperinsulinemic response, or alternatively, exogenous enteral dextrose influences glucose homeostasis minimally during the first few hours when counter-regulatory mechanisms are especially active. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02523222. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Prophylactic Treatment with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Attenuate Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini D.P.K. Manne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion is one the main causes for graft failure following transplantation. Although, the molecular events that lead to hepatic failure following ischemia reperfusion (IR are diverse and complex, previous studies have shown that excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS are responsible for hepatic IR injury. Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been previously shown to act as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: Control, CeO2 nanoparticle only, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR group and hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR plus CeO2 nanoparticle group (IR+ CeO2. Partial warm hepatic ischemia was induced in left lateral and median lobes for 1h, followed by 6h of reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 6h of reperfusion and blood and tissue samples were collected and processed for various biochemical experiments. Results: Prophylactic treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5mg/kg i.v (IR+CeO2 group 1 hour prior to hepatic ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury lead to a decrease in serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase at 6 hours after reperfusion. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in hepatocyte necrosis along with reduction in several serum inflammatory markers such as macrophage derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC/GRO, myoglobin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, immunoblotting demonstrated no significant changes in the levels of apoptosis related protein markers such as bax, bcl2 and caspase 3 in IR and IR+ CeO2 groups at 6 hours suggesting necrosis as the main pathway for hepatocyte death. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles attenuate IR induced cell death and can be used as a prophylactic

  18. A new accuracy measure based on bounded relative error for time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Twycross, Jamie; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Many accuracy measures have been proposed in the past for time series forecasting comparisons. However, many of these measures suffer from one or more issues such as poor resistance to outliers and scale dependence. In this paper, while summarising commonly used accuracy measures, a special review is made on the symmetric mean absolute percentage error. Moreover, a new accuracy measure called the Unscaled Mean Bounded Relative Absolute Error (UMBRAE), which combines the best features of various alternative measures, is proposed to address the common issues of existing measures. A comparative evaluation on the proposed and related measures has been made with both synthetic and real-world data. The results indicate that the proposed measure, with user selectable benchmark, performs as well as or better than other measures on selected criteria. Though it has been commonly accepted that there is no single best accuracy measure, we suggest that UMBRAE could be a good choice to evaluate forecasting methods, especially for cases where measures based on geometric mean of relative errors, such as the geometric mean relative absolute error, are preferred.

  19. The impact of prophylactic fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate on the incidence of central nervous system thrombosis and hemorrhage in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lesleigh S; Deevska, Mariana; Fernandez, Conrad V; Dix, David; Price, Victoria E; Wang, Hao; Parker, Louise; Yhap, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Barnard, Dorothy R; Berman, Jason N

    2009-12-10

    Asparaginase (ASP) therapy is associated with depletion of antithrombin (AT) and fibrinogen (FG). Potential toxicities include central nervous system thrombosis (CNST) and hemorrhage. Historical practice at the Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre (IWK) involves measuring AT and FG levels after ASP administration and transfusing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate (CRY) to prevent thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. To determine whether this reduced these complications in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), incidence, outcome, and clinical characteristics of ASP-related CNST in ALL patients at IWK were compared with a similar cohort from BC Children's Hospital (BCCH), where prophylaxis was not performed. Costs associated with preventative versus expectant management were estimated. From 1990 to 2005, 240 patients were treated at IWK and 479 at BCCH. Seven BCCH patients developed venous CNST (1.5%), compared with none at IWK. CNST occurred exclusively during induction. Six patients received anticoagulation and continued ASP. All 7 patients remain in remission. National Cancer Institute high-risk ALL predicted CNST risk (P = .02), whereas sex, age, race, and body mass index did not. Neither FFP nor CRY protected against CNST, suggesting prophylaxis is unwarranted for unselected ALL patients. However, prophylactic replacement for HR patients in induction may be cost-effective.

  20. The value of prophylactic vaccinations and antibiotic treatment in post-splenectomy patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammers AJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AJ Jolanda LammersDepartment of Infectious diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Although spleen preservation surgery and non-operative management are first-line treatment options, total splenectomy is frequently performed. Splenectomy is performed for a number of indications including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, high-energetic trauma, and hematological malignancy. Following splenectomy, patients are at risk for overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI, a syndrome that presents with mild symptoms at onset but irreversible multi-organ-failure occurs within hours to days. Since the spleen plays an important role in the immune response to polysaccharide antigens, encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci are the most frequently described causative organisms of OPSI. Although the incidence of OPSI is low, the associated mortality is reported to be as high as 80%. Because of the overwhelming and frequently irreversible nature of this syndrome, prophylactic measures to prevent OPSI have been recommended. These recommendations include vaccination, use of antibiotics, and continuous patient education. After splenectomy, patients should receive immunizations against the encapsulated bacteria S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, and N. meningitidis. Antibiotic therapy should include prophylaxis as well as “on-demand” antibiotics when infection is suspected. Importantly, patients should receive ongoing education regarding the risks associated with asplenia and precautions to take when infection occurs and when traveling.Keywords: S. pneumoniae, sepsis, splenectomy, vaccination

  1. Prophylactic iodine in two Tasmanian cultures in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of goitre in two separate cultural groups in Tasmania, the island State of Australia, is discussed, firstly on the basis of serendipitous iodine prophylaxis by a ''primitive race'' (Tasmanian Aborigine), and secondly the deliberate dietary supplementation by European occupation in the 20th Century. The Tasmanian Aborigine did not suffer from goitre. Cultural habits that included diet and craft enabled them to avoid this disease in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment. Following an extended occupation since 1803, and with an eventual change in dietary habit, loss of traditional craft and culture, the population that survived both the introduction of European diseases and incarceration succumbed to goitre that was evidenced in the last half of the 19th Century. This paper explores the reasons why the Tasmanian Aborigines did not develop goitre until after European occupation. It also highlights the fortuitious introduction of iodine as a prophylactic measure in the prevention of goitre in the State of Tasmania during the second half of the 20th Century

  2. Prophylactic effect of artemether on human schistosomiasis mansoni among Egyptian children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorshedy, Hala; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert N; Sharaf, Soraya; Barakat, Rashida

    2016-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in an endemic focus for Schistosoma mansoni in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt, to evaluate the prophylactic effect of artemether (ART) given in conjunction with praziquantel (PZQ). The study encompassed 913 primary school children randomly assigned to two treatment groups PZQ/ART and PZQ/ART-placebo. At baseline, both groups received 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ twice four weeks apart, after which one group received 6 mg/kg body weight of ART every 3 weeks in 5 cycles during the transmission season and the other group received ART-placebo. At the end of the study, prevalence of infection among the PZQ/ART was approximately half that of the PZQ/ART-placebo group, i.e. 6.7% versus 11.6%, and incidence of new infections for the PZQ/ART was 2.7% versus 6.5% for the PZQ/ART-placebo. In conclusion, PZQ/ART combined therapy might be considered as an adjunct measure against human schistosomiasis, by specifically reducing transmission and therefore contribute to disease elimination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  4. Laser-based Relative Navigation Using GPS Measurements for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangwon; Oh, Hyungjik; Park, Han-Earl; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a precise relative navigation algorithm using both laser and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in real time. The measurement model of the navigation algorithm between two spacecraft is comprised of relative distances measured by laser instruments and single differences of GPS pseudo-range measurements in spherical coordinates. Based on the measurement model, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to smooth the pseudo-range measurements and to obtain the relative navigation solution. While the navigation algorithm using only laser measurements might become inaccurate because of the limited accuracy of spacecraft attitude estimation when the distance between spacecraft is rather large, the proposed approach is able to provide an accurate solution even in such cases by employing the smoothed GPS pseudo-range measurements. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the errors of the proposed algorithm are reduced by more than about 12% compared to those of an algorithm using only laser measurements, as the accuracy of angular measurements is greater than 0.001° at relative distances greater than 30 km.

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  6. Safety and effects of prophylactic defibrotide for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Meerim; Park, Hyeon Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kwon, Young Joo; Park, Jeong A; Lim, Yeon Jung; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Kong, Sun-Young; Ghim, Thad T; Lee, Hye Won; Yun, Tak; Park, Byung-Kiu

    2013-01-28

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a mortality rate of up to 90%. We report our experience on the use of defibrotide for SOS prophylaxis in HSCT. We retrospectively reviewed data of 49 patients who received defibrotide as SOS prophylaxis during the course of HSCT at the National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea, between August 2005 and July 2008. Thirty-four patients (69.4%) were classified as a high-risk group for developing SOS. Defibrotide was well-tolerated, without any grade 3 or 4 toxicity. The median value of maximum total bilirubin within 100 days after HSCT was within the normal range. SOS was diagnosed in only 1 patient, who underwent autologous HSCT due to relapsed medulloblastoma. There was no day 100 treatment-related mortality in our study. Defibrotide appears to be a safe prophylaxis for SOS. This study suggests that it could be effective to use prophylactic defibrotide in advance to improve HSCT outcomes in patients at risk of SOS.

  7. Coherence and entanglement measures based on Rényi relative entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2017-01-01

    We study systematically resource measures of coherence and entanglement based on Rényi relative entropies, which include the logarithmic robustness of coherence, geometric coherence, and conventional relative entropy of coherence together with their entanglement analogues. First, we show that each Rényi relative entropy of coherence is equal to the corresponding Rényi relative entropy of entanglement for any maximally correlated state. By virtue of this observation, we establish a simple operational connection between entanglement measures and coherence measures based on Rényi relative entropies. We then prove that all these coherence measures, including the logarithmic robustness of coherence, are additive. Accordingly, all these entanglement measures are additive for maximally correlated states. In addition, we derive analytical formulas for Rényi relative entropies of entanglement of maximally correlated states and bipartite pure states, which reproduce a number of classic results on the relative entropy of entanglement and logarithmic robustness of entanglement in a unified framework. Several nontrivial bounds for Rényi relative entropies of coherence (entanglement) are further derived, which improve over results known previously. Moreover, we determine all states whose relative entropy of coherence is equal to the logarithmic robustness of coherence. As an application, we provide an upper bound for the exact coherence distillation rate, which is saturated for pure states. (paper)

  8. A comparison of traditional vs. Canadian tailored prophylaxis dosing of prophylactic factor infusions in children with haemophilia A and B in a single hemophilia treatment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C; Watts, R G

    2012-07-01

    Prophylactic infusion of clotting factor concentrates is a developing standard of care for individuals with haemophilia. The ideal schedule and techniques of prophylactic infusions remain incompletely defined. Our aim was to determine the optimal techniques and schedules for factor prophylaxis in paediatric patients. A retrospective electronic medical record review of all children treated with prophylactic factor infusions in a single Haemophilia Treatment Center was conducted. Comparison of traditional vs. Canadian dosing regimens and primary vs. secondary prophylaxis was made. Failure of prophylaxis was defined as the first serious bleed. A total of 58 children were identified for review. Five cases were excluded (four due to high titre inhibitors and one due to repeated non-compliance), thus there were 53 total cases: 46 with severe haemophilia, 2 with moderate haemophilia, 5 with mild haemophilia, 44 with haemophilia A and 9 with haemophilia B; 32 Traditional dosing and 21 Canadian dosing regimens. Patients on primary prophylaxis had a decreased failure rate (25%) compared to children treated with secondary prophylaxis (67%) regardless of technique of prophylaxis. When compared to a 'Traditional' factor prophylaxis schedule, the 'Canadian' tailored prophylaxis protocol was comparable with the exception of a decreased use of implanted venous devices in the 'Canadian' group. Ongoing bleeding (primarily joint bleeds) occurs with all prophylactic regimens. The lowest incidence of treatment failure was noted in children who began primary prophylaxis at a young age and before initial joint bleeds. Primary prophylaxis is superior to secondary prophylaxis regardless of dosing regimen. Traditional and Canadian dosing regimens were equivalent in outcome when measured over several years of follow-up. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effect of prophylactic CPAP in very low birth weight infants in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, J R; Lorch, S A; Marshall, G; D'Apremont, I; Tapia, J L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on infants born in 25 South American neonatal intensive care units affiliated with the Neocosur Neonatal Network using novel multivariate matching methods. A prospective cohort was constructed of infants with a birth weight 500 to 1500 g born between 2005 and 2011 who clinically were eligible for prophylactic CPAP. Patients who received prophylactic CPAP were matched to those who did not on 23 clinical and sociodemographic variables (N=1268). Outcomes were analyzed using the McNemar's test. Infants not receiving prophylactic CPAP had higher mortality rates (odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 2.46), need for any mechanical ventilation (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.33, 2.14) and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.09, 1.98). The benefit of prophylactic CPAP varied by birth weight and gender. The implementation of this process was associated with a significant improvement in survival and survival free of BPD.

  10. Low risk of perioperative infection without prophylactic antibiotics for transperineal prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Kent; Roy, Jitendra; Harrison, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of postimplant infection in patients who are not given prophylactic antibiotics (ATBs). Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-one patients had computerized tomography (CT)-planned transperineal 125 I implantation of the prostate from 1988 through 1995. One hundred fourteen of the patients did not receive prophylactic ATBs, 19 of whom required postimplant Foley catheter drainage for 1 day or more for acute urinary retention. Results: The incidence of postimplant febrile episodes within 2 weeks of surgery among the patients who had not received prophylactic ATBs was 2 of 114 (2%). One of the two patients who developed postimplantation febrile episodes was treated successfully with ATBs as an outpatient. The second patient, who had a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and immune suppression, developed E. coli sepsis and required intravenous antibiotics. Of 17 patients who received prophylactic ATBs, none had a postoperative febrile episode. Conclusion: We continue to refrain from routinely prescribing prophylactic ATBs unless there is some compelling circumstance including rheumatic heart disease, prosthetic devices, immune compromise, or a previous history of prostatitis

  11. Retrieval of relative humidity from CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available data was collected over 23 hours. The above data sets were used to determine the retrieved relative humidity and compared with Irene (near to Pretoria) weather balloon humidity measurements. The results of the comparative study are presented...

  12. Relations Between Stressors and Job Performance: An Aggregate-Level Investigation Using Multiple Criterion Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Army Combat Brigades. Unlike previous studies that have focused exclusively on in-role performance, we examined relations between stressors and multiple performance criterion measures, which corresponded to in-role...

  13. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Sternberg; Karin Sternberg; Rebel J. E. Todhunter

    2017-01-01

    Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women per...

  14. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.

  15. [Cardiovascular effects produced by prophylactic digitalization during introduction of anaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, R; Köhne, K; Busse, J; Hosselmann, I; Klaschik, E; Simons, F

    1978-10-01

    The narrow field of non-controversial indications concerning the application of digitalis glycosides is pointed out. Problems of routine digitalization of older patients not suffering from cardiac insuffiency are discussed with special regard to preparing them for operations. Up to now, from the viewpoint of anaesthesiologists no benefits of prophylactic digitalization have been found. In a retrospective computerized study, clinical hemodynamic parameters during introduction of anaesthesia have been investigated by means of anaesthetic data recorded during three years. Nondigitalized patients older than fifty years showed satisfactory cardiac functions, whereas prophylactically digitalized patients--compared with the control group--have been treated with plasma expanders earlier and at a double rate. Furthermore, higher heart frequencies and greater tendency to arrythmias were observed. Consequently, prophylactic digitalization cannot be recommended in general.

  16. Oscillation estimates relative to p-homogeneous forms and Kato measures data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biroli

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We state pointwise estimate for the positive subsolutions associated to a p-homogeneous form and nonnegative Radon measures data. As a by-product we establish an oscillation’s estimate for the solutions relative to Kato measures data.

  17. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Grooten, M.H.M.; Wernaart, T.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and

  18. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  19. What is your level of overconfidence? A strictly incentive compatible measurement of absolute and relative overconfidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Stauf, J.; Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the appropriate measurement of overconfidence, in particular, its strictly incentive compatible measurement in experiments. Despite a number of significant advances in recent research, several important issues remain to be solved. These relate to

  20. Measuring the emotional response to beer and the relative impact of sensory and packaging cues

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, C.; Pacoud, J.; Ng, May Ling; Fenton, A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    In today’s extremely competitive markets, recent studies have highlighted that using hedonic measurement alone is inadequate for evaluating consumer product experience. Measuring emotional response is suggested to provide a richer insight into consumer responses. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure consumer emotional responses to beer; (ii) determine if a relationship exists between sensory and emotional attributes of products; and finally (iii) investigate the relative impact o...

  1. Should patients with Björk-Shiley valves undergo prophylactic replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmeyer, J D; Marrin, C A; O'Connor, G T

    1992-08-29

    About 85,000 patients have undergone replacement of diseased heart valves with prosthetic Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (CC) valves. These valves are prone to fracture of the outlet strut, which leads to acute valve failure that is usually fatal. Should patients with these valves undergo prophylactic replacement to avoid fracture? The incidence of strut fracture varies between 0% and 1.5% per year, depending on valve opening angle (60 degrees or 70 degrees), diameter (less than 29 mm or greater than or equal to 29 mm), and location (aortic or mitral). Other factors include the patient's life expectancy and the expected morbidity and mortality associated with reoperation. We have used decision analysis to identify the patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic reoperation. The incidence of outlet strut fracture was estimated from the data of three large studies on CC valves, and stratified by opening angle, diameter, and location. A Markov decision analysis model was used to estimate life expectancy for patients undergoing prophylactic valve replacement and for those not undergoing reoperation. Prophylactic valve replacement does not benefit patients with CC valves that have low strut fracture risks (60 degrees aortic valves and less than 29 mm, 60 degrees mitral valves). For most patients with CC valves that have high strut fracture risks (greater than or equal to 29 mm, 70 degrees CC), prophylactic valve replacement increases life expectancy. However, elderly patients with such valves benefit from prophylactic reoperation only if the risk of operative mortality is low. Patient age and operative risk are most important in recommendations for patients with CC valves that have intermediate strut fracture risks (less than 29 mm, 70 degrees valves and greater than or equal to 29 mm, 60 degrees mitral valves). For all patients and their doctors facing the difficult decision on whether to replace CC valves, individual estimates of operative mortality risk that

  2. Prophylactic knee bracing alters lower-limb muscle forces during a double-leg drop landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Fernandez, Justin W; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-10-03

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be a painful, debilitating and costly consequence of participating in sporting activities. Prophylactic knee bracing aims to reduce the number and severity of ACL injury, which commonly occurs during landing maneuvers and is more prevalent in female athletes, but a consensus on the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces has not been established. The lower-limb muscles are believed to play an important role in stabilizing the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in lower-limb muscle function with prophylactic knee bracing in male and female athletes during landing. Fifteen recreational athletes performed double-leg drop landing tasks from 0.30m and 0.60m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. Motion analysis data were used to create subject-specific musculoskeletal models in OpenSim. Static optimization was performed to calculate the lower-limb muscle forces. A linear mixed model determined that the hamstrings and vasti muscles produced significantly greater flexion and extension torques, respectively, and greater peak muscle forces with bracing. No differences in the timings of peak muscle forces were observed. These findings suggest that prophylactic knee bracing may help to provide stability to the knee joint by increasing the active stiffness of the hamstrings and vasti muscles later in the landing phase rather than by altering the timing of muscle forces. Further studies are necessary to quantify whether prophylactic knee bracing can reduce the load placed on the ACL during intense dynamic movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Creative Self-Efficacy and Different Creativity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Jennifer; Hoff, Eva V.; Hanel, Paul H. P.; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2018-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the relations between creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creativity measures and hypothesized that self-assessed questionnaires would have a different relation to self-efficacy beliefs compared to other creativity tests. The meta-analysis synthesized 60 effect sizes from 41 papers (overall N = 17226). Taken as a…

  4. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  5. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C. Alix; England, Erica L.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to pilot the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in measuring attitudes toward the self: one related to body image specifically and another assessing the broader construct of self-esteem. Study 1 utilized the IRAP with female college students to examine self-referential beliefs regarding body image. Results…

  6. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  7. An Evaluative Measure for Outputs in Student-Run Public Relations Firms and Applied Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    A valid, reliable survey instrument was created to be used by public relations student-run firms and other applied public relations courses to gauge client satisfaction. A series of focus groups and pilot tests were conducted to ascertain themes, refine questions, and then to refine the entire instrument. Six constructs to be measured, including…

  8. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  9. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  10. The relationship between theory of mind and relational frame theory : convergence of perspective-taking measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...

  11. The relation between Pearson’s correlation coefficient r and Salton’s cosine measure

    OpenAIRE

    EGGHE, Leo; Leydesdorff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Salton’s cosine measure is revealed based on the different possible values of the division of the -norm and the norm of a vector. These different values yield a sheaf of increasingly straight lines which form together a cloud of points, being the investigated relation. These theoretical results are tested against the author co-citation relations among 24 informetricians for who two matrices can be constructed, based on co-citations: t...

  12. Prophylactic procedures in women with gene mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence, it occurs in the familial or hereditary form. Genetic testing for mutation BRCA1 and BRCA2 helps to identify women, who are at increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occurs in 5 -10%. Women with mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 have to be classified to intensive dispensaration, and may consider several options for breast cancer prevention, as prophylactic mastectomy, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy or chemo prevention. (author)

  13. Efficacy of prophylactic phototherapy for prevention of hyperbilirubinemia in very low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mannan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common clinical condition in newborn occurring in approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is universally common in all preterm infants especially in newborns with very low biLth weight. Low birth weight and premature infants are at major risk for exaggerated hyperbilirubinemia that can lead to bilirubin encephalopathy. Significant heterogeneity in the approach to the treatment of jaundiced neonates exists throughout the world. Phototherapy is the most common treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and could be most effective in preventing the sequelae of hyperbilirubinemia if initiated prophylactically. This randomized clinical trial has been proposed with the objective of assessing the efficacy of prophylactic photo therapy in preventing significant rise of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in premature neonates weighing less than 1500 gram and therefore to decrease the need for exchange transfusion and finally to reduce hospital stay due to hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial enrolled sixty newborns with birth weight less than 1500 gram. They were divided into two groups: 1 Prophylactic group, in whom phototherapy was started within 24 hours of birth and continued for 7 days and 2 Control group in whom therapeutic phototherapy was started considering serum bilirubin level and other clinical condi­tions as per institutional guidelines. Mean value of total serum bilirubin (TSB, duration of phototherapy, the need for exchange transfusion and duration of hospital stay in both groups were analyzed.Results: The maximum mean TSB level in prophylactic group was observed on 7th day and in control group it was observed on 3rd day of life. The total serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the 3rd and 5th days of life in the prophylactic group in comparison to control group (P value 0.001. Total serum bilirubin level exceeded therapeutic

  14. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  15. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo [National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kawachinagano (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  16. Experimental Test of Entropic Noise-Disturbance Uncertainty Relations for Spin-1/2 Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulyok, Georg; Sponar, Stephan; Demirel, Bülent; Buscemi, Francesco; Hall, Michael J W; Ozawa, Masanao; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2015-07-17

    Information-theoretic definitions for noise and disturbance in quantum measurements were given in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050401 (2014)] and a state-independent noise-disturbance uncertainty relation was obtained. Here, we derive a tight noise-disturbance uncertainty relation for complementary qubit observables and carry out an experimental test. Successive projective measurements on the neutron's spin-1/2 system, together with a correction procedure which reduces the disturbance, are performed. Our experimental results saturate the tight noise-disturbance uncertainty relation for qubits when an optimal correction procedure is applied.

  17. A robust AHP-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency: An application of airport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been an important topic of research among many researchers. Data envelopment analysis has been one of the most important techniques for measuring the efficiency of different units. However, there are some limitations on using such technique and some people prefer to use other methods such as analytical hierarchy process to measure the relative efficiencies. Besides, uncertainty in the input data is another issue, which makes some misleading results. In this paper, we present an integrated robust DEA-AHP to measure the relative efficiency of similar units. The proposed model of this is believed to capable of presenting better results in terms of efficiency compared with exclusive usage of DEA or AHP. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated for a real-world case study of Airport industry and the results are analyzed.

  18. Measuring the relative efficiency of Ilam hospitals using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fazeli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency is one of the most important issues among hospitals in today's economy. These days, we hear that cost reduction is a necessity for survival of business owners and one primary to reduce the expenditures is to increase relative efficiency. The proposed study of this paper first uses output oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of nine hospitals. The proposed model uses four types of employee namely specialists, physicians, technicians and other staffs as input parameters. The model also uses the number of surgeries, hospitalized and radiography as the outputs of the proposed model. Since the implementation of DEA leads us to have more than one single efficient unit, we implement supper efficiency technique to measure the relative efficiency of efficient units.

  19. Immunogenicity of HPV prophylactic vaccines: Serology assays and their use in HPV vaccine evaluation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Dillner, Joakim; Beddows, Simon; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-17

    When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection. Thus, immunogenicity assessments in vaccine trials have focused on measurements of antibody responses to the vaccine. Non-inferiority of antibody responses after two doses of HPV vaccines separated by 6 months has been demonstrated and this evidence supported the recent WHO recommendations for two-dose vaccination schedules in both boys and girls 9-14 years of age. There is also some evidence suggesting that one dose of HPV vaccines may provide protection similar to the currently recommended two-dose regimens but robust data on efficacy and immunogenicity of one-dose vaccine schedules are lacking. In addition, immunogenicity has been assessed and reported using different methods, precluding direct comparison of results between different studies and vaccines. New head-to-head vaccine trials evaluating one-dose immunogenicity and efficacy have been initiated and an increase in the number of trials relying on immunobridging is anticipated. Therefore, standardized measurement and reporting of immunogenicity for the up to nine HPV types targeted by the current vaccines is now critical. Building on previous HPV serology assay standardization and harmonization efforts initiated by the WHO HPV LabNet in 2006, new secondary standards, critical reference reagents and testing guidelines will be generated as part of a new partnership to facilitate harmonization of the immunogenicity testing in new HPV vaccine trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  2. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  3. A Relative-Localization Algorithm Using Incomplete Pairwise Distance Measurements for Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Y. Foo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of localizing underwater assets involves the relative localization of each unit using only pairwise distance measurements, usually obtained from time-of-arrival or time-delay-of-arrival measurements. In the fluctuating underwater environment, a complete set of pair-wise distance measurements can often be difficult to acquire, thus hindering a straightforward closed-form solution in deriving the assets' relative coordinates. An iterative multidimensional scaling approach is presented based upon a weighted-majorization algorithm that tolerates missing or inaccurate distance measurements. Substantial modifications are proposed to optimize the algorithm, while the effects of refractive propagation paths are considered. A parametric study of the algorithm based upon simulation results is shown. An acoustic field-trial was then carried out, presenting field measurements to highlight the practical implementation of this algorithm.

  4. SU-G-BRB-14: Uncertainty of Radiochromic Film Based Relative Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devic, S; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F; Seuntjens, J [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lewis, D [RCF Consulting, LLC, Monroe, CT (United States); Aldelaijan, S [King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Due to inherently non-linear dose response, measurement of relative dose distribution with radiochromic film requires measurement of absolute dose using a calibration curve following previously established reference dosimetry protocol. On the other hand, a functional form that converts the inherently non-linear dose response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system into linear one has been proposed recently [Devic et al, Med. Phys. 39 4850–4857 (2012)]. However, there is a question what would be the uncertainty of such measured relative dose. Methods: If the relative dose distribution is determined going through the reference dosimetry system (conversion of the response by using calibration curve into absolute dose) the total uncertainty of such determined relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature total uncertainties of doses measured at a given and at the reference point. On the other hand, if the relative dose is determined using linearization method, the new response variable is calculated as ζ=a(netOD)n/ln(netOD). In this case, the total uncertainty in relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature uncertainties for a new response function (σζ) for a given and the reference point. Results: Except at very low doses, where the measurement uncertainty dominates, the total relative dose uncertainty is less than 1% for the linear response method as compared to almost 2% uncertainty level for the reference dosimetry method. The result is not surprising having in mind that the total uncertainty of the reference dose method is dominated by the fitting uncertainty, which is mitigated in the case of linearization method. Conclusion: Linearization of the radiochromic film dose response provides a convenient and a more precise method for relative dose measurements as it does not require reference dosimetry and creation of calibration curve. However, the linearity of the newly introduced function must be verified. Dave Lewis

  5. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND ROLE OF PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS IN PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijeet Mukherjee, Naveen N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Surgical site infection (SSI is the most common nosocomial infection encountered in post operative surgical wards. The use of prophylactic antibiotic in clean elective surgical cases is still a subject of controversy to surgeons. The objective of the study is to identify the need for using prophylactic antibiotics in clean surgeries, prevalence of organisms in patients who are not given prophylactic antibiotics and to study whether the presence of risk factors increase the incidence of surgical site infection. Methodology: The comparative study consists of 100 cases admitted under two groups of 50 each: Group A was given prophylactic antibiotic and Group B didn’t receive any. All surgeries other than clean surgical cases were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 50 patients in group B who were not given prophylactic antibiotic, 2 patients had more than one risk factor for development of SSI and both of them developed SSI. Of the 50 patients who received prophylactic antibiotic, none developed SSI. The rate of infection in group A was nil and in Group B was 4%. Conclusion: Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended for clean elective surgical cases as there is no statistically significant change in the infection rate seen in patients not receiving prophylactic antibiotic(P=0.4952. Meticulous surgical technique and correcting risk factors prior to surgery is a must for reducing incidence of SSI.

  6. Prophylactic Injection of Recombinant Alpha-Enolase Reduces Arthritis Severity in the Collagen-Induced Arthritis Mice Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Guillou

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1 or its immunodominant peptide (pEP1 to reduce the severity of CIA in DBA/1 mice when injected in a prophylactic way.Mice were treated with mouse ENO1 or pEP1 one day prior to collagen II immunization. Clinical assessment was evaluated using 4 parameters (global and articular scores, ankle thickness and weight. Titers of serum anti-ENO1, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP and anti-CII (total IgG and IgG1/IgG2a isotypes antibodies were measured by ELISA at different time-points. Disease activity was assessed by histological analysis of both anterior and hind paws at the end of experimentation.Prophylactic injection of 100 μg of ENO1 reduced severity of CIA. Serum levels of anti-CII antibodies were reduced in ENO1-treated mice. Concordantly, ENO1-treated mice joints presented less severe histological signs of arthritis. ENO1 did not induce a shift toward a Th2 response since IgG1/IgG2a ratio of anti-CII antibodies remained unchanged and IL-4 serum levels were similar to those measured in the control group.Pre-immunization with ENO1 or its immunodominant peptide pEP1 reduces CIA severity at the clinical, immunological and histological levels. Effects of pEP1 were less pronounced. This immunomodulatory effect is associated with a reduction in anti-CII antibodies production but is not due to a Th1/Th2 shift.

  7. Prophylactic Injection of Recombinant Alpha-Enolase Reduces Arthritis Severity in the Collagen-Induced Arthritis Mice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Clément; Derambure, Céline; Fréret, Manuel; Verdet, Mathieu; Avenel, Gilles; Golinski, Marie-Laure; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Loarer, François Le; Adriouch, Sahil; Boyer, Olivier; Lequerré, Thierry; Vittecoq, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1) or its immunodominant peptide (pEP1) to reduce the severity of CIA in DBA/1 mice when injected in a prophylactic way. Methods Mice were treated with mouse ENO1 or pEP1 one day prior to collagen II immunization. Clinical assessment was evaluated using 4 parameters (global and articular scores, ankle thickness and weight). Titers of serum anti-ENO1, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) and anti-CII (total IgG and IgG1/IgG2a isotypes) antibodies were measured by ELISA at different time-points. Disease activity was assessed by histological analysis of both anterior and hind paws at the end of experimentation. Results Prophylactic injection of 100 μg of ENO1 reduced severity of CIA. Serum levels of anti-CII antibodies were reduced in ENO1-treated mice. Concordantly, ENO1-treated mice joints presented less severe histological signs of arthritis. ENO1 did not induce a shift toward a Th2 response since IgG1/IgG2a ratio of anti-CII antibodies remained unchanged and IL-4 serum levels were similar to those measured in the control group. Conclusions Pre-immunization with ENO1 or its immunodominant peptide pEP1 reduces CIA severity at the clinical, immunological and histological levels. Effects of pEP1 were less pronounced. This immunomodulatory effect is associated with a reduction in anti-CII antibodies production but is not due to a Th1/Th2 shift. PMID:26302382

  8. Prophylactic use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a single center hospital-based case-control study in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Panic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD develops through the loss of normal bacterial intestinal flora. We have conducted a case-control study in order to assess whether prophylactic administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii prevents occurrence of AAD among adult hospitalized patients. Methods. Single-center hospital based case-control study was conducted in University Clinic “Dr Dragisa Misovic-Dedinje”, Belgrade, Serbia. Hospital records were screened in order to identify all the patients developing AAD in period January 1. 2010 – August 31. 2015. For every case, one age and gender matched control was randomly selected among patients hospitalized at the same time at the same department who were administered with antibiotics and did not develop AAD. For both cases and controls data were extracted on demographics, medical history, indication for use of antibiotics, antibiotics used, and prophylactic use of S.boulardii probiotics. The relationship between occurrence of AAD and putative risk factors were measured using the odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CI derived from logistic regression analysis. Results. Number of 59 cases and 59 controls were included in the study. Most of AAD cases were associated with old age (mean age of 78.05, and almost half (49.15% were hospitalized on geriatrics department. Most prescribed class of antibiotics among cases was III generation cephalosporins (50.85%, followed by fluoroquinolones (28.81% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.34%. Significantly more cases than controls were treated with carbapenems (16.95% vs. 5.08% respectively, p=0.04. Significantly less cases were administered with prophylactic S. boulardii probiotics (18.64% vs. 42.37% p=0.005. We identified prophylactic use of S. boulardii to act protectively against development of AAD from both univariate (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 and multivariate analysis (OR:0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80. Use of

  9. Diabetes-related emotional distress instruments: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Moon, Seung Hei

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify all available diabetes-related emotional distress instruments and evaluate the evidence regarding their measurement properties to help in the selection of the most appropriate instrument for use in practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched systematically for articles on diabetes-related emotional distress instruments. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the identified studies. The quality of results with respect to the measurement properties of each study was evaluated using Terwee's quality criteria. An ancillary meta-analysis was performed. Of the 2345 articles yielded by the search, 19 full-text articles evaluating 6 diabetes-related emotional distress instruments were included in this study. No instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) was the most frequently studied and the best validated of the instruments. Pooled summary estimates of the correlation coefficient between the PAID and serum glycated hemoglobin revealed a positive but weak correlation. No diabetes-related emotional distress instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. No instrument was better than another, although the PAID was the best validated and is thus recommended for use. Further psychometric studies of the diabetes-related emotional distress instruments with rigorous methodologies are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-precision gravity measurements using absolute and relative gravimeters at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy

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    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of time gravity changes attributable to the dynamics of volcanoes requires high-precision gravity measurements. With the aim of improving the quality of data from the Mount Etna gravity network, we used both absolute and relative gravimeters in a hybrid method. In this report, some of the techniques for gravity surveys are reviewed, and the results related to each method are compared. We show how the total uncertainty estimated for the gravity measurements performed with this combined use of absolute and relative gravimeters is roughly comparable to that calculated when the measurements are acquired using only relative gravimeters (the traditional method. However, the data highlight how the hybrid approach improves the measurement capabilities for surveying the Mount Etna volcanic area. This approach enhances the accuracy of the data, and then of the four-dimensional surveying, which minimizes ambiguities inherent in the gravity measurements. As a case study, we refer to two gravity datasets acquired in 2005 and 2010 from the western part of the Etna volcano, which included five absolute and 13 relative stations of the Etna gravity network.

  11. Formulation of uncertainty relation of error and disturbance in quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Watanabe; Masahito Ueda

    2012-01-01

    Full text: When we try to obtain information about a quantum system, we need to perform measurement on the system. The measurement process causes unavoidable state change. Heisenberg discussed a thought experiment of the position measurement of a particle by using a gamma-ray microscope, and found a trade-off relation between the error of the measured position and the disturbance in the momentum caused by the measurement process. The trade-off relation epitomizes the complementarity in quantum measurements: we cannot perform a measurement of an observable without causing disturbance in its canonically conjugate observable. However, at the time Heisenberg found the complementarity, quantum measurement theory was not established yet, and Kennard and Robertson's inequality erroneously interpreted as a mathematical formulation of the complementarity. Kennard and Robertson's inequality actually implies the indeterminacy of the quantum state: non-commuting observables cannot have definite values simultaneously. However, Kennard and Robertson's inequality reflects the inherent nature of a quantum state alone, and does not concern any trade-off relation between the error and disturbance in the measurement process. In this talk, we report a resolution to the complementarity in quantum measurements. First, we find that it is necessary to involve the estimation process from the outcome of the measurement for quantifying the error and disturbance in the quantum measurement. We clarify the implicitly involved estimation process in Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope and other measurement schemes, and formulate the error and disturbance for an arbitrary quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory. The error and disturbance are defined in terms of the Fisher information, which gives the upper bound of the accuracy of the estimation. Second, we obtain uncertainty relations between the measurement errors of two observables [1], and between the error and disturbance in the

  12. Objectively measured walkability and active transport and weight-related outcomes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which GIS-based measures of walkability (density, land-use mix, connectivity and walkability indexes) in urban and suburban neighbourhoods are used in research and which of them are consistently associated with walking and cycling for transport, overall active transportation and weight-related measures in adults. A systematic review of English publications using PubMed, Science Direct, Active Living Research Literature Database, the Transportation Research Information Service and reference lists was conducted. The search terms utilised were synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for the outcomes. Thirty-four publications based on 19 different studies were eligible. Walkability measures such as gross population density, intersection density and walkability indexes most consistently correlated with measures of physical activity for transport. Results on weight-related measures were inconsistent. More research is needed to determine whether walkability is an appropriate measure for predicting weight-related measures and overall active transportation. As most of the consistent correlates, gross population density, intersection density and the walkability indexes have the potential to be used in planning and monitoring.

  13. Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common psychometric indices and by external clinical criteria. Methods We analyzed data collected at baseline and 6-weeks in 298 subjects with heart failure on the following HRQL measures: EQ-5D (US, UK, and VAS Scoring, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ (Clinical and Overall Summary Score, and RAND12 (Physical and Mental Component Summaries. Three external indicators of clinical change were used to classify subjects as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged: 6-minute walk test, New York Heart Association (NYHA class, and physician global rating of change. Four responsiveness statistics (T-test, effect size, Guyatt's responsiveness statistic, and standardized response mean were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the select measures. The median rank of each HRQL measure across responsiveness indices and clinical criteria was then determined. Results Average age of subjects was 60 years, 75 percent were male, and had moderate to severe heart failure symptoms. Overall, the KCCQ Summary Scores had the highest relative ranking, irrespective of the responsiveness index or external criterion used. Importantly, we observed that the relative ranking of responsiveness of the generic measures (i.e. EQ-5D, RAND12 was influenced by both the responsive indices and external criterion used. Conclusion The disease specific KCCQ was the most responsive HRQL measure assessing change over a 6-week period, although generic measures provide information for which the KCCQ is not suitable. The responsiveness of generic HRQL measures may

  14. Clinical trial experience with prophylactic human papillomavirus 6/11/16/18 vaccine in young black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Liana R; Myers, Evan R; Huh, Warner; Joura, Elmar A; Paavonen, Jorma; Perez, Gonzalo; James, Margaret K; Sings, Heather L; Haupt, Richard M; Saah, Alfred J; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2013-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Black women are disproportionally diagnosed and have higher mortality from cervical cancer in the United States. Here we describe the prophylactic efficacy and safety of a quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in black women. A total of 700 black women from Latin America, Europe, and North America (aged 16-24 years) received the vaccine or placebo in one of two studies. Analyses focused on the efficacy and safety of the vaccine. Baseline rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and history of past pregnancy were more than twice as high in black women compared with the non-black women who were enrolled in these trials. HPV-6/11/16 or 18 DNA was detected in 18% of black women versus 14.6% in non-black women at day 1. For black women, vaccine efficacy against disease caused by HPV-6/11/16/18 was 100% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (0 vs. 15 cases; 95% confidence interval, 64.5%-100%) and 100% for vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and condylomata acuminata (0 vs. 17 cases; 95% confidence interval, 69.3%-100%). There were no serious vaccine-related adverse experiences. A similar proportion of pregnancies resulted in live births (75.8% vaccine; 72.7% placebo) and fetal loss (24.2% vaccine; 27.3% placebo). Prophylactic quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccination of young black women demonstrated high efficacy, safety, and tolerability. HPV vaccination has the potential to reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities both in the United States and around the world. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  16. Demonstration of relatively new electron dosimetry measurement techniques on the Mevatron 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.A.; Palta, J.R.; Hogstrom, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron dosimetry measurements at 7, 10, 12, 15, and 18 MeV was made on a Mevatron 80. Dosimetry measurements presented include percentage depth dose, dose in the buildup region, field size dependence of output, output at extended distances, lead transmission measurements, and isodose curves. These beam measurements are presented to document the electron beam characteristics of this linear accelerator. Three relatively new dosimetry techniques, which have not been standardly used in the past, are illustrated. One technique determines the depth dose of fields too small to measure. A second technique accurately converts depth dose measured in polystyrene to depth dose in water. A third technique calculates the output at extended distances

  17. High Accuracy Acoustic Relative Humidity Measurement inDuct Flow with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees van der Geld

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0–12 m/s with an error of ±0.13 m/s, temperature 0–100 °C with an error of ±0.07 °C and relative humidity 0–100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

  18. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Wilhelm; Grooten, Mart; Wernaart, Twan; van der Geld, Cees

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0-12 m/s with an error of ± 0.13 m/s, temperature 0-100 °C with an error of ± 0.07 °C and relative humidity 0-100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

  19. Quantum reversibility is relative, or does a quantum measurement reset initial conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2018-07-13

    I compare the role of the information in classical and quantum dynamics by examining the relation between information flows in measurements and the ability of observers to reverse evolutions. I show that in the Newtonian dynamics reversibility is unaffected by the observer's retention of the information about the measurement outcome. By contrast-even though quantum dynamics is unitary, hence, reversible-reversing quantum evolution that led to a measurement becomes, in principle, impossible for an observer who keeps the record of its outcome. Thus, quantum irreversibility can result from the information gain rather than just its loss-rather than just an increase of the (von Neumann) entropy. Recording of the outcome of the measurement resets, in effect, initial conditions within the observer's (branch of) the Universe. Nevertheless, I also show that the observer's friend-an agent who knows what measurement was successfully carried out and can confirm that the observer knows the outcome but resists his curiosity and does not find out the result-can, in principle, undo the measurement. This relativity of quantum reversibility sheds new light on the origin of the arrow of time and elucidates the role of information in classical and quantum physics. Quantum discord appears as a natural measure of the extent to which dissemination of information about the outcome affects the ability to reverse the measurement.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. The value of pulmonary vessel CT measuring and calculating of relative ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Xu Xiaoxiong; Lv Suzhen; Zhao Zhongwei; Wang Zufei; Xu Min; Gong Jianping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate value of CT measurement and calculation of vessels of isolate pig lung, by compare with measurement and calculation of resin cast of them. Methods: CT scanned and measured the four isolated pig lung which vessels were full with ABS liquid or self-solidification resin liquid, and calculate the relative ratio of superior/inferior order and vein/artery of same order. After resin cast were made, measure and calculate the same as CT did. Results: Second order of calculation of vein/artery of same order by the two method had statistic difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: CT has high value in calculation of the relative ratio of superior/inferior order

  1. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  2. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; Pmethods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  3. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  4. Usage of prophylactic radiologically inserted gastrostomy in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallinson, P.I.; Tun, J. Kyaw; Byass, O.R.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess outcomes and usage rate of prophylactic radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Materials and methods: Outcome data of all HNC patients who underwent prophylactic RIG over a 22-month period (November 2007 to September 2009) in a tertiary referral centre were collected retrospectively. Thirty-day mortality, major and minor complication rates, and subsequent usage of the RIG were analysed. Results: Fifty-one HNC patients underwent prophylactic RIG. Three minor and no major immediate complications were identified. Sixteen minor and three major complications at 30-days were identified. Three (5.9%) major complications were identified. There was one death due to disease progression and not RIG insertion. The RIG was not used in 17.7% of patients post-procedure. Conclusion: Prophylactic RIG in HNC patients has a comparable mortality rate to RIG insertion in HNC patients with mixed indications. However, the number of cases where the gastrostomy is not used raises important concerns and warrants further investigation.

  5. The current status of prophylactic replacement therapy in children and adults with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Rolf; Gretenkort Andersson, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Initiating prophylactic treatment at an early age is considered to be the optimal form of therapy for a child with haemophilia A or B. The pioneering long term experiences of prophylactic treatment from Sweden and The Netherlands demonstrated the benefit of prophylaxis in retrospective and observational studies. Decades later, these benefits were confirmed in a randomized controlled study in USA. We review the current status of prophylactic replacement therapy of haemophilia in children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Prophylaxis should begin at an early age and there are arguments for continuing it into adulthood. The dose of prophylaxis is dependent on the goal of treatment, economic resources and venous access and should be tailored individually. Starting the first exposures to clotting factor concentrates as prophylactic treatment, instead of on-demand in response to a bleed, may decrease the frequency of inhibitors in patients with haemophilia A. Novel longer-acting products are being introduced that could be helpful for patients with difficult venous access and enable higher trough levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic e...

  7. Predicting adherence to prophylactic medication in adolescents with asthma: an application of the ASE-model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, S.M.; Kaptein, A.A.; Bezemer, P.D.; Nagelkerke, A.F.; Colland, V.T.; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    An explanatory framework, referred to as the attitude/social influence/self-efficacy-model (ASE-model), was utilised to explain future self-reported adherence of adolescents to daily inhaled prophylactic asthma medication. The objective was to investigate the long-term influence of these earlier

  8. Predicting adherence to prophylactic medication in adolescents with asthma : an application of the ASE-model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Saskia M; Kaptein, Adrian A; Bezemer, P Dick; Nagelkerke, Ad F; Colland, Vivian T; Bouter, Lex M

    An explanatory framework, referred to as the attitude/social influence/self-efficacy-model (ASE-model), was utilised to explain future self-reported adherence of adolescents to daily inhaled prophylactic asthma medication. The objective was to investigate the long-term influence of these earlier

  9. Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, S. van; Roosmalen, M.S van; Otten, W.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who test positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation face difficult choices to manage their breast cancer risk; one of these choices is whether to opt for prophylactic mastectomy. Few data are available about this decision-making process. The current study provides data regarding the stability of

  10. Long-standing prophylactic therapy vs. episodic treatment in young people with severe haemophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, J; Lethagen, Stefan Rune; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2014-01-01

    A was to challenge our hypothesis that on-demand treatment is inferior to prophylactic substitution in prevention of chronic joint disease at young age. The method involved an investigation of 40 patients from Russia (n = 27) and Denmark (n = 13) born between 1975 and 1990 with no history of inhibitors; Russian...

  11. The psychological impact of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopie, Jessica Premdee

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With

  12. Relish2 mediates bursicon homodimer-induced prophylactic immunity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs a and burs ß), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

  13. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium versus carbamazepine in treatment-naive bipolar patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, EGTM; Moleman, P; Hoogduin, CAL; Broekman, TG; Nolen, WA

    Background: Alternatives to lithium for prophylactic treatment of patients with bipolar affective disorders are increasingly being advocated. However, trials comparing lithium with alternatives are scarce and often biased. Method: We studied 94 patients with at least 2 episodes of bipolar disorder

  14. Barriers and motivators of adherence to prophylactic treatment in haemophilia : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, L. H.; Uitslager, N.; Schuurmans, M. J.; Fischer, K.

    Long-term adherence to prophylactic therapy is the key to successful prevention of bleeds in severe haemophilia. The present study aims to provide a systematic review of the literature on the determinants of adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia. A literature search in the largest medical

  15. Current status of prophylactic surgical treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadera, Masato; Ueno, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Hinoi, Takao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Tomita, Naohiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to clarify the current clinical practice of prophylactic colectomy for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in Japan. This retrospective multi-center cohort study involved 23 specialized institutions for colorectal disease in Japan. We analyzed the records of 147 patients who underwent prophylactic surgical treatment between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into Group 1 (2000-2006) and Group 2 (2007-2012) based on their date of surgery. Age at the time of prophylactic surgery was 27 and 31 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of attenuated FAP was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (1.0 vs. 13 %, respectively). Pathological examination revealed an increased incidence of malignant polyps in the resected specimens from Group 2 patients (10 vs. 23 %, respectively; P = 0.034). Laparoscopic surgery was more frequent in Group 2 than in Group 1 (61 vs. 40 %, respectively). There was no surgical mortality in either group. Prophylactic surgery for FAP results in good short-term surgical outcomes in Japan. The current surgical approach is characterized by limited surgical indications for patients with attenuated FAP, delayed timing of colectomy, and the increasing standardization of laparoscopic surgery.

  16. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sevki Arslan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP.METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution (0.5 mg/0.1 mL. The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, corneal endothelial cell count (ECC, and central corneal thickness (CCT.RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited (26 males, 29 females. The mean age was 54.36±4.97y (range 45-64y. All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively, which was statistically significant (P<0.001. One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33±1.01s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm2 1mo postoperatively (P<0.001. The increase of 21.09 µm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant (P<0.001.CONCLUSION: No untoward effects were observed after intracameral injection of moxifloxacin (0.5 mg/0.1 mL in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  17. Relating Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Error Distributions with Measurements of Forecast Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY by Nicholas M. Chisler March 2016 Thesis Advisor...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RELATING TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS...WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas M. Chisler 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  18. What is the impact of a clinically related readmission measure on the assessment of hospital performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Roger K; Hou, Hechuan; Dhir, Apoorv; Andino, Juan J; Dupree, James M; Miller, David C; Ellimoottil, Chad

    2017-11-28

    The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals for high all-cause unplanned readmission rates. Many have expressed concern that hospitals serving patient populations with more comorbidities, lower incomes, and worse self-reported health status may be disproportionately penalized by readmissions that are not clinically related to the index admission. The impact of including clinically unrelated readmissions on hospital performance is largely unknown. We sought to determine if a clinically related readmission measure would significantly alter the assessment of hospital performance. We analyzed Medicare claims for beneficiaries in Michigan admitted for pneumonia and joint replacement from 2011 to 2013. We compared each hospital's 30-day readmission rate using specifications from the HRRP's all-cause unplanned readmission measure to values calculated using a clinically related readmission measure. We found that the mean 30-day readmission rates were lower when calculated using the clinically related readmission measure (joint replacement: all-cause 5.8%, clinically related 4.9%, p impact hospital performance in the HRRP.

  19. Measurability of quantum fields and the energy-time uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensky, Mikhail B

    2011-01-01

    Quantum restrictions on the measurability of an electromagnetic field strength and their relevance to the energy-time uncertainty relation are considered. The minimum errors in measuring electromagnetic field strengths, as they were estimated by the author (1988) in the framework of the phenomenological method of restricted path integral (RPI), are compared with the analogous estimates found by Landau and Peierls (1931) and by Bohr and Rosenfeld (1933) with the help of certain measurement setups. RPI-based restrictions, including those of Landau and Peierls as a special case, hold for any measuring schemes meeting the strict definition of measurement. Their fundamental nature is confirmed by the fact that their associated field detectability condition has the form of the energy-time uncertainty relation. The weaker restrictions suggested by Bohr and Rosenfeld rely on an extended definition of measurement. The energy-time uncertainty relation, which is the condition for the electromagnetic field to be detectable, is applied to the analysis of how the near-field scanning microscope works. (methodological notes)

  20. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds.

  1. The implementation of depth measurement and related algorithms based on binocular vision in embedded AM5728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiwei; Li, Xicai; Shi, Junsheng; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Li, Feiyan

    2018-01-01

    Depth measurement is the most basic measurement in various machine vision, such as automatic driving, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), robot and so on. And it has a wide range of use. With the development of image processing technology and the improvement of hardware miniaturization and processing speed, real-time depth measurement using dual cameras has become a reality. In this paper, an embedded AM5728 and the ordinary low-cost dual camera is used as the hardware platform. The related algorithms of dual camera calibration, image matching and depth calculation have been studied and implemented on the hardware platform, and hardware design and the rationality of the related algorithms of the system are tested. The experimental results show that the system can realize simultaneous acquisition of binocular images, switching of left and right video sources, display of depth image and depth range. For images with a resolution of 640 × 480, the processing speed of the system can be up to 25 fps. The experimental results show that the optimal measurement range of the system is from 0.5 to 1.5 meter, and the relative error of the distance measurement is less than 5%. Compared with the PC, ARM11 and DMCU hardware platforms, the embedded AM5728 hardware is good at meeting real-time depth measurement requirements in ensuring the image resolution.

  2. Accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the nintendo wii in measuring limb load asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ns Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry.

  3. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation effective in limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, James H.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Blitzer, Peter H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; Floody, Patrick A.; Harwin, William N.; Teufel, Thomas E.; Raymond, Michael G.; Reeves, James A.; Hart, Lowell L.; McCleod, Michael J.; Pizarro, Alejandro; Gabarda, Antonio L.; Rana, Van G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of brain metastasis in small cell lung cancer remains controversial, both in terms of efficacy and the optimal dose-fractionation scheme. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of PCI at low doses. Methods and Materials: One hundred and ninety-seven patients were referred to our institution for treatment of limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung between June 1986 and December 1992. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 89.8 months, with a mean of 19 months. Eighty-five patients received PCI. Results: Patients receiving PCI exhibited brain failure in 15%, while 38% of untreated patients developed metastases. This degree of prophylaxis was achieved with a median total dose of 25.20 Gy and a median fraction size of 1.80 Gy. At these doses, acute and late complications were minimal. Patients receiving PCI had significantly better 1-year and 2-year overall survivals (68% and 46% vs. 33% and 13%). However, patients with a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy and better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) were overrepresented in the PCI group. In an attempt to compare similar patients in both groups (PCI vs. no PCI), only patients with KPS ≥ 80, CR or near-CR to chemotherapy, and treatment with attempt to cure, were compared. In this good prognostic group, survival was still better in the PCI group (p = 0.0018). Conclusion: In this patient population, relatively low doses of PCI have accomplished a significant reduction in the incidence of brain metastasis with little toxicity. Whether such treatment truly improves survival awaits the results of additional prospective randomized trials

  5. Long-Term Satisfaction and Body Image After Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsea; Islam, Jessica Y.; Hodgson, M. Elizabeth; Sabatino, Susan A.; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Lee, Clara N.; Sandler, Dale P.; Nichols, Hazel B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) rates have been increasing in the U.S. Though some studies have reported high overall satisfaction among women who undergo CPM, it is unclear how long-term satisfaction differs from that of women who undergo unilateral mastectomy (UM). Furthermore, few studies have assessed whether the effects of CPM on body image differ from those of breast conserving surgery (BCS) or UM. Methods We analyzed responses from a survey of women with both a personal and family history of breast cancer who were enrolled in the Sister Study (n=1176). Among women who underwent mastectomy, satisfaction with mastectomy decision and reconstruction was compared between women who underwent CPM and UM. We also evaluated responses on 5 items related to body image according to surgery type (BCS, UM without reconstruction, CPM without reconstruction, UM with reconstruction, and CPM with reconstruction). Results Participants were, on average, 60.8 years old at diagnosis (SD=8.7) and 3.6 years post-diagnosis at the time of survey (SD=1.7). BCS was the most common surgical treatment reported (63%), followed by CPM (22%) and UM (15%). Satisfaction with mastectomy decision was reported by 97% of women who underwent CPM and 89% of those who underwent UM. Compared to other surgery types, women who underwent CPM without reconstruction reported feeling more self-conscious, less feminine, less whole, and less satisfied with the appearance of their breasts. Body image was consistently highest among women who underwent BCS. Conclusions In our sample of women with both a personal and family history of breast cancer, most were highly satisfied with their mastectomy decision, including those who elected to undergo CPM. However, body image was lowest among women who underwent CPM without reconstruction. Our findings may inform decisions among women considering various courses of surgical treatment. PMID:28058563

  6. Electron-positron momentium distribution measurements of high-Tc superconductors and related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Howell, R.H.; Jean, Y.C.; Fluss, M.J.; West, R.N.; Kaiser, J.H.; Rayner, S.; Haghighi, H.; Merkle, K.L.; Revcolevshi, A.; Wang, Z.Z.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss measurements of the 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR) in La 2 CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), and NiO. The measurements for NiO are the first such 2D-ACAR measurements; the YBCO results are of a higher statistical quality than previously reported. The data are compared with complementary theoretical calculations and with each other. The authors discuss the implication of this analysis for ACAR studies of similar and related systems

  7. Prophylactic administration of melatonin to the mother throughout pregnancy can protect against oxidative cerebral damage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazushi; Hamada, Fumiaki; Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Nagai, Ryuhei; Shinohara, Koichi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Rina; Fukaya, Takao

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prophylactic administration of melatonin to the mother throughout pregnancy could protect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative brain damage in neonatal rats. The utero-ovarian arteries were occluded bilaterally for 30 min in female Wistar rats on day 16 of pregnancy to induce fetal ischemia. Reperfusion was achieved by releasing the occlusion and restoring circulation. A sham operation was performed in control rats. Melatonin solution or vehicle alone was administrated orally throughout pregnancy. We collected brain mitochondria from neonatal rats, evaluated mitochondrial structure by electron microscopy, and measured the respiratory control index (RCI) as an indicator of mitochondrial respiratory activity as well as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress. Histological analysis was performed at the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) and Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) regions of the hippocampus. I/R significantly reduced the RCI and significantly elevated the concentration of TBARS. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects, resulting in values similar to that in untreated, sham-ischemic animals. Electron microscopic evaluation showed that the number of intact mitochondria decreased in the I/R group, while melatonin treatment preserved them. Histological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of normal to whole pyramidal cell number in the CA1 and CA3 regions in the I/R group. While melatonin administration protected against degeneration. These results indicate that prophylactic administration of melatonin to the mother throughout pregnancy may prevent I/R-induced oxidative brain damage in neonatal rats.

  8. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery: update in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Randy M; Nogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The indications for prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery remain controversial. No recent survey has been reported on the use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons in clinical practice. This survey was designed to assess the current use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons and to compare trends with previous studies. All members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons with an e-mail address on the Society's website were contacted via an e-mail and sent a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire. To survey only in those subspecialty areas that they practice in, surgeons were queried only on the procedures that they perform. Within each section, a list of common representative procedures was included, with questions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. A total of 3824 American Society of Plastic Surgeons members were contacted. Of the 3613, 910 with working e-mail addresses responded to the survey for a response rate of 25%. And 833 or 91.5% completed the survey. Survey data cover the percentage of surgeons reporting their use of antibiotics in procedures that they currently perform. The percentage of plastic surgeons who use prophylactic antibiotics in almost all procedures studied has increased significantly when compared with earlier studies. The use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons has increased considerably since the prior studies by Krizek et al (Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975;55:21-32 and 1985;76:953-963). Some of these uses are appropriate because of the use in procedures involving implants and longer operations. The elevated rates for clean procedures are not part of the evidence-based practice.

  9. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  10. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  11. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  12. The relation between social desirability and different measures of heroin craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A. E.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    A low association between self-reported craving and physiological measures of craving is often found. Social desirability might influence this relation between subjective and physiological reactivity. Subjects were seventy-six in-patient abstinent heroin abusers. Social desirability, general craving

  13. Time-related contact angle measurements with human plasma on biomaterial surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; Van der Mei, HC; van Oeveren, W; Spijker, HT; Busscher, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) was used to assess in time contact angle changes of human plasma drops placed on four different biomaterials. Results were related with conventional blood compatibility measurements: albumin adsorption, fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  14. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  15. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: A Measure of Processing Bias for Fire-Related Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and…

  16. A Dataset for Education-Related Majors' Performance Measures with Pre/Post-Video Game Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Tassell, Janet Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This dataset includes a series of 30 education-related majors' performance measures before and after they completed a 10-hour video game practice in a computer lab. The goal of the experimental study was to examine the effects of action video gaming on students' mathematics performance and mathematics anxiety as mediated by the effect of attention…

  17. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  18. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  19. A new measure to study phylogenetic relations in the brown algal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    our classification with the ones done earlier. [Das S, Chakrabarti J, Ghosh Z, Sahoo S and Mallick B 2005 A new measure to study phylogenetic relations in the brown algal order Ectocarpales: The “codon impact parameter”; J. Biosci. 30 699–709]. 1. Introduction. Algae have grown in importance all over the world. Today.

  20. The relation between Pearson’s correlation coefficient r and Salton’s cosine measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egghe, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between Pearson's correlation coefficient and Salton's cosine measure is revealed based on the different possible values of the division of the L1-norm and the L2-norm of a vector. These different values yield a sheaf of increasingly straight lines which together form a cloud of points,

  1. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a Measure of Spider Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Emma; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    A greater understanding of implicit cognition can provide important information regarding the etiology and maintenance of psychological disorders. The current study sought to determine the utility of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure of implicit aversive bias toward spiders in two groups of known variation, high fear…

  2. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  3. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  4. Measuring the quality of a quantum reference frame: The relative entropy of frameness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gour, Gilad; Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a reference frame for transformations associated with group G, any quantum state that is noninvariant under the action of G may serve as a token of the missing reference frame. We here present a measure of the quality of such a token: the relative entropy of frameness. This is defined as the relative entropy distance between the state of interest and the nearest G-invariant state. Unlike the relative entropy of entanglement, this quantity is straightforward to calculate, and we find it to be precisely equal to the G-asymmetry, a measure of frameness introduced by Vaccaro et al. It is shown to provide an upper bound on the mutual information between the group element encoded into the token and the group element that may be extracted from it by measurement. In this sense, it quantifies the extent to which the token successfully simulates a full reference frame. We also show that despite a suggestive analogy from entanglement theory, the regularized relative entropy of frameness is zero and therefore does not quantify the rate of interconversion between the token and some standard form of quantum reference frame. Finally, we show how these investigations yield an approach to bounding the relative entropy of entanglement.

  5. Measures of Transport-Related Social Exclusion: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measures of transport disadvantage are reviewed in this paper from the perspective of their effectiveness to investigate social exclusion. The effectiveness is assessed using criteria derived through a review of the concepts of transport disadvantage and social exclusion and their operationalisation. The specified criteria are related to issues of spatial (e.g., urban accessibility, and public transport accessibility, temporal (e.g., public transport availability, and facility opening hours, and social attributes of travel and activity participation (e.g., personal mobility, and disability. Four groups of transport disadvantage measures are identified and evaluated. These include deprivation-based measures, mobility-based measures, accessibility-based measures, and activity-based measures. The review suggests that although the first three categories of measures have traditionally been used to identify transport disadvantage, they do not satisfy issues surrounding activity participation—the key outcome of social exclusion. The activity space concept is a way in which these issues can be incorporated, as it is a measure of the outcomes of activity participation and their associated travel to that activity. Participation in an activity means that an individual has overcome the spatial, temporal and social barriers of travel for that activity. The research using the activity space concept has, however, inadequately identified individual travel and activity participation. This has been due to a separate application of a range of different indicators to assess activity space size. These indicators are by their nature multidimensional—e.g., area visited, distance travelled, and number of activity sites visited. Although each indicator represents a specific qualitative/quantitative aspect of travel and activity participation, researchers have treated these indicators in an isolated manner to identify transport disadvantage and

  6. Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Vogl, Elisabeth; Muis, Krista R; Sinatra, Gale M

    2017-09-01

    Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.

  7. Measurement of the positron-drift time relation of a high-pressure drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruefert, W.

    1989-04-01

    As a test of its performance, the measurement of the drift time versus drift distance relation of a high pressure drift chamber using cosmic rays is described. Two multiwire proportional chambers, mounted above and below the detector, are used to define the track of the cosmic particle in the drift chamber. The drift chamber is read out by FADCs (Flash Analog to Digital Converter), and the drift time is determined from the FADC signals by the DOS- (Difference Of Samples) method. The measured drift time versus drift distance relation showed good agreement with the relation, which is expected from the spatial dependence of the electric field and the dependence of the drift velocity on this field. (orig.) [de

  8. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  9. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation and LHC relative luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfaoui, S.

    2011-10-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In order to do so, it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity determination. (author)

  10. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation, and LHC relative luminosity measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, Samir; Monnier, E

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In oder to do so,it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity ...

  11. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  12. Psychometric comparability of English- and Spanish-language measures of anxiety and related affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, D M; Stanley, M A; Averill, P; Daza, P

    2001-09-01

    An array of measures of anxiety and related disorders (viz., Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck Depression Inventory-II; Body Sensation Questionnaire; Fear Questionnaire; Padua Inventory; Penn State Worry Questionnaire; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Scale; Social Interaction Anxiety Inventory; and Worry Scale) was edited or translated from English into Spanish. Following an extensive edit and translation process, bilingual participants (n = 98) were assessed with the English and Spanish versions of these measures. Coefficient alphas were excellent and comparable across language versions. Means and standard deviations were also comparable across language versions. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found for both language versions. The two language versions of each measure correlated highly with each other. This psychometric comparability adds confidence in using the newly edited or translated Spanish language measures in clinical practice and research.

  13. Role of Prophylactic Oxytocin in the Third Stage of Labor: Physiologic Versus Pharmacologically Influenced Labor and Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Elise N; Lee, Christopher S; Emeis, Cathy L

    2017-07-01

    Maternity care providers administer oxytocin prophylactically to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Prophylactic oxytocin is generally considered effective and safe and is promoted by national organizations for standardized use. In this article, the evidence supporting prophylactic oxytocin administration for women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared with women whose labors included administration of exogenous oxytocin for induction or augmentation is explored. Using data from randomized controlled trials included in 2 recent Cochrane meta-analyses papers, only studies with women in spontaneous labor were selected for inclusion (N = 4 studies). Outcomes of immediate postpartum bleeding volumes (≥ 500 mL or 1000 mL), risk for blood transfusion, and risk for administration of more uterotonic medication were pooled from these 4 studies. Focused random effects meta-analytics were used. Compared to women without prophylactic oxytocin, women who received prophylactic oxytocin had a lower risk of having a 500 mL or higher blood loss. However, prophylactic oxytocin did not lower risk of PPH (≥ 1000 mL), blood transfusion, or need for additional uterotonic treatment. Prophylactic oxytocin may not confer the same benefits to women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared to women laboring with oxytocin infusion. Reasons for this difference are explored from a pharmacologic perspective. In addition, the value of prophylactic oxytocin given recent changes in the definition of PPH from greater than or equal to 500 mL to 1000 mL or more after birth is discussed. Finally, gaps in research on adverse effects of prophylactic oxytocin are presented. More research is needed on reducing risk of PPH for women in spontaneous labor. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. The effect of prophylactic antipyretic administration on post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody response in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at

  15. Should direct measurements of tumor oxygenation relate to the radiobiological hypoxic fraction of a tumor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bruce M.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous previous studies have attempted to relate the radiobiological hypoxic fraction (HF) to direct measures of tumor oxygenation such as HbO 2 saturations, tumor pO 2 levels, or hypoxic cell labeling. Although correlations have been found within tumor lines, no overall relationships were seen across tumor lines. The current objective was to examine the effect on HF of changes in the fractions of the oxygenated and anoxic tumor cells that remain clonogenic. Methods and Materials: A mathematical model was developed that relates the HF to direct measures of tumor oxygenation. The primary assumptions were that: (a) the tumor is divided into distinct compartments of either fully oxygenated or fully anoxic cells, and (b) the survival of the oxygenated cells is negligible compared to that of the anoxic cells. Based on these assumptions, the HF is plotted as a function of the fractions of clonogenic or nonclonogenic, and oxygenated or anoxic cells. Results: If all cells are clonogenic, then the HF equals the fraction of anoxic cells. If a higher fraction of anoxic than oxygenated cells are nonclonogenic, then the HF will be overestimated by the fraction of the tumor measured to be anoxic using direct measuring techniques. If a higher fraction of the oxygenated than anoxic cells are nonclonogenic, the HF will be underestimated by the fraction of anoxic cells. Conclusion: Correlations between the HF and direct measures of tumor oxygenation have been described within tumor lines evaluated under different physiological condition. However, such relationships can be totally unpredictable between different tumors if the fraction of the anoxic cells that is clonogenic varies substantially. Clearly, if tumor anoxia cannot be detected using direct measures, this is an accurate indication that the tumor is well oxygenated. When tumor anoxia is present, however, the conclusions are ambiguous. Even when a small fraction of the tumor is measured as anoxic, direct measures

  16. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  18. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty

  19. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man [Nuclear Reactor Safety Lab., KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty.

  20. Instrumentation-related uncertainty of reflectance and transmittance measurements with a two-channel spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.

  1. Are resting state spectral power measures related to executive functions in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shirley; Todder, Doron; Deutsch, Inbal; Garbi, Dror; Getter, Nir; Meiran, Nachshon

    2018-01-08

    Resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) has been found to be associated with psychopathology, intelligence, problem solving, academic performance and is sometimes used as a supportive physiological indicator of enhancement in cognitive training interventions (e.g. neurofeedback, working memory training). In the current study, we measured rsEEG spectral power measures (relative power, between-band ratios and asymmetry) in one hundred sixty five young adults who were also tested on a battery of executive function (EF). We specifically focused on upper Alpha, Theta and Beta frequency bands given their putative role in EF. Our indices enabled finding correlations since they had decent-to-excellent internal and retest reliability and very little range restriction relative to a nation-wide representative large sample. Nonetheless, Bayesian statistical inference indicated support for the null hypothesis concerning lack of monotonic correlation between EF and rsEEG spectral power measures. Therefore, we conclude that, contrary to the quite common interpretation, these rsEEG spectral power measures do not indicate individual differences in the measured EF abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M S

    2015-01-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements. (paper)

  3. To IO-3 type instrument for measuring relative deviation of mean frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albats, Ya.Eh.; Bitite, Ya.A.; Ivanov, G.M.; Karpel'tseva, L.P.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Shuvtsan, Ya.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the 10-3 instrument intended for automatic measurement of a relative deviation of the pulse flow mean frequency from the preset value with digital presentation of measurement results, and also for the conversion of this relative deviation into an electric coded signal and in an analogue voltage signal. The 10-3 instrument comprises a master pulse generator, two preliminary scalers, two electronic switches, two storage pulse counters, control devices, a counter digital volume setter, a rewriting device, an internal storage, a digital display, and a digital-to-analog converter. The principle of the instrument operation consists in counting the pulses of measured and reference pulse flows by two storage counters. Basic performances of the instrument are given. The main advantage of the 10-3 instrument lies in the fact that it presents the results of measuring by a digital radioisotope instrument directly in physical units of the measured parameter, and that, in turn, obviates the necessity for additional mathematical operations when data processing [ru

  4. [Effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on outcomes and prognosis of patients older than 40 years with invasive mole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Y; Li, L; Zhao, J; Xiang, Y; Wan, X R; Feng, F Z; Ren, T; Yang, J J

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To discuss the effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on the outcomes and prognosis of invasive mole patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen invasive mole (IM) patients older than 40 years were registered in Peking Union Medical Collage Hospital.Eleven of them were treated with prophylactic chemotherapy before diagnosed as IM prophylactic chemotherapy group, while the other 104 cases received therapeutic chemotherapy after diagnosed as IM (non-prophylactic chemotherapy group). The general clinical data (including age, clinical stage, risk factor score), treatment, outcomes and relapse of patients were retrospectively compared between two groups. Results: (1) The age of prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group were (47±5) versus (46±4) years old. Ratio of clinical stageⅠ-Ⅱ were 3/11 versus 29.8% (31/104), clinical stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ were 8/11 versus 70.2% (73/104). Ratio of risk factor score 0-6 were 11/11 versus 84.6% (88/104), risk factor score >6 were 0 versus 15.4% (16/104). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in age, clinical stage or risk factor score (all P> 0.05). (2) Treatment: the total chemotherapy courses between prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group (median 7 versus 5) were significantly different ( Z= 3.071, P= 0.002). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in the chemotherapy courses until negative conversion of β-hCG, consolidation chemotherapy courses, total therapeutic chemotherapy courses or ratio of hysterectomy (all P> 0.05). (3) Outcomes and relapse: between the prophylactic chemotherapy group and the non-prophylactic chemotherapy group, the complete remission rate were 11/11 versus 98.1%(102/104), the relapse rate were 0 versus 1.0%(1/102). There were no significant difference between the two groups in outcomes or relapse rate ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: Prophylactic chemotherapy does not substantially

  5. Optimising neutron polarizers--measuring the flipping ratio and related quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, D J

    2002-01-01

    The continuing development of gaseous spin polarized sup 3 He transmission filters for use as neutron polarizers makes the choice of optimum thickness for these filters an important consideration. The 'quality factors' derived for the optimisation of transmission filters for particular measurements are general to all neutron polarizers. In this work optimisation conditions for neutron polarizers are derived and discussed for the family of studies related to measuring the flipping ratio from samples. The application of the optimisation conditions to sup 3 He transmission filters and other types of neutron polarizers is discussed. Absolute comparisons are made between the effectiveness of different types of polarizers for this sort of work.

  6. The direct measurement of the heteronuclear chemical shifts relative to tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, A.G.

    1988-12-01

    The measurement of heteronuclear chemical shifts using absolute frequencies of the heteronucleus and the 1 H resonance of tetramethylsilane has been examined. This method avoids the problems associated with external standards and gives results which can be obtained quickly and with high precision. The method has a number of advantages in the accurate measurement of chemical shifts, as for example 31 P in chemical warfare agents and related chemicals and allows multinuclear data to be obtained without dynamic range or potential interference problems. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F

    2013-08-01

    Despite the focus on impulsivity within suicide research, it remains unclear the extent to which impulsivity assessments, that purportedly tap similar constructs, show significant overlap in samples of individuals with suicidal behaviors. In a sample of 69 suicide attempters, we took a multitrait, multimethod approach to examine the relation among various questionnaire and behavioral assessments of impulsivity facets. With the exception of urgency and go-stop performance, there was little evidence of concordance between questionnaire and behavioral measures. These findings suggest researchers cannot presume that measures of "impulsivity" assess similar psychological processes and that more nuanced terminology is needed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. The estimation of differential counting measurements of possitive quantities with relatively large statistical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Bayes' principle is applied to the differential counting measurement of a positive quantity in which the statistical errors are not necessarily small in relation to the true value of the quantity. The methods of estimation derived are found to give consistent results and to avoid the anomalous negative estimates sometimes obtained by conventional methods. One of the methods given provides a simple means of deriving the required estimates from conventionally presented results and appears to have wide potential applications. Both methods provide the actual posterior probability distribution of the quantity to be measured. A particularly important potential application is the correction of counts on low radioacitvity samples for background. (orig.)

  9. Measurement equivalence of the food related lifestyle instrument (FRL) in Ireland and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Sullivan, C.; Scholderer, Joachim; Cowan, Cathal

    2005-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Representative consumer samples from the UK 1998 ( N = 1000) and Ireland 2001 (N = 1024) are compared using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest that, in all five FRL...... domains, the measurement characteristics of the survey instrument were completely invariant across the two cultures. No indication was found of any bias. Regarding future applications of the FRL, it can be concluded that the instrument has identical measurement characteristics when applied to consumer...

  10. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  11. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs

  12. Neighborhood Social Predictors of Weight-related Measures in Underserved African Americans in the PATH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah

    2015-11-05

    African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.

  13. Religiosity and conservatism revisited: relating a new religiosity measure to the two main conservative political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart

    2003-04-01

    The relation between the two religiosity dimensions which Wulff (1997) described (Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic) and two conservative political ideologies (Cultural and Economic Conservatism) was investigated in a sample of 714 students, a heterogeneous sample of 262 adults, and a sample of 301 religiously affiliated adults gathered in Flanders (Belgium). Both Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic were expected to relate only to Cultural Conservatism. Analysis supported these hypotheses, providing further evidence for the close association between religiosity and Cultural Conservatism and the validity of the Post-Critical Belief scale as a measure of Wulff's dimensions of religiosity.

  14. Measuring Motivation and Reward-Related Decision Making in the Rodent Operant Touchscreen System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher J; Phillips, Benjamin U; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2016-01-04

    This unit is designed to facilitate implementation of the fixed and progressive ratio paradigms and the effort-related choice task in the rodent touchscreen apparatus to permit direct measurement of motivation and reward-related decision making in this equipment. These protocols have been optimized for use in the mouse and reliably yield stable performance levels that can be enhanced or suppressed by systemic pharmacological manipulation. Instructions are also provided for the adjustment of task parameters to permit use in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. These tasks expand the utility of the rodent touchscreen apparatus beyond the currently available battery of cognitive assessment paradigms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents....

  16. An application of data envelopment analysis for measuring the relative efficiency in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltanifar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of banking industry has been a popular subject among both practitioners and academicians. Data envelopment analysis (DEA has been widely applied for different purposes. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of various banks located in province of Semnan, Iran. The proposed study uses DEA method to rank all units and using Anderson and Peterson method (1993 [Andersen, P., & Petersen, N. C. (1993. A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Management Science, 39, 1261-1264], we provide some super efficiency for inefficient units. The study also provides reference numbers for inefficient units and gives some target values for all inefficient units.

  17. Lack of consensus in biomarker measurement to diagnose PCI-related myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Dakhiel, Zaid; Rune Larsen, Søren; Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if biomarker sampling in PCI has adhered to the 2 000 consensus document for the diagnosis of procedure-related myocardial infarction (MI). Design. Firstly, a review of relevant papers from 2000 to September 2007 was done. Secondly, in October 2007, a questionnaire addressing...... biomarker sampling in routine PCI was sent to Danish PCI centres. Results. Fourteen papers fulfilled the selection criteria. In six studies serial sampling according to the consensus document had been done. Biomarker measuring before PCI was not performed in four studies. All centres answered...... the questionnaire. In none of six centres the proposed 3-sample testing of biomarkers had been followed. A pre-PCI sample was taken in one centre. In approximately half of the centres biomarkers were only measured on clinical indication. Conclusion. Biomarker sampling for procedure-related MI according to the 2 000...

  18. Assessing measurement invariance of a health-related quality-of-life questionnaire in radiotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; ter Hoeven, Claartje L; de Haes, Hanneke C; Smets, Ellen M; Koning, Caro C E; Oort, Frans J

    2012-12-01

    If the assumption of measurement invariance is not tested, we cannot be sure whether differences observed are due to true differences in health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), or are measurement artifacts. We aim to investigate this assumption in a sample of heterogeneous cancer patients, focusing on whether age, sex, previous treatment for cancer, and information regarding treatment preferences result in biased HRQoL scores. 155 cancer patients who were about to begin their first session of radiotherapy were included. HRQoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess whether there was a violation of the assumption of invariance. A satisfactory single construct (Functioning HRQoL) measurement model was found and two violations of invariance were identified. Irrespective of patients' Functioning HRQoL, older patients reported worse physical functioning and patients who had received treatment prior to radiotherapy reported worse emotional functioning than we would otherwise expect. In the present study, accounting for measurement bias lead to a substantial improvement in the overall fit of the model. By ignoring the bias, we would have concluded that the model fit was unsatisfactory. The findings underline the importance of investigating measurement invariance in scales designed for heterogeneous samples.

  19. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah; Reeve, Joanne; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients' experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients' experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients' experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID ® , and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine-related quality of life. None of the identified questionnaires covered all domains. Instruments varied in the extent of patient involvement in both their development and validation. There is a scarcity of psychometrically sound, comprehensive, and generic measures of experiences

  20. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  1. Measurements of Peroxy Radicals and Related Species At A Rural Site During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinceloup, S.; Laverdet, G.; Le Bras, G.

    The chemical amplifier technique has been used to measure peroxy radicals (RO2) concentrations at a rural site (Dupail), located 35 km North East of Marseille, during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June-July 2001. Daily profiles of RO2 and also ozone and NOx concentrations have been recorded everyday including those of the four in- tensive observation periods (IOP). The NOx levels were most of the time lower than a few ppbv, ie characteristic of a rural site. Typical diurnal profiles of RO2 were ob- served with maxima in the range 40-180 pptv. The RO2 signals were corrected from the influence of relative humidity based on calibration of the chemical amplifier in separate laboratory experiments under controlled water vapor concentrations. Prelim- inary interpretation of the data shows very different ratios of photochemically pro- duced/transported ozone related to meteorological conditions. Further interpretation of the data is underway integrating additional measurements of a large variety of hy- drocarbons as well as some hydroperoxides and aldehydes made at the site by other groups. The results of the comparison of calculated steady state concentrations of RO2 and ozone production rate with the measured values will be presented and discussed in relation with our understanding of the tropospheric ozone production.

  2. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  3. Relative distance between tracers as a measure of diffusivity within moving aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönisch, Wolfram; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2018-02-01

    Tracking of particles, be it a passive tracer or an actively moving bacterium in the growing bacterial colony, is a powerful technique to probe the physical properties of the environment of the particles. One of the most common measures of particle motion driven by fluctuations and random forces is its diffusivity, which is routinely obtained by measuring the mean squared displacement of the particles. However, often the tracer particles may be moving in a domain or an aggregate which itself experiences some regular or random motion and thus masks the diffusivity of tracers. Here we provide a method for assessing the diffusivity of tracer particles within mobile aggregates by measuring the so-called mean squared relative distance (MSRD) between two tracers. We provide analytical expressions for both the ensemble and time averaged MSRD allowing for direct identification of diffusivities from experimental data.

  4. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  5. The measurement of neutron and neutron induced photon spectra in fusion reactor related assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Unholzer, S; Klein, H; Seidel, K

    2002-01-01

    The spectral neutron and photon fluence (or flux) measured outside and inside of assemblies related to fusion reactor constructions are basic quantities of fusion neutronics. The comparison of measured spectra with the results of MCNP neutron and photon transport calculations allows a crucial test of evaluated nuclear data as generally used in fusion applications to be carried out. The experiments concern mixed neutron/photon fields with about the same intensity of the two components. An NE-213 scintillation spectrometer, well described by response matrices for both neutrons and photons, is used as proton-recoil and Compton spectrometer. The experiments described here in more detail address the background problematic of two applications, an iron benchmark experiment with an ns-pulsed neutron source and a deep penetration mock-up experiment for the investigation of the ITER in-board shield system. The measured spectral neutron and photon fluences are compared with spectra calculated with the MCNP code on the b...

  6. Common generic measures of health related quality of life in injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David; Morshed, Saam

    2011-03-01

    The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through generic outcome instruments is important for comparisons of populations across disease states and interventions. The growing number of questionnaires available has made selection and interpretation more difficult. Profile instruments such as the SF-36 and Sickness Impact Profile provide insight into various domains of health with established population norms. Preference-based measures, including the EQ-5D, Health Utilities Index, SF-6D, and QWB-SA are used to generate utility scores, which can be used for cost-effectiveness analysis and therefore have particular relevance in health policy. Both types of generic measures have been used in clinical trials in injured populations to assess the relative impact of interventions on quality-of-life. Comparisons of internal consistency and test-retest reliability across measures reveal minimal differences between instruments, and reported values are acceptable for group comparisons but insufficient for individual clinical use. There is a dearth of studies evaluating the validity of these measures in the trauma population, but available data suggest most of the available instruments are acceptable. Populations that may require special consideration are patients with head, spinal cord, and upper-extremity injuries. Practical issues to consider in selecting a questionnaire include time for completion, which ranges from less than 2 min for the EQ-5D to 20-30 min for the Sickness Impact Profile. Selection of the appropriate measure ultimately depends largely on the population to be studied and whether utility-estimation is desired. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a measure of medication-related quality of life for people with polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsu-Min; Lee, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yin-Jen; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Huang, Li-Yueh; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-05-01

    To develop a measure of medication-related quality of life (MRQoL) and to validate the measure in a hospital-based population of patients with polypharmacy. The Medication-Related Quality of Life Scale version 1.0 (MRQoLS-v1.0) included 14 items developed on the basis of interviews with elderly patients with polypharmacy, defined as taking five or more medications simultaneously. This scale was tested in 219 outpatients (99 with polypharmacy and 120 without polypharmacy). Two measures were used to establish construct validity the Psychological Distress Checklist, for convergent validity, and the Medication Adherence Behavior Scale (MABS), for discriminant validity. The 14-item scale was found to be both reliable and valid. Internal consistency reliability evaluated using Cronbach's alpha for this scale was 0.91. Scores on the MRQoLS-v1.0 correlated statistically significantly and negatively with those on the Psychological Distress Checklist. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by low correlation with MABS, indicating that the MRQoLS-v1.0 measured concepts different from medication adherence. Significant differences in the MRQoLS-v1.0 between patients with polypharmacy and those without polypharmacy provided evidence for known-group validity. The study presents a psychometric evaluation of a measure used to assess MRQoL of patients with polypharmacy. The instrument is practical to administer in clinics and provides a valuable adjunct to the outcome measurement for patients with polypharmacy. Further research on the sensitivity of this instrument to medication change in multi-medicated patients is warranted.

  8. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  9. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccination against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: Developments and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Major

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in patients and chimpanzees that spontaneously clear Hepatitis C Virus (HCV have demonstrated that natural immunity to the virus is induced during primary infections and that this immunity can be cross protective. These discoveries led to optimism regarding prophylactic HCV vaccines and a number of studies in the chimpanzee model have been performed, all of which resulted in modified infections after challenge but did not always prevent persistence of the virus. Therapeutic vaccine strategies have also been pursued in an effort to reduce the costs and side effects associated with anti-viral drug treatment. This review summarizes the studies performed thus far in both patients and chimpanzees for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, assesses the progress made and future perspectives.

  10. [DEONTOLOGICAL QUESTIONS IN PROPHYLACTIC OF ENDOSCOPIC COMPLICATIONS: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS (analytical overview)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernik, N V; Ivantsova, M A; Yashin, D I

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the ways of reduction complications during endoscopic procedures based on principals of professional ethics and improving the quality of working area. Data of fundamental literature, evidence based medicine, science publications and internet portals. Deontology is the fundamental principle of medical practice and one of the main factors of professional effectiveness. Complications in endoscopy are often the investigations of deviation from the deontological principals. The whole number of psychological factors influences on professional activity of endoscopists, where the emotional "burn-out" syndrome (EBS) occupies one of the main places. Prophylactic and timely relief of EBS serves improvement of the practical work quality. Creation of favorable working area is the strategically important task in prophylactics of endoscopy complications. The questions of practical realization of deontological principles in endoscopy are the subject of further discussion.

  11. Retroperitoneal Bleeding: An Experience During Prophylactic Anticoagulation in a Patient With Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Okada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between nephrotic syndrome (NS and a hypercoagulable state has been demonstrated. Controlling the blood clotting activity may therefore be attractive for patients with nephrosis in terms of thromboembolism prophylaxis. We herein report a 75-year-old woman with minimal change disease who developed pains in the right back, groin, and thigh because of retroperitoneal bleeding during prophylactic anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin. Although this procedure has not been accepted as the standard of care for patients with nephrosis, pharmacologic prophylaxis may already be practiced empirically, as in the present patient. We believe that our experience highlights the pitfalls of such a management in patients with nephrosis, implying the need for a diagnostic strategy for identifying those patients with NS who can benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. Several concerns that emerged in this case are also discussed.

  12. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal......), India (Lucknow), Germany (Munich) and South Korea (Pusan), with the lithium tablets being supplied from Denmark (Copenhagen). Participation in the study was conditional on the patient having been in prophylactic lithium treatment for the preceding 2-year period and having been free of depressive...... of bipolar disorder and five with a diagnosis of recurrent unipolar depressive disorder, participated in the study. The number of patients from each centre ranged from six to 11. The mean lithium dose every second day was 36 mmol lithium, leading to a mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration during...

  13. Error Analysis of Relative Calibration for RCS Measurement on Ground Plane Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Peng-fei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground plane range is a kind of outdoor Radar Cross Section (RCS test range used for static measurement of full-size or scaled targets. Starting from the characteristics of ground plane range, the impact of environments on targets and calibrators is analyzed during calibration in the RCS measurements. The error of relative calibration produced by the different illumination of target and calibrator is studied. The relative calibration technique used in ground plane range is to place the calibrator on a fixed and auxiliary pylon somewhere between the radar and the target under test. By considering the effect of ground reflection and antenna pattern, the relationship between the magnitude of echoes and the position of calibrator is discussed. According to the different distances between the calibrator and target, the difference between free space and ground plane range is studied and the error of relative calibration is calculated. Numerical simulation results are presented with useful conclusions. The relative calibration error varies with the position of calibrator, frequency and antenna beam width. In most case, set calibrator close to the target may keep the error under control.

  14. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  16. Correlating the vibrational spectra of structurally related molecules: A spectroscopic measure of similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-03-05

    Using catastrophe theory and the concept of a mutation path, an algorithm is developed that leads to the direct correlation of the normal vibrational modes of two structurally related molecules. The mutation path is defined by weighted incremental changes in mass and geometry of the molecules in question, which are successively applied to mutate a molecule into a structurally related molecule and thus continuously converting their normal vibrational spectra from one into the other. Correlation diagrams are generated that accurately relate the normal vibrational modes to each other by utilizing mode-mode overlap criteria and resolving allowed and avoided crossings of vibrational eigenstates. The limitations of normal mode correlation, however, foster the correlation of local vibrational modes, which offer a novel vibrational measure of similarity. It will be shown how this will open new avenues for chemical studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Correlation between event-related potentials and MR measurements in chronic alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaseda, Yumiko; Miyazato, Yoshikazu; Ogura, Chikara; Nakamoto, Haruo; Uema, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Ikuya

    1994-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded in 25 abstinent alcoholics, and 25 gender- and age-matched controls during a two-tone discrimination (odd ball) task. All the subjects were free from medication and dextral. MR images were examined in the alcoholics. The amplitudes of N100, N200 and P300 in the alcoholics were reduced compared with those of the controls. In order to identify morphological changes responsible for ERP abnormalities, linear regression analyses were performed between ERP measures and MRI parameters. The amplitude of N100 was inversely correlated with ventricular size. The amplitudes of P300 were inversely correlated with both ventricular size and width of cortical sulci. It was suggested that the N100 abnormality was related to subcortical structure, and P300 alteration was related to both subcortical and cortical structures in the alcoholics. (author)

  18. Prophylactic Granisetron Vs Pethidine for the Prevention of Postoperative Shivering: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif lqbal

    2009-01-01

    The three groups did not differ significantly regarding patient characteristics. The numbers of patients shivering on arrival in the recovery room at 15 minutes after operation were significantly less in Group P (7% and Group G (17% than in Group S (60%. Groups P and G differ significantly than in Group S (p0.05. The prophylactic use of granisetron (40mcg.kg -1 and pethidine(25mg intravenous were found to be effective in preventing postoperative shivering.

  19. Market researches on demand for dietary and prophylactic nutrition in the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitinа T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In competitive and constantly changing market conditions special attention has been paid to market researches. The results of these studies become the basis for formation of sales estimates, and projected levels of revenues and profits from sales. Market researches are the essential condition to make offered goods successful at the market. It is market researches that help companies to realize the control of consumers' needs changing. The market researches on demand for dietary and prophylactic nutrition in the Saratov Region have been the research objective. In accordance with the given objective the following goals have been formed: 1 finding out the most spread diseases among the population; 2 determination of the average age of people suffering from one or another disease; 3 studying demand of products with food fiber additives; 4 analysis of respondent's preference regarding the addition of natural vegetable additives to foodstuff; 5 demand for dietary and prophylactic foodstuff among the population. Since the survey has been carried out among people suffering from various diseases, particular attention during the market research has been turned to the medical and prophylactic properties of food fibers to find out the attitude of the respondents to functional foodstuff. The dynamics of noninfectious diseases, the population health status depending on age, and increase of overweight people during 2012–2014 have been shown. As a result of questionnaire data processing it has been ascertained that the population is of low awareness regarding the necessity to consume foodstuff with radioprotective and chelator properties. The researches have demonstrated that dietary and prophylactic foodstuff is in demand and consequently the development of such products is reasonable.

  20. Evidence-based analysis of prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C P

    2000-01-01

    To assess the quality of information in the literature regarding the benefits of prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic retinal tears and lattice degeneration. Asymptomatic retinal breaks occur in approximately 7% of patients over age 40, and lattice degeneration is present in approximately 8% of the general population. Because retinal breaks cause retinal detachment and lattice degeneration is associated with approximately 30% of retinal detachments, prophylactic treatment of these lesions has sometimes been recommended. A panel of vitreoretinal experts performed a literature review of all publications regarding prevention of retinal detachment that have been published in English. These articles were then used to prepare recommendations for patient care in an American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern (PPP). Each recommendation was rated according to: (1) its importance in the care process and (2) the strength of evidence supporting the given recommendation. Most recommendations were rated as A (most important to patient care). Only a single publication was graded as I (providing strong evidence in support of a recommendation), and this was not a prospective trial. Of the few publications rated as II (substantial evidence), most were studies documenting a lack of treatment benefit. Because of an absence of level I and level II studies in the literature, level III (consensus of expert opinion) was the basis for most recommendations in the PPP. The current literature regarding prevention of retinal detachment does not provide sufficient information to support strongly prophylactic treatment of lesions other than symptomatic flap tears. Prospective randomized trials of prophylactic therapy are indicated. Eyes highly predisposed to retinal detachment should be considered for such studies.

  1. Prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye of patients with retinal detachment: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Teresio; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Reibaldi, Michele; Torrisi, Benedetto; Reibaldi, Alfredo

    2004-03-01

    Controversy exists over the prophylactic treatment of predisposing lesions to prevent retinal detachment. Seven hundred sixty consecutive phakic fellow eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the first eye were examined by the same vitreoretinal surgeon before detachment surgery and for a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 72 months, with a mean of 36 months. During this period, in 305 fellow eyes (40.1%) predisposing retinal lesions were present and prophylactic treatments (photocoagulation, cryotherapy or scleral buckle) were performed independently of vitreous status. The results were then compared with the incidence of bilateral RD without prophylaxis reported in Folk and Burton's study of 1982; the two study's data were well matched and showed no significant difference in regards to age, sex, incidence myopia > or =-2.5 and incidence of lattice degeneration. The objective was to investigate whether or not prophylactic treatment is able to avert retinal detachment in the fellow eye. The age of the patients with peripheral retinal lesions was correlated inversely with the presence of myopia. Nine eyes out of 305 eyes treated (2.9%) developed a retinal detachment, reducing the rate of bilateral retinal detachment to 1.2% (9 eyes out of 760). This incidence of bilaterality (1.2%) was lower than the incidence of retinal detachment in fellow eyes not prophylactically treated as reported in the literature, and there exists a highly statistically significant difference between this study's data of 1.2% after prophylaxis and a 13.4% rate of bilaterality as reported by Folk without prophylaxis (P=0.0000).

  2. Fluid hydration to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis in average- to high-risk patients receiving prophylactic rectal NSAIDs (FLUYT trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Xavier J N M; da Costa, David W; Fockens, Paul; Mulder, Chris J J; Timmer, Robin; Kievit, Wietske; Zegers, Marieke; Bruno, Marco J; Besselink, Marc G H; Vleggaar, Frank P; van der Hulst, Rene W M; Poen, Alexander C; Heine, Gerbrand D N; Venneman, Niels G; Kolkman, Jeroen J; Baak, Lubbertus C; Römkens, Tessa E H; van Dijk, Sven M; Hallensleben, Nora D L; van de Vrie, Wim; Seerden, Tom C J; Tan, Adriaan C I T L; Voorburg, Annet M C J; Poley, Jan-Werner; Witteman, Ben J; Bhalla, Abha; Hadithi, Muhammed; Thijs, Willem J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Vrolijk, Jan Maarten; Verdonk, Robert C; van Delft, Foke; Keulemans, Yolande; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, Joost P H; van Geenen, Erwin J M

    2018-04-02

    Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of ERCP and may run a severe course. Evidence suggests that vigorous periprocedural hydration can prevent PEP, but studies to date have significant methodological drawbacks. Importantly, evidence for its added value in patients already receiving prophylactic rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is lacking and the cost-effectiveness of the approach has not been investigated. We hypothesize that combination therapy of rectal NSAIDs and periprocedural hydration would significantly lower the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis compared to rectal NSAIDs alone in moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing ERCP. The FLUYT trial is a multicenter, parallel group, open label, superiority randomized controlled trial. A total of 826 moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing ERCP that receive prophylactic rectal NSAIDs will be randomized to a control group (no fluids or normal saline with a maximum of 1.5 mL/kg/h and 3 L/24 h) or intervention group (lactated Ringer's solution with 20 mL/kg over 60 min at start of ERCP, followed by 3 mL/kg/h for 8 h thereafter). The primary endpoint is the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Secondary endpoints include PEP severity, hydration-related complications, and cost-effectiveness. The FLUYT trial design, including hydration schedule, fluid type, and sample size, maximize its power of identifying a potential difference in post-ERCP pancreatitis incidence in patients receiving prophylactic rectal NSAIDs. EudraCT: 2015-000829-37 . Registered on 18 February 2015. 13659155 . Registered on 18 May 2015.

  3. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Booij, Remmie

    2004-09-01

    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversion of absorbed radiance into plant biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate leaf and canopy nitrogen contents by near and remote sensing observations and to link observations at leaf, plant and canopy level. A theoretical base is presented for scaling-up leaf optical properties to whole plants and crops, by linking different optical recording techniques at leaf, plant and canopy levels through the integration of vertical nitrogen distribution. Field data come from potato experiments in The Netherlands in 1997 and 1998, comprising two potato varieties: Eersteling and Bintje, receiving similar nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha -1) in varying application schemes to create differences in canopy nitrogen status during the growing season. Ten standard destructive field samplings were performed to follow leaf area index and crop dry weight evolution. Samples were analysed for inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen contents. At sampling dates, spectral measurements were taken both at leaf level and at canopy level. At leaf level, an exponential relation between SPAD-502 readings and leaf organic nitrogen contents with a high correlation factor of 0.91 was found. At canopy level, an exponential relation between canopy organic nitrogen contents and red edge position ( λrep, nm) derived from reflectance measurements was found with a good correlation of 0.82. Spectral measurements (SPAD-502) at leaf level of a few square mm were related to canopy reflectance measurements (CropScan™) of approximately 0.44 m 2. Statistical regression techniques were used to optimise theoretical vertical nitrogen profiles that allowed scaling-up leaf chlorophyll measurements

  4. The quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, C B; Prinsen, C A C; Ricci Garotti, M G; Suman, A; de Vet, H C W; Mokkink, L B

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments are important tools for the selection of instruments for research and clinical practice. Our aim was to assess the quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments and to determine whether the quality has improved since our previous study in 2007. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE between July 1, 2013, and June 19, 2014. The quality of the reviews was rated using a study-specific checklist. A total of 102 reviews were included. In many reviews the search strategy was considered not comprehensive; in only 59 % of the reviews a search was performed in EMBASE and in about half of the reviews there was doubt about the comprehensiveness of the search terms used for type of measurement instruments and measurement properties. In 41 % of the reviews, compared to 30 % in our previous study, the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. In 58 %, compared to 55 %, the quality of the included instruments was assessed. In 42 %, compared to 7 %, a data synthesis was performed in which the results from multiple studies on the same instrument were somehow combined. Despite a clear improvement in the quality of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments in comparison with our previous study in 2007, there is still room for improvement with regard to the search strategy, and especially the quality assessment of the included studies and the included instruments, and the data synthesis.

  5. Passive and active measurements of radon-related parameters inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Luxor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt); Metwally, S M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S A [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eissa, H M [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt); Salama, E [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-01-15

    Radon and its related parameters were measured using passive (CR-39) and active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. The measurements were performed throughout the winter and summer seasons. The average radon concentration inside the tombs ranges from 96.9+/-10.8 to 415+/-43Bqm{sup -3} in winter and from 86.4+/-13.8 to 6102.8+/-573.6 in summer. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.228+/-0.02 to 0.95+/-0.05. The effective doses for the tomb workers, the tour guide and visitors were calculated. Active measurements show that radon exhalation rates range from 0.68+/-0.30 to 1.47+/-0.27Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} and from 0.60+/-0.03 to 1.42+/-0.05Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for passive measurements. The real radium content was determined for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with the real radium content. A good correlation was found between active and passive measurements of radon exhalation rate.

  6. Passive and active measurements of radon-related parameters inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Luxor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Metwally, S.M.; El-Fiki, S.A.; Eissa, H.M.; Salama, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radon and its related parameters were measured using passive (CR-39) and active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. The measurements were performed throughout the winter and summer seasons. The average radon concentration inside the tombs ranges from 96.9+/-10.8 to 415+/-43Bqm -3 in winter and from 86.4+/-13.8 to 6102.8+/-573.6 in summer. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.228+/-0.02 to 0.95+/-0.05. The effective doses for the tomb workers, the tour guide and visitors were calculated. Active measurements show that radon exhalation rates range from 0.68+/-0.30 to 1.47+/-0.27Bqm -2 h -1 and from 0.60+/-0.03 to 1.42+/-0.05Bqm -2 h -1 for passive measurements. The real radium content was determined for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with the real radium content. A good correlation was found between active and passive measurements of radon exhalation rate

  7. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  8. Fast fission ratio and relative conversion ratio measurements in gadolinium poisoned water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of criticality experiments has been carried out for BNFL by the Battelle reactor facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Washington State, USA. A series of water moderated lattices of 4.3% enriched, 12.7 mm diameter, UO 2 fuel rods was studied, the fuel pitch was varied and the effects of gadolinium poison were measured. This report deals with the measurement of Fast Fission Ratios and Relative Conversion Ratios at the centre of five of the critical lattices. The Fast Fission Ratio (FFR) is defined here as the ratio of the fission rate per atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235. The Relative Conversion Ratio (RCR) is defined as the ratio of the capture rate per ,atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235, in the reactor fuel, relative to the corresponding ratio in a well thermalised neutron spectrum. A major aspect of these measurements was that the packs of foils were prepared at AEEW Winfrith, despatched to the USA for irradiation and returned to Winfrith for counting. This resulted in a considerable logistics problem but by good planning and the co-operation and diligence of all concerned this problem was overcome. However, the long distance involved inevitably meant that samples were not available for measurement until about 28 hours after the irradiation. It was therefore necessary to modify the techniques that are normally used in the Reactor Physics Division Counting Laboratory, where samples are normally available about two hours after shut-down. The techniques used and the results obtained are given below

  9. Prophylactic Edaravone Prevents Transient Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: Implications for Perioperative Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Li, Yikun; Wali, Bushra; Li, Yuancheng; Lee, Jolly; Heinmiller, Andrew; Abe, Koji; Stein, Donald G; Mao, Hui; Sayeed, Iqbal; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Hypoperfusion-induced thrombosis is an important mechanism for postsurgery stroke and cognitive decline, but there are no perioperative neuroprotectants to date. This study investigated whether prophylactic application of Edaravone, a free radical scavenger already used in treating ischemic stroke in Japan, can prevent infarct and cognitive deficits in a murine model of transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient hypoxic-ischemic (tHI) insult that consists of 30-minute occlusion of the unilateral common carotid artery and exposure to 7.5% oxygen. Edaravone or saline was prophylactically applied to compare their effects on cortical oxygen saturation, blood flow, coagulation, oxidative stress, metabolites, and learning-memory using methods that include photoacoustic imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, solid-state NMR, and Morris water maze. The effects on infarct size by Edaravone application at different time points after tHI were also compared. Prophylactic administration of Edaravone (4.5 mg/kg×2, IP, 1 hour before and 1 hour after tHI) improved vascular reperfusion, oxygen saturation, and the maintenance of brain metabolites, reducing oxidative stress, thrombosis, white-matter injury, and learning impairment after tHI insult. Delayed Edaravone treatment after 3 h post-tHI became unable to reduce infarct size. Acute application of Edaravone may be a useful strategy to prevent postsurgery stroke and cognitive impairment, especially in patients with severe carotid stenosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Effect of prophylactic amoxicillin on endodontic flare-up in asymptomatic, necrotic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickenpaugh, L; Reader, A; Beck, M; Meyers, W J; Peterson, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of prophylactic amoxicillin on the occurrence of endodontic flare-up in asymptomatic, necrotic teeth. Seventy patients participated and had a clinical diagnosis of an asymptomatic, necrotic tooth with associated periapical radiolucency. One hour before endodontic treatment, patients randomly received either 3 g of amoxicillin or 3 g of a placebo control in a double-blind manner. After endodontic treatment, each patient received: ibuprofen; acetaminophen with codeine (30 mg); and a 5 1/2-day diary to record pain, swelling, percussion pain, and number and type of pain medication taken. The results demonstrated 10% of the 70 patients had a flare-up characterized by moderate-to-severe postoperative pain or swelling that began approximately 30 h after endodontic treatment and persisted for an average of 74 h. Of the seven patients who had flare-ups, 4 were in the amoxicillin group and 3 were not. Prophylactic amoxicillin did not significantly (p = 0.80) influence the endodontic flare-up. We concluded that a prophylactic dose of amoxicillin before endodontic treatment of asymptomatic, necrotic teeth had no effect on the endodontic flare-up.

  11. Prophylactic belladonna suppositories on anesthetic recovery after robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavonetto, Federica; Lamborn, David R; McCaffrey, Joan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Gettman, Mattew T; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N

    2013-06-01

    Two prospective trials have demonstrated prophylactic antimuscarinics following prostatectomy reduce pain from bladder spasms. Our practice adopted the routine administration of prophylactic belladonna and opium (B&O) suppositories to patients undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). The aim of this study is to determine if this change in clinical practice was associated with improvement of postoperative outcomes. The medical records of 202 patients that underwent RALP surgery who were or were not administered prophylactic B&O suppositories in the immediate postoperative period were abstracted for duration of anesthesia recovery, pain and analgesic use. Patient and surgical characteristics between groups were similar except B&O group were slightly older (p = 0.04) and administered less opioid analgesics (p = 0.05). There was no difference between groups in the duration of phase I recovery from anesthesia (p = 0.96). Multivariable adjustments for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and surgical duration were made, and again it was found that suppository administration had no association with phase I recovery times (p = 0.94). The use of antimuscarinic medication for bladder spams in the B&O group was less during phase I recovery (p suppositories at the immediate conclusion of RALP surgery was not associated with improvements of the postoperative course.

  12. The fellow eye in patients with unilateral retinal detachment: findings and prophylactic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, L

    1985-10-01

    During a 4-year period, 1978-1981, 312 patients were operated on for unilateral rhegmatogenous detachment of the retina. Of the fellow eyes, 11% showed moderate (VA 0.15-0.4) and 5% severe (VA less than or equal to 0.1) visual impairment. Of the fellow eyes 49% were myopic (- 1.0 D. or more), and aphakia was present in 14%. Details of the peripheral fundus were adequately recordable for 260 fellow eyes. Degenerations considered to predispose to retinal detachment were found in 98 eyes (38%): lattice degeneration in 54 (21%), granular tuft in 17 (7%), retinal tear(s) in 12 (5%), and retinoschisis in 15 (6%). Prophylactic treatment of predisposing degenerations was performed in 91 of the 98 eyes using cryo- or photocoagulation (argon laser). No intra- or permanent post-operative complications were noticed. One of the treated fellow eyes (1.1%) detached 10 months after prophylactic treatment due to new tears. In the untreated group, 6 of the 221 eyes detached (2.7%). The difference was not statistically significant, but the groups were not comparable because 93% of the eyes showing predisposing degenerations were treated. None of the eyes treated for retinal breaks or lattice degeneration has detached. In these cases prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye is recommended. In most eyes cryocoagulation seems to be preferable to photocoagulation.

  13. Prophylactic ampicillin versus cefazolin for the prevention of post-cesarean infectious morbidity in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivumbi, Victor N; Little, Sarah E; Rulisa, Stephen; Greenberg, James A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ampicillin versus cefazolin as prophylactic antibiotics prior to cesarean delivery in Rwanda. In a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-site study conducted between March and May 2012, the effects of prophylactic ampicillin versus cefazolin were compared among women undergoing cesarean delivery at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali, Rwanda. Postoperatively, participants were evaluated daily for infectious morbidity while in the hospital. Follow-up was done by phone and by appointment at the hospital within 2 weeks of delivery. During the study period, there were 578 total deliveries and 234 cesarean deliveries (40.4%). Overall, 132 women were enrolled in the study and randomized to receive either ampicillin (n=66) or cefazolin (n=66). No women were lost to follow-up. The overall infection rate was 15.9% (21/132). The infection rate in the ampicillin group and the cefazolin group was 25.8% (17/66) and 6.1% (4/66), respectively. Implementing a universal protocol in Rwanda of prophylactic cefazolin prior to cesarean delivery might reduce postoperative febrile morbidity, use of postoperative antibiotics, and number of postoperative days in hospital. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A measure of smoking abstinence-related motivational engagement: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani N; Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on measuring motivation and readiness to quit smoking, little research has assessed gross motivational changes after a smoker has made an attempt to quit smoking. Unlike previous single-item global measures of motivation to remain abstinent, we developed the abstinence-related motivational engagement (ARME) scale to evaluate the degree to which abstinence motivation is reflected by an ex-smoker's daily experience in areas that include cognitive effort, priority, vigilance, and excitement. The aim of this study was to collect reliability and initial construct validity data on this new measure. Participants were 199 ex-smokers recruited from the community and smoking cessation Web sites. Participants completed online measures including a global motivation measure, the ARME scale, demographic questionnaire, and a measure of cessation self-efficacy. The 16-item ARME questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89). Analyses provided support for convergent, discriminant, and construct validity of the scale. ARME demonstrated the predicted correlation with a traditional measure of global cessation motivation, yet, also as predicted, only the ARME was negatively associated with length of abstinence. Moreover, as hypothesized, ex-smokers engaged in the quitting process via ongoing smoking Web site participation showed higher ARME scores than a comparison community sample. A five-item short form demonstrated similar psychometric properties. This study provided initial support for the ARME construct and offers two versions of a reliable instrument for assessing this construct. Future research will examine the ARME as a predictor of cessation outcome and a potential target for relapse prevention.

  15. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  16. 3 to 5 Years Later: Long-term Effects of Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingectomy on Ovarian Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturella, Roberta; Lico, Daniela; Borelli, Massimo; Imbrogno, Maria G; Cevenini, Gabriele; Zupi, Errico; Zullo, Fulvio; Morelli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary data on the effects of prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy (PBS) show that postoperative ovarian function is preserved up to 3 months after surgery. The confirmation of PBS safety on ovarian function even many years after surgery is essential to reassure the medical community that this new strategy, recently proposed for the prevention of ovarian cancer, is at least able to avoid the risk of premature surgical menopause. We investigated whether the addition of PBS during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) causes long-term effects on ovarian function. An observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy. Seventy-nine patients who underwent TLH plus salpingectomy between September 2010 and September 2012 at our institution have been recalled to be submitted to ovarian reserve evaluation in February 2015. Eight of 79 women refused to participate in this follow-up study. The ovarian age of PBS patients has been determined through OvAge (OvAge sr., Catanzaro, Italy), a statistical model that combines antimüllerian hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, 3-dimensional antral follicle count, vascular index, flow index, and vascular flow index values. The control group consisted of a large population of 652 healthy women (with intact uterus and adnexa) previously enrolled to build the OvAge model. Comparisons between ovarian ages of PBS patients and the control group have been assessed by analysis of covariance linear statistical modeling. The main outcome measurement was the differences in the behavior within OvAge/age relation between PBS and control women. Descriptive statistics of those 71 enrolled PBS patients are the following: age, 49.61 ± 2.15 years; OvAge, 49.22 ± 2.57 years; follicle-stimulating hormone, 43.02 ± 19.92 mU/mL; antimüllerian hormone, 0.12 ± 0.20 ng/mL; 3-dimensional antral follicle count, 1.91 ± 1.28; vascular index

  17. The Impact of a Developed Measurement and Evaluation Development Program on Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions Related to Measurement and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yunus; Erturan Ilker, Gokce; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the Measurement and Evaluation Development Program on pre-service physical education teachers' general perceptions and competency perceptions related to alternative assessment in physical education, and their competency perceptions related to educational measurement and evaluation. The…

  18. Prophylactic vitamin D in healthy infants: assessing the need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Agustina; Rodríguez, Julián; Carvajal, Ignacio; Prieto, M A Luz; Rodríguez, Rosa M A; Pérez, Ana M A; Cepeda, Angeles; Nuño, Fernando; Santos, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the need for vitamin D prophylaxis in healthy infants. This was a prospective and randomized study performed at primary care clinics. Eighty-eight full-term 1-month-old healthy infants were randomly assigned to receive (n = 41) or not (n = 47) 402 IU/d of vitamin D for 1 year. Primary outcome measures were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations at 3, 6, and 12 months of age; secondary measures included data on feeding, habitat, season of birth, sun exposure, and physical examination. At 3 and 6 months of age, serum 25OHD levels (±SD) were significantly higher (P vitamin D deficiency. Serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations were weakly but significantly correlated (r = -0.29, P = .009) at 3 months of age. Healthy infants without vitamin D prophylaxis had lower circulating concentrations of 25OHD at 3 and 6 months of age, the lowest value being found in 3-month breast-fed infants. The clinical relevance of these findings is probably negligible because serum 25OHD levels spontaneously increased with age and were not associated with high serum PTH. Clinical manifestations of rickets were not observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-temperature relative reflectivity measurements of reflective and scintillating foils used in rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkämper, A.; Ulrich, A.; Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Mondragón, E.; Münster, A.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schönert, S.; Steiger, H.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zöller, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we investigate the reflectivity of highly reflective multilayer polymer foils used in the CRESST experiment. The CRESST experiment searches directly for dark matter via operating scintillating CaWO4 crystals as targets for elastic dark matter-nucleon scattering. In order to suppress background events, the experiment employs the so-called phonon-light technique which is based on the simultaneous measurement of the heat signal in the main CaWO4 target crystal and of the emitted scintillation light with a separate cryogenic light detector. Both detectors are surrounded by a highly reflective and scintillating multilayer polymer foil to increase the light collection efficiency and to veto surface backgrounds. While this study is motivated by the CRESST experiment, the results are also relevant for other rare event searches using scintillating cryogenic bolometers in the field of the search of dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ). In this work a dedicated experiment has been set up to determine the relative reflectivity at 300 K and 20 K of three multilayer foils ("VM2000", "VM2002", "Vikuiti") produced by the company 3M. The intensity of a light beam reflected off the foil is measured with a CCD camera. The ratio of the intensities at 300 K and 20 K corresponds to the relative reflectivity change. The measurements performed in this work show no variation of the reflectivity with temperature at a level of ∼1%.

  20. CT MEASUREMENTS OF TWO CEREBROVENTRICULAR INDICES AND THEIR RELATION WITH AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambili Puthanveettil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cerebroventricular Indices are the relative measurements of the size of lateral ventricle to that of brain. A normal study of these indices are necessary in order to understand any changes in size of the ventricles or other associated abnormalities of the brain. The study uses measurements from Computerised Tomography (CT which is uniformly calibrated, has reproducible data and is less expensive than MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS CT scans of 186 apparently healthy normal individuals of age group 1 to 85 years were taken and the subjects were categorized into age intervals of 10 years; males and females taken separately. The linear measurements of lateral ventricle and brain were taken directly from the screen. The cerebrovascular indices were calculated. The mean values in each group were compared with age and sex, using appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS Mean value for Bifrontal index was 0.31±0.03 and that of Bicaudate index was 0.12±0.02. Both indices showed a positive correlation with age. The relative size of the lateral ventricle with the brain did not show any gender difference. CONCLUSION The study results coincide with previous similar studies. Both the indices showed positive correlation with age, of which the Bicaudate index was more sensitive.

  1. Evaluating quality of life and cost implications of prophylactic radiotherapy in mesothelioma: Health economic analysis of the SMART trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Clive, Amelia O; Maskell, Nick A; Penz, Erika

    2018-01-01

    The SMART trial is a UK-based, multicentre RCT comparing prophylactic radiotherapy and symptom-based (deferred) radiotherapy in 203 patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma who had undergone large bore pleural interventions. Using costs and quality of life data collected alongside the clinical trial, we will estimate the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic radiotherapy compared to deferred radiotherapy over a 1-year period. Healthcare utilization and costs were captured during the trial. Utility weights produced by the EQ-5D questionnaire were used to determine quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated over the one-year trial period. Costs were similar in the immediate and deferred radiotherapy groups: £5480.40 (SD = £7040; n = 102) and £5461.40 (SD = £7770; n = 101) respectively. There was also no difference in QALY: 0.498 (95% CI: [0.45, 0.547]) in the prophylactic radiotherapy group versus 0.525 (95% CI: [0.471, 0.580]) in the deferred group. At a willingness to pay threshold of £30,000/QALY there was only a 24% chance that prophylactic radiotherapy was cost-effective compared to deferred radiotherapy. There was no significant effect of prophylactic radiotherapy on quality of life in the intervention group, nor was there any discernable decrease in healthcare costs. There is little evidence to suggest that prophylactic radiotherapy is a cost-effective intervention in this population. ISRCTN72767336 with ISRCTN.

  2. Romanian adolescents' knowledge and attitudes towards human papillomavirus infection and prophylactic vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Călina; Maier, Traian; Neagu, Cristina E; Vlădăreanu, Radu

    2015-12-01

    Since licensure of HPV vaccine in 2006, HPV vaccine coverage among Romanian adolescents remains worryingly low. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination among Romanian adolescents and to explore the barriers to HPV vaccination with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary HPV infection prevention. This study was conducted in Bucharest between April and June 2015. A total of 524 adolescents aged 16-18 years old were recruited from the first two general highschools in Bucharest (according to the admission grade) and completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, HPV related and Papanicolau smear test knowledge. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge and HPV vaccination rate. Associations were considered statistically significant at pHPV infection, HPV vaccine and Papanicolau smear test, that is, 20.22%, 67.92% and 22.9%, respectively. The overall vaccination rate for this group was 2.3%. The most common reason for not receiving the HPV vaccine was the lack of information (80.6%) followed by parents' concerns regarding safety (11%), fear of pain (5.59%) and not being sexually active (2.7%). However, 97.7% of the respondents declared interest in receiving more information about HPV. According to demographic characteristics, age at first sexual intercourse over 16 years old, monthly household income over one thousand euros and self-perceived good relationship with family members were statistically associated on a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a high HPV knowledge score and rate of vaccination. This study shows a low level of knowledge about HPV infection and prophylactic vaccination among Romanian adolescents which may be one of the most important factors for the alarmingly low HPV

  3. Human papilloma virus (HPV) prophylactic vaccination: challenges for public health and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Jasani, B; Fiander, A

    2007-04-20

    Prophylactic vaccination against high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and 18 represents an exciting means of protection against HPV related malignancy. However, this strategy alone, even if there is a level of cross protection against other oncogenic viruses, cannot completely prevent cervical cancer. In some developed countries cervical screening programmes have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by up to 80% although this decline has now reached a plateau with current cancers occurring in patients who have failed to attend for screening or where the sensitivity of the tests have proved inadequate. Cervical screening is inevitably associated with significant anxiety for the many women who require investigation and treatment following abnormal cervical cytology. However, it is vitally important to stress the need for continued cervical screening to complement vaccination in order to optimise prevention in vaccinees and prevent cervical cancer in older women where the value of vaccination is currently unclear. It is likely that vaccination will ultimately change the natural history of HPV disease by reducing the influence of the highly oncogenic types HPV 16 and 18. In the long term this is likely to lead to an increase in recommended screening intervals. HPV vaccination may also reduce the positive predictive value of cervical cytology by reducing the number of truly positive abnormal smears. Careful consideration is required to ensure vaccination occurs at an age when the vaccine is most effective immunologically and when uptake is likely to be high. Antibody titres following vaccination in girls 12-16 years have been shown to be significantly higher than in older women, favouring vaccination in early adolescence prior contact with the virus. Highest prevalence rates for HPV infection are seen following the onset of sexual activity and therefore vaccination would need to be given prior to sexual debut. Since 20% of adolescents are sexually

  4. Measuring relative performance of banking industry using a DEA and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hemmati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in banking industry is to measure the relative importance of banking industry using popular multi criteria decision making (MCDM techniques such as data envelopment analysis (DEA and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS. In this paper, we use these two MCDM techniques to measure the relative efficiencies of 16 private and governmental banks in terms of electronic payment. There are three inputs with DEA methods including the number of issued cards, the number of ATM machines and the number of POSs and there are two outputs including the number of successful ATMs and the number of successful POSs transactions. The proposed study of this paper uses the necessary data of one of Iranian provinces and the results of the implementation of DEA and TOPSIS have indicated that 9 out of 16 banks were efficient. Our study also indicates that mean of relative efficiency for private banks was 82% while this number was 75% for governmental banks.

  5. Measurements of Physical Parameters of White Dwarfs: A Test of the Mass–Radius Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bédard, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G., E-mail: bedard@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass–radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass–radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1 σ and 2 σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass–radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.

  6. Assessment of the relative toxicity of Cu2+ by measuring structural changes of supercoiled DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; Chang Guohua; Chen Hao; Giusti, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the relative toxicity of Cu 2+ in aquatic environments is proposed. It is based on the quantitative measurement on the shape change of the supercoiled DNA after it is contacted with different levels of Cu 2+ for various time intervals. In the absence of any redox reagents, all supercoiled DNA degraded into other forms of DNA after 24 h incubation in the presence of 5.13 x 10 -3 , 5.08 x 10 -4 and 5.35 x 10 -5 mol/L Cu 2+ . At a lower Cu 2+ concentration (10 -6 mol/L), 44% of supercoiled DNA retained its original supercoiled form after 24 h, and 29% after 48 h. The concentration of RC 50 , i.e. concentration of pollutants at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA was relaxed compared to control samples, can be obtained from the does-response curves at different exposure time, which may provide a rapid and convenient approach to assess the relative toxicity of environmental pollutants. - RC 50 values (concentration at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA relaxed) can be used to reflect the relative toxicity of Cu in aquatic environment

  7. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart.

  8. Further Examination of Job-Related Social Skills Measures for Adolescents and Young Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Davis, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    This study conducted item reduction analyses on two measures of job-related social behavior for adolescents and young adults with emotional/behavioral disorders (Scale of Job-Related Social Skill Knowledge and Scale of Job-Related Social Skill Performance). The shortened measures contained 40 and 94 items, respectively. Reliability was…

  9. The historic surface ozone record, 1896-1975, and its relation to modern measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, I. E.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stähelin, J.; Wallington, T. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Schultz, M.; Cooper, O. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas, a key component of atmospheric chemistry, and is detrimental to human health and plant productivity. The historic surface ozone record 1896-1975 has been constructed from measurements selected for (a) instrumentation whose ozone response can be traced to modern tropospheric ozone measurement standards, (b) samples taken when there is low probability of chemical interference and (c) sampling locations, heights and times when atmospheric mixing will minimise vertical gradients of ozone in the planetary boundary layer above and around the measurement location. Early measurements with the Schönbein filter paper technique cannot be related to modern methods with any degree of confidence. The potassium iodide-arsenite technique used at Montsouris for 1876-1910 is valid for measuring ozone; however, due to the presence of the interfering gases sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxides, the measured ozone concentrations are not representative of the regional atmosphere. The use of these data sets for trend analyses is not recommended. In total, 58 acceptable sets of measurements are currently identified, commencing in Europe in 1896, Greenland in 1932 and globally by the late 1950's. Between 1896 and 1944 there were 21 studies (median duration 5 days) with a median mole fraction of 23 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 15-62 nmol mol-1). Between 1950 and 1975 there were 37 studies (median duration approx. 21 months) with a median mole fraction of 22 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 13-49 nmol mol-1), all measured under conditions likely to give ozone mole fractions similar to those in the planetary boundary layer. These time series are matched with modern measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) Ozone Database and used to examine changes between the historic and modern observations. These historic ozone levels are higher than previously accepted for surface ozone in the late 19th early 20th Century

  10. Prophylactic co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation in neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, H; Jurk, I H; Waters, K D; Tiedemann, K

    1980-01-01

    A randomized study of intestinal decontamination was undertaken in 68 children with leukemia and solid tumours. Framycetin, colymycin, nystatin, and metronidazole were given in 35 neutropenic episodes in 33 children, while co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation were administered in 35 episodes in 35 children. The diseases, severity of neutropenia, and incidence of infection at entry into study were comparable in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of infections developing during the phase of neutropenia. The median and range of time required to recover from neutropenia were also not different. Co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli were significantly better tolerated, there being no nausea and vomiting, no refusal to take medication, no dose reduction or change to an alternative regimen. We conclude that co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation improve quality of life during a neutropenic episode and have the additional advantage of being relatively inexpensive.

  11. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  12. Measures of relative fitness of social behaviors in finite structured population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnita, Corina E; Taylor, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    How should we measure the relative selective advantage of different behavioral strategies? The various approaches to this question have fallen into one of the following categories: the fixation probability of a mutant allele in a wild type population, some measures of gene frequency and gene frequency change, and a formulation of the inclusive fitness effect. Countless theoretical studies have examined the relationship between these approaches, and it has generally been thought that, under standard simplifying assumptions, they yield equivalent results. Most of this theoretical work, however, has assumed homogeneity of the population interaction structure--that is, that all individuals are equivalent. We explore the question of selective advantage in a general (heterogeneous) population and show that, although appropriate measures of fixation probability and gene frequency change are equivalent, they are not, in general, equivalent to the inclusive fitness effect. The latter does not reflect effects of selection acting via mutation, which can arise on heterogeneous structures, even for low mutation. Our theoretical framework provides a transparent analysis of the different biological factors at work in the comparison of these fitness measures and suggests that their theoretical and empirical use needs to be revised and carefully grounded in a more general theory.

  13. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  14. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  15. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  16. The small sample uncertainty aspect in relation to bullwhip effect measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2009-01-01

    The bullwhip effect as a concept has been known for almost half a century starting with the Forrester effect. The bullwhip effect is observed in many supply chains, and it is generally accepted as a potential malice. Despite of this fact, the bullwhip effect still seems to be first and foremost...... a conceptual phenomenon. This paper intends primarily to investigate why this might be so and thereby investigate the various aspects, possibilities and obstacles that must be taken into account, when considering the potential practical use and measure of the bullwhip effect in order to actually get the supply...... chain under control. This paper will put special emphasis on the unavoidable small-sample uncertainty aspects relating to the measurement or estimation of the bullwhip effect.  ...

  17. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram RostamPour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.

  18. Size of nuclear sources from measurements of proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Noren, B.; Perrin, C.; Khelfaoui, B.; Gondrand, J.C.; Bondorf, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution will present recent measurements performed on light heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Nuclear source sizes were determined by measuring the correlation at small relative momentum, between two protons detected in the EMRIC set-up. This technique allows the determination of the extent of the emitting source by constructing a correlation function for the coincident protons and analyzing it in the framework of a final state interaction model. We found the apparent source size to be large compared to the dimension of the studied system and low sensitivity of the extracted radii as a function of the target mass and detection angle. We will show that simulations may be needed to fully estimate the correlation induced by detectors with small angular acceptance

  19. Measurement of the relative motion of two mirrors in presence of an optical spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, A D

    2008-01-01

    The Low Frequency Facility (LFF) experimental set-up consists of one 1 cm long cavity hanging from a mechanical insulation system, that damps seismic noise transmission to the optical components of the VIRGO interferometer. Radiation pressure generates an opto-mechanical coupling between the two mirrors of the cavity, that we call an optical spring. The measured relative displacement power spectrum is compatible with a system at thermal equilibrium within its environment; the optical spring has a stiffness k opt of the order of 10 4 N/m. An upper limits of 10 -15 m/√Hz at 10 Hz for seismic and thermal noise contamination of the Virgo test masses suspended by a SuperAttenuator is derived from measured data

  20. The Relational Responding Task: Toward a New Implicit Measure of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are wiser than immigrants or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are dumber than immigrants. The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step towards validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs.